Rusting Worksheet by eqk13505

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									                                     Chemistry Rotation 1

Each chemistry module has a total of six lessons assigned to them, giving a total of twelve lessons
for the chemistry rotation. This is then followed by two lessons of Sc 1 and one lesson for the two
module test.

Module 1: 9E – Metals and their compounds

Lessons                      Title

1                            The properties of metals
2                            The corrosion of metals
3                            The chemical reactions between metals and acids
4                            The chemical reactions between metal carbonates and acids
5                            The chemical reactions between metal oxides and acids
6                            Chemical reactions and their word equations


Module 2: 9F – Patterns of reactivity

Lessons                      Title

1                            The reactivity of metals with water
2                            The reactivity of metals with acids
3                            Displacement reactions
4                            The reactivity series
5                            The conservation of mass I
6                            The conservation of mass II


Scientific Investigation 1

7                            Sc 1 lesson
8                            Sc 1 lesson
9                            Module 1 & 2 test
                  Year 9E: Module 1 – Reactions of metals and their compounds

Lesson 1 – Metals and their properties

Learning objectives

Pupils should learn:

• that metals are good conductors of heat and electricity
• that most non-metals are poor conductors of heat and electricity
• that metals are usually shiny, malleable, ductile, strong, have high densities, sonorous and have high
melting points – with the exception of mercury which is liquid at room temperature
• that non-metals are usually dull, brittle, poor conductors of heat and electricity (exception carbon or
graphite) and have low melting points (exception of diamond - carbon)
• about the range of metals and their symbols as well as their uses
• to use the properties of an element to classify it as a metal or non-metal

National curriculum reference: Key Stage 3 Sc3 Materials and their properties – 1a, 1c & 1d

Key Stage 2 link/Prior learning

Sc3 Materials and their properties – 1a, 1b & 1c

Pupils will
• know the names of some metals and non-metals and their chemical symbols
• know some of the properties of metals and non-metals
• know some uses of metals

Suggested teaching activities

Starter Activity
   • Bromine in well-sealed test tubes and mercury in a sealed transparent boiling tube.
       Demonstrate a circuit with a low voltage power pack and a bulb. Instruct pupils to put
       elements in a table labelled non-metals and metals.
Core Activity
   • Ask pupils to suggest the reasons why they put the different elements into the non-metal/metal
       column. To help pupils ask questions such as: Are metals good conductors of heat/electricity?
       Are non-metals all gases? Where do we get metals from (iron, gold, lead and silver)? What
       are they used for? Pupils could use data books.
   • Instruct pupils to write the list of properties of metal/non-metals in exercise books or copy
       from the board/worksheet.
   • Demonstrate using a periodic table to show where the metals (LHS) and non-metals (RHS) are
       situated.
   • Instruct pupils to colour on their sheets the position of metals and non-metals on the periodic
       table. They could also highlight the two liquid elements – mercury and bromine. Ensure pupils
       identify graphite/carbon as a non-metallic conductor of electricity.
   • Pupils answer questions from core chemistry/exploring science book 9 or complete
       worksheets.
Plenary
   • Using a Badger key stage 3 science, copymaster for starter 48 as revision. Write on the board
       or get OHP of the list of properties of metals and non-metals
Extension

Ask different groups to explore different questions and to produce a fact sheet about a particular
element or property. Help pupils to use these to make a comparison of non-metals and metals and to
explain what makes them useful.

Resources/References

Samples of elements: magnesium ribbon, iron nails, lumps of sulphur, graphite rods, zinc foil, lead
foil, gas jar of chlorine, gas jar of oxygen, gas jar of nitrogen, gas jar of bromine, mercury. Low
voltage power pack, connecting leads and bulb.
Data books with information about elements

OHP
OHP transparency with copymaster for starter 48 (Badger key stage 3 science starters)
Core chemistry 3.1: Looking at metals P42-43
Core chemistry 3.2: Non-metals P44-45
Core chemistry 3.3: Where do we find non-metals? P46-47
Core chemistry 3.4 Elements of THAR P48-49
Core chemistry C1.2 Metals and non-metals P96-97
Information about elements: CD-ROM’s available: The chemistry set, elements and materials.
Exploring Science book 9: Spot the difference P64-65, P107- chemistry everywhere
Exploring Science worksheets: 9Ea/1, ‘different properties’, 9Ea/2, ‘properties fact sheet’,
9Ea/3, ‘what do we use metals for?’ 9Ea/4, ‘metals with memory’
Spotlight science Year 9: 27a P28: The Periodic table
SEN worksheet: C6b, ‘metal detecting’, ‘spot the difference’, C6c, ‘heavy metal’

Homework

Pupils should learn the chemical symbols of twenty elements i.e. C, S, Zn, Mg, O, N, Cl, Br, Fe, H,
Pb, etc.,
Complete worksheets on metal/non-metals.

Safety/Risk Assessment

Chlorine and bromine should be disposed of in the fume cupboard. Pupils must not handle mercury.
Hazard cards for mercury, bromine and chlorine should be issued.

Additional Notes

Pupils often confuse non-metals with non-metallic materials such as plastic and wood. It is helpful to
restrict this activity to elements. Pupils should contrast the conductivity of different metals and non-
metals. Mention alloys being made up from a mixture metals and non-metals e.g. steel is made from a
mixture of iron and carbon. Metals are have high densities (explain the word density) and are
sonorous. Not all metals are magnetic, metals which are magnetic are iron (strongly), nickel and
cobalt.



Associated Skills: Communication      Application of Number        Information Technology
                Working with Others          Improving own Learning       Problem Solving
                Citizenship
                  Year 9E: Module 1 – Reactions of metals and their compounds

Lesson 2 – The corrosion of metals

Learning objectives

Pupils should learn:

• that many metals are affected by oxygen in air and water
• that different metals are affected in different ways
• that some metals are soft and can be cut
• that iron/steel objects need air (oxygen) and water to rust (corrode) and that rust is a hydrated form
of iron oxide
• that most ways of preventing rusting is by putting some kind of barrier between the iron and the
water such as painting, greasing, coating with another metal or plastic.

