Principles of Control by ewghwehws

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									        Lone Working
Management of Health and Safety
   at Work Regulations 1999
 Setsout broad general duties which
 apply to practically all workplace
 operations.
 Section3 – requires organisations to
 carry out suitable and sufficient
 Risk Assessments for employees
 and others who may be affected by
 the organization.*

                 H&S/2008                1
      Risk Assessment – “Suitable
             and Sufficient”
   Identify all hazards and evaluate the risks.
   Record the significant findings.
   Identify people especially at risk.
   Evaluate existing controls and introduce further
    controls if necessary.
   Evaluate information, training and instruction.
   Provide an action plan, priority, time table.*




                         H&S/2008                      2
 Risk Assessment - Recording

 The assessment must be recorded in
 writing where there are 5 or more
 persons employed and the
 information on the risk assessment
 and risk controls must be provided to
 employees.*


                H&S/2008             3
              Lone Working
             Risk Assessment
   Risk assessments should be carried out by a
    “competent person”

   Competence - Can be defined as a
    combination of :-

   Knowledge
   Experience
   Ability
   Training
   Qualifications *


                       H&S/2008                   4
           Active Participation
   Employees are a critical element of health
    and safety in any company and without
    their full co-operation H&S will fail.

 Employees should be involved in the risk
  assessment process. They know how the
  work really is done.
 If employees are fully involved they are
  more likely to comply with the resultant
  risk assessment. *
                      H&S/2008                   5
           Lone Working
          Risk Assessment
Hazard:
 The result of a departure from the
  normal situation which has the
  potential to cause death, injury,
  damage or loss.

“A hazard is something which has
  the potential to cause harm to
       persons or property”
                 H&S/2008              6
           Lone Working
          Risk Assessment
Risk:
 The likelihood that a specified
  undesired event will occur due to the
  realisation of a hazard by or during,
  work activity

 “Risk is the likelihood that harm
  will be realised given the actual
           circumstances”
                 H&S/2008                 7
   Risk Assessment - Review
Review Risk Assessment after:
 Any   changes.

 An   accident.

   regular intervals (at least
 At
 annually) *

                   H&S/2008      8
                 Lone Working
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
 Section 2

 S.2(1) 'It shall be the duty of every employer to ensure, so
 far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and
 welfare of all his employees.‘ *




                                                            9
                     Lone Working
HASAWA 1974
Section 2

S.2(2) In particular, this duty applies, so far as is reasonably practicable,
to: safe plant and systems of work; safe use, handling, storage and
transport of articles and substances; the provision of necessary
information, instruction, training and supervision; a safe place of work
with safe means of access and egress; and a safe working environment




                                                                         10
                    Lone Working
HASAWA 1974
Section 3 – Duties to others

S.3 An employer (or self-employed person) must safe guard not only
himself and his employees, but anyone not in his employment who
would be affected by his activities, (e.g.. The general public, contractors
etc.) *




                                                                       11
   Nebosh – H&S Foundations
HASAWA 1974
Section 4 – Duties to others

S.4 Those in control of premises must ensure that premises
are safe, have safe access and egress, and that any plant or
substances do not endanger the health and safety of others
who are not employees (i.e.. visitors, visiting tutors,
customers etc.) *




                                                         12
 Employers’ Duties, Roles, Responsibilities

Management of Health and Safety At Work
 Regulations
Reg 12 Where employees from an outside
 organisation are involved, to provide the
 employer of those employees with
 information on risks and control
 measures, and to ensure that those
 employees are provided with appropriate
 instructions and information in relation to
 any risks to their health and safety.*
                                               13
                 Lone Working

   “Where a lone worker is at another employer’s
    workplace, that employer should inform the lone
    worker’s employer of any risks and the control
    measures that should be taken. This helps the
    lone worker’s employer to assess the risks.”

    Health and Safety Executive Guidance from their
    publication entitled ”Working Alone in Safety”.
    (INDG73) *
                    Lone Working
HASAWA 1974
Section 7 – Duties of employees
S.7 Every employee must:

• take reasonable care for his own health and safety.
• take reasonable care for the health and safety of anyone who may be
affected by his or her acts or omissions.
• co-operate with his employer or any other person to enable legal
obligations to be met. *




                                                                    15
                   Lone Working
HASAWA 1974
Section 8 – Other duties

S.8 No person must misuse of interfere with anything provided in the
interests of health, safety or welfare at work. *




                                                                 16
             Lone Working

Management of Health and Safety at
  Work Regulations.
 Workers’ Duties. They must:


