sustainable developement, wind energy

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					THERMODYNAMICS                                           Mohamad Farhan Bin Mohamad Sabri     EP085379

Sustainable Development-Wind Energy                       The structural support component, which
                                                           is approximately 15% of the wind turbine
By Mohamad Farhan Bin Mohamad Sabri
                                                           cost, includes the tower and rotor

In recent times, search for alternative and         Energy Conversion Efficiency
renewable sources of energy has intensified all
around the world. Types of alternative and          A      modern wind     turbine has    a   maximum
renewable sources of energy are solar energy,
                                                    capacity of around 2000 kilowatts (kW) or 2
wind energy, ocean wave energy, geothermal
                                                    Megawatts (MW). There are 8760 hours in a
energy and biogas. In view that Malaysia is
mostly surrounded by water, the potential for       year which is 365 days x 24 hours. A 2 MW
an ocean based energy is high.                      wind turbine will generate around 30% of its
                                                    maximum theoretical capacity resulting in 5256
A wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic    Megawatt hours (MWh) generated per turbine
energy from the wind into mechanical energy.
                                                    per year. Taking all of the above into
If the mechanical energy is used to produce
                                                    consideration a wind turbine will generate
electricity, the device may be called a wind
generator or wind charger. If the mechanical        enough green electricity for the average
energy is used to drive machinery, such as for      annual needs of around 1100 homes, using an
grinding grain or pumping water, the device is      average demand of 4700 kWh per house.
called a windmill or wind pump. Developed for       Wind turbines usually operate 75-90% of the
over a millennium, today's wind turbines are        time – but not at full capacity.
manufactured in a range of vertical and
horizontal axis types.
                                                    It    can   be   conclude     that   wind      energy
Research                                            conversion       efficiency   is     up   to     59%
                                                    theoretically, which is lower than water turbine
Modes Of Energy Conversion
                                                    (90%) and combined gas and steam turbine
Wind turbines convert wind energy to
electricity for distribution. Wind is used to
rotate rotor of the generator (mechanical           Wind Energy Is Sustainable
energy), which later will generate electricity.
Conventional horizontal axis turbines can be        Sustainable energy is the provision of energy
divided into three components.                      that meets the needs of the present without
                                                    compromising the ability of future generations
   The     rotor     component,   which     is     to meet their needs. Sustainable energy
    approximately    20% of the wind turbine        sources also includes technologies designed
    cost, includes   the blades for converting      to improve energy efficiency.
    wind energy      to low speed rotational
                                                    Renewable energy, after its generation, needs
                                                    to be stored in a medium for use with
   The generator component, which is
                                                    autonomous devices as well as vehicles. Also,
    approximately 34% of the wind turbine
                                                    to provide household electricity in remote
    cost, includes the electrical generator, the
                                                    areas, energy storage is required for use with
    control electronics, and most likely a
                                                    renewable energy. Energy generation and
    gearbox component for converting the low
                                                    consumption systems used in the latter case
    speed incoming rotation to high speed
                                                    are usually stand-alone power systems.
    rotation suitable for generating electricity.
THERMODYNAMICS                                       Mohamad Farhan Bin Mohamad Sabri    EP085379

Usually however, renewable energy is derived       see them as stark intrusions in the "natural"
from the mains electricity grid. This means that
energy storage is mostly not used, as the
                                                   Wind turbines, particularly older designs,
mains electricity grid is organised to produce     produces noise that can be heard in the
the exact amount of energy being consumed          vicinity of the wind farms. The level of noise
at that particular moment.                         produced by one wind turbine is equivalent to
                                                   a house washing machine. The frequency and
This combination however, which is essential       volume of this noise can be controlled but not
for this type of energy supply (as e.g. wind       eliminated by wind turbine design.
turbines, solar power plants etc.) can only
                                                   The most controversial significant negative
produce when the wind blows and the sun
                                                   environmental impact of early wind turbines is
shines. The best solution is still to phase out    the impact on bird populations, an issue
the latter power plants over time. Nuclear         largely resolved by new turbine designs.
power plants too can be more or less
eliminated from their problem of nuclear waste     In the early 1980s, three major wind farms
                                                   were built in passes in California. At the
through the use of nuclear reprocessing and
                                                   Altamont Pass site, deaths of birds, particularly
newer plants as fast breeder and nuclear           raptors, prompted a number of studies that
fusion plants.                                     subsequently influenced both the design of
                                                   newer wind turbines and the siting of wind
Renewable energy power plants do provide a         farms. It was discovered that raptors perch
steady flow of energy. For example                 atop the wind generators for a better view
hydropower plants, ocean thermal plants,           while hunting, and upon rare occasion get
osmotic power plants all provide power at a        caught in the spinning blades when the wind
                                                   begins to blow. Current wind turbine
regulated pace, and are thus available power       technology offers solid tubular towers to
sources at any given moment (even at night,        prevent birds from perching on them. Turbine
windstill moments etc                              blades also rotate more slowly than those of
                                                   earlier designs, reducing potential for collisions
Since wind energy can be obtain easily and         with birds.
renewable, thus it is classified as sustainable
energy, which is suitable to be used in modern     If wind power plants are sited in regions
energy generation.                                 screened for sensitive local bird populations,
                                                   the environmental footprint of wind-generated
Discussion                                         electricity is quite small when compared to the
                                                   wildlife and ecosystem impacts of fossil fuel
Possible Impact On Environment                     mining and fuel combustion.