National curriculum reference: Key Stage 3 Sc3 Materials and their properties – 1e, 1f & 3e

Key Stage 2 link/Prior learning

Sc3 Materials and their properties – 2f

Pupils will
• know that many metals react with oxygen to form oxides
• know that iron object rust in everyday life
• know how to prevent rusting of objects i.e. painting/greasing of parts of bicycle

Suggested teaching activities

Starter Activity
   • Show pupils a range of objects e.g. copper and nickel coins, a tarnished silver cup, and a
       relatively new rusty iron cup/object. Ask pupils to describe what has happened to each and
       explain the possible causes.
   • Elicit ideas about the effects of air/water and different effects on different metals – corrosion
       of these metals (see additional notes). Emphasise the use of the two terms - corrosion (all
       metals including iron) and rusting (only used for in the corrosion of iron).
Core Activity
   • Teacher demonstration/class practical to determine the conditions needed for iron to rust.
To determine the conditions needed for rusting – 3 tubes are set up containing an iron nail in each.
The tubes are set up as follows:

Tube 1: Tap water added (both air add water present) – control experiment
Tube 2: A few pellets of anhydrous calcium chloride to absorb moisture (water vapour in air)
Tube 3: Water freshly boiled for a couple of minutes (to remove air) added with a layer of oil to
prevent re-entry of air
Due to time constraints, instruct technician to set up the experiment a few days before lesson as
to show pupils the results in the same lesson.


   •   Sc 1 opportunity when conducting the experiment, with pupils focusing on their
       prediction, fair testing, results and conclusion
   •   Instruct pupils to write up experiment (which should include a prediction with explanations)
       with an empty table of results, which be filled in next lesson, or if teacher demonstration show
       them the results of a previous rusting experimental set-up.
   •   Show one reactive metal such as lithium – cut and ask pupils to explain why the outside
       surface becomes dull/tarnished and the inside surface is shiny when first exposed. Link with
       rough order reactivity with these metals and gold being unreactive. Point out the unusual
       nature of sodium, potassium and lithium as metals – soft density, low melting point. Ask why
       these metals are stored in paraffin oil (very reactive with moisture and oxygen in the air).
   •   Discuss and then instruct pupils to list the methods are carried out to prevent rusting. Then ask
       them to give examples in everyday situations that they are used to prevent rusting (painting
       cars, oiling lawnmower blades/machinery, chromium plated handlebars, coating with a more
       reactive metal, galvanised roofs – coated with zinc, tin plated food cans, etc.,)
   •   Instruct pupils to answer questions from Exploring Science book 9 or core chemistry textbook.
       Worksheets on rusting could also be done.
   •
Plenary Activity
   • Pupils to carry out activity from Badger key stage 3 science starters’ copymaster for starter 54,
      ‘Which conditions cause iron to rust?’

Extension

Pupils could design an experiment to show that iron reacts with oxygen during rusting – give pupils
apparatus list ask them to design experiment. Help pupils deduce that water level risen 20cm3 the
volume of air used up is 20cm3 therefore the percentage of air used up is 20/100x =20%, which
corresponds to the percentage of oxygen in the air.

Teacher demonstration to show that iron reacts with oxygen during rusting (ask technician to set up
already). Explain to pupils how experiment is set up and that oxygen is being investigated in its
involvement in rusting. To show that oxygen is the gas used up in rusting, set up a small bag of moist
iron filings supported in an inverted measuring cylinder, containing 100cm3 of air, over a trough of
water. Record the water level initially and then again in the following lesson.

Resources/References

For the demonstration order equipment a few days in advance for the before and after of the
Rusting experiment – iron nails, test tubes, tap water, anhydrous calcium chloride, oil, boiled
water, test tube rack and a small measuring cylinder.
Core chemistry 5.8: A problem with metals P90-91
Core chemistry C3.4: A corroding metals P150-151
Exploring Science book 9: P108 Crb, ‘Chemistry at home’
Exploring Science 2 worksheets: C7e/1, ‘rusting 1’, C7e/2, ‘rusting 2’, C7e/3, ‘Protecting iron1’
and C7e/4, ‘protecting iron 2’
Badger key stage 3 science starters’ copymaster for starter 54, ‘Which conditions cause iron to
rust?’
Samples of rusted/corroded objects – coins, cups etc.
Lithium, scalpel, tile, tweezers, paper towels, safety screen, small trough of water
Oxygen experiment - moist iron filings, measuring cylinder, trough and water.
Other worksheets – on rusting and corrosion

Homework

Complete worksheet on corrosion/rusting.
Safety/Risk Assessment

Lithium are corrosive and highly flammable and small pieces the size of rice grains should be used.
Safety glasses and safety screen should be used.

Additional Notes

Not only oxygen in the air reacts with metals when they corrode. E.g. copper goes green because it
reacts with carbon dioxide to form copper carbonate, silver tarnishes because it reacts with sulphur
compounds such as SO2. The exercise only gives a rough indication of the relative reactivity of
different metals.
Its is very difficult to remove all the air from water when boiling so the iron does rust slightly in this
tube.
Both rusting experiments need to be left for a few days.
Rust is a hydrated iron (III) oxide so needing water as well as oxygen to form. This reaction is an
oxidation reaction. The word equation can be given as:
                                 Iron + oxygen                 iron oxide

Extension:
                                      4Fe + 3O2               2Fe2O3



Associated Skills: Communication       Application of Number        Information Technology
                Working with Others           Improving own Learning       Problem Solving
                Citizenship
                   Year 9E: Module 1 – Reactions of metals and their compounds

Lesson 3 – The chemical reactions between metals and acids

Learning objectives

Pupils should learn:

• that some metals react with dilute acids to form salts and release hydrogen gas
• to carry out the test for hydrogen gas
• that metals do not all react in the same way
• to represent the reactions of metals with dilute acids by word equations
• to identify patterns between metals and dilute acids
• to use patterns to make predictions about other reactions
Extension: be able to write symbol equations to represent chemical reactions

National curriculum reference: Key Stage 3 Sc3 Materials and their properties – 3a & 1f

Key Stage 2 link/Prior learning

Sc3 Materials and their properties 2f

Pupils will
• Know a metal with an acid in year 7/8 and tested for hydrogen gas but will not have named the
products of the reactions

Suggested teaching activities

Starter Activity
   • Demonstrate with a metal (Calcium –one grain required) and dilute sulphuric acid reacting and
       test for hydrogen. Before demonstration, pupils are to predict and describe their observation of
       the chemical reaction. Pupils could also discuss the products of the reaction. (Sc1 Planning &
       Observation).
Core Activity
   • Pupils to predict which metals will react with the acid and conduct their own experiments as
       follows. , Exploring Science worksheet 9Fb/2, ‘Reactions of metals with acids 2’may help.

