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					         TAKS Writing
Preparing students for success on TAKS

   Ana Pomar, Education Specialist
     Elementary Language Arts
     Ana.pomar@esc13.txed.net


             ESC Region XIII
            www.esc13.net/taks
                                         1
Goals for today:
   Develop an understanding of the changes in
   the state assessment system for 4th grade
   writing
   Analyze TAKS writing objectives using the
   Grade 4 Writing information booklets;
   Identify student TEKS expectations connected
   to the TAKS writing objectives;
   Understand the blueprint for Grade 4 English
   and Spanish version tests.

                                                  2
Goals continued:
  Identify effective instructional practices to
  prepare students for success in TAKS writing;
  Set goals for daily writing instruction and
  continuous monitoring of student progress in
  writing development.
  Analyze resources and professional
  development opportunities



                                                  3
What’s changing?
  Accountability System
       New ratings and standards for schools
  Assessment System
       Standards for passing :
      Met the standard
      Did not meet the standard
      Commended performance
  Student Success Initiative
       Promotion standards
       Linking TAKS to grade level promotion

                                               4
Accountability system…
  In 2003, no rating are planned to be issued;
  however all scores will be released to the
  press
  Beginning in 2004, ratings will be based on
  TAKS (including the new assessments) and
  the completion rate
  Districts and campuses will be classified as
  exemplary, recognized, acceptable, and low
  performing
                                                 5
Why a new test?
    Match our state curriculum
    Assess a more rigorous set of standards
    Meet legislative requirements
    Redesign an assessment that ―looks‖
    more like GOOD classroom instruction
    Match the graduation plan to the state
    assessment

                                              6
Why do we have a new, tougher curriculum?
    The state legislature mandated the
     higher standards in the TEKS:
      •   to improve education
      •   to assure economic prosperity.
    Our economy has changed…
      •   Fewer jobs that do not require much formal
          education
      •   More jobs require an even better formal
          education
      •   Need for more college graduates well prepared
          to face the new global challenges
                                                          7
Changes in Testing: Texas Assessment of Knowledge
and Skills - TAKS

 The TEKS expect more from our schools,
  teachers, students, and parents.
 The TEKS are more comprehensive and
  more rigorous.
 We cannot use the TAAS test to see how
  we are doing; we need a new, tougher
  test.
                                               8
    More “Rigorous”…?
TABS  TEAMS  TAAS  TAKS
 Essential Elements        The TEKS

Isolated, Minimum     Integrated Knowledge
       Skills
One-Step Solutions        Multiple-Step
                            Problems
   Narrow Focus           Broad Range

                                          9
Student Success Initiative

Students must pass part(s) of the
TAKS in order to be promoted :

  2002-03 - 3rd graders - Reading
  2004-05 - 5th graders - Reading & Math
  2007-08 - 8th graders - Reading & Math


                                       10
         SSI
  Remember it this way:


3rd Graders--             ’03
5th Graders--             ’05
8th Graders--             ’08


                                11
TAKS: March 4
   Passes> Local Policy >Go to Grade 4
   Fails> Intensive Intervention >21 days
TAKS : April 30
   Passes> Local Policy >Go to Grade 4
   Fails> Grade Placement Committee Meets
    • Intensive Intervention in Summer
    • Alternate Assessment
TAKS : July 8
   Passes> Local Policy >Go to Grade 4
   Fails> Automatically retained in Grade 3 UNLESS the PARENT
   appeals
   Fails> Grade Placement Committee Meets
    • Considers appeal against district criteria
    • Votes to promote or retain (must be unanimous)
    • Develops Plan for acceleration for Grade 3 or Grade 4

                                                                12
A New Standard
  Determined by SBOE November 2002
  Set standard or phased in
  No TLI
  Probably closer to a true 70% of items
  correct



                                           13
2003 Early Indicator Reports:
Focus on Grades 3 and 8
70 TLI v. 70%
 Grade 3
  SSI (No pass, no promote)

 Grade 8
  All four content areas (Math,
  English/LA, Science, Social Studies)

