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					Supervision of Instruction
Supervision vs. Evaluation
     Supervision        Evaluation
  Process          Event
  Formative-       Summative-end
  Developmental,   Judgmental
  Purpose:         Purpose:
   To improve         Legal requirement
   instruction and    (to "prove"
   learning           instruction)
Flawed System
 One-room Schoolhouse Legacy:

    •Isolation                              •Lack of dialogue
                                            about instruction
    •Psychological dilemma
    and frustration                         •Lack of involvement
                                            in school-wide
    •Routine                                curriculum and
    •Inadequate induction of                instructional decisions
    beginning teachers                      •Lack of shared
    •Unstaged career                        technical culture

    Glickman, C. D., Gordon S. P. & Ross-Gordon, J. M. (1998).
    Supervision of instruction: A development approach (4th ed.).
Flawed System-Continued

•Outdated, limited, evaluative criteria
•Lack of precision in evaluating performances
•Hierarchical, one-way communication
•No differentiation between novice and experienced
•Few shared values and assumptions about good teaching

Danielson, C. & McGreal, T. L.(2000). Teacher evaluation: To enhance professional
What is the Connection??


   Development    Improvement

                           Teacher Evaluation
Purposes of Supervision
•Provide constructive feedback
•Recognize and help reinforce outstanding performance/service
•Provide direction for staff development
•Provide evidence that will withstand professional and judicial scrutiny
•Aid in terminating incompetent, unproductive personnel
•Unify teachers, administrators in collective efforts to educate students
•Enhance teacher belief in “cause beyond oneself,” complement each
other’s work, plan common purposes and actions
•Promote teachers’ sense of efficacy
•Screen out unqualified staff- certification, selection
Danielson & McGreal (2000); Glickman, C.D., Gordon, S. P. & Ross-Gordon, J.
           M.(1998)Supervision of instruction:A developmental approach (4th ed.). Needham Heights,
           MA: Viacom Co.
Impact of Evaluations

 Credibility of evaluator as a source of feedback
 Quality of ideas in feedback
 Depth of information
 Persuasiveness of rationale for improvement
 Usefulness of suggestions
 Trustworthiness of evaluation
 Helping relationship with teacher
 Evaluator’s capacity to model suggestions
 Evaluator’s technical knowledge of teaching
 Evaluator’s familiarity with teacher’s classroom students
Nine Major Characteristics
of Clinical Supervision
 A technology for improving instruction
 A deliberate intervention into the instructional process
 Goal-oriented
 Professional working relationship: teachers-supervisors
 Requires a high degree of mutual trust
 Systematic but flexible and continuously changing
 Productive, healthy tension between real and ideal
 Supervisor knows instruction, learning, human
 Requires preservice and continuous inservice reflection

   Goldhammer, Anderson, and Krajewski (1993) as cited in textbook
Clinical Supervision

What is Clinical Supervision?
Formative cycle(s)
  Planning conference
  Data analysis
  Goal setting conference (post observation)

Summative Conference
  Discuss entire formative cycle and all data relative to 8 Iowa
   Standards or job description
  Make a judgment about the employee
Each Clinical Cycle
                                Planning Conference

Collaborative                                                             observation
Reflective                                                                & Analysis

                                Feedback Conference

   Sullivan, S. & Glanz, J. (2000). Supervision that improves teaching.
Planning Conference
Select observation date/time
Describe the lesson-identify teacher objectives
Describe student behaviors
Describe monitoring techniques, accommodations, resources
Discuss problem areas, concerns
Agree upon observer’s role and identify data to be collected
Select observation instruments
Iowa Standards, criteria and descriptors
            What other information do you need?
Observation Techniques
  You need to decide on your role, data to be
   collected, observation instruments.

  Wide lens-all actions, verbal
  Narrow Lens:
      Time on Task chart
      Narrow lens-Selective Verbatim
         Teacher verbal behaviors-questions
         Student responses/questions
      Narrow lens-Verbal Flow
      Interaction chart-actions
      Staff development strategies
         Cooperative learning
         Hunter’s steps
Wide Lens

 Capture and record a large number of teaching

 Make few prior assumptions about what is important

 Is good starting point in supervising teachers

   Anecdotal record-NOT judgmental

   Script taping
Wide Lens

Lesson Design
  Structuring and clarifying
  Checking for understanding
  Transitions, Summarizing
Wide Lens

Beginning of lesson
End of lesson
Changes in content
Changes in methodology
Narrow Lens-Selective
 Word for word

 Written record of what is said-verbatim transcript

 Advantages:

    Focuses attention of vocabulary, questions
    Factual, objective
    Simple to use

    Is this your purpose?
Selective Verbatim-Narrow
 Teacher questions:
   Kinds (cognitive level), amount of information,
    redirection, probing, multiple, frequency, clarity

 Student questions and responses: kinds of questions,
  when do the questions occur, kinds of responses

 Teacher feedback
   Amount, variety, specificity,effective praise
   Structuring statements, discipline
Verbal Flow-Narrow Lens

Who is talking to whom?
Not as concerned with content, but with
 who is talking-
Supervisor Equipment
Depending on the observational technique, the supervisor may
need to use:
•Seating chart-(on task behaviors, interaction chart, selective
verbatim, verbal flow, action chart)
•Room design-(space utilization, action chart)
•Timeline coding-(wide lens, on task behaviors, selective
verbatim, verbal flow)
•Cooperative Learning chart
•Hunter’s steps chart
Data Collection/Analysis

Examine notes and scripts for patterns
  Teacher behavior
    Objectives, assessments
    Questioning techniques, cues
    Student interaction: frequency, quality
Data Collection/Analysis
                    Be careful of bias
Bias cause a supervisor to unconsciously “screen” or filter out
certain information or impressions if he/she is unaware of the
What are the different types of bias that may come into play?
How can you avoid bias?
Common Errors in Data

