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									                         Integrated Smart Systems in Norway:
                       Elements of a Strategic Research Agenda




                                                            Table of contents

INTEGRATED SMART SYSTEMS IN NORWAY: ELEMENTS OF A STRATEGIC
RESEARCH AGENDA ........................................................................................................................ 1

1     SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................................... 3

2     INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................... 4

2.1     INTENTION..................................................................................................................................... 4
2.2     VISION OF SMART SYSTEMS INTEGRATION ................................................................................ 4
2.3     MARKET IMPACT .......................................................................................................................... 4
2.4     TECHNOLOGICAL PRIORITIES ..................................................................................................... 5

3     SMART SYSTEMS FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS ................................................... 6

3.1     BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................................... 6
3.2     VISION ........................................................................................................................................... 6
3.3     RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES ...................................................................................................... 6
3.4     RESEARCH PRIORITIES ................................................................................................................. 7
3.5     RESEARCH STRATEGY 2007 TO 2015 AND BEYOND .................................................................... 8

4     SMART SYSTEMS FOR AERONAUTICS AND AEROSPACE ............................................. 9

4.1     BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................................... 9
4.2     VISION ........................................................................................................................................... 9
4.3     RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES ...................................................................................................... 9
4.4     RESEARCH PRIORITIES ............................................................................................................... 10
4.5     RESEARCH STRATEGY 2007 TO 2015 AND BEYOND .................................................................. 10

5     SMART SYSTEMS FOR TELECOMMUNICATION ............................................................. 12

5.1 TELECOM I .................................................................................................................................. 12
5.1.1 VISION ....................................................................................................................................... 12
5.1.2 RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................... 12
5.1.3 RESEARCH PRIORITIES ............................................................................................................... 12
5.1.4 RESEARCH STRATEGY 2007 TO 2015 AND BEYOND .................................................................. 14
5.2 TELECOM II ................................................................................................................................ 14
5.2.1 VISION ....................................................................................................................................... 14
5.2.2 RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................... 14
5.2.3      RESEARCH PRIORITIES ............................................................................................................... 15
5.2.4      RESEARCH STRATEGY 2007 TO 2015 AND BEYOND .................................................................. 15

6     SMART MEDTECH AND BIOCHEMICAL SYSTEMS......................................................... 16

6.1 IN-VITRO DIAGNOSTICS, ENVIRONMENTAL- AND FOOD ANALYSIS .......................................... 16
6.1.1 CURRENT ACTIVITIES ................................................................................................................ 16
6.1.2 VISION ....................................................................................................................................... 17
6.1.3 RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................... 18
6.1.4 RESEARCH PRIORITIES ............................................................................................................... 18
6.1.5 RESEARCH STRATEGY 2007 TO 2015 AND BEYOND .................................................................. 19
6.2 MEDICAL ULTRASOUND IN NORWAY; TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS:.................................. 19
6.2.1 BACKGROUND --- CURRENT ACTIVITIES ................................................................................... 19
6.2.2 VISION ....................................................................................................................................... 20
6.2.3 RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................... 20
6.2.4 RESEARCH PRIORITIES ............................................................................................................... 20
6.2.5 RESEARCH STRATEGY 2007 TO 2015 AND BEYOND .................................................................. 21

7     SMART SYSTEMS IN LOGISTICS / RFID ............................................................................. 22

7.1     VISION ......................................................................................................................................... 22
7.2     RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES .................................................................................................... 23
7.3     BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT DRIVERS ........................................................................................... 23
7.4     RESEARCH PRIORITIES ............................................................................................................... 24

8     SMART SYSTEMS IN PROCESS INDUSTRY / OFFSHORE ............................................... 26

8.1     BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................................. 26
8.2     VISION ......................................................................................................................................... 26
8.3     RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES .................................................................................................... 27
8.4     RESEARCH PRIORITIES ............................................................................................................... 27
8.5     RESEARCH STRATEGY 2007 TO 2015 AND BEYOND .................................................................. 27

9     CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES......................................................................................................... 28

9.1     INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND .......................................................................................... 28
9.2     VISION ......................................................................................................................................... 29
9.3     RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES .................................................................................................... 29
9.4     RESEARCH PRIORITIES ............................................................................................................... 29

10 INTERACTION WITH EUROPEAN AND NORWEGIAN R&D PROGRAM
ACTIVITIES ....................................................................................................................................... 30

11      ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS........................................................................................................ 32

12      ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ................................................................................... 33




Version dated 15.04.2007                                           Page 2 of 34
1    Summary
Integrated smart systems are able to sense and diagnose a situation, communicate and interact with
other smart systems, and may be able to predict and therefore able to decide or support decision-
making. Such perceptive and cognitive miniaturized systems can be networked, energy-autonomous
and implantable. The capabilities of future products with embedded smart systems are fascinating, and
will enable the vision of “ambient intelligence” and “ambient assisted living” which has been a
strategic objective of the European Commissions Framework Programme for research and
technological development.
In the planning phase of the 7th Framework Programme, The European Commission took the initiative
to establish a set of European Technology Platforms involving stakeholders led by industry and gave
them the task of defining Strategic Research Agendas on important issues where Europe’s future
growth and competitiveness depends on research and technological advances in the medium to long
term.
This document is a deliverable in a SINTEF-project partly financed by the Research Council of
Norway (RCN) aiming at positioning Norwegian players in the domain of Smart Integrated Systems
(microsystems and nanotechnology) towards the European Commission’s 7th Framework Programme.
In particular, the objective is to provide an overview of the position of Norwegian industry and
research institutions within the application areas defined by the Strategic Research Agenda of the
European Technology Platform on Smart Systems Integration (EPoSS) and to formulate shared views
of the medium- to long-term research needs of this sector. It is to be noted that there is a significant
amount of activity, industrial as well as research institute / academic in this field in Norway, and many
of these companies and research groups are well-known internationally within their special niches, but
it is not to be expected that small companies who have to concentrate on short-term goals can
contribute long-range visions and research strategies. In spite of this, we have attempted to derive
common views on strategy and to identify R&D areas that require special attention because of their
“enabling” or “cross-cutting” nature.
The sectoral areas that were identified by EPoSS as most relevant for smart systems applications are:
       Automotive
       Aeronautics
       Information and Telecommunication
       Medical Technologies
       Logistics.
Motivated by the structure of industry in Norway, we have also included a section on “Smart Systems
in Process Industry / Offshore” in this Norwegian-adapted version of the EPoSS Strategic Research
Agenda.
Each of these areas are described from the point of view of Norwegian industrial players, based on
input (where available) from central persons involved. Although we have made a reasonable effort to
solicit contributions from all known local industrial companies with relevant R&D activities in this
field, there may be unintentional omissions; also some of the companies we have contacted chose to
decline the invitation to participate.
In an attempt to derive communalities between technologies required for smart systems developed for
the various application areas, there is additionally a section on “Cross-cutting issues”.
In conclusion we have commented on the interaction between European and Norwegian R&D
program activities in this specific field.
We hope that this document will increase awareness of the challenges and opportunities presented to
Norwegian industry involved in development or use of Integrated Smart Systems, and that it will
benefit all stakeholders by contributing to innovation within this new and exciting field.


Version dated 15.04.2007                      Page 3 of 34
2     Introduction
In the planning phase of the 7th Framework Programme, The European Commission (EC) took the
initiative to establish a set of European Technology Platforms (ETPs) involving stakeholders led by
industry and gave them the task of defining Strategic Research Agendas (SRAs) on important issues
where Europe’s future growth and competitiveness depends on research and technological advances in
the medium to long term. In a limited number of cases implementation of important elements of the
SRAs may require public-private partnerships and will lead to establishment of Joint Technology
Initiatives (JTIs). The JTIs may reinforce cooperation with corresponding activities under the
EUREKA umbrella and the EC is discussing integration of national and Community funding in order
to effectively implement parts of the SRAs and to leverage more industrial investment. The content of
the EPoSS SRA is to a great extent provided by the larger European companies that have a natural
dominant position in a European initiative of this type.

2.1    Intention
This document is a deliverable in a SINTEF-project partly financed by the Research Council of
Norway (RCN) aiming at positioning Norwegian players in the domain of Smart Integrated Systems
(microsystems and nanotechnology) towards the European Commission’s 7th Framework Programme.
In particular, the objective is to provide an overview of the position of Norwegian industry and
research institutions within the application areas defined by the Strategic Research Agenda of the
European Technology Platform on Smart Systems Integration (EPoSS) and to formulate shared views
of the medium- to long-term research needs of this sector. It is to be noted that there is a significant
amount of activity, industrial as well as research institute / academic in this field in Norway, and many
of these companies and research groups are well-known internationally within their special niches, but
it is not to be expected that small companies who have to concentrate on short-term goals can
contribute long-range visions and research strategies. In spite of this, we have attempted to derive
common views on strategy and to identify R&D areas that require special attention because of their
“enabling” or “cross-cutting” nature.

2.2    Vision of Smart Systems Integration
Future product generations will depend on Smart Integrated Systems of increasing complexity which
use the convergence of a whole range of technologies to achieve improved and reliable performance.
To an increasing degree, these systems will be networked, energy-autonomous and highly
miniaturized. They will often be embedded within larger systems, and will interface with each other,
with their environment and with the users. They will be easy to use and featuring elements such as
ubiquitous access to information, security, sensing and actuation by integrating mechanical, optical or
biographical functionality. Smart Systems are capable of mobile and autonomous diagnosis of a
situation, are able to sense, act and to describe and qualify a situation, and then able to decide or
prepare decisions. They have the capability of extended self-diagnosis and the ability to communicate
among themselves and with their surroundings. Through these advanced features, they will
revolutionize the products of the future.

