Background of Unemployment in Ghana by llv68833

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									               What Do We Owe
            to Future Generations?
                 G. Dale Meyer, PhD




1/19/2012        Youth unemployment - Many       1
                 contributors - What strategy?
             Introduction
1. Population factors underlying the global
   crisis of youth unemployment
2. The Elephant in the Room
3. Strategic issues for economic development
   in the MENA Region
4. Obstacles for SME development.
5. Agencies, institutions, and for profit
   entities offering “solutions”
6. Need for regional comprehensive strategies

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                contributors - What strategy?
Why listen to Dr. Erstwhile?
 Behavioral economist; philosophy
  background; Santa Fe Institute Fellow
  – present focus on Complexity
 Both educator and successful real
  entrepreneur
 Five years research and catalyst in
  the MENA Region and in South Africa
 Poor fellow needs a “captive”
  audience!
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             contributors - What strategy?
            The Population Pyramid




            A population pyramid, also called age-sex pyramid
                            and age structure



1/19/2012                 Youth unemployment - Many             4
                          contributors - What strategy?
Population Pyramid Egypt




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            contributors - What strategy?
        USA Population Pyramids




1/19/2012      Youth unemployment - Many       6
               contributors - What strategy?
    Age/Sex Profile West Africa and
           Western Europe




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              contributors - What strategy?
               Map of West Africa
 Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote dIvoire, Capr Verde, Gambia, Ghana,
 Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra
                           Leone, Togo




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                       contributors - What strategy?
        The Elephant in the Room




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               contributors - What strategy?
            World Scientific




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               contributors - What strategy?
Economic Development
Challenges In the MENA. 2010.
Julia C. Devlin.World Scientific

 Factors cited by Devlin
1. Interplay of two forces:
   (a)external factors and (b)
   rivalry in interests
2. Large public sectors rather than
   markets managing these two
   forces.


1/19/2012    Youth unemployment - Many       11
             contributors - What strategy?
Economic Development (2)
 Book assesses these post-WWII
  development policy choices from
  perspective of these two forces
  and the institutional frameworks.
 Authors have surveyed and
  analyzed the fundamental
  challenges facing policy makers
  on economic development.

1/19/2012   Youth unemployment - Many       12
            contributors - What strategy?
   Entities attempting to facilitate SME
    startups and entrepreneurship in the
    MENA Region might study the present
    situation and issues. The barriers that
    the Book examines have serious
    consequences that Western
    consultants, trainers, and educators
    need to digest to provide “solutions”


1/19/2012       Youth unemployment - Many       13
                contributors - What strategy?
    MENA Problems ~ Strategies
               (1)
1. Low total factor productivity growth;
2. Management of volatile oil and
   natural gas revenues;
3. Rising water scarcity;
4. Development post-war(s) & conflicts;
5. Raising private investment;



1/19/2012     Youth unemployment - Many       14
              contributors - What strategy?
    MENA Problems ~ Strategies
               (2)
6. Diversifying exports;
7. Lowering high unemployment;
8. Improving basic education, higher
   education, and job training quality;
9. Addressing significant levels of dire
   poverty.



1/19/2012      Youth unemployment - Many       15
               contributors - What strategy?
 Firm Activity in the MENA Region
      (Constraining Factors)
Chapter 7 of the Devlin Book is titled “Is
  the MENA Region “Open” for Business
  – this gives an overview on the
  obstacles and some changes for SMEs
  (80 percent of all businesses are
  SMEs of some variety). Education
  and/or training in entrepreneurship or
  SME management should address
  these obstacles and how they are
  informally “worked around” (or not).
1/19/2012      Youth unemployment - Many       16
               contributors - What strategy?
Sampling of Obstacles for SMEs
             (1)
 Minimal or no access to information in
  general, or for specific industries or
  markets (business plan anybody?)
 Price system often used by
  governments for socio-economic
  balancing. Make pricing difficult.
 Monumental public sector
  intervention and regulation.

