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					08.71.16                                                                             Bing Xi
Computer Technology and Society                                                  270378-2349
Assignment 9

   1. Chapter 6, page 320, 1. What does it mean to say that a programming
      language is a machine independent?

       It means that the language does not refer to the attributes of any particular
       machine, and it can be used on any machine by simply applying a appropriate
       compiler.



   2. Chapter 6 on page 320, 7. Suppose the function f expects two numeric values as its inputs
       and returns the smaller of the two values as its output value. If w, x, y, and z represent
       numeric values, what is the result returned by f(f(w,x), f(y,z)?

       It returns the smallest value of w, x, y, and z.




   3. Draw the parse tree for the expression x - y * z + y * x based on the syntax
      diagrams in Figure 6.16 on page 299.




   4. Download Python 2.5 and read the introduction to the IDLE programming
   environment that comes with Python 2.5.

       1) Enter the following Python program (note that spaces at the beginning of
   the line make a difference in Python):

                temp = input("What is the temperature?")

                if temp < 5:

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08.71.16                                                                       Bing Xi
Computer Technology and Society                                            270378-2349
                print "It is rather cold."

                  else:

                          print "This is fine."

   I entered the code in a new IDLE window and saved it, then I clicked “Run” =>
   “Run Module”. In the main IDLE window a line of text “What is the
   temperature?” popped out, I input 5 and entered, another line popped up – “This is
   fine.”. I ran the module again but this time I input “3” and I got a response – “It is
   rather cold.”.

      2) Change the program such that it checks if the temperature is higher than 30
   and if so then prints out appropriate message.

   temp = input("What is the temperature? ")

   if temp < 5:

           print "It is rather cold."

   elif temp > 30:

           print "It is ridiculously hot."

   else:

           print "This is fine."



   5. Chapter 6, 325, social issue 4. To what extent is a programmer who helps
      develop a violent computer game responsible for any consequences of that
      game? Should children’s access to computer games be restricted? If so, how
      and by whom? What about other groups in society, such as convicted
      criminals?

       A programmer bears responsibilities for the consequences of the game if it is
       violent. Although a programmer is not necessarily a designer; however, he can
       always reduce the harm (directly mental. indirectly physical, since the player
       might do in real life what he does in the game) that can be caused by the game
       during the implementation. Nevertheless, not to a great extend, since the
       programmer is simply the implementer, not the designer, who is much more
       responsible for the consequences.

       Children’s access to benign computer games is reasonable, but their access to
       malign or violent games should be strictly restricted. Because children tend to

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08.71.16                                                                     Bing Xi
Computer Technology and Society                                         270378-2349
       learn what they see around them, they might very much try to do the things
       they do in the games. The restrictions should not only come from schools,
       parents, but also from the government or the legislature. Only by establishing
       rules or even laws the restrictions can truly be regarded.

       Whether criminals’ access to violent games should also be restricted is hard to
       determine. On the one hand, allowing them to have access to violent game
       might give them a platform as an outlet of their criminal desires. On the other
       hand, those game might also bring them more desires of committing more
       crimes in real life.




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