                                         14
                            2001 AEIS Report
                        End-of-Course Examinations
                        State Preview of 2003 Exit Level

  Algebra I                                   49.2


    Biology                                                       79.9


  English II                                                   75.1


U.S. History                                                   74.3


               0   10    20    30    40      50    60     70     80      90        100
                                          Percent Passing                     15
                   Comparison of TAAS Spring 2002 Results
                          at Current and Higher Standards
                               on TEKS-Based Tests
                                  Grade 3 Reading

    Econ Dis                                                 81
                                                       76

      White                                                          94
                                                                    91

                                                             83                Current
    Hispanic                                            77                     Higher

African-Amer                                                80
                                                       74

                                                               87          44,444 3rd
         All                                                 83            graders not
                                                                           passing

               0    10   20   30   40   50   60   70    80        90 100
                   Comparison of TAAS Spring 2002 Results
                             at Current and Higher Standards
                                  on TEKS-Based Tests
                                  Grade 3 Mathematics

   Econ Dis                                                             81
                                                    60

      White                                                                        93
                                                                        80

                                                                         83                   Current
    Hispanic                                            63                                    Higher

African-Amer                                                       76
                                              54

         All                                                                  87
                                                              70

               0   10   20     30   40   50        60        70    80         90        100
                   Comparison of TAAS Spring 2002 Results
                          at Current and Higher Standards
                               on TEKS-Based Tests
                                Grade 8 ALL TESTS

    Econ Dis                                         61
                          20

      White                                                                  83
                                                    58

                                                         63                                Current
    Hispanic                    30                                                         Higher

African-Amer                                         61
                               27

         All                                                       72
                                          43

               0    10   20    30    40        50   60        70        80        90 100
                              State Class of 2000
                               Completion Rates
   Eco Dis                            72.6                            4.7     11.2             11.6



    White                                    86.7                                        5.6 3.6 4



  Hispanic                            72.8                            4.2     11.8             11.2



Afric Amer                             76.9                                 3.5    9.7          9.9



       All                              80.7                                      4.8    7.3     7.2


             0%   10%   20%     30%     40%         50%   60%   70%         80%          90%          100%

                        Grad     GED         Continued HS       4-Yr Dropout
                                                                                                  19
Why are TEKS important?




                          20
The TEKS
  Were organized to ensure that at each
  grade level students acquire the writing
  skills they will need for success in the
  next grade.
  Even though only some writing TEKS
  will be tested, ALL TEKS must be taught
  to ensure that students receive a solid
  program of writing instruction.
                                         21
  What are TEKS?

Texas           Find the TEKS for your
                   grade level or grade
Essential          level of your choice.
Knowledge and      Read the introduction
                   (A1-A4) to yourself.
Skills
                Please highlight some of
                   the key concepts that
                   you teach. 5 minutes




                                           22
  TEKS(4.22) Writing/connections. The student interacts with
  writers inside and outside the classroom in ways that reflect
  the practical uses of writing.

  (A) collaborate with other            Have a knowledge
writers to compose, organize, and       and skills statement
revise various types of texts,          Students
including letters, news, records,       expectations
and forms
(4-8); and                              Bracketed text [ for
                                        clarification]
 ( (B) correspond with peers or         (4-8) grade levels which
others via e-mail or conventional       include this expectation.
mail (4-8).


                                                             23
   TEKS for Writing Activity
Turn to tab # 3
Read and Highlight all the TEKS student
expectations for your grade level.
Then, please compare the student
expectations of the grade directly before
and after yours (if applicable).
Discuss any ―Aha’s‖ with your colleagues
             10 minutes


                                        24
  Reflections on TEKS for Writing


Hmmm…
Did you see anything interesting?
Any surprises?
Any questions?



                                    25
Locate the 4th grade TEKS in
Tab # 2
 1. Please read TEKS 4.19
 2. Highlight the verbs in each
    student expectation




                                  26
(4.19) Writing/writing processes. The student selects and
uses writing processes for self-initiated and assigned writing.

