Handwriting by dffhrtcv3



The whole mind, body,
  and environment
 Do you have students who have
 difficulty with HANDWRITING?
 There are many factors related to successful
  performance in the classroom.
 How much a child has learned is often
  measured by what they are able to recount,
  often in the written form.
 Limited awareness of where your body is in
  space and how it moves affect all motor output
  from body posture to fine motor movements
  such as handwriting.
Work Area
     A Work Area is
      very important!
     It helps with
      getting started,
      the process of
      writing, and
Some ways to help with work area
   Remove all unused materials from desktop

   Use a large box lid to act as drawers to help
    organize inside the desk

   Have desk cleaning day regularly

   Tape a file folder to the side of desk for important

   Velcro pencil to desk

   Use different color folders.
        Sitting Posture
 Posture is very
 writing!!! It is
 difficult to use
 good writing if
 you can’t
        Proper Positioning
1. Soles of feet flat on the floor in front of you
2. Back of knees should be touching the front of
   the chair.
3. Knees and hips should make the letter “L” (90°
4. Elbows should rest comfortably on your desk
   (desk heights should be placed 2” above elbow
   when child’s arms are at his/her side)
5. Paper should be at a 45° angle on the desk
6. Other hand should be open flat and holding
   down paper.
Adaptations and Equipment
 Change height of desk &/or chair to get 90°
 Slant boards
 Boxes, blocks, or phone books to keep feet from
 Dycem or grip clothes
 Wiggle cushions
 T-stool (with supervision)
 Stand to do work
 Therapy balls (with supervision)
  Exercises and Movement

Can also be used to help with
 posture and attention.

(example have been provided in your
                    Pencil Grasp
 Pencil Grasps vary
  from child to child.
  Enclosed is a copy of various
  grasp, but many of our children
  modify these grasp to suit their
  own writing ability.
 The most sought
  after grasp in the
  dynamic tripod grasp,
  but many children do
  not use this grasp.
            Pencil Grasp
If a child holds his pencil in a modified
 grasp that allows for the fingers to move
 freely to form letters, he/she is holding
 the pencil adequately.
There is a problem if all five fingers are
 on the pencil, if the wrist is flexed (bent
 toward the palm), if the elbow is floating
 off the table surface, or the fingers are
 hooked around the pencil.
Pencil Grasp Intervention
Writing on a vertical surface
                                     Shorter Pencils
Pencil grips
                                     Pinch Clay
Hold a small object against the
palm with the ring finger and        Avoid round pencils
pinky, leaving the other three
fingers available to grasp pencil    Verbal cues to pinch

Engage students in games that        Modified tripod grasp
require pinch, tweezers, nuts
and bolds, twist caps, and           Decrease writing amount

Broken crayons
        Pencil Grasp PS
Younger children should be using
 crayons, markers, and chalk to draw
 and scribble
Pre-K is too early in the typical
 development of the hand to force
 the use of pencils
It can lead to grasp problems in the
 later grades.
     Pencil Pressure
Poor pressure will result in writing that is
 not legible because it is too light.
 Excessive pressure can cause fatigue,
 cramping, and/or poor endurance due to
 muscle strain.
These can be caused by poor grasp, poor
 strength, and/or poor ability to grade
Writing Quality depends greatly on
 each child’s development.

 It includes many components.
          Basic Strokes
  Basic strokes = pre-writing shapes

 Shape             Dev. Age
 I                2yr. 10mo.
 -                3yr.
 O                3yr.
 +                4yr. 1mo.
 /                4yr. 4mo.
 □                4yr. 6mo.
 \                4yr. 7mo.
 Letter recognition &
   Letter formation
Without letter recognition there is NO
 meaning or relevance to write or form

Letter formation includes the ability to
 form the basic strokes in a sequence and
 the ability to remember how to make each
      Letter reversals
Are common in young children (below 2nd
 grade) because to them in the real world
 position doesn’t affect identity.

In the real world position doesn’t matter: both are
But when as they get older they start to use
 symbols and letters which affects identity.
       b d
 (The most common reversal)
After 1st grade if this is still occurring it
 could be due to a spatial relation problem.
          Letter reversals
 Work on concepts of directionality
Alphabet strips (“cheat sheets”) on desks
Practicing the prewriting strokes
Letter formation
Visual & Verbal cues
Far/Near Point Copying &
   Spacing/ Alignment
 This requires a lot of integration from the
  eyes, brain, body, and environment.
 Far point copying is copying from a
 Near point copying is copying from close
  Spacing between words and letters.
 Alignment/placement on the paper and
Copying & Spacing/Alignment
Put overhead on desk for copying
Provide notes
Keep board clear of clutter
Use different colors to chunk information
Various papers
Popsicle sticks, index fingers, M&Ms
 between words
Exaggerate spacing
        To keep in mind...
 Handwriting is a whole mind, body, and
  environmental experience.
 If one of these factors is weakened then all the
  other factors may be affected causing
  expression to be illegible.
 Therefore, there are many factors to look at in
  regard to a child’s performance in the
 It’s important to keep in mind that the body
  should be in an optimal position to receive the
  information, the environment should be
  conductive to processing the information, and
  that a pencil is only as accurate as the hand that
  controls it.
• Writing was developed as the most
  comfortable and efficient way for
  people to record ideas on paper.
  Penmanship and self-esteem are
  closely linked; attention to these
  links is critical so that children can
  explore and expand their potential
  for self-expression to the fullest.
  (Hanft and Marsh, 1993)

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