2.3    Market impact
The total market value of Smart Integrated Systems is difficult to assess with accuracy as it is a
technology enabling competitive system products, and in several areas it is perceived as a disruptive
technology in the sense that it will break traditional product/technology paradigms and will create a
new technological competency base. The predicted world market value in 2009 for microsystems
ranges from 52 billion USD to 95 billion USD for the total microsystems supply chain. The leverage
effect of Smart Systems can be illustrated by the price of inkjet cartridges which is of the order of 20-
40 USD while the price of the corresponding printer is 100-300 USD. A better view of the impact of
Smart Integrated Systems can be derived from a top-down approach for an entire application area such
as automotive value chain where the value of smart systems is estimated to amount to 45 billion USD.




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2.4                                                     Technological priorities
In the international marketplace, the call is for rapid product change and shorter time to market. The
multidisciplinarity of Smart Systems poses particular challenges. …
The “value chain” illustration in Figure 1 highlights the application areas that are identified as having
particular interest to Norwegian and European industrial players, and where the impact of Smart
Integrated Systems is considered to be important. Here is also listed the hierarchy of functionality and
components, as well as the crosscutting issues related to tools, processes and materials that are
indicated to be critical for future development.



                                                                              SYSTEM DESIGN, PACKAGING, ASSEMBLY AND INTEGRATION          RFID



                                                                                                                                        IMAGING
FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, TOOLS FOR DESIGN AND MODELLING,




                                                         MICROELECTRONICS /                                                         SURVEILLANCE AND    OFFSHORE AND
                                                               ASIC                                                                   MONITORING       PROCESSINDUSTRY



                                                             BIO-MEMS                                                                DATA STORAGE         LOGISTICS
             PROCESSES AND EQUIPMENT




                                                         MEMS SENSORS   AND                                                           SENSING AND
                                                                                                                                                          TELECOM
                                                            ACTUATORS                                                                  ACTUATING

                                                                                                                                     MICRO ENERGY
                                                         ULTRASOUND MEMS                                                               SOURCES             MEDICAL
                                                                                                                                   ENERGY HARVESTING


                                                             RF MEMS                                                               ENERGY MANAGEMENT     AEROSPACE



                                                           OPTICAL MEMS /                                                              WIRELESS
                                                              MOEMS                                                                  COMMUNICATION       AUTOMOTIVE


                                                            TECHNOLOGIES
                                                                AND                                                                  FUNCTIONALITIES     APPLICATIONS
                                                            COMPONENTS


Figure 1: The ”value chain” (horizontal axis) for the application areas where the impact of Smart
Integrated Systems is considered to be of particular importance.


In the following chapters we attempt to outline the industrial vision and objectives for each specific
application sector as perceived by the Norwegian companies and institutes that have contributed to this
strategy document, followed by a description of the drivers for technological development and a
research strategy aimed at achieving the indicated goals.




Version dated 15.04.2007                                                                                                               Page 5 of 34
3       Smart Systems for Automotive Applications

3.1      Background
The automotive industry represents 3% of Europe’s gross domestic product and vehicle and equipment
manufacturers provide direct employment for more than 2 million Europeans and support an
additional 10 million jobs in both large and small companies (7% of the total European manufacturing
employment). Norwegian suppliers to the automotive market employ about 4,000 people and the
turnover is around 1 billion EURO (about 0.7% of the gross domestic product).
Some facts about the automotive marketplace:
The global production of cars increased from 63.5 million in 2005 to a forecasted 73.4 million in 2009.
(Source: Bosch). The market is characterized by steady growth (CAGR 3.7%) and not subject to the
fluctuations seen in other sectors of the economy.
Automotive is the driving force of the semiconductor market. Average growth rate from 2000 to 2005
of the semiconductor market worldwide was 2.2%/yr, automotive electronics: 9.6%/yr. In the
European semiconductor market, automotive is the only sector with positive growth in this period.
Splitting automotive electronics into functional categories we observe that the dominating group is
Sensor / Actuator closely followed by Microcontroller. These functional areas have a high influence
on the total worldwide semiconductor market.
Another important characteristic of the automotive semiconductor market are the relatively long life
cycles, typically guaranteeing supply of a qualified component for 20 years or more with at least 10
years of growth followed by 5 years of stable demand.

3.2      Vision
The main market drivers for Smart Integrated Systems in the automotive sector are the growing
expectations from customers who demand increased safety, convenience and comfort at lower prices,
while at the same time the manufacturers must comply with legislation in the areas of emission control,
fuel economy, safety and security. This has resulted in a great demand for semiconductor components
such as sensor microsystems to address the following issues:
         Laws on environment protection and fuel consumption. EU objective of reducing CO2
          emission to 120 grams/km by 2012 and NOx by 80% in the same timeframe. Zero emission
          vehicles is the visionary goal.
         Safety issues (examples: passenger restraint systems, airbags, ABS, ESP …). European road
          fatalities have been reduced from 70,000 to 40,000 in the last 15 years. The next big
          step, ”The sensitive vehicle” combines intelligent sensors with active and passive safety
          systems. Objective: reduce road fatalities by 50% before 2010. The ultimate vision is zero
          fatalities.
         Convenience and comfort demands (examples: air conditioning, keyless entry, power seats …)
         Infotainment (CD / DVD system, GPS, …)
Other drivers are: Increased pressure on cost (electronics is significant and growing contributor to the
cost of the vehicle), emerging importance of low-priced vehicles.

3.3      Rationale and objectives
As a consequence of the trends for automotive electronics, there are specific challenges related to the
following issues:
         Increased system complexity due to extended functionality, interaction between subsystems
          and higher number of safety critical functions




Version dated 15.04.2007                      Page 6 of 34
       More robustness required due to harsh environment, increased stress on components and
        tougher quality demands from the car manufacturer
       New technologies are introduced for car-to-car communication and networking,
       Increased number of sensors for the behavior of the engine, drive train and the chassis, for the
        interior environment and for the exterior surroundings.
Smart Integrated Systems is an enabling technology for the Smart Vehicles of the future; the following
areas are of particular importance of reaching the goals:
       Materials and compounds
       Miniaturization and integration
       Interoperability and networking
       Converging technologies.
To this end, EPoSS consider the following functional areas to be of particular importance for
European industrial players:
       Safety
       Driver assistance
       Convenience
       Smart power train
       Cross-over topics.
Topics of relevance to the Norwegian supplier of microsystems to the automotive sector (Infineon
SensoNor in Horten) are all related to the area of safety. In particular, Infineon SensoNor is a major
supplier of tire pressure microsystem sensors with a worldwide market share of more than 65%. This
market is developing rapidly and amounted in 2004 to about 160 M$ and is expected to increase to
more than 1600 M$ in 2009.
A second area where Infineon SensoNor is active is inertial microsystem sensors. The worldwide
market for gyros and accelerometers today is about 860 M$ (split roughly equally between the two
classes of products) and is expected to double by the year 2010.
Other areas in the automotive sector of potential importance to Norwegian industry are related to
integration of sensors in structural components of the chassis such as the wheel suspension or in the
power train where the added functionality will enable improved control and performance. There are
possibilities for novel products in this area for suppliers of traditional mechanical parts who can
identify needs for innovation in this area coupled with opportunities brought about by recent and
imminent development in the area of sensors, wireless communication and transponder technology or
energy harvesting.
Also the need for sensing the exterior environment defines needs for components such as radar, lidar,
NIR, FIR and acoustic sensor systems.

3.4   Research priorities
Important development trends within smart systems for automotive applications can be derived by
consideration of the expected development in the area of tire pressure monitoring. A roadmap for this
development is shown in Figure 2. The three areas that are identified as critical for significant product
improvement in the next 10-15 years are:
       Wireless communication
       Energy harvesting / miniature (thin film) batteries / super capacitors
       New integrated sensor functionality / miniaturization / clustering.


Version dated 15.04.2007                      Page 7 of 34
In addition, there will be opportunities for 1-, 2- and 3-axis accelerometers for measurement of relative
displacement on the inner-lining and measurement of tire contact pulses to determine the tire “foot-
print”.
Overriding concerns will be related to the constant pressure on manufacturing cost driving
development of new manufacturing methods and increasing wafer dimensions as well as new
materials and construction methods.


              Functional trends
                                                               Intelligent tire:
                                                               Integration of
                                                               sensor functions
             TREAD act       Run-flat tires                    in tire
                                                      -
                                               Battery less
                                               wheel module
                                               (passive
                                               transponder)
                           Micro controller
                           integrated in
                           sensor package     RF function
                                              integrated in
                                              sensor chip
                      Pressure and
        Direct        temperature
        TPMS          sensors in
                      wheel module


                     e
               Passiv system:
 Indirect      ABS sensors
 TPMS          detect changes
               in wheel radius

        2000                      2005                  2010              2015



Figure 2: Development trends for tire pressure microsystem sensors. (Source Nexus Product-Technology
Roadmap for Microsystems, September 2003).


For the long-term (beyond 2015) development, the following areas are expected to be important:
           New functional materials
           (Very) low power operation (< 1 W continuous power consumption)
           Integration of sensors into the tire material
           Low-cost manufacturing methods.
The areas outlined above are to a great extent common denominators for development also in other
areas pertaining to smart integrated systems for automotive applications.

3.5    Research strategy 2007 to 2015 and beyond
From the development trends identified above, we can derive a set of areas where concerted research
efforts are indicated:
           3-dimensional construction methods for heterogeneous micro- and nanosystems
           Low-power wireless sensor system
           Energy harvesting and power management (including intermediate energy storage, miniature
            batteries and capacitors) for wireless sensor network applications
           Alternative power sources (e.g. integrated thin film batteries).