Failing to document relevant details
Evaluating based on personal traits or attitudes
 (“love of teaching”) rather than performance of
 actual duties
Failing to follow timelines set by district policy
Failing to use multiple sources of data
Using test or other data inappropriately
Feedback Conference
Feedback Conference
Make arrangements prior to conference
   •Provide teacher with an opportunity for self-reflection
   •Inform teacher of any needed materials for the
       conference (e.g. portfolio, lesson plans, student work
       samples, Iowa standards an criteria)
   •Review notes (e.g. observation, student achievement
   •Review any job expectations, Iowa Standards &
      criteria, relevant data
   •Prepare questions
Quality of Feedback

 Characteristics of feedback were identified to be correlated
 to the perceived quality and impact of teacher evaluation:

 Quality of ideas              Depth of information
 Specificity of information    Descriptive, not judgmental
 Timing of feedback            Feedback linked to standards
 Frequency of formal and informal feedback
Types of Questions
Objective-getting facts, sensory impressions, information

Reflective-personal reactions, associations, emotions, images

Interpretive-meaning, values, significance, purpose,

Decisional-resolution, action, future direction, next steps,
Data Points and Data
The data points are evidence. They are the types of
information collected.
The data sources are origin of the information
Data points provide information concerning a question that you
have relative to the standards and criteria. Is this teacher
performing at the required level?
The more data sources a supervisor has, the broader and clearer
the picture becomes—the clearer the answer to your question.
Without data—the supervisor’s judgment becomes only
Data Points and Data
                                 Sources & Data
Administrator    Central       Teacher         Student          Other staff    Parents &
                 Office                                                        Community
Class           District     Classrm        Time on task    Referrals     Letters,
observation      assessments   generated       Data            Parent work   notes
Achievement                   work            generated                       Interviews
scores                         Bulletin       from surveys                    or surveys
Commendati                    boards          Journals                       Input
ons                            Committee      Portfolios                     Parent-
Supervision                   work            Student                        teacher
logs and notes                 Action         writing or art                  conferences
                               research        work
                               IEP work       Published or
                               Journal or     displayed work
                               other logs
                               Test samples
                               Lesson plans
                               to parents
                               Unit study
Career I Teachers
Performance Review (Summative Evaluation)
At least once every three years. (Can be more frequent.)
Foundation of evaluation is 8/42 (any additional-remember
Waterloo case)
The Performance Review shall include at a minimum,
classroom observation of the teacher, the teacher’s progress,
and implementation of the teacher’s individual career
development plan; shall include supporting documentation
from evaluators, teachers, parents, and students; and may
include video portfolios as evidence of teaching practices.
Career Teacher

 The years when the teachers are not going through their
 Performance Review, they will be required to have an annual
 conversation with the evaluator. This is the annual review.
 The Annual Review is a conversation with the evaluator so that
 the teacher can demonstrate progress relative to the Individual
 Career Development Plan.
Intensive Assistance

The marginal teachers are those (2-5%) who are experiencing
difficulty meeting the standards.
The marginal teachers could be those teachers who are
experiencing some personal/professional trauma which has
affected their teaching.
The marginal teachers could be those teachers who are not
performing well and are coasting.
The incompetent teachers are those teachers who are poorly
skilled and unable to improve upon the teaching.
Intensive Assistance

  If a supervisor or an evaluator determines, at any time, as a
  result of a teacher’s performance that the teacher is not
  meeting district expectations under the Iowa teaching
  standards…,paragraphs “a” through “g,” the model criteria
  for the Iowa teaching standards developed by the
  department…, or any other standards or criteria established
  in the collective bargaining agreement, the evaluator shall, a
  the direction of the teacher’s supervisor, recommend to the
  district that the teacher participate in an intensive assistance
                 JULY 1, 2004 (revised –”a-h”)
Intensive Assistance

Intensive Assistance means the provision of organizational
support and technical assistance to teachers, other than
beginning teachers, for the remediation of identified teaching
and classroom management concerns for a period not to
exceed twelve months.
Intensive Assistance

Evaluators must give teachers NEAT
1. Notice of identified concerns
2. Explicitly describe the severity of the concerns and the
   future of the teacher.
3. Assistance -offer organizational support and technical
4. Time frame for improvement
Be Clear

Supervisors/evaluators must be clear and explicit.
Supervisors/evaluators must put into writing the specific,
identified concerns.
Supervisors/evaluators must put into writing the severity and
future of the teacher.
9/10 will not go to litigation—either they will “fix” the
problems or decide to leave
Make Sure…

1. Read the district policy on evaluations.
2. Read the contract.
3. Examine the instrument carefully.
4. Be clear, explicit, specific in writing and verbally.
5. Do not send mixed messages.
What Do You Think?

You are a conscientious, caring, and hardworking teacher. Your
students love you. They enjoy being in your classroom. It might
be helpful if you organized your classes, had lesson plans and
maintained better control of your classroom.

Your disorganized style keeps students from understanding your
desired learning outcomes. Substitutes do not know what to do
when you are gone.As we have discussed previously the number
of students off task is too many and too frequent.
 What Do You Think?

You must become better organized, have prepared lesson plans in
advance, and gain control of you classroom. This concern has been
discussed with you on previous occasions (Oct. 17, Nov 5, Jan12,
Jan 27) and I deem this a serious matter. If there is not sufficient
improvement as we have discussed, I will be forced to recommend in
March that your contract not be renewed. Your lesson plans are to
be submitted to me by this Friday, Feb. 28 for next week.

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