     (A) generate ideas and plans for writing by using such
     prewriting strategies as brainstorming, graphic organizers,
     notes, and logs (4-8);
     (B) develop drafts by categorizing ideas, organizing them into
     paragraphs, and blending paragraphs within larger units of text
     (4-8);
     (C) revise selected drafts by adding, elaborating, deleting,
     combining, and rearranging text (4-8);
     (D) revise drafts for coherence, progression, and logical
     support of ideas (4-8);
     (E) edit drafts for specific purposes such as to ensure standard
     usage, varied sentence structure, and appropriate word choice
     (4-8);


                                                                    27
Bloom’s Taxonomy
                    Where do most
    Evaluation      of the student
    Synthesis       expectations fall
    Analysis        in Bloom’s
    Application     Taxonomy?
    Comprehension
    Knowledge

                                   28
             TAKS Writing
In order for students to be successful writers,
writing must occur at every grade level,
not merely at the tested grades.
                           -Introduction to TAKS




                                                   29
Unless writing is rooted in conviction,
The practice endures like an unwanted
guest.
                        --Les Parsons
                        Response Journals revisited




                                                      30
Ask yourself the following?
   As a language arts        As a language arts teacher,
   teacher, do you see       do you see writing as a life
   writing more as an        skill critical for academic
   extra chore for you and   success?
   busy work for your        Do you enjoy and value
   students?                 the thoughts and opinions
   Are you going through     your students express
   the motions unable to
   find satisfaction in      in their writing?
   writing instruction?


                                                     31
Reflection continued…
  Do you lack          Do you look forward
  enthusiasm for       to reading your
  writing?             students daily
  Do you feel          journal entries?
  burdened by the      Do you incorporate
  task of having to    writing into all of the
  come up with daily   curriculum?
  journal topics?


                                             32
Remember this…
  Struggling readers are struggling writers .
  Students who have difficulty putting their
  thoughts into writing struggle to succeed
  in social studies,science and many areas
  other than language arts.




                                          33
Good writing requires good thinking.
   The act of writing actually helps students
   clarify their thoughts and focus their ideas.
   Students who have learned to communicate
   well on paper will have more opportunities
   available to them throughout their lives in
   both education and employment, than those
   who have not learned this skill.



                                                   34
Reading and writing are reciprocal

  Every time a student is writing
  effectively, that student is also reading
  carefully and thoughtfully.
  A writer must be able to read what
  he/she has written and recognize
  whether or not the words mean what
  the writer wants them to mean.
                                              35
What does the test look like?
   Blue prints for the 4th grade writing
   test are…




                                           36
TEXAS ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS (TAKS)
BLUEPRINT FOR GRADE 4 WRITING

     Objectives Grade 4*
     Objective 1 and Objective 2 (composition)
       1 writing prompt
     Objective 3—organization (revising and editing)
       4 multiple-choice items
     Objective 4—sentence Structure (revising and editing)
       8 multiple-choice items
     Objective 5—standard usage/word choice (revising and editing)
       8 multiple-choice items
     Objective 6—punctuation, capitalization, spelling (revising and
editing)
       8 multiple-choice items
     Total number of items 28 multiple-choice items and 1 writing
prompt *The blueprint for the Grade 4 English- and Spanish-version
tests is identical.

                                                                   37
TAKS Grade 4 Writing Objectives
• Objectives 1 and 2
     Composition

• Objectives 3, 4, 5, and 6
     Revising/Editing in a peer editing context




                                                  38
Objective 1: The student will, within a
given context, produce an effective
composition for a specific purpose.

This objective tests a students ability to
produce an organized and well-developed
composition in response to a prompt.