Version dated 15.04.2007                             Page 8 of 34
4       Smart Systems for Aeronautics and Aerospace

4.1      Background
Aeronautics and space applications increasingly use microsystems sensors and actuators, but because
of the low volume this market represents, they seldom provide the drive for major technology
development. However, the business opportunities can be attractive particularly for small companies
because of the high revenue per supplied item. The area is also linked to defense applications, where
for instance similar needs for sensors exist.
There are four Norwegian companies with significant activities in this field, three of them originating
from the SINTEF spin-off AME and located in Horten, and the fourth a more recent spin-off from
SINTEF and located in Oslo:
       Memscap AS is a leading manufacturer of sensors for a broad range of aerospace and avionics
        applications such as sensors, transducers and switches for Air Data computers, Cabin pressure,
        Engine control transducers, Flight Instruments, Auxiliary Power Units, Meteorology, Ground
        Test systems, UAVs, Transponders, Navigation systems, Tire pressure monitoring systems,
        Oxygen control systems and Ejection seat sequencers.
       Norspace AS supplies electronic equipment for satellites involving frequency conversion, filters,
        local oscillators and solid state switch matrices. The company is recognized as the world leading
        supplier of Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices to the satellite industry. A new product line
        for Telemetry, Tracking and Command is under establishment. Norspace has so far been
        making hardware up to Ku-band.
       OSI Optoelectronics AS provides the aeronautics, defence and medical high-end market with
        optical detectors and microelectronics. The most important products are customer specified
        photo sensors for CT scanners, dosimeters, missile and munitions guidance, proximity fuses,
        gas detectors and platform control for satellites.
       Presens AS manufacturer of pressure sensors for satellites.
The remainder of this chapter provides a description of the aeronautics application area with focus on
the development opportunities seen by the Norwegian players.

4.2      Vision
Aeronautics will experience a dramatic change in the coming years. Transport of people and goods
will increase tremendously, with the need to transport with less environmental load. The current
design of aircrafts and the heavily overloaded airports and airspace, is limited by the current aerospace
infrastructure and technology. Safety and security are key words in order to reduce accidents and
terrorist attacks. This is all together forcing new solutions to be found. In order to cope with this,
significant amount of research have to be carried out in all aeronautic disciplines.

4.3      Rationale and objectives
The tendency in civilian airborne transport of passengers is divided in two. On one side, huge
passenger aircrafts such as the A380 and B747-800WB will transport significantly more passengers
per flight cycle.
On the other hand, Business Jets (BJ) and Very Light Business Jets (VLBJ) are winning significant
marketshares, and thousands are on order. This is the start of the “Personal Jet” transport, similar to
the automotive industry in the 20 century.
In addition to this, the conventional regional air transport will also grow. General Aviation (GA) will
also increase in volume. Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) will become more and more used in military
and civil air territory for surveillance.




Version dated 15.04.2007                      Page 9 of 34
In 2003 the RVSM (Reduced Vertical Separation Minima) regulative were put into action by IATA.
This regulates the separation lines between the different flight altitude levels to 1000 feet between
FL29 (29,000ft) to FL41 (41,000ft).
In total, the airspace is already now getting crowded and new technology has to be developed to
maintain control in the airspace. This is related to smarter and better systems in Altimetry, Navigation,
Air Traffic Control, Aircraft to Aircraft TCAS (Traffic Collision Avoidance System) and other
applications.
Low emission engines and possibly alternative fuels are strategically important to allow the future
aeronautic activity.

4.4   Research priorities
Smart systems will focus on new technology related to detection and automatic actuation of systems to
increase safety, reduce emissions and shorter flight paths by better altimetry and navigation. Systems
for better control of combustion in jet engines, thermal, pressure and optical sensors and actuators for
high temperature applications will need to be developed.
Lower weight, smaller size, better performance and cost savings are the major drivers in the
aeronautics, in order to build more security and complexity into the systems for the same cost of
ownership.
Better smart systems for improved altimetry will be targeted as more accuracy is needed in the
airspace, and longer calibration intervals are wanted. Smart micro Gyros will be used in many avionic
applications both with respect to air data and attitude/heading reference systems (ADAHRS) and
future generation adaptive Auto pilot systems.
Different safe wireless systems will be introduced, both with respect to aircraft tire pressure detection
systems and on board communication systems.
Smart systems will also be introduced for automatic detection and control of Cabin Pressure control
systems, with multiple safety functions.
Multifunctional sensor probes to detect AOA (Angle of Attack), Air speed, Side slip, Barometric
Altitude will be targeted research areas as well.
The technological ambitions of Norspace are related to the following areas:
       Continue to evolve the thin film technology up to Ka-band
       Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator filters
       Develop, in close co-operation with external partners, critical signal processing electronics
        elements, such as MEMS based devices for resonators, filters and switches
       Expand the technologies for filters and VCOs.
For the photosensor activities of OSI, the highlighted priorities for technological development are:
     Take R&D investments in new via-connection-through-silicon to the market and offer new
      possibilities to the industry.
     Establish generic fine and course sun-sensor for satellite attitude control in collaboration with
      our business partners. This may be used for micro satellites opening a whole new market.

4.5   Research strategy 2007 to 2015 and beyond
For the aeronautics sector, in general:
     New propulsion systems (greening of air transport)
     Safety (reduce frequency of accidents)
     Security (make air traffic more robust against terrorist attacks)


Version dated 15.04.2007                     Page 10 of 34
     Airspace utilization, by improved Navigation and Altimetry
     Air Traffic Control improvements
     Cost reduction activities
     Weight saving, miniaturization
     Network/Bus structures, to reduce complexity of wire harness systems
     Gate to Gate aircraft surveillance
     Merging and spacing of aircrafts to runway and on approach for landing


More specific tasks for the aircrafts:
     MEMS devices for ultra precision altimetry concepts (Absolute Pressure)
     MEMS devices for navigation and Attitude control (micro gyros and low G accelerometers)
     MEMS devices for Air Speed detection (differential pressure)
     MEMS devices (high temperature) for constant tire pressure monitoring
     High temperature (150C) Microsystem pressure transducers for Jet engine pressure controllers
     Improved Temperature sensors/systems for Jet and Turboprop engines.




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5     Smart Systems for Telecommunication
The total global market for microsystems in the telecommunications sector is large and growing, and
is now at a level of more than 2 billion EURO per year. Smart microsystems are pivotal for the
advancement of telecommunications both as an enabling technology for enhanced capabilities and also
possibly offering unique solutions for specific systems. This chapter provides two very different
perspectives on this potential coming from the telecom operator Telenor and from the start-up
company Ignis Display in Horten. Because of this diversity, we have split this section in two parts,
Telecom I and II.
In addition to microsystems for telecommunications, new telecom solutions are required for
widespread deployment of wireless smart sensor networks. This also drives development of ultra-low-
power sensors capable of low-voltage operation together with single-chip RF transceivers that enable
10 – 20 year battery-powered operation in conjunction with operating protocols such as Zigbee,
TinyOS or Dust.
The Norwegian companies TI Chipcon AS and Nordic Semiconductor ASA spun out from R&D
efforts at SINTEF and NTNU, and have gained world-wide recognition as leaders in the field of low-
power wireless solutions.

5.1    Telecom I
5.1.1 Vision
Telecom operators see a great potential in offering communication solutions for network of things,
machines or even animals. Of particular interest is to find ways to utilize the SIM-card, the very heart
in any mobile terminal. In fact, the SIM-card is the only part in a mobile terminal that links the user to
the operator. Hence, the vision of Telenor is to find optimal solutions for communications between
objects where SIM-card plays a crucial role.
5.1.2 Rationale and objectives
Telenor sees that traditional telecom services, such as mobile voice services, are reaching saturation
points in mature markets. In such highly competitive markets, the business for telecom operators will
decrease in value unless new services are introduced over the same technology platform. A promising
extension of traditional voice services is communication between things, or machines, called M2M
(machine-to-machine) communication.
Due to steady falling prices for microprocessors and the significant drop in cost of radio
communications, devices with communications capabilities pop up around us, connecting people,
animals, machines and things, a trend that will be accelerating. Berg Insight estimates that shipments
of cellular and satellite wireless M2M devices in North America reached a record level of 5.3 million
units in 2006. Growing at a compound average annual growth rate of 27.3 percent, the market size is
expected to reach 22.6 million units by 2011. Globally, we already see network of connected objects
emerging (sometimes called Internet of Things), giving rise to new and innovative technologies and
business models.
5.1.3 Research priorities
For Telenor, RFID is an obvious choice for tagging objects in a sensor network. Using mobile phone
as communication medium, a possible combined solution is depicted in the figure below.




Version dated 15.04.2007                      Page 12 of 34
Figure 3: Merging of RFID and GSM services


One challenge in this solution is to put the RFID transponder in the heart of the mobile phone, i.e. on
the SIM-card. Since the SIM-card is usually surrounded by different materials (battery etc), which is
likely to disturb the RFID radio field. One solution is to use an external antenna, a solution that is not
likely to be accepted by the users. The manufacturers are looking into this problem, but Telenor R&I
is inclined to follow a slightly different path but choosing NFC (Near Field Communications).
NFC is a short-range wireless technology optimized for communications between various devices
without any user configurations. The goal of NFC is to make objects communicate in a simple and
secure way just by having them close to each other. The mobile phone can therefore be used as a NFC-
reader and transmit the read data to a central server. When used in a mobile phone, the SIM-card takes
an important role as storage for the NFC-data (like ticket numbers, credit card accounts, ID
information etc). A remaining problem to solve, is to develop and standardize the communication
between the SIM-card and the NFC-chip. A first prototype of a NFC-phone was introduced by Nokia
in 2005.
The figure below shows the use of both RFID and NFC in a trial project between Telenor and Gilde.
In the near future all stock animals are to be provided with RFID-tags that follow the animal from
pasture to slaughterhouse. Telenor, on the other hand, provides positioning and tracing of animals
from rough grazing via transportation to the end station.




