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How to Design English Lessons

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									How to Design English Lessons



   Mr. Yin Gang
   Nanjing Teaching and Research
   Office for Vocational Education
How to Design English Lessons

    The lecture is designed to demonstrate how to
    approach the teaching of speaking, listening,
    reading and writing. By the end of the lecture,
    participants will thoroughly acquire some ideas of
    the following terms:
   Lesson planning
   Analyzing students’ needs
   Authentic materials
   Teaching grammar
   Teaching vocabulary
   Teaching the language skills: speaking, listening, reading and
    writing
   Some others
Learning Teaching

   Learning teaching is a desire to move forward, to
    keep learning from what happens. It involves
    feedback from others and from ourselves about
    what happened. It involves reflection on what
    happened, together with an excitement about
    trying a slightly different option next time.
   Learning teaching is an aware and active use of the
    experiential learning cycle in one’s own life and
    work.
   Learning teaching is a belief that creativity,
    understanding, experience and character continue
    growing through one’s life.
Dangers for teacher career
   Doing the same thing again and again
   Too many demands
   Getting tired
   Boredom
   Pressures
   Stress
   Burn out
   If I’m safe, why take risks?
How to Design English Lessons

   The act of teaching is essentially a constant
    processing of options. At every point in each
    lesson a teacher has a number of options
    available; he/ she can decide to do
    something, or to do something else, or not
    to do anything at all. In order to become a
    better teacher it seems important to be
    aware of as many options as possible. This
    may enable you to generate your own rules
    and guidelines as to what works and what
    doesn’t.( Scrivener: 2002 )
As a general rule:

 Prepare thoroughly. But in
 class, teach the learners—
 not the plan.
The process of learning:

   Doing something;
   Recalling what happened;
   Reflecting on that;
   Drawing conclusions;
   Using those conclusions to inform and
    prepare for future practical experience.
Two assumptions:
   People learn more by doing things
    themselves rather than by being told
    about them.
   Learners are intelligent, fully-
    functioning humans, not simply
    receptacles for passed-on knowledge.
Three kinds of teacher

   Teacher A: the explainer
   Teacher B: the involver
   Teacher C: the enabler
           Control Spectrum in Classroom Teaching
                              Teacher
  DO TO          DO FOR             DO WITH            ENABLE
  Master        All Knowing       Expert/Coach       Facilitator/
                  Provider                             Mentor
  Slave       Passive Recipient     Learning        Active Self
                                   Participant   Starting Learner

Without Choice Controlled,         Dependent    Independent
 Controlled      Passive            Follower    Investigator/
               Dependent                     Knowledge Explorer
Let me out!     I'm OK.            It's OK.      Joy in Learning

