Scholarship

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					Basic Concepts
about Scholarship
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Caplow and McGee

Caplow and McGee observed that even in
 the 1950s, new faculty were being hired
 as teachers but evaluated as researchers.
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Scholarship Reconsidered
 Given the importance of scholarly activity,
  Boyer proposed to redefine scholarship to
  include not only the production of new
  disciplinary knowledge (“the scholarship
  discovery”), but also to other forms of
  scholarship including “integration”,
  “application”, and “teaching” whose
  definitions are by now, quite well known.
 Tacitly acknowledging the reality of the
  preeminence of the scholarship of discovery,
  Boyer‟s reconceptualization capitalized on the
  notion of scholarship in an effort to bring a
  missing balance to the profession.
Jaques Barzun (1968)                       LOGO

The American University
“ College and university teaching is thus
 the only profession for which no training is
 given or required. It is supposed to be
 „picked up‟.”
“Even the „great teacher‟ can be explained
 away as a lovable man of average
 competence –„not enough for a great
 university.‟ His counterpart, the average
 man of research, is still felt to be worth
 more than even the „great teacher.”
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Carnegie Foundation

 Carnegie Foundation studies in 1969 and
 1989 showed a dramatic increase in the
 importance of publication as a criterion for
 promotion and tenure in all higher
 education institutional classifications
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Ron Richards

Many untenured faculty find they must
 choose between „doing the work that
 would contribute to career advancement
 and doing the work of the institution in
 linking with communities and educating
 students.”
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Scholarship Reconsidered
Boyer (1990) reviewed changes in
 American higher education . He noted that
 the focus of higher education, “… had
 moved from the student to the
 professoriate, from general to specialized
 education, and from loyalty to campus to
 loyalty to the profession.”
But by “the profession”, he meant the
 professional field of the faculty member
 moreso than the profession of college
 teaching.
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Scholarship Reconsidered

Specifically, scholarship should have four
 separate yet overlapping meanings:
   the scholarship of discovery,
   the scholarship of integration,
   the scholarship of application, and
   the scholarship of teaching.
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Scholarship of Discovery

 The scholarship of discovery of knowledge
  reflect the investigative traditions of
  academic life.
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Scholarship of Integration

Serious, disciplined work that seeks to
 interpret, draw together, and bring new
 insight to bear on original research” and
 on existing forms of knowledge; synthesis.
Spanning disciplinary boundaries.
Exploring the meaning and implications of
 knowledge.
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Scholarship of Application

The disciplined and systematic use of
 existing knowledge to…
   Solve problems
   Inform practice
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Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

The systematic and disciplined
 transmission of knowledge to learners
 based upon…
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 The first two kinds of scholarship--the
  discovery and integration of knowledge--
  reflect the investigative and synthesizing
  traditions of academic life.
 The third element, the application of
  knowledge, moves toward aplication as the
  scholar asks, "How can knowledge be
  responsibly applied to consequential
  problems?"
 Finally, the scholarship of teaching recognizes
  that the work of the scholar becomes
  consequential only as it is shared with others.
Boyer’s next breakthrough (1996)
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1990 Four scholarships:
   Discovery -new knowledge
   Integration -connecting with other
    perspectives or contexts
   Application -using knowledge to help solve
    practical problems
   Dissemination -‘sharing knowledge’(1996)
1996 Fifth scholarship:
   Engagement
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Engagement

Application of academic knowledge and
 skills to make (support, facilitate) positive
 change in a community
„Creating a special climate in which the
 academic and civic cultures communicate
 more continuously and more creatively
 with each other, helping to enlarge….the
 universe of human discourse and
 enriching the quality of life for all
Boyer’s example
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Engaging academic expertise with vital
 social problems -e.g. education
Universities should engage in both
 research on child development…and
„create children‟s councils in local
 communities, coordinate…agencies
 concerned with children…develop an
 annual „ready to learn‟ report and action
 plans linking academics and practitioners‟
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For Boyer, and many in today‟s academic
 community, to be a scholar is to integrate
 our work (teaching, research, and
 service), engage with those outside the
 academy, and synthesize what we learn
 into our other works
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