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                                                                                Gilde planning
                                                                                    system

                                     Telenor data                                   Gilde/
                                   aggregation and
                                       filtering                                   matiqe


                                 Telenor


                                                     Unit positioning and
                                                     communication hub




NFC enabled

User terminal

                                                                        NFC/RFID
                                                                     identification and
                                                                        registration
                Identification

                  Weight?



Figure 4: Use of RFID and NFC technology in a trial project


Further descriptions and examples of RFID applications are included in Chapter 7.
5.1.4 Research strategy 2007 to 2015 and beyond
A research strategy for RFID is included in Chapter 7.

5.2      Telecom II
Beyond the applications that drive the telecom infrastructure itself there is a large market with strong
drivers, such as Display (Image, video, IPTV, HDTV), mobile solutions, and the telecom
infrastructure such as Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH) and build-out programs of metro and long-haul
systems worldwide.
Variants of a polymer material platform are already being applied to components in several
applications targeting the above markets, but is still in its infancy. The material platform proposes
flexibility, easy-to-form and process, and MEMS-like characteristics in many ways, to a significantly
lower cost.
5.2.1 Vision
Apply polymer material as light modulating device for telecom/display solutions, where MEMS or
liquid crystals are the only alternatives today.
Apply polymer material as actuator device, e.g. one tunable lens per CCD chip on Cameras and
computers, but also as artificial muscles or valves/pumps for biomedical applications.
5.2.2 Rationale and objectives
The mobile phone market is large and still growing. In year 2007 the total sale will be approximately
650 million units world-wide. Today cameras are available on nearly 80 % of all mobile phones
produced. The future will probably bring new solutions and applications into the mobile phone such as
Auto focus, Optical Zoom and image stabilization. Another trend is video conferencing by mobile
phones which will require two cameras and a higher quality display. Ignis asa is through Ignis Display
involved in development of lens parts as mentioned above and cooperate closely with SINTEF and
other research organizations.
In Display systems, Ignis Display is involved in development of components for new laser-based
display- and projection- systems. Today white light is the main source for building an image on a
screen. White light is energy consuming and has practical limitations in image quality. In future
systems lasers will probably be the main light source. This requires new components.


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5.2.3 Research priorities
Ignis Display prioritizes the following research topics:
     Cost-effective and mass-manufacturable device for tunable lens for mobile phone cameras
     Light modulators to be used in laser-driven display projection systems
     Actuators for biomedical applications.
5.2.4 Research strategy 2007 to 2015 and beyond
Ignis Display is a small research and development company within the company Ignis and has its main
attention on development of polymer-based optical components. The key competence of Ignis Display
is polymer materials, polymer processing, material technology and electronics. The main focus for the
years 2007-2010 will be the imaging market with special attention on micro-camera systems.
The knowledge developed trough the years since 2001 will also provide an opportunity to enter other
microsystems markets in the years to come. Polymers as construction element in microsystems is
increasing and the potential is large. Practical experience in optical applications is also applicable to
MEMS components.
In the period 2009-2015 Ignis will launch specific activities towards actuators for biomedical
applications. Both the actuating principle and micromachining of polymers will be key areas in this
research.




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6     Smart MedTech and Biochemical Systems
Until about ten years ago, microsystems in the biomedical field were generally associated with blood
pressure sensors. In the past 5 years, the international situation has changed, and now a host of bio-
microsystems are being used in biomedical equipment or are ready to enter the market. This market
can be divided into in-vivo and in-vitro (inside and outside the human body) segments.
This section concentrates on two main areas within the healthcare sector where major benefits are
expected and where there are significant industrial activities in Norway: in-vitro diagnostics in the
medical / biochemical realm and medical ultrasound imaging and physical sensing using pressure,
temperature, optical and inertial sensors (in-vivo) to obtain deeper and quicker insight into the
patient’s status.
The overall objective is to benefit the patient by performing better health checking and monitoring as
well as improved therapy control and monitoring. Tangible benefits will result from shifts to
polyclinic treatment and homecare, reduced time spent in the hospital and quicker return to a normal
health condition.
In addition to the areas covered in this section, it should be mentioned that there are areas with
ongoing activities in Norway aiming at development of implanted pressure sensors and actuators (such
as insulin pumps), implanted accelerometers for monitoring heart activity after operation as well as
diagnostic and therapeutic pills for the gastro-intestinal system.

6.1    In-vitro diagnostics, environmental- and food analysis
6.1.1 Current activities
In-vitro diagnostics based on bio-sensing includes analysis of DNA or RNA, proteins, toxins and
blood parameters. Analysis is often based on molecular markers in body fluids. Chemical in-vitro
diagnostics may be based on gas, glucose or body fluid composition measurements. Complex analyses
can be miniaturized and automated by using micro structured Labs-on-chips. Lab-on-a-chip systems
are also useful for environment (air and water) and food analysis, where e.g. heavy metal ions, toxins,
pesticides, bacteria, fungi and antibiotics can be detected.
The technological development related to diagnostic fluidic chips is also relevant also for other
microfluidics based devices such as chemical micro-reactors, chip coolers, heat exchangers, micro fuel
cells for chemical and energy industry, oil industry, computers, spotters etc.
The current activity in Norway is limited, but there are several European and Norwegian research
projects in progress and the number of industrial requests for microfluidic systems to SINTEF is
sharply increasing. There are a number of smaller Norwegian biotechnology/diagnostics/therapeutic
companies that would greatly profit on miniaturization of their technology.
The biotechnology company NorChip is in the forefront of the development of a lab-on-a-chip based,
automatic diagnostics system in Europe. Their molecular analysis target is a range of HPV viruses
predisposing for cervical cancer. The analysis instrument and chip development is based on a
combination of nano/micro-technology and RNA analysis and the results so far have been achieved in
collaboration with both national and international research institutes and universities since 1998. At
present the EU funded project MicroActive (coordinated by SINTEF) develops a new analysis
instrument including microfluidic chips that are specified by NorChip.
Large Norwegian companies that work with diagnostics are Axis-Shield ASA and GE Healthcare.
Axis-Shield has developed an automatic diagnostics platform that is useful for many different medical
analyses in the doctors’ offices. The platform is based on disposable cartridges, but introduction of
microchips would enable more advanced analyses. GE Healthcare has expressed interest for both
chemical analysis on-chip and micro-reactors for contrast fluids.
Smaller biotechnology companies that are interested in miniaturization using micro- and
nanotechnology are e.g. LingVitae Inc. (developing DNA and molecular analysis) and GENO
(developing methods for cattle breeding). Collaboration between Veterinærinstituttet and SINTEF is
planned for food analysis, starting with for allergen analysis.

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LifeCare A/S is working on a microtechnology based glucose sensor to be injected under the skin for
continuous monitoring of the glucose level. Alertis Medical AS has developed an implantable CO2 gas
sensor for monitoring of patients in the critical post-operation phase.
Several Norwegian companies are exploring the possibilities to manufacture parts of miniaturized
diagnostics systems as a part of their product line: Mikroplast currently manufactures small plastic
parts and are interested in the polymer microchip marked, FMC BioPolymer and NovaMatrix
manufacture biopolymers that can be used in micro-chambers and channels for reagent storage,
Microbeads AS manufacture mono-disperse polystyrene and polyacrylics particles that can be
functionalized and used as the functional matrix in microchambers. Dynal-Invitrogen is
functionalizing surfaces with e.g. antigens for specific protein binding. Functionalized magnetic beads
are also very relevant for on-chip sample preparation (concentration of molecular markers).
SINTEF has several ongoing activities on microfluidics analysis systems. One project is developing
surface chemistry and functionalized surfaces for e.g. DNA and protein binding. SINTEF is also
coordinating an EU integrated project, microBUILDER, on mixed technologies for microfluidics.
SensoNor and HIVE are also Norwegian partners in this project. microBUILDER develops
standardized manufacturing for microfluidic chips and systems based on mixed technologies. Micro-
reactors, labs-on-chips for chemical and medical analyses, ink jet spotters and flow sensors are
manufactured within the project.
Large international actors with products partly based on mixed technologies and microfluidics are e.g.
Affymetrix, Caliper and Cepheid. Research and development activities on microfluidic elements are
taking place in all large pharmaceutical companies.
All lab-on-a-chip applications are based on microfluidics. In the “NEXUS market analysis for MEMS
and Microsystems III, 2005-2009” the world microfluidics chip marked (not including the system,
only the microchip) is estimated to 400M $ in 2004, increasing to 1000M $ in 2009.
The established market in 2009 is forecast to be high-throughput screening in pharmaceutical drug
discovery and point-of-care diagnostics. There is also a large research market for enabling
technologies in genomics and proteomics.
6.1.2 Vision
Health care costs are increasing due to development of more advanced diagnostic methods and
treatments. People are expecting a higher quality of life while the population is ageing and therefore
experiences more health problems. Smart integrated systems will provide cost effective solutions for
both diagnostics and treatment beyond what is possible today. Microfluidic-based solutions for
diagnostics are advantageous because they provide low-cost solutions due to minimized reagent- and
material consumption combined with volume manufacturing. In an automatic analysis system, it will
normally be the disposable part, where the patient samples are analyzed, that is miniaturized.
The vision is to make advanced diagnostic tests automatic, reliable and very simple to use. The
analyses can be moved out of the hospitals and central laboratories to bed-side analyses (Point-Of-
Care) and to the doctors’ office. This will save the transportation of the patient samples and therefore
time to result. In addition Lab-on-a-chip based analyses are also often faster than conventional
diagnostics due to enhanced temperature control and mixing. Due to the automatic analyses, skilled
laboratory personnel are not needed. For screening programs where a large number of analyses are
needed, automation is an important issue. Due to low cost, more tests can be performed and earlier
diagnostics of e.g. cancer or diabetes can be performed.
The next step is to move the diagnostic tests into the homes of the patients. Many patients are
hospitalized for observation only, and monitoring these patients at home it will save costs and also be
more comfortable for the patients. Blood/urine tests can simply be performed at home, and the results
can be automatically sent wirelessly to the hospital. This is also true for in-vivo monitoring of e.g.
heartbeat and blood pressure.
In personalized medicine, the patients’ genes are tested before the treatment is chosen. In this field lab-
on-a-chip analyses will be important due to the large number of tests needed. Also, lab-on-a-chip


