An Overview of Mobile-Learning application in a Life Insurance
Industry in Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Industrial Technology Education, National Taiwan Normal
No. 162, Sec. 1, Hoping E. Rd., Taipei, Taiwan R.O.C.
Graduate Institute of Industrial Technology Education, National Taiwan Normal
No. 162, Sec. 1, Hoping E. Rd., Taipei, Taiwan R.O.C.
Graduate Institute of Industrial Technology Education, National Taiwan Normal
No. 162, Sec. 1, Hoping E. Rd., Taipei, Taiwan R.O.C.
Because of the popularization of internet and computers, that has accelerated the
speed of knowledge circulates. Mobil-learning becomes the primary choice for the
enterprises. It is expected that could cut down the costs of training, achieving the
self-learning real time, transmitting information immediately between an individual
and the enterprise, and then achieving the high efficiency education & training.
Manpower is core resource of the life insurance industry. These are the important
directions of every enterprise that how to use time and resources effectively without
restricting by place, and to absorb the new information continuously. This study aims
at discussing what the present situation about the Mobil-learning in the life insurance
industry. And we can also give the reference to the enterprise about the development
in the future.
Keywords: Mobile-learning, Education & Training, Life insurance industry.
Change and development of science and technology in internet network, and
mobile communication and carriers have been very fast and their application has been
more and more extensive over the years. Nevertheless, they are mostly used in
teaching methodology with the main purpose of improving the learning effect of the
students. In the past, the scientific and technological products used by learners in
classroom were no more than recorders and slides with the same learning contents,
which did not fit in with the learning needs of individuals. With popularity of internet
network and use of wireless network, therefore, information is offered to meet the
demands of learners, that is information on demand, to exert learner-centered self
oriented learning trough the initiative obtained with the knowledge equiped by the
learners, and at the same time, wireless communication is used to provide instant and
ighly related knowledge for learners.
In spite of vigorous development of wireless and portable apparatuses and internet
network, wireless E-learning and mobile-learning (shortened as M-Learning) is still in
the stage of germination. With the progress of science and technology,
mobile-learning has integrated portable computer and E-learning, attempting to do
indivigdual learning in given environment without limitation of time and space
(Quinn, 2001; Motiwalla, 2007).
Nowadays, mobile-learning is introduced into enterprises, expecting to improve
work efficiency of the employees, while mobile learners use such facilities and
software training as PDA to assist in relevant work, in which relevant research is used
to measure satisfaction of the mobile-learning users, and the satisfaction includes such
three layers as system quality, content quality, and service quality (Kim and Ong,
2005; Venkatesh et al., 2006 ). Enterprises use mobile-learning to create the
aforementioned three satisfactions and improve productivity by bettering efficiency of
time management with wireless and portable apparatuses (BenMoussa, 2003;
Motiwalla, 2007). In view of limited resources, enterprises are considering how to
reduce their costs to achieve instant self learning and transmission of information
between individuals and enterprises, and then complete high efficient education and
training. Hence, mobile-learning has become the top choice of enterprises.
In retrospect of the past related research, we come to understand that the
application f mobile-learning can be divided into various categories, while the
application development of mobile-learning can be classified into the two types of
situation and collaboration. Mobile-learning activities can be divided into the
following six categories: one is behaviorist—changing learner activities and
promoting them to improve learning; the second is constructivism—learners build
some new concepts actively on the basis of their existing knowledge; the third is
situation—promoting learning within credible situation venation and culture; the
fourth is collaboration—promoting learning through social interactive way; the fifth is
informal and lifelong—supporting learning resources outside the main learning
environments; and the last one is learning and teaching support—assisting
coordination between learners and resources in case of learning (Tan & Goh, 2006).
The new models of learning brought by the aforementioned activity types promote
mobile science and technology widely used in teaching, sifting from the past
traditional ways of learning into receiving new knowledge without restriction of space
and flexibly using time, and into more efficient learning basing on the personal
interests and motivations of the learners. Therefore, great importance has come to be
attached to application of mobile-learning.