Class practical: Pupils could carry out reactions of hydrochloric acid with magnesium, zinc, iron and
copper. Note and compare the vigour of the reactions.
Pupils to add 5 different metals to 2cm depth of 1M hydrochloric acid. Pupils to observe reactions and
test for hydrogen gas.

Pupils to add 1 strip (2cm length) of magnesium, 1 small piece of zinc foil/ granules, 1 small spatula
measure of iron filings and 1 small piece of copper foil (1cm square) to the remaining tubes.

Pupils are instructed to trap the gas for varying lengths of time before holding a lit splint at the top of
the tube (time varies from a few seconds for calcium for several minutes for iron. Note: copper does
not react at all).

Instruct pupils to record their observations systematically in a table and prompt them by using a series
of questions: What is similar about the reactions? Is a gas is being made? How do you know and what
is it? Are there colour changes? Does the tube get hot or cold?
Teacher could combine all the solutions formed from one of the reactions e.g. magnesium chloride
and leave the solution to evaporate till next lesson to obtain the salt.

   •  Pupils are to write up experiment and write word equations for all the above reactions
      conducted.
  • Discuss with pupils that when an acid reacts with a metal then the salt name depends upon the
      acid used i.e. sulphuric acid gives salts that contain sulphates, nitric acid gives salts that
      contain nitrates and hydrochloric acid gives salts that contain chlorides. Discuss the general
      word equation for the reaction.
Metal + Acid          Metal salt + Hydrogen gas
  • Put onto the board other combinations for pupils to predict the products.
  • Instruct pupils to answer questions from Exploring Science book 9/core chemistry textbook.

Plenary Activity
   • Pupils to carry out activity from Badger key stage 3 science starters’ copymaster for starter 56,
      ‘Let’s test reactivity of metals with acids’

Extension

Extension: Pupils to write symbol equations for the chemical reaction carried out.
Core chemistry textbook work/worksheets.

Resources/References

Test tubes, test tubes rack, boiling tubes, splint, matches & Bunsen burner.
Calcium granules for teacher, pieces of magnesium ribbon (2cm long).
Pieces of zinc and copper (1 cm square), iron filings, 6 bottle of 1M of hydrochloric acid (2 bottles for
each bench), beakers to dispose of residues, large crystallising dish to put one resultant solution into.
Exploring Science book 9: P66-67
Exploring Science worksheets: 9Fb/1, ‘Reactions of metals with acids 1’, 9Fb/2, ‘Reactions of
metals with acids 2’, 9Fb/3, ‘Reactions of metals with acids 3’
Badger key stage 3 science starters’ copymaster for starter 56, ‘Let’s test reactivity of metals
with acids’
Core chemistry 4.6: How do metals react with acids? P68-69
Core chemistry C2.6: More about metals and acids P128-129 (extension)
Spotlight science Year 9: P34b: Making salts P134-135
Other worksheets on the reactions of metals with acids

Homework

Complete worksheet on the reactivity of metals with acids.

Safety/Risk Assessment

Pupils should be shown the hazard sign corrosive and be aware that any spillage should be mopped up
after rinsing with plenty of water. Safety glasses are essential. The reaction with calcium and
magnesium are very fast exothermic- care should be taken.
Iron tends to give off some toxic hydrogen sulphide as well.
Note that any reaction that still has undissolved solid at the end should be disposed into a container at
the end of the experiment and not put into the sink.

Additional Notes
Calcium and magnesium react very quickly- a matter of seconds. Zinc starts slowly then speeds up
and hydrogen should be detected after a couple of minutes. Iron reacts very slowly and may not give a
positive test after several minutes. Teacher could demonstrate by carefully warming the mixture to
speed up the reaction before testing for the gas.
When leaving resultant solution to evaporate, make sure excess metal has been added so that the acid
is not evaporated.
If sulphuric acid is used, very little reaction will be seen with calcium as insoluble calcium sulphate
forms, which precipitates and stops the reaction.
If nitric acid is used, hydrogen is not detected. Instead oxides of nitrogen result.


Associated Skills: Communication      Application of Number        Information Technology
                Working with Others          Improving own Learning       Problem Solving
                Citizenship
                  Year 9E: Module 1 – Reactions of metals and their compounds

Lesson 4 - The chemical reactions between metal carbonates and acids

Learning objectives

Pupils should learn:

• that acids react with metal carbonates producing a salt, carbon dioxide and water
• know that carbon dioxide turns lime water milky
• know how to test for carbon dioxide gas
• to write word equations for this type of reaction
• apply their knowledge to the reaction of acid rain with carbonate rocks such as chalk, limestone and
marble

National curriculum reference: Key Stage 3 Sc3 Materials and their properties – 3e, 3g, 3h & 1f

Key Stage 2 link/Prior learning

Sc3 Materials and their properties – 2f& 2g

Pupils will
• know the test for carbon dioxide gas taught during year 7/8 – respiration experiments.
• know acid rain’s effect on rocks taught in year 8.

Suggested teaching activities

* (The teacher may want to go through results of rusting experiment set up from the previous
lesson)
Demonstrate a reaction of powdered calcium carbonate with hydrochloric acid, showing test for
carbon dioxide gas by pipetting into limewater (turns cloudy white). Relate this reaction with
carbonate rocks such as chalk limestone and marble. Mention that the tube gets hot during this
chemical reaction. Ask pupils what effect acid rain has on the objects such as statues made from
carbonate rock- marble?

Class practical – ask pupils to investigate what happens when a range of carbonates react with other
acids such as sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. Each bench to be supplied with
carbonates such as those of copper, sodium, zinc and magnesium. Each pair of pupils is given the task
of reacting, each carbonate with any of the acids provided. In each case the gas evolved is pippetted
into a tube of fresh limewater.

