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Basic Concepts about Scholarship LOGO Caplow and McGee Caplow and McGee observed that even in the 1950s, new faculty were being hired as teachers but evaluated as researchers. LOGO Scholarship Reconsidered Given the importance of scholarly activity, Boyer proposed to redefine scholarship to include not only the production of new disciplinary knowledge (“the scholarship discovery”), but also to other forms of scholarship including “integration”, “application”, and “teaching” whose definitions are by now, quite well known. Tacitly acknowledging the reality of the preeminence of the scholarship of discovery, Boyer‟s reconceptualization capitalized on the notion of scholarship in an effort to bring a missing balance to the profession. Jaques Barzun (1968) LOGO The American University “ College and university teaching is thus the only profession for which no training is given or required. It is supposed to be „picked up‟.” “Even the „great teacher‟ can be explained away as a lovable man of average competence –„not enough for a great university.‟ His counterpart, the average man of research, is still felt to be worth more than even the „great teacher.” LOGO Carnegie Foundation Carnegie Foundation studies in 1969 and 1989 showed a dramatic increase in the importance of publication as a criterion for promotion and tenure in all higher education institutional classifications LOGO Ron Richards Many untenured faculty find they must choose between „doing the work that would contribute to career advancement and doing the work of the institution in linking with communities and educating students.” LOGO Scholarship Reconsidered Boyer (1990) reviewed changes in American higher education . He noted that the focus of higher education, “… had moved from the student to the professoriate, from general to specialized education, and from loyalty to campus to loyalty to the profession.” But by “the profession”, he meant the professional field of the faculty member moreso than the profession of college teaching. LOGO Scholarship Reconsidered Specifically, scholarship should have four separate yet overlapping meanings: the scholarship of discovery, the scholarship of integration, the scholarship of application, and the scholarship of teaching. LOGO Scholarship of Discovery The scholarship of discovery of knowledge reflect the investigative traditions of academic life. LOGO Scholarship of Integration Serious, disciplined work that seeks to interpret, draw together, and bring new insight to bear on original research” and on existing forms of knowledge; synthesis. Spanning disciplinary boundaries. Exploring the meaning and implications of knowledge. LOGO Scholarship of Application The disciplined and systematic use of existing knowledge to… Solve problems Inform practice LOGO Scholarship of Teaching and Learning The systematic and disciplined transmission of knowledge to learners based upon… LOGO The first two kinds of scholarship--the discovery and integration of knowledge-- reflect the investigative and synthesizing traditions of academic life. The third element, the application of knowledge, moves toward aplication as the scholar asks, "How can knowledge be responsibly applied to consequential problems?" Finally, the scholarship of teaching recognizes that the work of the scholar becomes consequential only as it is shared with others. Boyer’s next breakthrough (1996) LOGO 1990 Four scholarships: Discovery -new knowledge Integration -connecting with other perspectives or contexts Application -using knowledge to help solve practical problems Dissemination -‘sharing knowledge’(1996) 1996 Fifth scholarship: Engagement LOGO Engagement Application of academic knowledge and skills to make (support, facilitate) positive change in a community „Creating a special climate in which the academic and civic cultures communicate more continuously and more creatively with each other, helping to enlarge….the universe of human discourse and enriching the quality of life for all Boyer’s example LOGO Engaging academic expertise with vital social problems -e.g. education Universities should engage in both research on child development…and „create children‟s councils in local communities, coordinate…agencies concerned with children…develop an annual „ready to learn‟ report and action plans linking academics and practitioners‟ LOGO For Boyer, and many in today‟s academic community, to be a scholar is to integrate our work (teaching, research, and service), engage with those outside the academy, and synthesize what we learn into our other works Any Question ?
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