                              Student
Four kinds of teacher

   A   poor teacher tells.
   A   good teacher explains.
   A   wonderful teacher demonstrates.
   A   great teacher inspires.
What is an effective teacher?
   Really listens to his/her students;
   Shows respect;
   Gives clear , positive feedback;
   Has a good sense of humor;
   Is patient;
   Knows his/her subject;
   Inspires confidence;
   Trusts people;
   Emphasize with students’ problems;
   Is well-organized;
   Paces lessons well;
   Does not complicate things unnecessarily;
   Is enthusiastic and inspires enthusiasm;
   Can be authoritative without being distant;
   Is honest;
   Is approachable.
General areas have to be
considered:
   The learners.
   The aims.
   The teaching point.
   The teaching procedures .
   Materials.
   Classroom management.
Some general areas have
to be considered:
   The learners. Will they enjoy doing the
    lesson? Will they benefit from it?
    (What do they like doing? What topics
    interest them?)
Some general areas have
to be considered:
   The aims. What will the learners
    achieve? What are you hoping to
    achieve yourself? (What are the aims
    of the lesson? What are the aims of
    each activity?)
Some general areas have
to be considered:
   The teaching point. What is the subject
    matter of the lesson—the skills or language
    areas that will be studied and the topics you
    will deal with. (What items of language will
    be studied or used in the lesson? What
    topics, contexts will be used? Am I confident
    about these teaching points? What
    preparation/ study do I need to do?)
Some general areas have
to be considered:
   The teaching procedures . What
    activities will you use? What sequence
    will they come in? (What activities will
    help the learners achieve the lesson
    objectives? How will the activities link
    together to make a whole lesson? How
    long will each activity last?)
Some general areas have
to be considered:
   Materials. What texts, tapes, pictures,
    exercises, role-cards, etc will you use?
    ( What materials will be used for each
    activity? What do I need to make
    photocopy, borrow? What page of the
    coursebook have we got to? What can
    be used for homework?)
Some general areas have
to be considered:
   Classroom management. What will you
    say? How will the seating be arranged?
    How much time will each stage take?
    etc. (How will the chairs be arranged?
    What instructions will I give? What
    happens if they don’t understand my
    instructions? How long is the whole
    lesson?)
Activity types
   By contents:eg. Listening activity, writing
    activity, teaching vocabulary
   By procedural sequence: eg. lead-in
    activity; pre/ while/ post reading activity;
    presentation activity/ practice activity
   By role-relationship:learner-centered
    activity / teacher-centered activity
   By theoretical constructs: meaning focused
    vs. form-focused activity; functional vs.
    social interaction activity; reception (input)
    vs. productive (output) activity
Procedural sequence
   Generally, we have top-down sequence (for
    meaning-focused class) and bottom-up
    sequence (for form-focused class)
   More specifically, for top-down approach
    (eg. teaching reading ), the sequence
    usually used is: Pre-reading While-reading
    Post-reading
   For bottom-up approach, (eg. teaching
    “present continues tense”), PPP sequence is
    often used: Presentation Practice
    Production
A Formal Plan

A formal lesson plan often contains
  two parts:
 an outline of the procedure of the
  lesson (ie a description of the activities,
  their order and predicted timing)
 background information (ie aims for
  the lesson, target language, material
  used, predicted problems, etc)
Information for Needs
Analysis
   1. Participant: Learner’s age, sex,
    nationality, mother tongue, command
    of the target language, other
    languages.
   2. Purpose Domain: The purpose for
    which the target language is needed.
Information for Needs
Analysis
   3. Setting: The environment where the
    target language will be used.
   4. Interaction: The people with whom
    the learner interact.
Information for Needs
Analysis
   5. Instrumentality: The medium; the
    mode, and the channel.
   6. Dialect: The variety / dialect.
   7. Target level: The degree of mastery
    the learner will need to attain.
Information for Needs
Analysis
   8. Communicative event: The
    productive and receptive skills needed
    to be mastered.
   9. Communicative key: The
    interpersonal attitudes and tones
    needed to be mastered.
Authentic Materials

   Question: What are authentic
    materials?
    Nunan(1989:54) says that authentic
    materials are those which have not
    been specially produced for the
    language teaching. Some examples
    are:
Advantages of Authentic
Materials
   meaningful-associated with the real
    world
   culture knowledge
   practical: can be used in real life
   believable
Advantages of Authentic
Materials
   motivating
   context
   interesting
   challenging
Advantages of Authentic
Materials
   proficiency( true measure)
   bridge between the classroom and the
    real world
   relevant
   prepare for post classroom experience
Disadvantages of
Authentic Materials
   too much jargon / complex language
   limit of genre type
   underlying meanings
   too formal / informal
   too much time for teacher’s
    preparation
Disadvantages of
Authentic Materials
   not written for learners
   no relevant experience
   culture: balanced / not balance
   logistics
   personal taste
   students dislike
Survival of the fittest
                  --- Darwin


                               WTO
                               G20
                               No
                               Crying !
                               No
                               Running
                               Nose !
完美的教学

    1 强调教学的精神发展性
   教学不仅是文化的传承,知识的授受过程,
    更是一个心智的启迪,性情的陶冶,态度的
    养成,兴趣的培养,品格的锻造过程,它所
    关注的是人的精神的发展和架构。
   教学不再是强制、训练和灌输,而是引导、
    体验和唤醒,是让学生感动、领悟和审美,
    对其灵魂进行浸润。
完美的教学