Version dated 15.04.2007                      Page 17 of 34
based diagnostics will be used to test the effect of the treatment on each patient, e.g. by monitoring
protein levels.
Smart integrated systems are also useful for environment monitoring. By monitoring pollution in air
and water, negative environmental effects on personal health can be avoided. Lab-on-a-chip systems
are most useful for water and food analysis, where e.g. heavy metal ions, toxins, pesticides and
antibiotics remains con be detected. In food, bacteria analysis and myco-toxin monitoring is also
important. Miniaturization and up-speeding of these analyses will contribute to better health world
wide. Also, lab-on-a-chip analyses have been developed for detection of biological terrorism such as
anthrax pollution.
In conclusion, miniaturized diagnostics and environmental monitoring based on micro- and
nanotechnology are expected to be important future products. Lab-on-a-chip based systems can
perform complicated analyses quickly and at low cost, and in the future chips are expected to perform
multiple analyses simultaneously. For environmental applications, networks of communicating sensors
can be implemented in order to monitor large areas.
6.1.3 Rationale and objectives
The rationale for developing microfluidics based analysis and diagnostics systems is to lower the
analysis cost. This will in turn expand the application areas where analyses can be put into practice.
The objective to make analyses quick, user-proof and automatic is supported by the microsystems
approach. In contrast to the existing (paper) strip tests, advanced and complex analyses requiring
temperature control, reagent storage and mixing, electric fields and integrated optics can be obtained
using microchips.
6.1.4 Research priorities
Multidisciplinarity: Medical diagnostics and environmental monitoring typically require
multidisciplinary development. The research field is often denoted bioMEMS or bio-nano-technology.
In order to develop functioning, miniaturized analysis chips, microfabrication must be combined with
functional surfaces and films, biology and chemistry. Thus one of the large challenges in the field is to
coordinate development within physics, microfabrication, electronics, wireless communication, optics,
surface chemistry, biochemistry and biology in order to achieve one working element.
Microfluidics, nanofluidics: The analysis of liquid samples in chips will always involve microfluidics,
which is an active research area. Fluids behave differently in microchannels due to small reaction
volumes and significant surface effects. New features, such as electrically driven flows, can be
obtained at the microscale and mixing is mainly based on diffusion. The micro-flows can be either
continuous or droplet based.
Microfabrication: Materials used for microfluidic chip manufacturing is mainly polymer, silicon,
quartz and glass. For all these materials new manufacturing methods must be developed.
Nanostructuring of surfaces are crucial to obtain larger reaction surfaces. Also, manufacturing of
porous materials, e.g. porous silicon, is important for enhancing the surface area. Thin films and
nanostructuring of the different relevant metals are important for e.g. electric cell positioning and
detection methods. New manufacturing methods are also needed for the fabrication steps that need to
be performed after the biochemistry/chemistry fabrication steps. The bioactivity of surfaces and
reagents need to be retained.
Mixed technology: Combinations of new and standard materials are of great importance, e.g.
combining polymer and silicon for optimization of low cost and functionality. Introduction of
functional films such as piezoelectric layers for actuation and detection or nano-patterned electrodes is
very relevant.
Biofunctional surfaces: Non-fouling surfaces are crucial in bio-analysis systems for analysis of e.g.
proteins and nucleic acids. The stability of these films under different conditions and for every chip
material must be explored. Self-assembled and micro-patterned layers of e.g. thiols must be developed.
Ordered surfaces give predictable behavior of molecules and cells in microsystems. Specific binding
of e.g. antigen-antibodies are used as a part of the detection system.



Version dated 15.04.2007                     Page 18 of 34
Platforms: A true commercial success story in the field of lab-on-a-chip requires novel approaches to
improve cost structure (e.g. via mainstreaming and platforms) standards and robustness of operation.
Thus, to develop flexible standard manufacturing methods, biocompatible packaging and standardized
fluidic and electric connections is an important field of development.
Sensors: The few commercial lab-on-a-chip based analysis systems that are on the market today are
based on optical detection, either color- or fluorescence detection. Development of low-cost and high
sensitivity readers is one active field of development. New research is performed in order to integrate
optical elements such as waveguides, lenses and filters and even optical detectors and light sources in
the chips themselves. Also, non-labeled detection, based on e.g. change of resistivity, impedance,
mechanical detection, cantilever arrays, detection based on piezoresistors or piezoelectricity, surface
acoustic waves and electrochemistry are emerging fields of research worldwide.
Actuators: Miniaturized pumps and energy harvesters are very relevant for implantable and wearable
diagnostics systems. One aim is to integrate continuous analysis with drug delivery. These elements
will require piezoelectric films, bi-stable structures etc.
6.1.5 Research strategy 2007 to 2015 and beyond
The aim is to develop new principles for microfluidics, surfaces, biochemical markers and new
detection methods that will make labs-on-chips available for consumers. It is expected that the cost of
miniaturized analyses will be so low that food-tests and tests for some diseases can be performed at
home.
Theranostics is the new branch of diagnostics for personalized medicine. Roche has a large research
program for efficient and low cost gene analyses used for decision taking on therapeutic methods for
every patient.

6.2   Medical ultrasound in Norway; technology requirements:
6.2.1 Background --- Current activities
Medical ultrasound imaging has become a Norwegian specialty engaging several industrial companies
and researchers at universities and research institutes in developing the applications as well as the
technology. The largest industrial companies are
       Amersham Health - now part of GE Healthcare; Supplier of imaging contrast agents including
        ultrasound
       Fast; Recognition and capture of diagnostic information in ultrasound images
       GE Vingmed Ultrasound; Supplier of cardiac imaging instruments
       Medistim, Supplier of ultrasound instruments for quality control of cardiac and vascular
        surgery procedures.
Some of these companies have earned international recognition for innovation. Fast, GE-Vingmed,
and Mison have all received the ICT prize from EU with the latter two honored by The Grand Prize.
In addition there are several start-up initiatives striving to build a future in a competitive growing
market with many challenging unsolved medical needs. Examples among these are Aurotec, Mison,
NeoRad, Odetect.
The success of these enterprises has inspired researchers at universities and research institutions to
study future advances of the technology often in combination with new medical applications of
ultrasound imaging. Research programs supported by The Norwegian Research Council and The
Norwegian Dept of Health include:
       MI- lab, (NFR/SFI) national center for innovative research in medical imaging (2007 – 2015)
       Smida,(NFR/SUP) novel technology for identification and imaging of vulnerable plaques
        (2005 – 2009)
       Ultrasound stethoscope (NFR/BIA)


Version dated 15.04.2007                     Page 19 of 34
       The Intervention Center (Norwegian National Hospital)
       The operating room of the future (St Olav hospital)
       National center for fetal diagnosis (St Olav hospital).
6.2.2 Vision
Aging is a challenge for Europe. It is estimated that by the year 2050, the number of people over 60
will have doubled to 40% of the total population. This new generation of elderly will have markedly
greater expectations and demands than their parents and grandparents. This results in a strong market
pull for improvements in:
       Preventive / predictive healthcare
       More personalized healthcare
       Earlier diagnosis and treatment of cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes and other widespread
        diseases
       Detection and avoidance of epidemic / pandemic
       Advancement of peoples’ well-being and well-feeling.
Smart products for healthcare will have to meet the requirements of this demanding market.
6.2.3 Rationale and objectives
The major future challenges in health care are the steady growth of lifestyle related diseases, and the
growing elderly populations. Without change in disease management and organization of treatment,
the cost of healthcare will continue to escalate at a high rate. The general reaction to this challenge is
to ask for better efficiency of health institutions, to develop better preventive personalized medical
care, better tools for diagnosis and treatment by first line private practitioners, and better tools for
remote and home-based monitoring and care. In this scenario ultrasound may have a growing role in
early diagnosis and in disease management. It is the only portable imaging equipment available in the
foreseeable future. Also, the basic technical platform lends itself to low-cost manufacturing provided
that some technical bottlenecks are resolved.
Minimally invasive and interventional surgical procedures are steadily increasing in numbers.
Ultrasound imaging will have a role in the navigation and in the quality control of the procedures
provided one get close to the anatomy with the ultrasound transducer. This will allow for use of higher
frequencies to obtain image resolution significantly better than current standard.
6.2.4 Research priorities
The diagnostic value of an ultrasound image depends not only upon the technical performance of the
ultrasound instrument, but very much also upon the skills of the operator during acquisition of image
data. A skilled operator goes through a long learning process, and skill maintenance requires frequent
use of the technique. Thus, for ultrasound imaging to become a useful tool for the family doctor, the
image quality must be less dependent on the operator with more intuitive display of the anatomy and
with easier detection of abnormalities. It is an irony that this also puts the most demanding
requirements to the technology. Not only will the private practitioners ask for ultrasound instruments
at affordable prices, but also will they demand image quality only obtained with advanced future
technology.
The surgical applications will ask for invasive ultrasound transducers at high frequencies above
current standard to achieve image resolution well below 100 micron. An ultrasound transducer at the
tip of a catheter or a biopsy needle, which can acquire a 3-dimensional image in real time, will find
many new applications.
The major technical challenges of future ultrasound imaging are thus:
       High frequency, (30 - 50) MHz, transducer arrays with several thousand elements and octave
        bandwidths to support high resolution imaging, and simultaneous operation at several different
        frequencies for non-linear imaging and - tissue characterization


Version dated 15.04.2007                      Page 20 of 34
       Advanced data acquisition using waveform- and beam shaping and data compression at the
        scan head
       Quality support of image acquisition, image interpretation, and diagnostic decision.
The recent image demonstrations with silicon based capacitive membrane transducers (CMUT) and
piezoelectric membrane transducers (PMUT) offer potential solutions to miniaturization and to the
integration of transducers with electronics.
A complete ultrasound front end which comprises an ultrasound transducer array, electronic signal
generation and reception, beam forming and beam steering circuitry, and circuitry for signal
processing and communication with the display system is illustrated schematically in Figure 5. The
complete front-end will thus be a configuration of several chips stacked on top of each other, with
each stack layer comprising one subsystem. The optimum design of each subsystem may well require
separate silicon processes. There are several technical challenges, which must be solved before it can
be realized. The design and manufacturing of 30-50 MHz transducer arrays will be in nano-scale
dimensions. CMUT and PMUT technology needs further development to reach this requirement. The
transmit layer must be designed in a silicon process which can support several tens of volts, the
accumulated power dissipation per transducer element must be of the order of one milliwatt or less.
An additional challenge with this configuration is the acoustic design, which has to suppress structural
acoustic wave modes within the layered structure. This may well require new materials to separate the
various layers, and new bonding processes. Finally, but not least, comes the packaging requirements
for invasive applications.