                                          39
Writing Prompts and Purposes
 Grade 4, write to:        Grade 7 – write to
  •   Express                do all of Grade 4
  •   Develop
                             plus:
                              •   Influence (persuade,
  •   Reflect on ideas            argue, request)
  •   Problem solve           •   Inform – report

  •   Inform (explain,      Use appropriate voice
                             and style
      describe, narrate)
                            Use literary devices
  •   Entertain (short
                            Demonstrate cohesion
      stories)
                             and coherence

                                                         40
41
General Guidelines for the TAKS
Composition     p.88 Spanish information booklet

         Written composition:
      •     Student selects approach
      •     Must use standard English prose
      •     4 point scale
      •     Focused, holistic scoring using a rubric
      •     Use of standard English integral part of rubric
      •     Expectations appropriate for grade level and
            testing situation

                                                              42
Will dictionaries be allowed?
   Read page 89 in the orange Spanish
   Information booklet
   Read page 6 in the pink English Writing
   Information booklet




                                             43
In order to communicate effectively,
in their composition, students must:
  Respond directly to the prompt.
  Organize ideas to show a logical progression
   of thought.
  Remain focused on the topic.
  Develop ideas thoroughly and specifically.
  Express an individual voice (authentic,
   personal, natural).
                                                44
TAAS-pectations              TAKS-pectations
                           • Organization &
  •   Formula                coherence
  •   Correctness          • Support and development
  •   Elaboration          • Vocabulary and spelling
  •   Spelling             • Style and voice
  •   Complete sentences   • Terminology of the
                             writing process
  •   Product
                           • Authentic purposeful
                             writing

                                                45
Objective 2 – TEKS 4.16 –18           p.95 or 12
 The student will produce a piece of writing that
 demonstrates a command of the conventions of
   spelling,
   capitalization,
   punctuation,
   grammar,usage and sentence structure.



                                                46
   Evaluation of Conventions
will be based on a holistic judgment of the student’s
mastery of conventions overall and not on a total
number of errors or type of errors.
Sophistication attempted in the construction of
sentences and use of words will be taken into account.
Some errors related to conventions are more serious
than others because they have a greater effect on a
student’s ability to communicate clearly.




                                                        47
     TAKS Writing Rubrics
TAKS compositions will be scored on a four-
point scale, with 1 being the lowest score and 4
being the highest.

The rubric is based on five criteria—focus and
coherence, organization, development of ideas,
voice, and conventions—which will be
considered equally in the scoring of each
composition.
                                                   48
Rubrics at all grade levels will
contain the following traits:

  focus and coherence
 organization
 development of ideas
 voice
 conventions
                                   49
           Sample Analytic Rubric
               Point 1   Point 2   Point 3   Point 4
Focus and
Coherence

Organization

Development
of Ideas

Voice


Conventions



                                                       50
Sample Holistic Rubric




                         51
The same writing rubric will be used
to evaluate TAKS compositions at all
grades assessed:
Grade 4 English, Grade 7, Grade 10,
and Grade 11 Exit Level.


                                   52
A separate rubric will be used to score the
Grade 4 Spanish compositions.


• However, the only difference between it and
the English-version rubric is the reference to
“conventions of the Spanish language” rather
than “conventions of the English language”
under Score Point 1.

                                            53
   IN ALL CASES…


 scorers will be trained to consider the
criteria listed in the rubric in a way
that is grade-level appropriate.


                                      54
Find the rubrics behind Tab 4
   Look at Rubric #4
   Read the descriptor for Organization
   Look at Rubric #1
   Read the descriptor for Organization
   Discuss the differences with the
   colleagues at your table



                                          55
Analyze student samples
  Using your rubrics, read and analyze
  the following student writing samples.
  How does it rate in organization?
  Discuss




                                           56
Activity:Work with a partner
Using the writing rubrics, rate the
 composition according to:
 focus and coherence
 development of ideas
 voice
 conventions

                                      57
Share your responses
  First composition
  Second composition




                       58
Grade 4 Writing
• Objectives 3, 4, 5, and 6
     Revising/Editing


                 Spanish Info. Booklet p.98
                 English Info. Booklet p.15




                                              59
   Writing Objectives Grade 4
Objectives 3-5 are assessed in a peer
editing context, in which the student will:
3. Recognize appropriate organization of ideas in a
    written text
4. Recognize correct and effective sentence
    construction in written text
5.Recognize standard usage and appropriate word
    choice in a written text
                                                60
Objective 3. Recognize appropriate
organization of ideas in a written text.
TEKS 4.19   BLUEPRINT:4 multiple choice items total

Students will be required to identify:
   sentences that are irrelevant to paragraphs
  and should be deleted.
  Sentences that should be added to best
  elaborate an expressed idea within a
  paragraph.