Instruct pupils to record their observations systematically in a table and prompt them by using a series
of questions: What is similar about the reactions? Is a gas is being made? How do you know and what
is it? Are there colour changes? Does the tube get hot or cold?

Instruct pupils to write up experiment in neat.
Give pupils the names of a variety of metal carbonates and acids, with the names of products and
instruct them to work out word equations:

Metal carbonate + Acid                   Metal salt + water + carbon dioxide
Mention that the acid used in the reaction is important i.e. sulphuric acid gives salt that contain
sulphates, nitric acid gives salts that contain nitrates etc.
Pupils could answer questions from Core Chemistry textbook.

Extension

Give pupils the formulae of a variety of metal carbonates and their corresponding chlorides, sulphates
and nitrates and instruct them to work out products. Help them to construct symbol equations.

Resources/References

Bottles of dilute nitric, hydrochloric and sulphuric acids and limewater are put on each bench
Samples of 4 carbonates, including copper carbonate to be placed on each bench
Test tubes – enough for 5 per group
Teat pipettes for each group
Samples of chalk, limestone and marble

Worksheets on metal carbonates and acids
Core chemistry: 4.5: Using neutralisation reactions: P66/67
Core chemistry 5.6: Things we can do with limestone: P86/87
Cards with names of metal carbonates: acids: salts: carbon dioxide and water on.
Spotlight science Year 9: 34b: Making salts: P134/135

Homework

Worksheet on metal carbonates and acids
OR
Research the effects of acid rain on buildings/statues/metallic objects/caves etc., made from limestone,
marble etc. (carbonates) and its cost – look for news/science reports about specific
landmarks/buildings globally and what was done to eradicate/reduce the problem.
OR
Complete worksheet debating about acid rain effects. - Citizenship

Safety/Risk Assessment

All acids are corrosive and safety glasses must be worn
Carbonates may be irritants – see specific hazcards
Spillage to be rinsed with plenty of water

Additional Notes

In the activities in this unit, it may helpful to emphasise that nitrate and sulphate are groups of atoms,
which stay together in this reaction.



Associated Skills: Communication       Application of Number        Information Technology
                Working with Others           Improving own Learning       Problem Solving
                Citizenship
                  Year 9E: Module 1 – Reactions of Metals and their compounds

Lesson 5 –The chemical reactions between metal oxides and acids

Learning objectives

Pupils should learn:

• that acids react with metal oxides producing a salt and water
• to represent the reaction in terms of a word equation
• to know how to use filtering apparatus and the reasons behind its use
• to make a crystalline sample of a salt

National curriculum reference: Key Stage 3 Sc3 Materials and their properties – 1f, 1h & 3e

Key Stage 2 link/Prior learning

Sc3 Materials and their properties – 2f, 3b, 3c3 & 3d

Pupils will
• know that some metal oxides can form alkaline solutions in water
• know how to filter and evaporate solutions as carried out/observed in year 7/8 and at KS 2

Suggested teaching activities

Introduce the class practical the reaction between a metal oxide and an acid. (Hand out worksheets on
the practical of making copper sulphate crystals). Mention to the pupils that metal oxides are alkali
substance that don’t dissolve in water (called a base).

Demonstrate the practical of gently heating a metal oxide (copper oxide) and a dilute sulphuric acid.
Take this reaction further by instructing pupils to repeat the experiment using 25cm3 of warm dilute
sulphuric acid in a 100cm3 beaker. Then adding copper oxide little by little and stirring gently until
the excess oxide does not dissolve. Then some filter off the black oxide and partially evaporated the
remaining blue solution (if time) and/or leave to evaporate slowly in a crystallising dish until next
lesson.

Help pupils to construct word equation and by using formula to identify the other product. Ask pupils
why this reaction did not make bubbles.

Word equation: Metal oxide + acid             metal salt + water

Give pupils the names of other salts and ask them to suggest which acid and metal oxide would be
needed to make them.
When salts are crystallised then ask pupils to look at different obtained sample to see the different
sizes of crystals obtained relate this to speed of the reaction (large crystals).
Pupils could answer questions from Core Chemistry textbook.

Extension

Some pupils might investigate what happens to the pH of the acid when the metal oxide is added
could provide an opportunity for data logging using ICT. Pupils could practise writing symbol
equations for this reaction.
Resources/References

Samples of copper (II) oxide on each bench, 2 bottles of dilute sulphuric acid on each bench, spatulas,
stirring rods, 100cm3 beakers, filter funnels, filter paper, evaporating dishes, crystallising dishes,
Bunsen burners, tripods, safety mats, gauzes, matches, splint, safety goggles

Worksheets on salts
Core chemistry 4.6: How do metals react with acids? P68/67
Core chemistry 4.7: Salt and salts: P70/71
Core chemistry C2.6: Metals reacting with acids: P128/129
Spotlight science Year 9: 34b: Making salts P134-135.

Homework

Pupils could be asked to write up the experiment.
Complete worksheet on making salts

Safety/Risk Assessment

Do not use nickel oxide, which is toxic and a grade 1 carcinogen.
Pupils should be warned to boil the acid as soon as it begins to bubble the heat should be removed.
Acids are corrosive and safety glasses are essential. Appropriate hazcards for oxide should be
consulted. 0.4Moldm-3 acid is suitable.

Additional Notes

The reaction is very slow if no warming is done first. Ensure pupils add excess oxide so that the acid
is not evaporated. Nitrates should not be made as they decompose on heating.



Associated Skills: Communication      Application of Number        Information Technology
                Working with Others          Improving own Learning       Problem Solving
                Citizenship
                             Year 9F: Module 2 – Patterns of reactivity

Lesson 1 – The reactivity of metals with water

Learning objectives

Pupils should learn:

• that some metals react more readily with water than others
• the order of reactivity series of metals (such as potassium, sodium, lithium, calcium) with water
• the word equations associated with the reactions between metals and water
• that hydrogen gas is released in some cases when metals react with water and that reactions are
exothermic
• How the reactivity series can used to predict chemical reactions

National curriculum reference: Key Stage 3 Sc3 Materials and their properties – 3a, 3b & 3c

Key Stage 2 link/Prior learning

Sc3 Materials and their properties – 2f

Pupils will
• know the names of some metals that do/do not react with water from previous lessons and work
from Year 7 & 8
• may know about the reactivity series from previous lessons in Year 9

Suggested teaching activities

Teacher demonstration: the reactivity of lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium,
zinc and copper with water. Recap from previous lesson as shown below but drop pieces of metal into
the trough full of water.