 Use work equipment in accordance
  with training/instruction (Regulation
  14(1) )
 Inform their employer (or a
  responsible employee) of dangerous
  situations and shortcomings in
  protection arrangements (Regulation
  14(2)) *
                                          17
Lone Working
    Lone working is not in itself high risk. It is the fact that
     lone workers may be injured, get into difficulty or be
     taken ill with nobody in the immediate vicinity to provide
     or summon help, which increases the risk.
    Two main groups (HSE):

1.   Workers in fixed establishments where:
    Only one person works on the premises, e.g. small
     workshops, petrol stations, kiosks, shops, also home
     workers
    People working separately from others (found in virtually
     all kinds of workplaces)
    People work alone outside normal working hours, e.g.
     cleaners, security staff, maintenance workers etc **



                                                                18
Lone Working
2. Mobile workers working away from their fixed base. Covers
a whole range of trades and professions. Includes service
engineers, painters and decorators, farmers, housing officers,
social workers, meter readers, street cleaners etc.

   Risk Factors
There could be a number of reasons why lone workers are at a
greater risk than those who work together. In each case the
risks must be assessed and controlled so that the risk is at an
acceptable level. The following risk factors are relevant:
 Tasks unsuitable for one person, e.g. heavy lifting and
some maintenance tasks.
 Hazards and risks at the workplace, e.g. dangerous
chemicals, electricity. **                                     19
Lone Working
Risk Factors
 Age, experience and levels of training in terms of

appropriate behaviour and response to danger.
 Health status (people suffering from a heart

condition, epilepsy, diabetes, asthma, vertigo etc
may need careful assessment before being
permitted to work alone.
 Contact with the public and risk of violence.

Contributory factors may include: **

                                                   20
Lone Working
Risk Factors
 Gender. ( female workers face obvious risks, but
although they may be seen as weaker, they tend to
be better at de-fusing confrontational situations).
 Age. Younger people may be perceived as weaker
and will normally be less able to de-fuse
confrontational situations due to lack of experience.
 Unavoidable confrontational situations (e.g. social
work, repossessing property, dealing with public
 nuisance issues etc may involve actions that are
inherently confrontational). **

                                                   21
Lone Working
Risk Factors
  Jobs involving the handling of cash (increasing
the risk of criminal violence)
 Involvement with vulnerable groups, such as the
elderly, mentally ill, drug/alcohol users, will almost
inevitably present an increased risk of violence,
whether intended or not.
 Stature and appearance (heavier build and a uniform tend

to make violent assault less likely)
 Personal characteristics (accent, tone of voice, attitude,
ethnicity may put some individuals at increased risk)
 Level of training (people likely to have to face potentially
violent situations must be trained in how to deal with them).
   **
                                                                 22
Lone Working
Safe Systems of Work
   Before an employee is allowed to work on their own, a
    careful assessment should be made of the place of work,
    the work to be done and the person to carrying out the
    work.
   Where the assessment shows that the risk is too great,
    then the task should be performed by two or more people
    (or be given to another, more suitable employee)
   Where the risk is not too great, then the system of work
    adopted should incorporate all the elements that a SSW
    would normally have in terms of following procedures,
    training and the use of control measures, including PPE
    where required. **

                                                               23
Lone Working
Safe Systems of Work
   The SSW should take particular account of :

  Means of communication. The importance and method of
communicating with the lone worker will depend on the
particular situation. Often it will be necessary to provide the
worker with a mobile phone to allow regular two-way
communication. In some instances lone workers will be
required to ring in to their base to confirm they are safe. This
system may be suitable for workers carrying out home visits
or security workers having to check several premises at night
   **



                                                               24
Lone Working
Safe Systems of Work
   The SSW should take particular account of :

   Means of raising the alarm. Various manual and automatic
    and manual alarms are available, e.g. there are automatic
    warning devices that are activated if specific signals are not
    received periodically from security workers. Other devices
    operate automatically if no activity is sensed over a given
    period or if the system senses that the worker is in a
    horizontal position. Manual systems, like those used by the
    elderly, could also be used in some situations **


                                                                25
Lone Working
Safe Systems of Work
   The SSW should take particular account of :

   Emergency response. Lone workers should be trained in
what to do should an emergency occur. They should carry a
first aid kit to deal with minor injuries. They should have
access to first aid facilities. **




                                                              26
Lone Working
Safe Systems of Work
   The SSW should take particular account of :

  Supervision and monitoring. Occasional visits from a
supervisor may be required to check that the lone worker is
following procedures. New employees to a job, undergoing
training, performing a job which involves special risks or
dealing with new situations may first need to be accompanied
before being allowed to work alone *



                                                          27
Health and Safety Policy – Legal Requirements

Section 2(3) HASAWA 1974

The law requires that the policy should include:

 A statement of intent with includes the aims & objectives of
                           the firm

    An organisational structure detailing people with H&S
                  responsibilities & duties

 Arrangements in place in terms of systems & procedures *
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