             CMUT and Electronics Stack
      CMUT element matrix


                                            Receiver layer
                                       HV Transmitter layer
                           Signal processing and communication layer


Figure 5: Schematic of the “ultrasound front end on a chip”. Typical number of acoustic channels
(transducer elements) ~2000; Power dissipation per channel 1mW; Number of output cables (10-100).
Realization of the CMUT array at frequencies of 30MHz requires nano-scale silicon processing.


The realization of the “ultrasound front-end on a chip” will be a major achievement in ultrasound
imaging. It will give improved image quality of ultrasound instruments in general. It will open new
applications of ultrasound imaging. And it will have a significant impact upon the manufacturing
process of ultrasound transducers, and thus the manufacturing cost of ultrasound systems in general.
6.2.5 Research strategy 2007 to 2015 and beyond
A key element to success is establishing a holistic approach yet still focusing on niches where
Norwegian industry can have advantage.
The holistic approach involves establishing teams covering medical doctors, system manufacturers, as
well as experts on acoustics, electronics- and microsystems design.
Within the field of ultrasonic probes, focus must be put on:
     Continuous development of design and modeling capabilities for mixed signal circuits
     Design and production of the transducer arrays
     Develop processes and equipment for integration and packaging
     Functional and structured materials
     Biocompatibility.

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7       Smart Systems in Logistics / RFID
Logistics and communication are key elements in our globalised society. Identifying, tracking and
monitoring objects are becoming important in many industrial sectors. This has also given rise to
interesting industrial development in Norway via for instance these companies:
         Tomra (RFID in recycling)
         Titech Visionsort (recycling of textiles, RFID in food industry)
         Idex ASA (biometric identification)
         Sonitor (Real Time Localization Systems in Healthcare)
         Q-Free (Road-user charging).

7.1      Vision
Ambient Intelligence is the vision of the future information technology society. Wireless connectivity
is one of the key enabling technologies.
In the “Ambience Intelligence” and the “Ubiquitous Information” society, information technology (IT)
enables everyone to enjoy daily life without awareness of IT itself. This will be made possible by the
"Invisible Smart Systems" that resides within almost everything in the society, to sense, analyze, and
control ourselves and our environment.
The key technology for local connectivity is radio frequency identification (RFID) which makes
massive, low cost tagging of objects feasible. RFID is rapidly progressing especially in logistics/chain
management and is reaching the consumer markets. RFID chips used in integration with sensor
technology are examples of “Invisible Smart Systems” that in this context can provide information
about the quality or other features of the goods throughout a logistic chain.
Example RFID Applications (with reference to Norwegian research, development and innovation
activities)
         Tracking and surveillance of consumer and retail products, such as food products
         Reading and storing biometric information for access control where the main application areas
          are:
              o   PC / network security
              o   Wireless (cell phones)
              o   Physical access control)
         Real-time location systems for healthcare and medical applications (such as keeping track of
          patient records and medicine). Here different approaches to achieve room-level accuracy have
          emerged in the market (Sonitor ASA):
              o   Hybrid solutions combining RF systems for coarse positioning with other
                  technologies giving more local location information (example: infrared, near field RF
                  etc.)
              o   Ultra wide band RF system that use specially shaped radio pulses and a relatively
                  dense receiver network to obtain approximately 50 cm accuracy under optimal
                  conditions
              o   Ultrasound location technology that uses the favourable properties of sound, such as
                  confinement by walls and ceilings and the slow propagation of ultrasound waves (one
                  million times slower than RF waves) to obtain precise and scalable location
                  information (down to 1 cm).
         Providing instruction for assembly and disassembly of complex products.


Version dated 15.04.2007                        Page 22 of 34
       SIM cards with embedded RFID capabilities developed by Telenor. The goal is to merge the
        GSM and RFID services and offer an alternative for the contact less card infrastructure being
        installed in different parts of the world (with the first beneficiary being contactless ticketing).
       RFID in waste management and recycling. Bergen Interkommunale Renholdsselskap (BIR)
        has an ongoing pilot where they have tagged 200.000 waste bins and equipped their trucks
        with weights, readers and mobile transmitters which will send information to back-end
        systems.
       Smart systems for electronic tolling used in the Intelligent Transport System sector by
        providing communications, transaction technology and products to safeguard transport
        operators’ cash flow for Road User Charging segment (Q-Free ).
       RFID used in the food industry value-chain, enhanced food safety and quality control. LMD
        (landbruks og Matdepartementet) has launched a major national project for food safety and
        quality control. ”På sporet. Viktige prinsipper for utveksling av informasjon i matkjeden”.
       Intelligent biometric identification systems based on SmartFinger® technology (IDEX ASA).
       RFID for recycling instructions for larger, composite objects or modules that require more
        detailed information (Tomra Systems ASA).
       RFID used for Recycling of textiles. Considering the diversity of fibrous waste and structures,
        many technologies must work in concert in an integrated industry in order to increase the rate
        of recycling. One of these technologies could be insertion of RFID tags in textiles which will
        ease the end of life sorting in different fractions. The logistics from production to the point of
        sales can also utilize all information coded (Titech Visionsort).

7.2   Rationale and objectives
According to research by IDTechEX, the market for RFID tags and systems will touch $ 24.50 billion
by 2015. The growth will occur as a result of consumer demand and new regulations. The major
applications that utilize RFID include access cards across industries, libraries, healthcare, etc. By 2008,
item level tagging will consume around 6.8 billion tags. EPC readers will account for a sale of $ 1.14
billion dollars in 2008 whereas other readers such as Near Field Communication readers will account
for sales worth $ 0.75 billion.
Approximately 10 trillion barcodes are printed every year. Even by the most optimistic estimate, RFID
tags cannot touch these numbers before 2020. For “low complexity” RFID tags to touch these numbers
they will have to sell at less than one cent per tag and should be printed (“chip-less” tags using
polymer transistor circuits and Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) techniques). The main markets for one-
cent chip-less tags include Consumer Packaged Goods (CPG) with a market for trillions of tags, postal
departments with a potential for around 650 billion tags and books with a requirement of around 50
billion tags annually.
Smart tags will require memory, sensing capabilities, privacy and security features. For most new
technologies or products, security is generally an afterthought. Sustainable RFID tags that can be
recycled and/or avoid polluting recycled material fractions should be preferred. The price and
functionality of the RFID tags will decide the extent of their application.
RFID are going to be pervasive. Applications will range from logistics to defense. RFID will be used
throughout the manufacturing and logistic supply chain to provide traceability.

7.3   Business development drivers
There are a number of factors creating a new demand for RFID technology:
       Strong demand for tracking, locating and monitoring of objects with a focus on increased
        security, safety, cost savings, and customer satisfaction resulting in higher enterprise security.
       Reduction in cost, size and power consumption of RFID tags and systems.


Version dated 15.04.2007                      Page 23 of 34
          The availability of open RFID standards (ISO 18000, EPC Global and IEEE 802.15.4).
          Mobile commerce applications.
          New product developments based on emerging sensor networks and communication
           technologies.
          Growing demand from the physical access control market
          With increased competitive pressures and customer expectations, businesses need better
           actionable information on which to make decisions that can impact successful operations in
           real time.
In the future the RFID technology should be transparent to the end user, which will concentrate mainly
on how to use RFID, identify their target application with a clear objective and a defined medium that
has to be tagged and monitored.
Thee different business models are envisioned for RFID during the last few years that have the
potential to succeed in the future.
          Developing and disseminating ultra low cost tags with very limited features (only EPC code of
           products stored in the tag memory) and to centralize the information on data servers managed
           by service operators. Here the value resides in the data management. In this model major
           actors from distributed computing networks and servers will play a central role.
          Another possibility is to put more functions into the tags bringing local services and added
           value to the tag itself. This is illustrated by developments of sensing RFID devices.
          The third model that has emerged recently considers distributing the information both on
           centralized data servers and on the intelligent sensing RFID tags and develop the network
           infrastructure for communication.
In this context the RFID research priorities include elements that are essential for the future
development of the RFID technologies. In Europe the RFID technology is addressed in the agendas of
the European Technology Platforms ENIAC (Nanoelectronics), EPoSS (Smart Systems Integration),
and ARTEMIS (Embedded Systems).
Looking at the major technological developments, the timeframe for industrial innovation’s maturity
rate is 20-25 years. RFID technology development will span over such a period with the tag prices
going down, the infrastructure that will use the information being implemented, and the appropriate
business processes applied. Around 2010, a variety of attributes such as temperature, velocity and
pressure will become the subject of sensing via RFID sensor networks and possibly the new “Internet
of Things” infrastructure.