Besides, behavior value can meet five possible demands of consumers: firstly,
demands and arrangements as critical time; secondly, spontaneous demands; thirdly,
entertainment demands; fourthly, efficiency demands; and finally, demands relating to
flexibility (Kalakota and Whinston, 1997; Venkatesh et al., 2006). In other words,
mobile-learning can meet the demands of learners for objectives at any time or place.
Also because of this, many informal learning environment often aquarium new
knowledge through mobile-learning, and the common environments for informal
learning include such places as museums, art galleries, parks, aquarium, and so on
（Goh & Kinshuk, 2006）. Stone, Briggs, & Smith (2002) have studied the efficiency
increased for small and medium-sized enterprises(SME) was evaluated when using
mobile-learning to develop the quality to communicate carriers under the good
environment of teaching and learning. And the research has proved similar responses
for SMEs and students to use wireless and portable carriers for learning and
interaction. In addition, environmental and mobile-learning work of the SME
members is assessed through the popular mobile information service (Motiwalla,
Mobile-learning, as a concept, is also a kind of mobile service, describing
integration of mobile communication and E-learning (Kim and Ong, 2005; Venkatesh
et al., 2006). It is available in knowledge management activities in their companies
and makes it easier for participants of knowledge management to share knowledge
and technologies by using information and communication technologies (Venkatesh et
Seeing from the aforementioned three points of view, mobile-learning will not only
enlarge viewpoints of traditional learning in learning through work, but also help
overall business, even have substantial effect on profit and loss of the company
(Ellis,2003). Facing globalization and internationalization, the life insurance sector in
Taiwan is at the turning point to change its direction under the competitive
environment of globalization ad rapid flow of information. It is necessary for people
in the sector to readjust the system of their organizations and change their operational
orientations so as to improve the operational conditions of profit gaining and low cost.
Besides, ―people‖ are critical for life insurance sector to gain profits and survive. It is
one of the competitive edges for the sector how to improve qualities of the talents and
offer efficient and perfect services for the customers. Therefore, it cannot be too
important to emphasize the significance of developing good staff for the life insurance
OVERVIEW FOR MOBILE-LEARNING
Overview of Mobile-learning Define
It can be seen from the past researches that the relevant research for the sector to
apply mobile-learning is scarce and that people in the sector seldom explore and study
application of mobile-learning. In view of this, it is hoped that the needs of the life
insurance sector for mobile-learning is addressed in the paper by literature review to
provide important recommendations for the sector.
Quite a few researches focus on different aspects of mobile-learning, in which the
emphases and definitions of mobile-learning, Zurita & Nussbaum(2004) and Chen et
al.(2005) focus on knowledge integration ―after learning‖ and developing right
behavior using mobile media of science and technology to learn at any time and any
place, while Lee(2005) thinks that the concepts of mobile-learning and E-learning are
the same, the only difference is mobility, the differences between these two will be
more and more unclear, and that is will be unnecessary to differentiate the definitions
of mobile-learning and E-learning. Although it is mentioned in the article of Lee(2005)
that behaviorist are not restricted by time and space, he emphasizes in the end that the
concepts of mobile-learning and E-learning are the same.
It can be seen from the above that focuses of mobile-learning will shift from the
past mobile carriers, behaviorist, gradually and at any place to cognition of learning. It
is more notable to build the environment and attitudes for learning basing on mobile
carriers and behaviorists to make such tender regards as learning cooperation,
independence, self-respect, and interpersonal relationship grow and acquire cognition
and skills in learning effect.
Based on the aforementioned documents, the research attempts to define
mobile-learning as learning at any time or place under the environment of using
scientific and technological tools as media, and learner-centered through wireless
network, mobile carries, and passion for learning to improve work efficiency by
developing cognition, tender regards, and skills.