Wind plants produce no air pollution. They use     Improvement      To           Reduce         The
no water, and there is no need to tear up the      Environmental Impact
land to extract the wind resource that produces
wind power. Nonetheless, there may be                  1) Contamination Control Solution for
environmental problems associated with some               Improved Wind Turbine Operation
wind plants.
                                                       Upgrading the current filtration system to a
Wind power generates three categories of               dual filter head design with two Donaldson
environmental impacts: visual impacts; noise           HBK05 P165876 spin-ons reduced these
pollution; wildlife impacts. These impacts can         high viscosity pressure losses (shown in
vary immensely from site to site.                      the photo). The P165876 is a 10 um
                                                       absolute glass fiber filter, rated at β1000.
Because wind farms are comprised of large              In this case, at 12 gpm, 66 °C (150 °F),
numbers of turbines each mounted a top tall            and a gear oil viscosity of 90 cSt,
towers in rural areas, they can often be seen          differential pressure across the filters was
for a long distance. Whether this visual impact        only 2 psid, less than half of the single
is good or bad will vary from location to              filter design. More importantly, during low
location. Some find wind turbines to be                temperature extremes of 35 °C (95 °F) and
enduring symbols of self-sufficiency. Others           a gear oil viscosity of 450 cSt, the
THERMODYNAMICS                                      Mohamad Farhan Bin Mohamad Sabri   EP085379

    pressure drop was only 12 psid, well under    situated in the South China Sea has the most
    bypass conditions.
                                                  promising site for wave power potential, with
                                                  the highest energy resource available in the
    The filter capable of retrofitting into the
    existing location that would alleviate the    months of November to February, which
    bypass problem and increase filtration        coincide with northeast monsoon season. The
    effectiveness. Since the new system           annual wave power is below 5.0 kW/m. The
    avoids bypass over a much broader range
                                                  offshore wind energy resource for this region
    of temperature and viscosity, coupled with
    more media area and lower fluid velocities,   also shows the same trend as the wave
    the gearbox will achieve better oil           energy. The highest potential is in the east
    cleanliness and longer life. To date the      peninsular Malaysia with annual vector
    operator has converted 75 wind turbines to    resultant wind speed of 4.1 m/s.
    the Donaldson dual filter head design.
    2) Maximise the usage        of   land   as
       agricultural area.                         Renewable and sustainable resources to
                                                  generate power is very essential in modern
Farmers and graziers often lease land to          world. The traditional and conventional method
companies building wind farms. In the U.S.,       of generating power such as petroleum and
farmers may receive annual lease payments of      coal are becoming less efficient nowdays, as
two thousand to five thousand dollars per         the resources are non-renewable.
turbine, and wind farms may also provide          As the world becoming more modern, the need
additional community payments.                    of electrical power increases to make sure the
The land can still be used for farming and        growth of one nation is fasten days by days.
cattle grazing. Livestock are unaffected by the   So engineers should take extra work by make
presence of wind farms. International             researches and development to make sure
experience shows that livestock will "graze       power generation, becoming eco-friendly and
right up to the base of wind turbines and often   more efficient.
use them as rubbing posts or for shade".

Wind-energy advocates contend that less than
1% of the land would be used for foundations
and access roads, the other 99% could still be
used for farming. Critics point out that the
clearing of trees around tower bases may be
necessary for installation sites on mountain
ridges, such as in the north eastern U.S.
Wind Energy In Malaysia
Malaysia is a country vastly surrounded by        ?resource_id=11
water. Wave power and offshore wind power
has been recognised by the international
community as a renewable clean energy
source. Analysis was conducted for the
potential of wave energy and wind energy
along the coastline of Malaysia from the data
obtained by the Malaysia Meteorological
Service (MMS) from 1985 to 2000.

The wind       waves,    swells and   wind
characteristics were    analysed. Locations

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