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In The Beginning ITB How did by ewghwehws


How did it all come to be?
       The Science Version
           as interpreted by the DOE

Science and Religion

– The explanations being offered are the
  science ones - some of them are outdated as
  the evidence accumulates.

– Even the best one is still being worked on, as
  new evidence is seen with the telescopes of
  the world.
         Three Models
SS Steady State – 1950’s

OU Oscillating Universe
             Big Bang / Big Crunch

HBB Hot Big Bang – the Standard Model
            1950’s to today
             Steady State
Hoyle - Bondi - Gold             1950’s
    No longer considered valid
The universe is expanding
– (Hubble proved that!)
The universe had no beginning and will
have no end.
The universe always looks similar
To fill the empty spaces, new matter arises
via continuous creation
       Oscillating Universe
Older subset of the Big Bang
    no longer considered valid
    there is not enough mass to make it collapse
This universe has a beginning – Big Bang
and will collapse into a Big Crunch at the
A new universe will arise in a new Big
Bang – which will collapse again – etc.
    This fits in with Hindu cosmology!
        The Hot Big Bang
       (the standard model)
Developed in the late 1940’s by Gamow–
named by Hoyle as an “insult” – it is the
current basic model.
Out of “nothingness”; the universe has a
tiny, hot, beginning – then expands. As the
energy-universe expands, it cools enough
for matter to form (E=mc2), then atoms to
Mutual gravity pulls the Hydrogen and
Helium into stars / galaxies – which
continue to expand.
A little more on the Big Bang
The first matter to form and stay stable
consists of neutrinos (n0), electrons (e-),
protons (P+) and neutrons (N0).
These particles formed in the first few
The first atoms to form were; Hydrogen
(H), Helium (He), Lithium (Li), and
Beryllium (Be)
These formed after ~ 600,000 years.
        Evidence for an Expanding
               Universe I

The Graph is
  Velocity vs.
The faster it is,
  the fainter it
     Evidence for an Expanding
            Universe II
you look
you see
stars – a
sky of
But – it’s
not that
way, so the
                            Penzias & Wilson
… used this as a telescope and found
there was a background "noise"
(static) that seemed to come from all
directions. Everyone assumed it came
from the telescope itself. So, they had        Dicke said- the residue of the explosion of
to get rid of it to make the                   the Big Bang, should by now take the form
observations they planned.                     of a low-level background radiation
They checked everything to rule out
the source of the excess radiation.            throughout the universe.
They pointed the antenna towards
New York City - it wasn't interference
from the city.
It wasn't radiation from our galaxy or
extraterrestrial radio sources.
It wasn't even the pigeons living in the
big, horn-shaped antenna. They
kicked them out and swept out all
their droppings.
The source remained the same
through four seasons, so it couldn't
have come from the solar system or
even from a 1962 above-ground
nuclear test, because in a year that
fallout would have shown a decrease.

They had to conclude it was not the
machine and it was not random noise
causing the radiation.
                                           Penzias and Wilson received the Nobel Prize in 1978
       COBE - CMB
 More evidence was
 desired, so COBE, Cosmic
 Background Explorer was
 Image 1 shows our motion
 in the cosmos.
 2 shows the Milky Way –
 minus the motion
 3 takes the galaxy out for
 just the Cosmic Microwave
Smoot and Mather received the Nobel Prize in 2006
              COBE - CMB
version –
looking at
the small
change in
Telescopes are Time Machines
Light travels 299,729 km/s
If you are on the Moon, you are 1.3 light
seconds away from the Earth.
The Earth is 8.3 light minutes away from
the Sun.
 – So, the Sun you see is 8.3 minutes old!
a Centauri is 4 light years away from the
 – You are seeing the star as it was 4 years ago!
           A Light Year
299,729 km/s
   x 60 s/min
        x 60 min/hr
             x 24 hr/day
                  x 365.25 day/year

      = 9,458,727,890,400 km
           About 10 trillion km
   Some Distances = Times
              9 Light Years
            425 Light Years
Center of the Milky Way
        30,000 Light Years
Andromeda Galaxy
     2,200,000 Light Years
Hubble Deep Field North
  Galaxies from the Beginning
Hubble Deep Field South
  Galaxies from the Beginning

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