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introduction Biomes of the World Definition • The Earth has many different environments, varying in temperature, moisture, light, and many other factors. Each of these habitats has distinct life forms living in it, forming complex communities of interdependent organisms. A complex community of plants and animals in a region and a climate is called a biome. There are 8 Major Biomes: 1. Tundra 2. Taiga (Boreal Forest) 3. Temperate Forest 4. Tropical Rain Forest 5. Grasslands Savanna and Temperate 6. Desert 7. Marine: Ocean and Freshwater Biomes of the World Tundra -”Top of the World” -Climate is cold -ground is frozen, known as permafrost -Average temperature is 10-20’F -Little water -Every animal must adapt to the cold -During the brief summers, the ground thaws and plants grow Biomes of the World Herbivorous mammals: lemmings, voles, caribou, arctic hares and squirrels Carnivorous mammals: Tundra arctic foxes, wolves, and polar bears Migratory birds: ravens, snow buntings, falcons, loons, ravens, sandpipers, terns, snow birds, and various species of gulls Insects: mosquitoes, flies, moths, grasshoppers, black flies and arctic bumble bees Fish: cod, flatfish, salmon, and trout Plants: lichen, cushion plants, berry bushes, cotton grass, dark red leaves - Largest biome in the world. -Mostly Canada and northern Europe and Asia. By Andy Marlin are Jimmy Willis -During summer, thereand a lot of insects, therefore, birds migrate to feed. -Forests are prone to wildfires, so some trees adapt by growing thick bark. Biomes of the World Boreal Forrest (Taiga) Animals Vegetation wood peckers, lichen, moss hawks, owl, loon, conifers, aspen, waxwing, moose, birch, alder, bears, weasel, willow, larch lynx, fox, wolf, deer, rabbits, chipmunks, insects, shrews, and bats -changing seasons -second most abundant amount of rainfall -deciduous trees: leaves turn color, fall and grow back -Eastern US, Eastern China, Japan, Europe Biomes of the World Vegetation Animals oak, hickory, squirrels, skunks, beech, hemlock, birds, rabbits, willow, maple, deer, mountain grass wood, berry lion, frogs, bushes, grass, bobcats, snakes, cottonwood timber wolves, foxes, turkey, black bears, insects, fish Biomes of the World • Many different types of vegetation exist in the Tropical Forest. Some trees are 25-50 meters tall. Some plants include the jungle tree, flowers, orchids, ferns, mosses, palms, bromeliads, and vines. There are many plants still unknown, and some plants have cures for diseases such as malaria, cancer, and aids. The canopy that the plants form shade the forest floor and protect the animals. Fifty percent of the worlds animal population is in the Tropical Forest. Some of these animals include primates, snakes, lizards, birds, insects, frogs, cats, bats, small mammals, and moths. Grassland (Savanna) Moisture Temperature Vegetation Human Impact Rainfall is Mean monthly deciduous, trees, clearing, poaching concentrated in temperatures are at or shrubs, and many 6 to 8 months above 64° F grasses of the year followed by a long period of drought where fire occurs Biomes of the World Savanna Animals giraffes, zebras, buffalos, kangaroos, mice, moles, gofers, ground squirrels, snakes, worms, termites, beetles, lions, leopards, hyenas, elephants, hippos, and jack rabbits. Temperate Grassland Moisture Temperature Human Impact moderate rainfall, Summer- temperatures over construction Seasonal drought and 100 ° (F) occasional fires are Winter- temperatures under - important to the 40 ° (F) environment Temperate Grassland Plants Trees Flowers Cottonwoods • asters Oaks • Blazing stars Willows • Coneflowers Grasses • Goldenrods Purple • Sunflowers needlegrass • Clovers Blue grama • Psoraleas Gallet Buffalo grass • Wild indigos Temperate Grassland Animals Gazelles and zebras eat vegetation, and Wild horses may be are prey for animals seen roaming around where there such as lions. is tall grass. Coyotes and foxes prey on some of the smaller animals, such as skunks and jack rabbits. Hawks and owls are the more aggressive birds, but there are quails, grouses, meadowlarks, blackbirds, and sparrows Cold Desert and Coastal Desert Biomes Moisture Temperature Vegetation Human Impact Rain fall is Temperature in salt bush, Recreation, tourism about winter -2 to 4°c buckwheat bush, 8-13cm black bush, rice Temperature in grass, black sage, summer 21-26°c and the chrysanthemums By Lauren Gallant and Melanie Powers Biomes of the World Animals in the coastal desert include insects, Animals in the cold desert coyotes, badgers, toads, include, penguins, mites, great horned owls, worms, tuco-tucos, foxes, golden eagles, bald eagles, hawks and eagles, lizards and wolves. snakes. Semiarid Deserts Moisture Temperature Animals Human Impact The summers are The temperature ranges rabbits, kangaroo rats, inhabiting, navigating, very hot and dry. between 21-27°C. This bighorn sheep, pocket exploring, is about 75°F. mouse, pronghorn discovering, hunting Winters are antelope, and considerably rainy Evenings are the coolest California thrasher and chilly. times. Semiarid Deserts Plants • Many plants are found in semiarid deserts. Some of which include: • creosote bush, bur sage, white thorn, cat claw, mesquite, brittle bushes, lycium, cactus, & jujube. Hot And Dry Deserts Moisture Temperature Vegetation Human Impact Very dry Hot, with Cacti recreation Little water temperatures to about 64 degrees Deserts Animals • Some of these animals include: rabbits, kangaroo rats, bighorn sheep, pocket mouse, pronghorn antelope, & California thrasher. Temperature Vegetation Human Impact warmer as you Kelp, plankton, oil spills, get closer to the Irish moss, pollution, and equator and fucus, and littering lapidarian colder as you get near the poles Biomes of the World Animals whales, dolphins, sharks, seals, walrus, starfish, eels, crabs, jellyfish, and salt water fish. Temperature Animals Human Impact the summer is usually turtles, snakes, fish, fishing, swimming, between ducks, plankton, drinking, boating, 24.8° F-71°F. shellfish, shrimp, skating, displacing, amphibians, and polluting reptiles, birds, the winter is usually furbearers, and between 24.8° F- 32°F. insects. pond lilies, cattails, sedges, tamarack black spruce, marsh, flora, cypress and gum. Review Questions 1. What are the 8 Biomes? 2. What are the two most unique characteristics about the different Biomes? 3. How does the type of flora depend on the types of fauna? 4. What are some similar human impacts on each Biome? 5. How can we protect our Biome?
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