                                                      61
Objective 4- Recognize correct and effective
sentence construction in written text.
TEKS 4.18 –19 BLUEPRINT:8 multiple choice items total

Students will be required to :
1. Recognize fragments and run on sentences
2. choose the most effective way to combine
   ideas
3. Improve the wording of awkward sentences


                                                    62
Objective 5- Recognize standard usage and
appropriate word choice in written text.
TEKS 4.18 –19 BLUEPRINT:8 multiple choice items

 Will include but not limited to:
  Subject verb agreement
  Pronoun referents (antecedent agreement)
  Adverbs and adjectives
  Use of double negatives
  Misuse of homonyms their/there
  Indefinite reference they/it vs. specific noun
  Vague word vs. precise wording

                                                   63
Objective 6 – Proof read for correct punctuation,
capitalization and spelling in written text.
TEKS 4.16 -19 BLUEPRINT:8 multiple choice items
    Students will be required to recognize and correctly
    edit errors in capitalization,punctuation and spelling.
    Spelling items will include both rule based and sight
    words that are within the writing vocabulary of 4th
    grade students.
    Capitalization and punctuation rules will include the
    range commonly taught in 4th grade.




                                                              64
TAKS Revising and Editing:
General Guidelines
 •   Passages are designed to resemble
     student writing.
 •   Passages for 4th grade will be
     approximately 175 to 225 words in
     length.
 •   Spanish passages will be different from
     the English passages (p.103)

                                               65
TAKS Revising and Editing:
General Guidelines Continued
Revising and editing (multiple choice)
  • Samples of student writing/peer editing
    (approximately one page in length, may have
    photograph or illustration)
  • Numbered sentences
  • No isolated assessment of objectives—items for a
    single passage may address any of the four
    objectives.

                                                  66
Multiple choice items indicate:

   •How a particular sentence might
   be corrected
   •How the organization or
   development of a paragraph
   might be improved



                                      67
Example of Peer Editing Format for 4th Grade

                   No Way Out
 (1) One Saturday everyone in my neighborhood
   was working at the park. (2) I was helping
   Mom plant flowers while Jeff and Dad was
   digging holes for a new fence. (3) I saw
   Daisy, one of our favorite ducks from the
   pond, crossing the field toward the row of
   holes. (4) Suddenly she looked into one of
   the holes and suddenly quacked loudly.

                                                68
    TAKS Revising and Editing:

What’s the difference?




                                 69
  Revising

•Improves the composition so that the
   product is more interesting and
   understandable to the reader
• Clarifies meaning and expands ideas
• Helps writers learn the craft of writing


                                             70
Revising is seeing it again and
checking for:
                 Purpose
                 Audience
                 Form
                 Development of topic
                 Word choice
                 voice

                                    71
         Editing is…

“making sure that the conventions
of language (spelling, punctuation,
and grammar) are used correctly.”


                          Fletcher, 2001




                                           72
In revision you:       When editing you:
  Substitute            Make your writing ready
                        for publication by
  Add                   focusing on conventions
  Delete                and mechanics such as
  Reorder               Punctuation and
                        capitalization
 Words, phrases,
                        Spelling
  sentences, ideas
                        Sentence Syntax*
  and/or sections in
                        Paragraph structure
  your draft.

                                              73
  Peer Editing Passage Vocabulary
Revise, revising, revision   Revisar/revisión
           Edit              Corregir/corrección
      Peer-editing
                             Organizar/organización
      Organization
        Improve              Mejorar
        Combine              Combinar
  Complete sentence
                             Oraciones completas
         Delete
           Add               Quitar
          Insert             Añadir
                                                      74
Editing or Revision ?
What is the BEST way to rewrite the ideas in sentence 4?

