Supervision of Instruction
Supervision vs. Evaluation
To improve Legal requirement
instruction and (to "prove"
One-room Schoolhouse Legacy:
•Isolation •Lack of dialogue
and frustration •Lack of involvement
•Routine curriculum and
•Inadequate induction of instructional decisions
beginning teachers •Lack of shared
•Unstaged career technical culture
Glickman, C. D., Gordon S. P. & Ross-Gordon, J. M. (1998).
Supervision of instruction: A development approach (4th ed.).
•Outdated, limited, evaluative criteria
•Lack of precision in evaluating performances
•Hierarchical, one-way communication
•No differentiation between novice and experienced
•Few shared values and assumptions about good teaching
Danielson, C. & McGreal, T. L.(2000). Teacher evaluation: To enhance professional
What is the Connection??
Purposes of Supervision
•Provide constructive feedback
•Recognize and help reinforce outstanding performance/service
•Provide direction for staff development
•Provide evidence that will withstand professional and judicial scrutiny
•Aid in terminating incompetent, unproductive personnel
•Unify teachers, administrators in collective efforts to educate students
•Enhance teacher belief in “cause beyond oneself,” complement each
other’s work, plan common purposes and actions
•Promote teachers’ sense of efficacy
•Screen out unqualified staff- certification, selection
Danielson & McGreal (2000); Glickman, C.D., Gordon, S. P. & Ross-Gordon, J.
M.(1998)Supervision of instruction:A developmental approach (4th ed.). Needham Heights,
MA: Viacom Co.
Impact of Evaluations
Credibility of evaluator as a source of feedback
Quality of ideas in feedback
Depth of information
Persuasiveness of rationale for improvement
Usefulness of suggestions
Trustworthiness of evaluation
Helping relationship with teacher
Evaluator’s capacity to model suggestions
Evaluator’s technical knowledge of teaching
Evaluator’s familiarity with teacher’s classroom students
Nine Major Characteristics
of Clinical Supervision
A technology for improving instruction
A deliberate intervention into the instructional process
Professional working relationship: teachers-supervisors
Requires a high degree of mutual trust
Systematic but flexible and continuously changing
Productive, healthy tension between real and ideal
Supervisor knows instruction, learning, human
Requires preservice and continuous inservice reflection
Goldhammer, Anderson, and Krajewski (1993) as cited in textbook
What is Clinical Supervision?
Goal setting conference (post observation)
Discuss entire formative cycle and all data relative to 8 Iowa
Standards or job description
Make a judgment about the employee
Each Clinical Cycle
Reflective & Analysis
Sullivan, S. & Glanz, J. (2000). Supervision that improves teaching.
Select observation date/time
Describe the lesson-identify teacher objectives
Describe student behaviors
Describe monitoring techniques, accommodations, resources
Discuss problem areas, concerns
Agree upon observer’s role and identify data to be collected
Select observation instruments
Iowa Standards, criteria and descriptors
What other information do you need?
You need to decide on your role, data to be
collected, observation instruments.
Wide lens-all actions, verbal
Time on Task chart
Narrow lens-Selective Verbatim
Teacher verbal behaviors-questions
Narrow lens-Verbal Flow
Staff development strategies
Capture and record a large number of teaching
Make few prior assumptions about what is important
Is good starting point in supervising teachers
Anecdotal record-NOT judgmental
Structuring and clarifying
Checking for understanding
Beginning of lesson
End of lesson
Changes in content
Changes in methodology
Word for word
Written record of what is said-verbatim transcript
Focuses attention of vocabulary, questions
Simple to use
Is this your purpose?
Kinds (cognitive level), amount of information,
redirection, probing, multiple, frequency, clarity
Student questions and responses: kinds of questions,
when do the questions occur, kinds of responses
Amount, variety, specificity,effective praise
Structuring statements, discipline
Verbal Flow-Narrow Lens
Who is talking to whom?
Not as concerned with content, but with
who is talking-
Depending on the observational technique, the supervisor may
need to use:
•Seating chart-(on task behaviors, interaction chart, selective
verbatim, verbal flow, action chart)
•Room design-(space utilization, action chart)
•Timeline coding-(wide lens, on task behaviors, selective
verbatim, verbal flow)
•Cooperative Learning chart
•Hunter’s steps chart
Examine notes and scripts for patterns
Questioning techniques, cues
Student interaction: frequency, quality
Be careful of bias
Bias cause a supervisor to unconsciously “screen” or filter out
certain information or impressions if he/she is unaware of the
What are the different types of bias that may come into play?
How can you avoid bias?