Overview the characters and the elements of form
1. The four characters for mobile-learning
Sariola(2001)explains that the outstanding mobile-learning with its existing in any
place and flexibility. Kynäslahti(2003)argues that the convenience, expediency and
immediacy of mobile-learning prove its action power. The three features emphasize
that the learning process and contents can be arranged flexibly according to learners’
requirements and objects without considering time and place. The study raises four
characters of mobile-learning including any place, any time, any demand and its
2. The four elements of form for mobile-learning
Referring to foreign related researches, he study proposes four elements of
mobile-learning: people that providing instruction book, learners, mobile-learning
medium and constructivism. For more details, please see the following contents.
All the learning actions take learners for central, which are most crucial to
education trainings. In mobile-learning, the two primary concepts are mobile
people and learners. The first one refers to people(Hardless, 2000) working in
different places for time-saving, whereas the second one refers to people studying
and obtaining knowledge in any place and at any time for achieving their objects.
From the abovementioned, the mobile learners refer to people with different
demands that learning in various places and at any time by wireless internet
technology and mobile carriers, or learning while they are moving. These learners
are supported by their will of mobile-learning and objects.
the instruction providers
Comparing with teaching methods applied by schools, the training courses in
business area are more diversified and vivid. Besides the teachers in taught classes,
the action pilots or the instruction providers that transferring related information
are also play roles in the learning. Their personal quality, professional knowledge
and instruction methods have direct impacts upon the learners’ performances. Plus,
the mobile-learning medium and tools are also very necessary in promoting the
learners achievements both in study and work. Further, from the point of
education, the learners provide a new direction in education process(Kambourakis
Referring to the medium in mobile-learning, it includes mobile carriers and
communication technology. Chang, Sheu, & Chan (2003) argue that the medium
is a necessary element for in carrying out the mobile-learning.
The thin-profile and wireless-communication mobile carriers, such as PDA,
laptop and smart phone, etc, are personalized tools that are light and short for
convenient carrying. The communications technology refers to the equipments
supporting communications between carriers and learners, such as wireless
internet, access point, base stations, GPRS, General Packet Radio Services and
other related technologies.
Another important media is user interface that generates interaction between the
learners and instruction contents. The application is considered in the interface
design to prevent the users from confusions while operating interactive products.
The user interfaces are divided into software and hare ware operation interface.
The first one means the interfaces between computer software and its users, such
as GUI (graphical user interface) including screen, windows, function list and
indicating images tools, etc. All these interfaces are expressed by images. The
latter one means substantial sites operated by users physically, such as control
panel using traditional controller or monitor, life of battery and weight of mobile
Besides the above elements, the instruction contents are also very important.
Without content, there will be no education. The instruction books mean structural
information and shall also be supported by carriers, communication technology
and user interfaces for instant learning.
In this study, the mobile-learning medium covers mobile carriers,
communication technology, user interface and instruction contents. In general, the
medium transfers the information given by instruction providers to the learners by
using interactions between them and instruction contents and mobile carriers.
Therefore, the learners are able to use it for studying everywhere at any time to
cultivate thinking abilities and promote studying achievements (Arnold, 2007). By
using the medium, the learners that get used to such medium will find out new
creative studying points in far-distance teaching everywhere at any time
(Kambourakis et al., 2007).
Zurita & Nussbaum(2004) holds that instead of a process, the constructivism is
a kind of general orientation and can be applied in education contents and actions.
The constructivism is divided into personal and social ones. The personal
constructivism is more closed to the idea of self-directed learning. The learners
can set their own objects according to their requirements to decide their contents,
ways, process and resources. So the personal constructivism is more independent,
self-directed and flexible. Yet, while encountering lot of immediate information, it
might mess the circumstances up, which will shock the personal analysis and
judgmental thinking abilities.
On the other side, the social constructivism is more closed to cooperative
learning idea, which emphasizes collective learning. It argues that the cooperative
learning environments generate cooperation actions, coordination and express
abilities. The learners share their achievements and opinions, even judge and
correct each other. Via learning from each other in the team and cooperation in
knowledge, the ability and technology will also be strengthened (Patokorpi, 2006).