  A.   Suddenly she looked into one of the holes she
       suddenly quacked loudly.
  B.   Suddenly she looked into one of the holes. And
       suddenly quacked loudly.
  C.   Suddenly looking into one of the holes and
       suddenly quacking loudly.
  D.   Suddenly she looked into one of the holes and
       quacked loudly.

                                                        75
Test Booklet activity
   Open your TAKS booklet for Writing to
   page 23 or 106.
   Read each test item on this page.
   What is it testing? Editing or revising?
    Highlight the objective below each item
   and then label the item as either editing
   or revising.

                                           76
Stepping Back – What’s Really
Important Here?
                    Curriculum

 TEKS/TAKS/            Instruction
 Accountability

                    Classroom
                    Assessment
The success of our students




                              78
Planning for Success


Going from TEKS to TAKS




                          79
How can I best help my students
prepare for TAKS?
  Give them daily
  opportunities to write
  for a variety of
  meaningful purposes;
  Provide many models
  of effective writing,
  style & voice
  Integrate writing into
  the content areas;
                                  80
How can I best help my students
prepare for TAKS?
   Give them checklists     Provide opportunities
   to help them edit        for collaboration as in
   and revise their own     buddy journals, paired
   writing and the          reading, research
   writing of their peers   partners,peer editing
   Teach them rules of      Teach the writing
   grammar and              process!
   standard language        Teach them editorial
   usage;                   marks and jargon
                                                81
Make Writing Inviting and Meaningful
   Read the excerpt titled:
   OH YES I CAN !
   Write about a time when you were told that
   you could not do something. Maybe you were
   excluded from a group. Maybe someone did
   not believe you had the capacity to
   accomplish something.
   Tell what happened? How did you respond?

                                            82
      Making Writing Inviting
Message      Journals:free choice, Technology
Boards       personal response
             Buddy journals
             Writer’s notebook

Morning      Daily News          Poetry
Message

Literature   Character           Purposeful
Response     Analysis            Letter
                                 Writing
                                                83
ACTIVITY: In your table group, give examples
of how you apply the following instructional
practices in your classroom:
Journals:                Writer’s Workshop    Technology




Writing in the Content   Graphic Organizers   Research
Areas:Science, Math,
SS




                                                           84
Group reports
  Share with the entire group the ideas
  that your table group generated for
  integrating effective instructional
  practices into daily instruction.




                                          85
But….
        ―I don’t teach
          4th grade!‖

         ―What does this
         have to do with
         me?‖


                         86
    Your mission…
…should you choose to accept it…is:

 to be part of the team that will assure that
 all children will be able to read and write
 on or above grade level by third grade.



                                           87
You can help by doing the following:
   Teach the TEKS;
   Maintain high
   expectations for all
   your students;
   Align your
   curriculum;
   Assess frequently;
   Let the assessments
   direct instruction;
                                       88
What else?…

  assess mastery of the TEKS at the
 appropriate level;
 Schedule time for students to engage in
 many meaningful writing opportunities;
 Create a safe writing environment free
 from ridicule;
 Provide specific and meaningful feedback.

                                       89
Checklist of Things To Do:
 Meet as a team to :
 1) align grade level curriculum
 2) Evaluate units of instruction
 3) Evaluate best use of resources available
 4) Assess your student’s writing




                                               90
In Conclusion
 Let’s evaluate your expectations.
 Have we addressed all your questions?
 Concerns?




                                         91
Resources
Professional Development Opportunities
          Ecampus catalog - www.esc13.net

 Effective Writing Instruction for all students
 Holistic Scoring
 TAKS Reading
 TPRI Part 2



                                                  92
Professional Readings
  Response Journals Revisited by Les Parsons
  Revising and Editing by Les Parsons
  Writing Workshop by Fletcher and Portalupi
  Nonfiction Craft Lessons by Fletcher & Portalupi
  Scaffolding Young Writers by Linda Dorn




                                               93
Remember that ultimately …
the motivation to learn to write
effectively comes through…
            You!


                                   94

				
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