7.4       Research priorities
The top research priorities within RFID and smart systems in logistics will be:
          System-in-Package (SiP) technology that allows flexible integration of different elements such
           as antennas, sensors, active and passive components into the packaging, improving
           performance and reducing RFID tag cost based on ultra thin silicon chips, flexible and multi-
           layer substrates and integrated devices.
          Integrated micro sensors and actuators based on micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)
           technology.
          Smart RFID tags and mobile readers enabling wireless access and facilitating intelligent
           networking bringing innovation in smart systems integration by miniaturisation, increased
           functionality and memory, higher speed, low power, shorter time-to-market.
          Energy supply is a great challenge for smart RFID tags with additional sensors and computing
           capabilities as well as for mobile readers. Research topics include integrated foil batteries,



Version dated 15.04.2007                       Page 24 of 34
        energy saving algorithms, energy harvesting and an energy saving power management of all
        tag components, also included printed batteries and miniature fuel cells.
       Antenna design based on dipole, micro strip, slot, fractal, PIFA and coil antenna designs, also
        including materials that can be recycled.
       Radiofrequency technology in the high frequency (HF), ultra high frequency (UHF) and
        microwave (MW) bands.
       Bi-stable flexible displays including electronic paper ensuring paper rewrite ability of
        information and electrophoretic display technology.
       Polymer electronics suitable for disposable, non-polluting and low-cost tags. Research will
        include organic thin film transistors, non-volatile memories based on semiconducting and
        ferroelectric organic/polymer materials, solar cells and light-emitting devices based on organic
        materials. Research will also include novel functionalities such as light emission,
        chemical/biological sensitivity and energy generation devices for RFID tags.
       The RFID life-cycle including disposability, degradability and recyclability of the materials
        used in the RFID. Biodegradable materials for RFID sensors may provide one solution.
       RFID tags as electronic waste raises new concerns in recycling. A typical RFID tag may
        contain as much as 15 different materials (plastics, paper, metals, silicon and adhesives). The
        copper antenna pollutes steel fractions, silicon is not suited in a glass melt and some of the
        components are not suited for incineration (energy recycling).
       RFID tags may contain dismantling instructions for composite products enabling a more
        efficient disassembly of clean material fractions and reuse of parts.
       Security and privacy in RFID tags to avoid unethical and misuse of RFID tag information
        based on cryptography and untamperable electronic locks including read-only-once
        technology to ensure privacy in the ubiquitous information society. Secure communication
        standards between RFID tags and read-out devices will also be important.
       Mobile commerce applications based on RFID tags.
       ICT architectures suitable for RFID information, including development of infrastructure and
        database capable of storing and tracking information available from billions of tags. One
        future scenario is the “internet of things” that holds information about every tagged object
        accessible through RFID tags in a multiplicity of environments.
For smart systems in biometrics, research emphasis in the following areas is indicated:
Smaller, low cost, low power sensors
       Development of new sensor production technology
       A higher level of integration with electronics
       More efficient implementation of algorithms for image reconstruction and authentication
Mobile commerce applications
       Development of extremely low cost sensors
       Including pointing and navigation functionality
Physical access control
       Development of technology for highly robust low cost sensor, coating and packaging
        technology.




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8     Smart Systems in Process Industry / Offshore

8.1       Background
Norway has a broad range of oil-industry. It covers a wide span in both activities and company
structure. A successful research strategy for this field must both find the right technologies for the
right tasks and target the right companies. The companies span from the oil companies through
engineering companies, service providers and system integrators to equipment manufacturers. The
activities span from exploration and down-hole instrumentation to onshore refineries. Below follows a
selection of problems where smart systems can provide a part of the solution.
E-field: The Norwegian continental shelf is predominated by fields with decreasing production
volumes, entering the tail-end production phase. As production volumes decrease, the costs per barrel
will increase as the major part of the production costs are fixed. On existing fields, the main challenge
is to prolong the production phase by increasing the recovery rates and reducing operating costs.
Implementing the e-field concept, or integrated operations, is one important strategy to meet this
challenge. Enabling automatic condition monitoring of facilities is a key issue.
Automatic monitoring involves a high degree of instrumentation and use of sensors enabling control of
the entire asset (reservoir, well, process and support systems topside/subsea) from a distant location. It
includes a significant reduction of manual monitoring and reporting, increasing transparency and
ensuring correct information of the asset as basis for better and faster decisions.
Gas detection: Hydrocarbon leakages are one of the main HSE threats on oil rigs. Each year several
leakages are reported on Norwegian installations, but fortunately no major accidents have occurred.
The explosion on Piper Alpha in UK in 1988 where 167 people were killed was caused by a gas
leakage. It is a constant goal for the operators to reduce the number of gas leakages, but where
hydrocarbons are produced, leakages will always be a risk.
About half the number of reported leakages is detected automatically; the other half is detected by
people in the vicinity. Simtronics ASA is the market leader for gas detection systems offshore.
However, the present detectors are somewhat large and expensive, they require wired power and
communication. By covering larger areas with gas detectors, more leakages would be detected
automatically and leakages could be detected earlier. On remotely operated or low manned
installations better automatic detection mechanisms are essential.

Well-monitoring: Presens and CorrOcean use micromechanical sensors in extremely demanding
subsea applications to monitor process stream conditions. This allows better control of the stream,
resulting in enhanced oil recovery. The sensor elements leverage on the MEMS production technology,
however packaging for harsh environments, calibration and installation is still costly. This prevents
installation of a large amount of sensors.

Seismic exploration: Seismic data and 3D seismic data in particular are fundamental in the
exploration, development and production of hydrocarbons. These data are used to assess prospectivity
and identify potential hydrocarbon resources, to perform detailed mapping of the reservoirs in the field
development phase, and to monitor how the reservoirs are being drained during the production phase.

Whether acquiring only conventional, P-wave seismic data, or land and seabed multi-component data,
PGS allows geophysicists to measure true 3D ground motion and record the full seismic wavefield.
Through the acquisition of highly accurate seismic data, geophysicists obtain enhanced subsurface
images that allow them to better plan their exploration and development drilling programs.

8.2       Vision
To use of smart system sin the process an offshore industry in order to:
          Increase safety



Version dated 15.04.2007                     Page 26 of 34
          Enhance oil recovery
          Increase process control
          Reduce waste and emissions
          Reduce maintenance costs

8.3       Rationale and objectives
In the recent years there has been an enormous development of micromechanical sensors as well as
circuits for wireless communication. The development has to a large degree been driven by the
consumer market, and provided extremely cost-effective solutions for measurement, communication
and data processing. The process and offshore industry can leverage on this development to implement
low cost wireless sensor and actuator functions in process equipment on- and offshore as well as in oil
exploration.

8.4       Research priorities
The oil and process industry have a number of characteristics which are often not present in the
consumer industry. These topics must be addressed for a successful integration to take place. Some of
the most important topics are:
          Harsh environment. Process equipment is often subjected to high temperatures and
           aggressive media. This calls for development of special coatings as well as high temperature
           materials and electronics.
          Safety. A number of sensors are critical for the safety of people, environment and investments.
           Large development and qualification efforts are needed to introduce new technology in such
           components. It is, however, possible to introduce new systems in parallel with the existing
           ones thereby increasing the overall safety. As the new technology proves itself, the existing
           technology can be phased out. Sensors can be introduced in open-loop redundant systems first,
           and gradually move to closed-loop applications.
          Security. Security is becoming an important issue in process and offshore installations. This
           calls for encryption schemes tamper proof designs for critical applications.
          Information management. The increased number of sensors and actuators in an installation
           calls for increased data rates and intelligent information management.
          Power efficiency and wireless. Installation costs are large in process environments,
           especially offshore. Hence wireless operation is very important. This, in turn, calls fro power
           efficient designs and/or energy harvesting.

8.5       Research strategy 2007 to 2015 and beyond
On the short timeframe (5-7 yrs) the most cost effective approach is to use existing technologies and
components and to adapt them to processing environments.




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9     Cross-cutting Issues

9.1    Introduction and Background




Figure 6 shows a schematic of a smart integrated system in one package. One example of such a
system could be a small implantable capsule which measures the level of blood sugar in the body and
dispenses insulin when needed. Another example is an oil platform where a gas sensor continuously
measures the level of hydrocarbons in the air. If the level exceeds the threshold a signal is sent to
thousands of relays and valves which shut the platform down. These two examples are quite similar in
structure, but vastly different in scale and partitioning. The structure is linear and simple in the sense
that only one parameter is measured and the decision criterion is a simple threshold. In the future we
expect to see systems that make decisions based on more complex information. One example might be
a sensor that monitors the vibrations on a motor. These vibrations are affected by wear and
misalignment in the motor itself as well as by the attached transmission and machinery. Analyzing the
vibration spectra one can extract information about the status of the system which can be used to
decide whether overhaul or replacement is needed. The decision criterion is, however, not a simple
threshold - absolute values are altered depending on the transmission path of the vibrations, hence one
needs to monitor trends which requires storage of historical data. Furthermore, one needs to know the
loading of the motor and the extent of external vibrations to check whether the vibrations are really
arising from the component itself or transmitted from an external source. This information can be
obtained by contacting neighbouring devices and check if they are subjected to the same disturbances
as well.




              SENSE           DIAGNOSE         COMMUNICATE DECIDE                   ACT



                                             POWER


                               PROTECTION / ENCAPSULATION

Figure 6: Illustration of a completely integrated smart system.



Version dated 15.04.2007                      Page 28 of 34
When making a smart system one needs to decide:
          which physical and chemical principles to utilize
          how to partition the system into different physical units
          how to partition the functions within each unit
          which technologies to use for the various functions
          whether to tailor or use off-the-shelf components
          how to package the components
In most cases one ends up with a mix of different technologies and components working on many
different length scales and utilizing different physical and chemical principles. Hence heterogeneous
integration, multidisciplinary and complexity are key issues in making smart integrated systems.