Show the reactivity of metals such as potassium, sodium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium,
zinc and copper with cold water – cut and ask pupils to explain why the outside surface becomes
dull/tarnished and the inside surface is shiny when first exposed. Link with rough order reactivity with
these metals and gold being unreactive. Point out the unusual nature of sodium, potassium and
lithium as metals – soft density, low melting point. Ask pupils why these metals are stored in paraffin
oil. Could put UI solutions to show metals have reacted with water i.e. turns from green to purple in
some cases with Group I metals - potassium.

Pupils to write out about the metals and their observations (reactivity, floating, colour flame given off,
Hydrogen gas being given off etc.,) when they were dropped into water. Ask pupils to put metals into
order of reactivity.

Set up magnesium strip in cold water under a filter funnel with boiling tube on the top in a large
beaker. Add UI solution to water above the filter funnel and leave for a week (monitor colour change
throughout the week changing from green to purple and the magnesium tarnishing and dissolving).

Ask pupils to predict how fast the reaction would be magnesium strip with the cold water and in
steam. Also ask pupils where hydrogen and carbon (non-metals) would be in this reactivity series as
some metals displace hydrogen from water therefore these metals are more reactive than hydrogen.
Instruct pupils to complete worksheet and answer questions from core chemistry textbook.

Extension

Instruct pupils to write word equations for the reaction of metals with water. They could also write
symbol equations for their reactions.

Resources/References

Potassium, sodium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, zinc, scalpel, tile, tweezers, paper
towels, safety screen, boiling tube, filter funnel, Universal indicator solution & water

Worksheets – on reactivity of metals
Core chemistry 3.6: Metals reacting with water P52/53
Core chemistry: C2.17: More about the reactivity series P142/143

Homework

Instruct pupils to find out about the extraction of metals such as zinc, iron, and lead, with carbon.
Pupils to complete worksheet on reactivity of metals.

Safety/Risk Assessment

Potassium, sodium and lithium are corrosive and highly flammable and small pieces the size of rice
grains should be used. Safety glasses and safety screen should be used.
UI solution is flammable – keep away from flames.

Additional Notes

Only add very small pieces of lithium, sodium and potassium metals – hydrogen gas given off in each
case, most metals that react with water produce metal hydroxides which are alkaline and give a purple
colour with UI solution.

Metal + Water            Metal hydroxide + Hydrogen gas
Na (s) + H2O (l)                NaOH (aq)     + H2 (g)

Reactivity series
Potassium – most reactive
Sodium
Calcium
Aluminium
CARBON – metals above cannot be extracted from their ores by heating with carbon/ metals below can be
extracted using carbon
Zinc
Iron
Lead
HYDROGEN – metals below hydrogen will not displace it from water, steam or dilute acids
Copper
Silver
Gold – least reactive


Associated Skills: Communication         Application of Number        Information Technology
                   Working with Others          Improving own Learning       Problem Solving
                   Citizenship
                             Year 9F: Module 2 – Patterns of reactivity

Lesson 2 – The reactivity of metals with acids

Learning objectives

Pupils should learn:

• that some metals react with dilute acids to form salts and release hydrogen gas
• the hydrogen gas test
• that not all metals behave in the same way and identify patterns where possible
• to represent chemical reactions between metals and acids, metals and water and metals with general
word equations
• about the reactivity series of metals with acids
• to make a comparison with reactivity series of metals with water
• to use patterns to make predictions about other reactions

National curriculum reference: Key Stage 3 Sc3 Materials and their properties – 1F & 3a

Key Stage 2 link/Prior learning

Sc3 Materials and their properties – 2f

Pupils will
• know the about some metals reacting with acids and others not from the previous lesson
• may know of the reactivity series of metals with acids
• know the reactivity series of metals with water

Suggested teaching activities

Brainstorm with pupils about the reactivity series of metals with water, general word equations and
gas produced (hydrogen) put on board.
Ask pupils to predict the reactions of metals with dilute acid (Recapping from previous lesson)
Conduct a teacher demonstration or class practical for the reaction between calcium, magnesium,
aluminium, zinc, iron and copper and dilute acid (hydrochloric acid) and test for hydrogen for each
one. Instruct pupils to write up observations in a table.
Ask pupils to explain why potassium, sodium and lithium with acid not conducted in the laboratory
(too dangerous! – extremely reactive).
Discuss with pupils about reactivity series of metals with acids along side that of water and ask pupils
for similarities and any differences between them. Write the points on the board.
Ask about why aluminium foil does not react when it high on the reactivity series (thin oxide layer).
Instruct pupils to write word equations for the reaction for selection of metals and acids on the board
(include nitric acid and sulphuric acid). Mention that a metal salt is produced along with the hydrogen
gas.
Pupils write out reactive series of metals with acid stating most reactive and the least reactive.
Pupils could answer questions from core chemistry textbook and complete worksheets on reactions.

Extension

Pupils could write symbol equations for all reactions and complete worksheets.

Resources/References
Metals such as magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, copper, splint, matches, Bunsen burner, safety mat,
dilute hydrochloric acid, test tubes, test tube rack, boiling tube

Worksheets – on reactivity series of metals with oxygen, water and acids
Core chemistry 4.6: How do metals react with acids? P68/69
Core chemistry C2.6: More about metals and acids P128/129
Core chemistry 3.5: Metals reacting with oxygen P50/51
Core chemistry C2.5: Elements reacting with oxygen P126/127
Core chemistry 3.6: Metals reacting with water P52/53
Core chemistry 3.8: Which metals react best? P56/57

Spotlight science Year 9: 34b: Making salts P134/135

Homework

Complete worksheet on the reactivity series.
Pupils could research and explain what are displacement reactions and give an example including a
word equation for next lesson.