Not only adjustment of personal relationship, the learners can also be more
constructive and realistic in their knowledge structure. The social constructivism
is formed by various life experiences and therefore diversified. Plus, the learners
can play cooperative roles.
From the abovementioned, the four elements of mobile-learning are linked one
by one and play active roles. Under the constructivism learning circumstances, the
learners can study the contents given by mobile-learning providers by medium to
train their thinking ability and strengthen their performances both in learning and
work and, eventually increasing the production capacity.
STATUS QUO FOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF
LIFE INSURANCE EMPLOYEES
Curriculum and contents of education and training for the life insurance sector
With the coming of the era of knowledge economy, enterprises come to realize that
talent development is key for age long survival and consider how to improve work
capacity of the employees in a more efficient way. With the rise of internet network,
people’s ways of life are changing gradually, and there has been another way to
develop talents, that is, a way to learn various knowledge and skills more efficiently
using internet transmission to acquire learning information and contents without
limitation of time or space.
Opening up of the domestic insurance market has resulted in more fierce
competition in the sector. It is the common objective for both employees and
organizations how to develop new customers, maintain their loyalty, and improve the
market share. For the enterprises, the best way to achieve their objectives is to
develop professional talents, and make the performances of the employees meet the
expectation of the company and needs for individual income.
It is only possible for life insurance companies to have good business by
developing big marketing system, building branches extensively and employing many
people to promote policies and expand business, a large number of outside-the -office
people are needed, therefore, to promote various insurance products so as to achieve
the objectives of the organization. Based on the differences between inside-and
outside-the office staff, the main training contents as as follows (The Life Insurance
Association of the Republic of China, 2007)：
Inside-the–office staff：Every company sends some people to go abroad for
further study and conducts training within the company. In addition, Taipei Life
Insurance Business Association hires foreign professional institutions to come to
Taiwan for seminars and invites domestic experts and scholars to have special
lectures every year. Still, the Consortium Legal Person Insurance Development
Center also have short-term training courses for employees to enhance
exchanges of operational experience and improve professional qualitative.
Outside-the-office staff：According to the Regulations on Management of
Insurance Employees, life insurance employees must receive the basic training,
pass the tests, and register before canvassing the business, and every life
insurance company is supposed to offer on-the-job education and training to
improve their professional knowledge and canvassing skills, and build their
professional service capabilities, and to offer the best service for the
policyholders is the objective for their training and management.
Status quo for development of life insurance employees
The education and training in the life insurance sector focus on professional
marketing, and employees are encouraged to attend various authentication tests to
improve their professional knowledge and image. In the light with the contents in
Clause 12 of Regulations on Management of Insurance Employees, the status quo for
development of the domestic life insurance salesmen is stated as follows:
1. Training before the job
Before the qualification test, new entrants are required to receive basic education
and training by the company, build and develop the basic professional attitudes
and knowledge, and improve their orientation so as to bring greater interests for
2. On-the-job training
After registration, they must attend on-the-job training curriculum by the company
annually, which include:
Intermediate education and training: Within one year after registration, they
must attend on-the-job training by the company, with training time of no less
than 30 hours and the curriculum contents include such 16 courses as product
knowledge, insurance practices, promotion skills, social insurance, tax law on
life insurance, risk options, insurance codes, communication skills,
professional expansion, life design and life insurance underwriting, solvency
practices, career planning, after-sale service, and annuity insurance.
Advanced education and training: From the second year after registration on,
they must attend on-the-job training by the company, with training time of no
less than 12 hours and the curriculum include such 20 courses as insurance
laws, increase of staff and selection of talents, organization and training,
reinsurance conspectus, individual integrated income tax and mercantilism
enterprise income tax, donation tax and legacy, tax claims case resolution,
investment and financial management, client management, statements
management, good work habits, inspiration of potentials, target market, career
planning, time management, insurance medicine, medical underwriting, life
insurance mathematics, use of computer, use of media, and self promotion.
Test of investment-oriented commodities: The main purpose is to improve
professionalism, and the qualification test held by the Insurance Development
Center aims at sales of investment-oriented commodities. Salesmen must
receive related basic curriculum training of no less than 15 hours on
investment-oriented commodities by the company before attending the test
and obtaining the certificate.