1/19/2012     Youth unemployment - Many       17
              contributors - What strategy?
Sampling of Obstacles for SMEs
             (2)
 Minimal regulation enforcing
  competition (e.g. entry barriers, high
  governmental required capital
  requirements, capacity licensing,
  government enterprises, exclusivity
  arrangements for powerful people –
  i.e. corruption
 Restrictive licensing procedures

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              contributors - What strategy?
        Sampling of Obstacles for
               SMEs(3)
 Price controls
 Exit barriers (severity of bankruptcy
  and liquidation laws
 Credit restrictions
 Inhibition of international flows of
  goods, services, capital, labor and
  technology
 Lack of infrastructure
1/19/2012      Youth unemployment - Many       19
               contributors - What strategy?
Sampling of Obstacles for SMEs
             (4)
 Lack of access to industrial land belonging
  to government, bankruptcies, private
  speculators
 Registration, licensing, inspection rules and
  enforcement onerous and unpredictable;
  e.g. Egypt 18 ministries and public
  authorities; in Algeria ~13% of per capita
  GDP is “Wasta” (payoffs)
 Etcetera (and so on)

1/19/2012       Youth unemployment - Many       20
                contributors - What strategy?
            Erstwhile the Optimist
 Many actors from business,
  academia, consulting, institutions,
  and foundations.
 Alienated Unemployed Youth are an
  issue that can bring together all 18
  countries in the MENA Region to
  create a strategy that will work over
  time.

1/19/2012         Youth unemployment - Many       21
                  contributors - What strategy?
     Entities now in MENA (1)
 Silatech based in Doha, Qatar but
  serving the entire MENA Region.
 International Youth Foundation
  (20 years old, financing training,
  development of entrepreneurship
  centers, in several regions of the
  world including the MENA Region.


1/19/2012    Youth unemployment - Many       22
             contributors - What strategy?
Entities in MENA (2)
 Many American and European
  universities have campuses in MENA
  countries particularly in Dubai, Abu Dhabi,
  Qatar, Oman etc. A part of this activity
  focuses on entrepreneurship
 A new compact has been developed
  between American University – Cairo
  and Babson College to implement a new
  entrepreneurship center and develop a
  leading-edge entrepreneurship curriculum.

1/19/2012       Youth unemployment - Many       23
                contributors - What strategy?
Entities in MENA (3)
 Middle East Council for Small Business
  and Entrepreneurship (MCSBE). Global
  Entrepreneurship Week; three-day training
  for college teachers who are or intend to
  teach entrepreneurship courses
  MCSBE is an affiliate of the 55+ year
  International Council for Small
  Business whose motto is “advancing
  entrepreneurship worldwide”.


1/19/2012      Youth unemployment - Many       24
               contributors - What strategy?
Entities in MENA (4)
 Middle East Youth Initiative a joint program
  by The Brookings Institute and the Dubai
  School of Government through Shabab
  (Arabic word for youth) with goal of expanding
  economic and social opportunities for the 15-
  29 age group in the MENA Region.
 American University – Cairo Women’s
  Leadership Center originally sponsored by the
  10,000 Women Leadership Initiative of
  Goldman Sachs.

.
1/19/2012        Youth unemployment - Many       25
                 contributors - What strategy?
Entities in MENA (5)
 TechWadi created to organized support Arab-
  American professionals in the technology
  industry in North America and the Middle East -
  networking, entrepreneurship, internships, and
  partnerships.
 TechStars, USA organization supports and
  invests in start-up high technology
  companies using intense screening, finances,
  advises and incubates the start-ups. Intend to
  franchise in MENA Region with extensive
  training. Silatech has some interest in
  partnering.

1/19/2012        Youth unemployment - Many       26
                 contributors - What strategy?
Entities in MENA (6)
 Building Bridges – U.S. – Islamic
  Partnerships and Social Change. Working
  with George Mason University in Washington
  DC. partnering with The Middle East Center on
  International Cooperation.
 US State Department many recent Request
  for Proposals (RFPs) to create entrepreneurship
  training and creation of entrepreneurship
  centers through both the Middle East
  Partnership Initiative (MEPI) and the United
  Agency for International Development
  (USAID)

1/19/2012        Youth unemployment - Many       27
                 contributors - What strategy?
            And so it goes

           Time will tell
What part will entrepreneurship and
   SME foundings play in “solving”
         the young alienated
      unemployment problem?
 One thing is certain, this will be a
  long-term effort and Dr. Erstwhile
    will expire before it is a done
                 deal!

1/19/2012     Youth unemployment - Many       28
              contributors - What strategy?

								
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