 2 注重教学的完整性
 教学的最终目的是培养完整的人,是思
  想、情感、意志、知识、认识能力、体
  力和创造力得到全面发展的人。
完美的教学

 3 重视教学的游戏品格
 教学不再是一个令人痛苦、压抑、厌烦
  和恐惧的过程,而是一个能够引起师生
  心灵愉快的和谐状态,能够唤起人们意
  外与惊讶的感觉,给身临其境者一种认
  知能力上的解放感,充满了愉悦的过程。
  将教学营造成令人迷恋的游戏正是当代
  教学所追求的。
完美的教学

    4 注重教学的生成性
   教学是一个生成的过程,一个遭遇过程,
    一切都是未知的,而不是被事先安排好
    计划好了的,学生独立探索,主动发现,
    积极将理性的触角伸向未知的世界,自
    觉地获得知识。
完美的教学

    5 重视向学生传达“类意识”
   当代教学注重向学生传达“类意识”,
    关注培养学生的“类主体”精神,使学
    生树立集体的主体责任、主体合作意识、
    集体参与意识,最终实现对自我的超越,
    使个人与社会和谐共处。
完美的教学

    6 强调学生鲜明个性和创新能力
   个性是一个人与他者相区别的独特性,是一
    个人之所以为人的根本标志,因此实现人的
    教学就不得不去关注个性、尊重个性、发展
    个性,引导人在共性发展的基础上张扬个性、
    完善个性,当代教学正是这种实现人的教学,
    它不但倡导个性,而且追求个性,对个性推
    崇备至,认为引导个性是保证教学成为人的
    教学的根本之路或本真之路。
Teaching speaking

 fluency
 (focusing on the message and
 meaning)

 accuracy
 (focusing on the actual language
 forms used---- grammar, vocabulary,
 pronunciation, etc)
Teaching speaking

   mechanical ( where the focus is
    largely on repetition of some kind.)

   meaningful ( where the learner has
    opportunities to repeat the language,
    but also thinks about the meaning and
    makes choices accordingly.)
Teaching listening

    Three guidelines:
   Grade the task rather than the
    material;
   Task first—then text or tape
   Process rather than product!!!
Ideas for listening tasks:

   Keep the recording short---- not more
    than two minutes or so.
   Play the tape a sufficient number of
    times.
   Let the students discuss their answers
    together (perhaps in pairs).
Ideas for listening tasks:

   Don’t immediately acknowledge
    correct answers with words or facial
    expressions---- throw the answers
    back to the class: What do you think
    of X’s answer—do you agree?
   Don’t be led by one strong student.
    Have they all got it?
Ideas for listening tasks:

   Aim to get the students to agree
    together without your help. Until they
    agree, play the tape again whenever
    they need to hear it, to confirm or
    refute their ideas.
   Play little bits of the tape( a word; a
    phrase; a sentence) again and again
    until it’s clear.
Ideas for listening tasks:

   Give help if they are completely stuck.
   Don’t cheat them by changing your
    requirements halfway.
   Don’t let them lose heart.
Ideas for listening tasks:

   Grade the task—not the tape.
    ( Don’t worry too much about what
    student level the recording is suitable
    for—but do make sure your task is set
    for the right level.)
Ideas for reading tasks:

   Put these illustrations of the text in the
    correct order.
   Put these cut-up paragraphs back in
    the correct order.
   Find words in the text that mean the
    same as the words in this list.
Ideas for reading tasks:

   Read the text and find the mistakes in
    this illustration( or draw your own
    illustration).
   Read the text and make a list of
    particular items ( eg jobs that need
    doing; the author’s proposals;
    advantages and disadvantages, etc).
Ideas for reading tasks:

   Give a headline to each section of the
    article( or: match given headlines with
    the sections).
   Find appropriate places in the text to
    reinsert some sentences that have
    previously been separated from the
    text.
Ideas for reading tasks:

   Write a reply.
   Look at the title and the
    illustrations( but not the text). Predict
    which of the following list of words
    you will find in the text.
   Solve the problem.
Ideas for reading tasks:

