Phrases

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					Phrases

Another lovingly created grammar power
point for my favorite sophomores.

The art is Dali’s. . .
Phrase (Definition)

   A phrase is a group of related words
    that is used as a single part of
    speech and does not contain a verb
    and its subject.
There are many types of Phrases

   Preposition
   gerund
   infinitive
   participle
   appositive
                Prepositional Phrases



 Definition: A prepositional phrase is a
  group of words beginning with a
  preposition and usually ending with a
  noun or pronoun.
Ex: Jared and Nat were standing near the
  door.
The teacher gave the grade to MJ.
Even though Zoe was late when she came
  to class, the teacher still adored her.
    Fun Fact:
    Prepositional phrase (the object)
 The noun or pronoun
  that ends the
  prepositional phrase
  is the object of the
  preposition.
Phrase: Beyond the hill
Through the science
  building.
At Pinkberry
Two Types of Prepositional Phrases

   Adjective phrase
   Adverb Phrase
    Adjectival Prepositional Phrases
 Phrases that modify nouns or
  pronouns in the same way as
  single word adjectives.
Ex.
A hopeful sign --------------- a sign
                               of hope
Sprinkles cupcake-------
      a cupcake from Sprinkles
       Adverb phrases
   A prepositional phrase that modifies
    a verb, an adjective, or another
    adverb is an adverb modifier.

Ex. The Beverly freshman hid behind
  her books.
  At lunch, Vera sat by the tree.
       2 Fun Facts about:
       Adverbial Phrases


   Adverb phrases tell when, where,
    why, how and to what extent.
   Unlike adjective phrases, which
    always follow the words they
    modify, adverb phrases can appear
    at different places in the sentence.
    More than one adverb can modify
    the same word.
Examples of the Adverbial Phrase:
   The class grew quiet when the
    teacher was angry.
   David and Michael peered down
    Heath Avenue
   This summer we’re going by
    car.
   Again: Adverb phrases say
    when, where, why, how and
    to what extent.
  Verbal Phrases
Verbals are forms of a verb
  that are not used as
  verbs but as other parts
  of speech.
There are three kinds of
  verbals:
 Participle

 Gerund

 Infinitives
         Participle phrases

   Verb form used as an
    adjective. Since the
    participle is part verb and
    part adjective, it might
    be called a verbal
    adjective.
   The simmering pot of
    gumbo smelled yummy.
   A blistered heel can be
    irritating.
      Present participles
 Consist of the plain form of
  the verb plus –ing.
Ex.
 The smiling yoga teacher
  did a handstand against
  the wall.
 Plotting to make
  grammar fun, the English
  teacher finally changed
  her approach.
    Past participles
 Consist of the plain
  form plus –ed.
Ex:
Discovered by the
  principal, the startled
  sophomore was led
  away from the
  student store.
Pleased to have arrived
  to class on time,
  Sharlene smiled
  demurely.
     The Participial Phrase
A participial phrase consists of
   a participle and its related
   words, such as modifiers
   which act together as an
   adjective.
Ex:
Sliding into class late, I felt
   embarrassed as I put down
   my mat. (sliding into
   class modifies I)
I heard the other yogis
   whispering about me.
   (whispering about me
   modifies yogis)
Gerund Phrase (Lucky you! There’s a
trick to this one)
            Consists of a gerund
             together with its
             complements and modifiers
             which act as a noun. (trick-
             replace phrase with it to
             determine if it is a gerund).
            Grace enjoys running on
             the treadmill. (The gerund
             phrase is the direct object of
             verb enjoys.)
How to identify participial or gerund
phrases?
   Participial have –ing
    or –ed.
   Gerund phrases can
    be replaced with it.
    If it can’t be replaced
    with it , the phrase is
    a participial
     Infinitive Phrases
   An infinitive is a verb form, usually
    preceded by to, that is used as a
    noun, adj. or adverb

   To err is human
   I want to work in my garden.

*See 83, bottom of page for
 exceptions
Infinitive Phrases
   An Infinitive Phrase consists of an
    infinitive together with its
    complements and modifiers.


   To do a handstand in the center
    of the room is very difficult. [the
    infinitive phrase is used as a noun
    and is the subject of the sentence].
    Appositives and Appositive Phrases
 An appositive is a noun or
  pronoun that follows
  another noun or pronoun
  to explain it. (2 tricks-
  appositives can always
  be cut out; or pausing
  the sentence)
 An appositive phrase is
  made up of an appositive
  and its modifiers.
Ex:
 My student, Carli Wright,
  is excellent at grammar.
     Example of an Appositive phrase:
   Her teacher, Ms. Goler,
    visited Maachu Pichu, an
    example of an ancient
    Incan Empire,
   A veteran traveler of
    South America, Ms.
    Goler is desperately trying
    to reach her goal, of
    traveling to South
    Korea.
     Congratulations!

   You have been awarded an
    opportunity to demonstrate your
    phrase erudition.

   HW: Page 89,90, exercise d and e
   Post Test 1 on page 91

   These are due on the block day, at
    the beginning of class.

				
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