9.2       Vision
Inventors and system integrators in all fields have wishes for functionality that they want to embed.
The vision of the smart system community in Norway is to provide a technology- and knowledge base
which enables short time to market for innovative products.

9.3       Rationale and objectives
As illustrated in the previous chapters, the activity within the field of smart systems in Norway is
considerable. Particularly within Silicon based MEMS and thick film based piezoceramics for
ultrasound, the activity is strong and dates back to the sixties. Norway has also had a strong
participation in EU projects within this field, thus gained access to technologies and competence not
present within the country.
This basis should be deliberately and continuously extended to provide both new and existing
industries access to cutting edge solutions.

9.4       Research priorities
CMOS is the predominant technology within integrated circuits for data processing, communication
and imaging. The investments required to set up fabrication lines are so enormous that it is highly
unlikely that this will ever become an industry in Norway. It is, however, important to stay in contact
with the field in order to benefit from the advances in the production technology. The ability to design
application specific integrated circuits (ASIC’s) is important to realize small and energy efficient
circuits for signal processing and decision making. Deep knowledge of the CMOS processes also
opens for design of circuits which can be post processed into MEMS devices.
Silicon based MEMS devices account for the largest part of sensors in the smart systems industry.
Even though this is a quite mature field, further research and development is needed. As the feature
size is reduced from the micrometer to the nanometer scale new production technologies are needed
and new understanding must be acquired. Integration with new materials also poses new challenges
within research and development.
Even though Norway has a considerable polymer industry, the activity within polymer
micromachining has been relatively low. An increased activity within micromolding and nano-
imprinting would be beneficial for the production of low cost – large area devices, (e.g. diffractive
optical elements (DOE)) as well as for low cost disposable elements (e.g. lab on a chip).
Both for polymers and silicon based MEMS, it is important to be able to functionalize surfaces and
interfaces to make chemical- and biological sensors and analysis systems.




Version dated 15.04.2007                       Page 29 of 34
The number of fully integrated smart systems as depicted in




Figure 6 is still very low. This is partly due to lack of actuators which are easy to integrate, require
little power and provide the required force and displacement. There is presently a considerable effort
on integration of piezoelectric materials (eg. PZT) in silicon based microsystems, both in Norway and
internationally. For polymer based systems, however, it would be beneficial to use polymer based
piezoelectrics, a lot of work remains in this field.
The huge advances in low power communication circuits the last years have been one of the main
enablers for smart systems. But to truly benefit from wireless communication one needs to get rid of
wires for the power supply as well. In some applications a battery can be used to provide power, but in
many other applications energy harvesting is required. There are many approaches to energy
harvesting, presently the most promising involve development of electret materials, piezoelectric
materials or thermopiles as well as integration with the rest of the system.




Version dated 15.04.2007                     Page 30 of 34
10 Interaction with European and Norwegian R&D program activities
Klaus Uckel, BMBF: “Key to Germany’s successful participation in FP6 is ensuring that the national
research agenda reflects what is happening at the EU level ... We are trying to find coherence between
the national and EU programs.” (Source: CORDIS focus Newsletter – No 275 – February 2007).
Germany is ranked first among all participating countries for FP6, and there were as many German
participants in FP6 coming from industry as there were from academia and public research institutes.
Both Germany and Norway have a high success rate for EU-project participation, but Norwegian
industry participates in only half as many projects as Norwegian academic institutions and research
institutes. This discrepancy may in part be explained by the absence of parallel Norwegian funding
channels for industrially oriented R&D projects.
The present document points out that Norwegian industry has a strong position in various application
areas highlighted by EPoSS, which is recognized by the EC as one of the most important European
Technology Platforms within the ICT area. These companies have carved out important niche
positions in a tough, dynamic and highly competitive world market. Part of their success is founded on
close cooperation with Norwegian academic institutions and research institutes, and many of them are
spin-outs from such environments. The nucleation and growth of several of these was stimulated by
research funding from The Research Council of Norway (RCN). These are research-intensive
companies, many of them are SMEs, and therefore find the threshold for participation in EU projects
is too high. To stimulate further growth and industrial innovation within the sector, we advocate the
establishment of a long-term application-oriented national R&D program to support industrial R&D
and innovation in the important area of Smart Integrated Systems. This program should complement
the ongoing system- and software-focused VERDIKT program by providing a channel for
supplemental funding of R&D for development of component and hardware technology for Smart
Integrated Systems along the lines of the earlier IKT program of RCN which ended in 2005.
The positioning of Norwegian interests vis-à-vis FP7 can be accomplished along several axes. For
industrially directed research within the ICT sector, important arenas are the European Technology
Platforms EPoSS (for Smart Integrated Systems), ARTEMIS (for Embedded Systems) and ENIAC
(for Nanoelectronics). These three initiatives are complementary, but to a certain extent also
overlapping, and will continuously be involved in providing input to the ICT Work Program. Their
interaction is illustrated in Figure 7. All three are driven by the dominant European industrial entities,
but the one which is perceived as most responding to the interests of SMEs is EPoSS, and SINTEF is
represented in one of EPoSS working groups. Furthermore, there is strong Norwegian participation
(Infineon SensoNor and SINTEF) in the EUREKA cluster project EURIPIDES which also is
represented in the governing body of this initiative. With the support of Norwegian authorities,
SINTEF expects to be accepted as a Norwegian representative to ENIAC’s Scientific Community
Council. We think that presence in these bodies will contribute to the possibilities for Norwegian
industry wanting to participate in FP7.




Version dated 15.04.2007                      Page 31 of 34
                                                                      SiP
                                                                  •




                                                                                                                                     Processor System Approach
                                                                      Integrating various materials
                                                                                                               Single Processor to
   Miniaturisation Approach




                                             Silicon-Chip-Level       e.g: Si, SiC, SOI, AIIIBV,
                               SiP                                    Polymers, Paper, Ceramics,               Reconfigurable
                               • I/O-Components                                                                Processor Systems
                               • MPUs                                 BaSrTiO, Glasses, LaNbO3
                               • Memory                                                         SiP-Requirements
                                                                  •   Working with Principles
                              SoC                                     beyond CLP
                              (with CMOS-technologies)                                                         Architectures
                              • Lithography                       •   Implementing                             Reference Designs
                              • Etching                               (Micro-)Mechatronics, fluidics,          Middle Ware
                              • Deposition Merging
                                             SoC-to-SiP               biomaterials, optics, bio-               Methods
                              • Cleaning                              substrates, chemistry
                                                                                                               Tools
                              • CMP
                              • Etc.

                              New Materials                                                     Signal-Processing

                              • 450mm-Wafer
                                                                      Sensor-Actuator Interface
                              • SiGe
                              • AIII/BV on Si-Chip




Figure 7: Interaction between the European Technology Platforms ENIAC, EPoSS and ARTEMIS
(Source: Rosalie Zobel, European Commission).




Version dated 15.04.2007                                                      Page 32 of 34
11 Acknowledgements
The Research Council of Norway has provided support to this report as part of the SINTEF project
“Posisjonering mot European Technology Platforms ENIAC og EPoSS”. RCN project 179177/I00.
This support is gratefully acknowledged.
It is a pleasure to acknowledge the support of the following people who have provided the bulk of the
material contained in this document:
Ole Henrik Gusland and Per Tankred Nilsen, Memscap AS
Øyvind Andreassen, Norspace AS
Peder Staubo, OSI Optoelectronics AS
Even Zimmer and Jon Herman Ulvensøen, Ignis Display AS
Rolf-Bjørn Haugen, Telenor
Kjell Arne Ingebrigtsen, NTNU
Rune Marthinussen and Ole Onsrud, Titech Visionsort AS
Andreas Nordbryhn, Tomra ASA
Vidar Hovland, Petroleum Geo-Services ASA
Sverre Horntvedt, Terje Kvisterøy and Hans Richard Petersen, Infineon Technologies SensoNor AS
Per-Erik Nordal, Nordal Consulting AS
Ralph Bernstein and Knut Sandven, Idex ASA
Wilfred Booij, Sonitor ASA
Oddvar Søråsen, UiO
Dag T. Wang, Mats Carlin, Liv Furuberg and Ovidiu Vermesan, SINTEF




Version dated 15.04.2007                    Page 33 of 34
12 Abbreviations and acronyms

ABS           Anti-lock Braking System
ARTEMIS       European Technology Platform for embedded systems
CAGR          Compound Annual Growth Rate
CCD           Charge-coupled device
CMOS          Semiconductor technology for integrated circuits on silicon
CMUT          Capacitive Membrane Ultrasound Transducer
CT            Computer Tomography
EC            European Commission
ENIAC         European Nanoelectronics Initiative Advisory Council (ETP)
EPC           Electronic Product Code
EPoSS         European Technology Platform on Smart Systems Integration
ESP           Electronic Stability Program (Skid control)
ETP           European Technology Platform
EUREKA        Pan-European network for market-oriented industrial R&D
EURIPIDES     EUREKA cluster for smart integrated microsystems
FIR           Far Infrared
FP            Framework Program (of the European Commission)
HDTV          High Definition Television
IC            Integrated Circuit
IPTV          Internet Protocol Television
JTI           Joint Technology Initiative
M2M           Machine-to-Machine
MEMS          Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems
MST           Microsystems Technology
NFC           Near Field Communication
NIR           Near Infrared
PMUT          Piezoelectric Membrane Ultrasound Transducer
RCN           Research Council of Norway (Norges Forskningsråd)
RFID          Radio Frequency Identification
RTLS          Real-time Location System
SAW           Surface Acoustic Wave
SiP           System in Package
SME           Small and Medium-sized Enterprise
SoC           System on Chip
SRA           Strategic Research Agenda
TPMS          Tyre Pressure Measurement System
UAV           Unmanned Air Vehicles
WSN           Wireless Sensor Network




Version dated 15.04.2007                 Page 34 of 34

								
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