Safety/Risk Assessment

See previous lesson on metals and acids. The reaction of calcium and magnesium are very fast and
very exothermic – care should be taken and safety goggles worn.

Additional Notes

Potassium, sodium, lithium are very reactive therefore no reactions with acids and oxygen is carried
out. Calcium is reactive with acid and water but very reactive with oxygen therefore should be not
carried out. Aluminium is reactive with water, acid and oxygen but due to its immediate reaction with
oxygen and forming a thin oxide layer it does not appear to react with the above reagents in the
laboratory. This should be pointed out to pupils.


Associated Skills: Communication      Application of Number        Information Technology
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                Citizenship
                               Year 9F: Module 2 – Patterns of reactivity

Lesson 3 – Displacement reactions

Learning objectives

Pupils should learn:

• about the displacement reactions that take place between metals and solutions of salts of other
metals
• how metal react with the oxides of other metals and the products made
• that some energy is given out during displacement reaction i.e. exothermic reaction
• how the reactivity series of metals can be used to make predictions about other reactions
• that displacement reaction can be useful and to give examples of their uses in everyday life
situations

National curriculum reference: Key Stage 3 Sc3 Materials and their properties – 3a, 3b & 3c

Key Stage 2 link/Prior learning

Sc3 Materials and their properties – 2f

Pupils will
• know about the reactivity series of metals from previous lessons
• may have some knowledge about displacement reactions (from the possible homework set)

Suggested teaching activities

(Ask pupils about their research on displacement reactions that was set for homework) - optional
Demonstrate to pupils the class practical on displacement reactions. Pupils provided with a spotting
tile given the following: Magnesium, iron, copper, zinc and solutions of the metal salts e.g. sulphates
of magnesium, zinc, iron (II) and copper. Instruct pupils to test metals and combinations of metals and
metal salts to find out if there is a reaction, recording their results in a table. Instruct pupils to identify
a pattern in their results and derive a reactivity series of metals from the results.

Write up experiment on board and draw table of results with a list of metals in a column heading and
metal sulphate solutions row heading. Instruct pupils to conduct experiment noting their observations
for any changes/reactions and complete table with a cross or a tick. Instruct pupils not to conduct
experiment with the same metal and its metal sulphate solution and put cross initially.

Discuss results and use an analogy or model to explain the displacement of the less reactive metal by a
more reactive one. (Drawings circles to represent the atoms (metals) and molecules (sulphates, nitrates
& chlorides) maybe useful in a word equation)

Ask pupils to predict whether the other reactions will occur as pupils to give word equations for each
reaction.

Show using an analogy e.g. ‘pull of a metal on sulphate and word or symbol) equations that whether
there is a reaction or not depends on the metal in the salt and not the acid from which the salt is
derived.
Teacher could further demonstrate by adding iron filling to copper (II) sulphate solution, noting it
temperature rise, the red precipitate of copper and the change in colour of solution from blue to pale
green
OR
Add a drop of silver nitrate solution to copper wire and use a binocular camera attached to TV screen
to show displacement of silver crystals on top of the wire.

Pupils to answer questions from core chemistry textbook or complete worksheet on displacement
reactions.

Extension

Ask pupils to write symbol equations for all reactions that occurred. Instruct pupil to research about
the Thermit reaction between aluminium and iron oxide and to explain the use of the exothermic
nature of the reaction in welding.

Resources/References

0.4moldm- class set of beakers with the solutions of sulphates of magnesium, zinc, iron (II) and
copper, thermometer, beaker
Iron filings, small pieces of zinc, copper and magnesium, spotting tiles, droppers,

Silver nitrate solution and copper wire, binocular camera, TV, dropper, container

Worksheets – on displacement reactions
Core chemistry 3.7: Which metals push the hardest P54/55
Core chemistry C2.7: Displacement reactions P130/131

Homework

Complete worksheet on displacement reactions and to find out about any uses of displacement
reactions in industry.

Safety/Risk Assessment

0.4moldm-3 or 0.1moldm-3 solutions of salts can be used
Appropriate hazcards should be consulted
Safety glasses should be worn

Additional Notes

For the displacement reaction, using very small quantities in spotting tile works well. In some cases
e.g. with magnesium, the reaction may between the water and the metal instead.
This activity provides an opportunity to use ICT to reorder tables of results.
Although analogies e.g. pull of the metal are not strictly correct, they may be helpful to pupils in
establishing principles about displacement.


Associated Skills: Communication      Application of Number        Information Technology
                Working with Others          Improving own Learning       Problem Solving
                Citizenship
                              Year 9F: Module 2 – Patterns of reactivity

Lesson 4 – The reactivity series

Learning objectives

Pupils should learn:

• how an activity series can help to make sense of the reactions of metals
• how an activity series can be used to make predictions
• that sometimes the data doesn’t enable firm predictions/conclusion to be made
• to relate the occurrence, extraction and use of metals to there position in the activity series
• to identify what information is needed and use different texts as sources
• to structure paragraphs to develop points, using evidence and additional facts

National curriculum reference: Key Stage 3 Sc3 Materials and their properties – 3a, 3b & 3c

Key Stage 2 link/Prior learning

Sc3 Materials and their properties – 2f

Pupils will
• know how metals react with oxygen, water and acids
• know about displacement reactions involving metals and their solutions

Suggested teaching activities

Ask pupils to predict the reaction of metals with oxygen and demonstrate only magnesium strip (hold
using tongs), zinc granules (burning spoon), iron filings (sprinkle), and lead (burning spoon) and
copper strip (hold using tongs)
Discuss with pupils if prediction correct and list the reactivity series of metals with oxygen.
Discuss general trend (see worksheet and previous lesson plan) with pupils and recap general word
equations for metals with oxygen and water.

Pupils could write up the summary table listing the reactivity of metals with oxygen, water and acids
or be given a worksheet with details missing for them to fill in.

Tell pupils the position of an unknown metal and ask them to predict its reaction. Give pupils
information about the reactions of metals not already in the series and ask them to predict where they
might come.

Then discuss with pupils (using white board) any difficulties in coming to a decision.