   Discuss (or write) the missing last
    paragraph of the text.
   Discuss interpretations of, reactions to,
    feelings about the text.
   Make notes under the following
    headings:……
Ideas for reading tasks:

   Before you read this text, make notes
    about what you already know about
    the subject.
   Act out the dialogue, story, episode,
    etc.
   Put this list of events in the correct
    order.
Ideas for writing tasks:

   Write real letters—eg to Members of
    Parliament, to prisoners, to
    manufacturing companies, to fan clubs,
    to local newspapers, to other schools,
    etc. Send them. Get replies. Write
    back.
   Publish your own newsletter,
    magazine, handout, etc.
Ideas for writing tasks:

   Advertise ( ideas, school events, products,
    etc) around the school, around town; send
    in your ads to local papers, etc.
   Write questionnaires and then use them out
    in the street ( maybe in English or in the
    learners’ own language) . Write up the
    results. Publish them!
Ideas for writing tasks:

   Instant poetry. You could do this as a
    simple dictation. For example, read
    out the following instructions allowing
    time to think and write between each
    other:
Ideas for writing tasks:

   Computer word-processing. Make use of any
    high-tech equipment you have to produce
    professional-looking documents, texts, etc.
   Students prepare the teacher’s material—eg
    tell them what the next unit of the book is
    and get them to study it in order to prepare
    better and more interesting material.
Ideas for writing tasks:

   Postman. Allow ten or fifteen minutes
    for students and teacher to write short
    ( one or two sentence) notes to each
    other across class. When each note is
    finished the writers deliver them by
    hand. Reply to ones you receive. Keep
    writing, faster and faster. An exercise
    in fluent ( rather than accurate)
    writing.
Learning teaching and try
to be
   A communicator
   A learner
   A solver
   A citizen
   A worker
   A thinker
   (controller/ organizer/ prompter/
    participant/ resource provider/ assessor )
Ideas for moving forward
   Read new ideas in magazines (books ) and
    try them out
   Write an article for a magazine (most
    articles in magazines for language teachers
    are by teachers like you )
   Start a local teachers’ newsletter
   Try a bold parabola
   Go to a conference or a seminar
   Learn about a completely different approach
Ideas for moving forward

   Join (or start ) a teacher development group
   Discuss what you are doing with other teachers
   Make an agreement with a colleague to observe
    each other’s lessons
   Find a way to get involved in some in-service
    teacher training
   Become a director of studies or a headteacher!
   Start your own school!
   Specialize (eg computers, business, self-access
    centers, video, music, exam, etc)
   Write a book
Language
   Language is the way we express our very
    being. It is the way we come to terms with
    the world. It is the way we make our
    understanding of life concrete. It is the way
    we make contact with other human beings.
   Learning Teaching is about our own
    personal search for our own answers, rather
    than merely a re-enacting of other people’s
    solutions. In looking for ways to move
    forward as a teacher, you will also find ways
    to grow as a person.
The World Is Flat
     --Thomas L. Friedman
Every morning in Africa a gazelle wakes up.
It knows it must outrun the fastest lion or it
will be killed.
Every morning in Africa a lion wakes up.
It knows it must outrun the slowest gazelle
or it will starve.
It doesn’t matter whether you’re a lion or a
gazelle – when the sun comes up, you’d
better be running.
   And indeed we should.
迎击风暴




       全球化环境下的创新本质
   清晨,非洲的瞪羚醒来,
   它知道自己必须跑过跑得最快的狮子,否则就会被吃掉。
   清晨,非洲的狮子醒来,
   它知道自己必须跑过跑得最慢的瞪羚,否则就会饿死。
   无论你是狮子还是瞪羚,这都无关紧要,
   当太阳升起时,你最好就开始奔跑。
           ——霍杰茨(Richard Hodgetts)

   奥古斯丁由此而认为——
        “事实上,我们也应该奔跑。”
Learning Teaching Enjoy Teaching



   Good luck. And I hope you enjoy it all.


Mr. Yin Gang
Nanjing Teaching and Research Office for Vocational Education

								
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