Common Errors in Data
Failing to document relevant details
Evaluating based on personal traits or attitudes
(“love of teaching”) rather than performance of
Failing to follow timelines set by district policy
Failing to use multiple sources of data
Using test or other data inappropriately
Make arrangements prior to conference
•Provide teacher with an opportunity for self-reflection
•Inform teacher of any needed materials for the
conference (e.g. portfolio, lesson plans, student work
samples, Iowa standards an criteria)
•Review notes (e.g. observation, student achievement
•Review any job expectations, Iowa Standards &
criteria, relevant data
Quality of Feedback
Characteristics of feedback were identified to be correlated
to the perceived quality and impact of teacher evaluation:
Quality of ideas Depth of information
Specificity of information Descriptive, not judgmental
Timing of feedback Feedback linked to standards
Frequency of formal and informal feedback
Types of Questions
Objective-getting facts, sensory impressions, information
Reflective-personal reactions, associations, emotions, images
Interpretive-meaning, values, significance, purpose,
Decisional-resolution, action, future direction, next steps,
Data Points and Data
The data points are evidence. They are the types of
The data sources are origin of the information
Data points provide information concerning a question that you
have relative to the standards and criteria. Is this teacher
performing at the required level?
The more data sources a supervisor has, the broader and clearer
the picture becomes—the clearer the answer to your question.
Without data—the supervisor’s judgment becomes only
Data Points and Data
Sources & Data
Administrator Central Teacher Student Other staff Parents &
Class District Classrm Time on task Referrals Letters,
observation assessments generated Data Parent work notes
Achievement work generated Interviews
scores Bulletin from surveys or surveys
Commendati boards Journals Input
ons Committee Portfolios Parent-
Supervision work Student teacher
logs and notes Action writing or art conferences
IEP work Published or
Journal or displayed work
Career I Teachers
Performance Review (Summative Evaluation)
At least once every three years. (Can be more frequent.)
Foundation of evaluation is 8/42 (any additional-remember
The Performance Review shall include at a minimum,
classroom observation of the teacher, the teacher’s progress,
and implementation of the teacher’s individual career
development plan; shall include supporting documentation
from evaluators, teachers, parents, and students; and may
include video portfolios as evidence of teaching practices.
The years when the teachers are not going through their
Performance Review, they will be required to have an annual
conversation with the evaluator. This is the annual review.
The Annual Review is a conversation with the evaluator so that
the teacher can demonstrate progress relative to the Individual
Career Development Plan.
The marginal teachers are those (2-5%) who are experiencing
difficulty meeting the standards.
The marginal teachers could be those teachers who are
experiencing some personal/professional trauma which has
affected their teaching.
The marginal teachers could be those teachers who are not
performing well and are coasting.
The incompetent teachers are those teachers who are poorly
skilled and unable to improve upon the teaching.
If a supervisor or an evaluator determines, at any time, as a
result of a teacher’s performance that the teacher is not
meeting district expectations under the Iowa teaching
standards…,paragraphs “a” through “g,” the model criteria
for the Iowa teaching standards developed by the
department…, or any other standards or criteria established
in the collective bargaining agreement, the evaluator shall, a
the direction of the teacher’s supervisor, recommend to the
district that the teacher participate in an intensive assistance
JULY 1, 2004 (revised –”a-h”)
Intensive Assistance means the provision of organizational
support and technical assistance to teachers, other than
beginning teachers, for the remediation of identified teaching
and classroom management concerns for a period not to
exceed twelve months.
Evaluators must give teachers NEAT
1. Notice of identified concerns
2. Explicitly describe the severity of the concerns and the
future of the teacher.
3. Assistance -offer organizational support and technical
4. Time frame for improvement
Supervisors/evaluators must be clear and explicit.
Supervisors/evaluators must put into writing the specific,
Supervisors/evaluators must put into writing the severity and
future of the teacher.
9/10 will not go to litigation—either they will “fix” the
problems or decide to leave
1. Read the district policy on evaluations.
2. Read the contract.
3. Examine the instrument carefully.
4. Be clear, explicit, specific in writing and verbally.
5. Do not send mixed messages.
What Do You Think?
You are a conscientious, caring, and hardworking teacher. Your
students love you. They enjoy being in your classroom. It might
be helpful if you organized your classes, had lesson plans and
maintained better control of your classroom.
Your disorganized style keeps students from understanding your
desired learning outcomes. Substitutes do not know what to do
when you are gone.As we have discussed previously the number
of students off task is too many and too frequent.
What Do You Think?
You must become better organized, have prepared lesson plans in
advance, and gain control of you classroom. This concern has been
discussed with you on previous occasions (Oct. 17, Nov 5, Jan12,
Jan 27) and I deem this a serious matter. If there is not sufficient
improvement as we have discussed, I will be forced to recommend in
March that your contract not be renewed. Your lesson plans are to
be submitted to me by this Friday, Feb. 28 for next week.