Discuss with pupils about extraction of metals using the reactivity series (aluminium is reactive
therefore harder to extract than iron and why it wasn’t used as early as iron) and non-metals such as
carbon. Recap displacement reactions.

Instruct pupils to answer questions from the core chemistry textbook or complete worksheets on
reactivity series.

Extension
Ask pupils where non-metals like hydrogen and carbon may be in the reactivity series and explain
their positions. Also instruct pupils to research about the extraction of metals such as aluminium,
copper, iron and sodium etc in textbooks or using ICT internet/CD ROM’s.

Resources/References

Bunsen burner, matches, splint, burning spoon, metals such as zinc, copper, lead, magnesium, iron
filings, tongs

CD ROMs available: The chemistry set, Elements, Materials, The periodic table
Worksheets – Reactivity series/extraction of metals
Information about copper can be found on the Internet e.g. at www.copper.org.
Core chemistry 5.7: Getting metals from rocks P88/89
Core chemistry C3.3: Getting metals out of rocks P1478/149
Core chemistry C3.10: Smelting metals P162/163

Homework

Ask pupils to use secondary sources (ICT Internet or textbooks) together with their own knowledge of
metals to find the answers to a series of questions of varying difficulty e.g.

Why is sodium not used for cutlery?
Why is a light metal like magnesium not used for car bodies?
Why has so much gold jewellery survived from ancient civilisations?
Why was bronze (an alloy of copper and tin) used before iron?
Aluminium is much more abundant than iron, so why wasn’t it used until the beginning of the 21st
century?
Which metals are found naturally?
What are the sources of magnesium? Why is it not found naturally?
How are metals recycled?

Ask pupils to present their findings and help them to organise the points to produce an information
leaflet linking metal’s reactivity to their uses (including when they were first used).

Safety/Risk Assessment

Safety goggles and safety screen need in the reaction of metals and oxygen.
Instruct pupils not to directly stare at the magnesium strip burning in oxygen.
Zinc and lead will glow and then melt in the burning spoon.
Use fume cupboard when burning zinc and lead oxide should be formed.

Additional Notes

Pupils should be encouraged not to look into too much detail at extraction processes but to identify the
key points about the method e.g. using electricity, smelting with carbon etc.


Associated Skills: Communication      Application of Number        Information Technology
                Working with Others          Improving own Learning       Problem Solving
                Citizenship
                             Year 9F: Module 2 – Patterns of reactivity

Lesson 5 – The conservation of mass I

Learning objectives

Pupils should learn:

• that when a substance burns it reacts with oxygen to from oxides
• that when a physical change of state occurs for a substance, mass is conserved i.e. an ice cube
melting (solid to a liquid)
• that when salt is dissolved in water the can be recovered through evaporation and its mass does not
change
• that mass is conserved in the formation of solutions i.e. salt solution – final mass should be equal to
the addition of the mass of the salt and the mass of the water.

National curriculum reference: Key Stage 3 Sc3 Materials and their properties – 2a & 2g

Key Stage 2 link/Prior learning

Sc3 Materials and their properties – 2f

Pupils will
• know the difference between a physical and chemical change covered in year 8
• know that a ice cube with change state from a solid to a liquid when it melts

Suggested teaching activities

Ask pupils about the difference between physical change and chemical change and to give
examples.
Teacher demonstration or class practical – dealing with physical change and mass:
Conservation of mass practical - add 10grams of salt to beaker of water. Stir until all the salt
dissolves. Ask pupils how to get back the salt? (Evaporate the water by heating the salt solution)
Ask pupils to predict what the mass of the salt will be after evaporation and why they think this.
Weigh the salt after evaporation and it should weight 10 grams. When something stays the same we
say that it is conserved. The mass of the salt was conserved through two physical changes – this is
called the conservation of mass.

Dissolve weigh out 100g of water and 5-10 grams of salt (or any other amounts). Then stir until all
the salt has dissolved and weigh the solution. It total weight should be 110 grams (if 10g of salt added
to 100g of water). The conservation of mass occurs in the formation of solutions.

Do substances alter in mass when they change state?
Get an ice cube and weigh it on a balance and leave it to melt on a dish on the balance. The mass of
the ice cube remains the same even when it has melted. Conservation of mass applies to all physical
changes of state.

Ask pupils to give other examples where mass would be conserved in everyday situations (butter
melting, cup of coffee being made etc) – Physical change and mass.

Pupils to write up the results from experiments and explanations (include the law of conservation of
mass in relation to changes of physical state and formation of solutions).
Pupils to answer questions from worksheet and core chemistry textbook.

Extension

Pupils could research about Lavoisier experiment proving that mass doesn’t change when it burns
(Spotlight science P30/31).

Resources/References

Balances, spatulas, beakers, glass rods, salt, ice cube and dish, water, measuring cylinders, freezing
containers

Worksheets – on the conservation of mass
Core chemistry C2.9: Physical change and mass P134

Spotlight science Year 9: 27b: A burning tale P30/31

Homework

Complete worksheet on conservation of mass/physical changes.

Safety/Risk Assessment

Safety goggles to be worn.
Broken glassware must be thrown in the broken glass bin.

Additional Notes

Emphasise the difference between physical and chemical change and relate this to mass.
Chemical change is irreversible and new products are made (compounds)- the different types are
oxidation, reduction, decomposition, exothermic, endothermic, neutralisation and displacement
reactions. Physical change is reversible and that no new products are made (mixtures) – relating to
changes of state.


