Archaeology by dffhrtcv3

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									Archaeology


  Bringing the Past to Life
What is Archaeology?
 Archaeology is the study of human history,
  using material remains to discover
  information about the people and events of
  the past.
 Archaeologists use artifacts - the objects and
  materials people in the past made and used -
  and information obtained at sites - the places
  that people once lived - as evidence to draw
  conclusions about how people once lived.
Building Evidence of the Past
 Define your Purpose - what are you investigating? – write in the
  form of a question
 Make a Hypothesis – make an educated guess based on what
  you know
    What area of the world are you investigating?
    What kind of people were likely to have lived there?
    What information has already been uncovered?
 Uncover the Past – dig your site very carefully, what can the
  placement of artifacts and the dirt around artifacts tell you about
  the site?
 Check your Hypothesis – does the information you uncovered fit
  with what you thought? Fit with what other scientists think? Is
  this new information?
Dig Site




  Bones &                                 Tools &
  Artifacts                             Measurement



              Stratigraphy




                             Go to Virtual Dig
Stratigraphy
               Stratigraphy – the study
               of dirt and rocks as
               layers in the earth
                Older objects are found
                 on the bottom layers,
                 newer objects are found
                 at the top
                Objects that are found in
                 the same layer probably
                 come from the same time
                 period

                                 Back to Dig Site
Artifacts & Bones
             An artifact is any human made object
                 Tools, clothes, and dwellings are
                  all artifacts that can give us a
                  glimpse into the ancient world
             Writing is a special kind of artifact
                Primary Sources
             Bones can provide a great deal of
              information
                Bones of humans can tell how old
                  a person was or how they died
                Bones of animals can tell what
                  people of the time ate


                                          Back to Dig Site
  Primary Sources
 In certain dig sites you can find
  written material
      Writing was invented 5-6,000 years
       ago
 When writing is present you have a
  first hand account of what it was like
  to live at the time!
 Primary sources include diaries,
  letters, official documents, pictures,
  portraits, maps, notes, books…
  anything with writing on it.
  Tools & Measurement
 The length and weight of objects can
  provide information about how people
  lived
      How large were the houses?
      How close did people live to water?
      How much did tools weigh?
 Graphs and plots of artifacts can help
  scientists organize information
      Where did people live in relation to
       each other?
      How many tools were found?

                                              Back to Dig Site
Dig Site
                Virtual Dig
The Dig Site:

 Musket
  Balls
                                                          Bones

 Miniature
 portrait
                                                          Textiles

 Letter


                All of the artifacts listed have been
                   found in the same layer of dirt.



                                                        Conclusion
                         Bones

Found:
     Rabbit Bones
         One complete
          skeleton
     Ash
                     Textiles

   Scrap of homespun
    fabric
       Dated: 1700 - 1800
                 Musket Balls

Found
     Musket Balls
        Various sizes
        Dated: 1760-1780
                Miniature Portrait

Found
     Minature Portrait
          Inscription on back reads
           “Mary 1754”
                              Letter
   Found
       Letter
            well preserved




                                  Click on the letter to read it!
                                Head Quarters, New York, August 3rd 1776.
                                     Parole Uxbridge. Countersign Virginia
That the Troops may have an opportunity of attending public
worship, as well as take some rest after the great fatigue
they have gone through; The General in future excuses
them from fatigue duty on Sundays (except at the Ship
Yards, or special occasions) until further orders. The General
is sorry to be informed that the foolish, and wicked practice,
of profane cursing and swearing (a Vice heretofore little
known in an American Army) is growing into fashion; he
hopes the officers will, by example, as well as influence,
endeavour to check it, and that both they, and the men will
reflect, that we can have little hopes of the blessing of
Heaven on our Arms, if we insult it by our impiety, and folly;
added to this, it is a vice so mean and low, without any
temptation, that every man of sense, and character, detests
and despises it.
Clarkson and Chase under confinement for Desertion, and
reinlistment into the Artillery, from another Corps, to return
to Capt: Bauman's Company until Col. Ellmores Regiment,
wh. claims them, comes into camp.
        Concluding Notes
Using the information that you gathered
from the dig and research information from
your textbook or the Internet, write a 5
paragraph letter to the journal Nature. The
first paragraph should include background
information about the dig site. The middle
paragraphs should include details about the
artifacts at the dig site. In the last
paragraph - draw a conclusion: Why were
these people once at this site?
                    Resources

   Papers of George Washington
       http://gwpapers.virginia.edu/documents/revol
        ution/profanity_1.html
   From the Diary of Captain Joseph
    Bloomfield
       http://www.iath.virginia.edu/seminar/unit1/te
        xt/sdiary2.htm

								
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