Associated Skills: Communication      Application of Number        Information Technology
                Working with Others          Improving own Learning       Problem Solving
                Citizenship
                            Year 9F: Module 2 – Patterns of reactivity

Lesson 6 – The conservation of mass II

Learning objectives

Pupils should learn:

• that law of conservation of mass (dealing with chemical change and mass)
• that a when chemical reaction occurs i.e. displacement reaction between magnesium ribbon and
copper sulphate solution that its mass does not change
• that the mass (Grams or Kg) increases in the case of magnesium burning in oxygen to form
magnesium oxide due to oxygen being a gas (mass is conserved as a gas cannot be weighed)
• that when a compound is formed it has a fixed composition

National curriculum reference: Key Stage 3 Sc3 Materials and their properties – 2a & 2g

Key Stage 2 link/Prior learning

Sc3 Materials and their properties – 2f & 2g

Pupils will
• know about displacement reactions
• know that magnesium burning in oxygen produces magnesium oxide from the previous lesson
• know about the conservation of mass during a physical change

Suggested teaching activities

Teacher demonstration or class practical dealing with chemical change and mass:
Demonstrate to pupils the displacement reaction between magnesium ribbon and copper sulphate
solution. Ask pupils what the they expect to observe during the reaction (solution goes from blue to
colourless and the temperature rises)
Pupils to make a prediction on the mass to be made before carrying out experiment.
Practical:
Place a conical flask, cotton wool and thermometer on a balance and record its mass. Then zero the
balance. Put about 100cm3 of blue copper sulphate solution into the conical flask. Take and record the
temperature of the solution. Then dangle a piece of magnesium ribbon (4g) using a cotton thread
inside the conical flask above the solution and record their total mass. Drop the magnesium into the
solution and observe how the solution change from a blue to colourless and the temperature increases
but the mass remains the same. The changes proved that a chemical reaction had occurred and that
the mass was conserved.
Instruct pupils to write up experiment, which should include a table of results and put a word equation
for the displacement reaction.

Discuss with pupils the law of conservation of mass.
Mass cannot be lost or gained during a chemical reaction or a physical change is known as the Law
of conservation of mass.

Mention that the magnesium sulphate has a fixed composition because it is a compound.
Ask pupils to give examples where mass would be conserved in everyday situations (e.g. rusting of
iron nail, candle wax burning, burning magnesium etc.) – chemical change and mass
Pupils are to answer question from core chemistry textbook or complete worksheets.

Extension

Pupils could investigate other chemical reactions where mass is conserved i.e. magnesium burning in
oxygen. Ask pupils why there seems to be an increase in mass – due to oxygen atom attached to
magnesium atom.

Resources/References

Cotton thread, balance, thermometer, cotton wool, magnesium ribbon, copper sulphate solution,
conical flask, measuring cylinder

Worksheets – chemical change and mass
Core chemistry C2.10: chemical change and mass P135

Spotlight science Year 9: 27d: It’s a fix with corresponding worksheets

Homework

Complete write up the experiment including a results table and conclusion or
Complete worksheet on the chemical changes/conservation of mass

Safety/Risk Assessment

Safety glasses must be worn. Wash off with water immediately if copper sulphate solution is spilt on
hands or desk.

Additional Notes

Note: the mass increases in the case of magnesium burning in oxygen to form magnesium oxide due
to oxygen being a gas (mass is conserved as a gas cannot be weighed).



Associated Skills: Communication      Application of Number        Information Technology
                Working with Others          Improving own Learning       Problem Solving
                Citizenship
                             Year 9F: Module 2 – Patterns of reactivity

Lesson 5 – The conservation of mass II

Learning objectives

Pupils should learn:

• that magnesium burns to form magnesium oxide
• that the mass (Grams or Kg) increases as an oxygen atom is added to the magnesium atom to form
magnesium oxide
• that when a compound is formed it has a fixed composition
• that law of conservation of mass (dealing with chemical change and mass)
• be able to conduct the burning of magnesium experiment

National curriculum reference: Key Stage 3 Sc3 Materials and their properties – 2a & 2g
                                          Sc 1 Scientific enquiry - 2f, 2k & 2l

Key Stage 2 link/Prior learning

Sc3 Materials and their properties – 2f & 2g

Pupils will
• know the theories of burning
• know that magnesium burning in oxygen produces magnesium oxide from the previous lesson

Suggested teaching activities

Teacher demonstration or class practical dealing with chemical change and mass:
Demonstrate to pupils to how they will investigate the effects on mass when burning magnesium
ribbon (use spotlight science textbook P34/35)
Pupils are to pool results after experiment conducted. Pupils to make a prediction on the mass to be
made before carrying out experiment.
Practical:
Different lengths of magnesium are to be given to pupils. Pupils are to weigh empty crucibles and lid
and reweigh with magnesium loosely coiled in the crucible. Crucible is then heated gently at first
then more strongly, with lid being lifted on and off regularly to stop fumes escaping but allow oxygen
in.

Pupils need to subtract the difference in weight before and after the experiment. This is to find out the
difference in mass to prove that the mass increase is due to the oxygen being combined to the
magnesium atom to form magnesium oxide (note: mass of oxygen could not be measured initially
because it is a gas).

Discuss with pupils the law of conservation of mass.
Mass cannot be lost or gained during a chemical reaction is known as the Law of conservation of
mass.

Mention that the magnesium oxide has a fixed composition because magnesium oxide contains one of
atom of oxygen for each atom of magnesium.
Ask pupils to give examples where mass would be conserved in everyday situations (e.g. rusting of
iron nail, candle wax burning etc.) – chemical change and mass

Results are often too unreliable to plot on graph therefore better to use results given in spotlight
science 27d: It’s a Fix. To plot graph of mass of magnesium oxide against mass of magnesium to give
a straight line to show mass added is proportional to mass of magnesium used.

Extension

Also carry out 27d: making magnesium chloride from magnesium involves plotting a similar graph.
Q3 P35 spotlight science.

Resources/References

15 crucibles and lids, 15 strips of magnesium of varying lengths, top-balance, tongs, heating
apparatus, pipe clay triangle, calculators

Worksheets – burning of magnesium
Core chemistry C2.10: chemical change and mass P135

Spotlight science Year 9: 27d: It’s a fix with corresponding worksheets

Homework

Write up the experiment including a results table, pooled graph and conclusion.
Complete worksheet on the burning magnesium.

Safety/Risk Assessment

Safety glasses must be worn and care should be taken handling hot crucible and lid, using tongs.
Ensure that pupils don’t look directly at the magnesium ribbon burning – a strong white glow.

Additional Notes

This experiment can be unreliable, especially if too many fumes are allowed to escape – the lid has to
be carefully lifted using the tongs to allow oxygen into the heated crucible with magnesium.


Associated Skills: Communication      Application of Number        Information Technology
                Working with Others          Improving own Learning       Problem Solving
                Citizenship

								
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