Others：Such examinations as Financial Management Employees and Trust
Employees held by Taiwan Financial Study and Training Academy build
strength for self competition by catering to the future trend of diversified roles
of the salesmen.
With opening up of the life insurance market in Taiwan, employees in the sector all
expand their organizational scale, increase their takings, and improve their market
shares by acquisition or absorbing a large number of new entrants. As the sector is
facing global competition, good or low quality of training of staff is crucial for
companies of the sector. Hence, substantial ratios of the expenditures on training
among the resources of the company, which will likely to reduce the flexibility for the
company, distribute their resources effectively.
In terms of trainings on sales of various new products, self-oriented learning
centered on learners is given into play through the initiative to acquire knowledge and
the instancy for needs of learning, the attributes of internet network, and the initiative
of the learners to have knowledge. Simultaneously, wireless communication can offer
instant and highly relevant knowledge for learners, its timing lies in immediate
obtaining of the information needed for instancy of knowledge. This is very helpful in
training on sales of new products, for it is possible for salesmen to have access to
related information of the new products in the shortest time to find other relevant
knowledge of marketing by using wireless communication, which improves the
instancy for transmission of knowledge, and greatly shortens the time of training as
In addition, the sharp increase of training before the job can be seen as fixed cost in
the operational cost of the enterprise. Therefore, use of such tools as cell phones and
PDA makes the new entrants understand the regulations, operational guidelines, work
procedures, and future vision of the organization beforehand at the same time of
fitting in with the new work environment and business, and then check the learning of
the trainees with appropriate check system, which will reduce the substantial cost for
training of new entrants.
As for the time for training, most of the trainings should be done during the work
time, and more time is arranged for special education and training. The higher their
ranks, the more time for their training. For life insurance salesmen, the flexibility to
distribute their time is highly related to their expansion of business. 由It can be seen
from Table 1 : Statistics of Employees in Insurance Industry in 2007 that in the past
ten years the ratio of outside-the office salesmen is 7 times as much as that of the
inside-the-office staff, meaning that 7 out of 10 staff were salesmen, with the highest
was 10:1. Hence, the traditional way of education and training time will restrict
timing and leads to loss of individual and organizational performances. If
supplemented by learning through such mobile carriers as cell phones, PDA, and the
company offers digital information and text books and help mobile learners to absorb
knowledge, the employees will have various latest resources for training without
limitation of time or space (Lehner & Nosekabel, 2002).
In the traditional way of education and training, employees gathered in a certain
place, travel allowances, and food and lodging became considerable expenditures.
Also, the trainees had to stop their business for the training. However, expansion of
business is the base for survival of the company. Such mobile-learning ways with
convenience, expediency, and immediacy (Kynäslahti, 2003), these can not only
increase freedom and flexibility for learners to learn, but also efficiently distribute the
time to visit clients and receive training. Also, they can choose curriculums basing on
different needs, which improve learning efficiency at the one hand, and reduce the
costs of the company to pay for education and training. And more importantly,
learning and the performances showed are what really emphasized is (Abernathy,
Table 1 Statistics of Employees in Insurance Industry
Year Total Non-life Insurance Industry Life Insurance Industry
Ratio of Ratio of
Growth Sales- Office Sales-pe Office Sales- Office
Employees Salespersons to Salespersons to
Rate % persons Clerks rsons Clerks persons Clerks
Office Clerks Office Clerks
1993 160,749 48.35 142,137 18,612 - - - 142,137 18,612 7.64
1994 216,967 34.97 184,128 32,839 4,266 12,517 0.34 179,862 20,322 8.85
1995 250,607 15.50 215,290 35,317 9,338 12,965 0.72 205,952 22,352 9.21
1996 258,100 2.99 221,577 36,523 10,405 13,023 0.80 211,172 23,500 8.99
1997 273,575 6.00 236,210 37,365 12,084 13,169 0.92 224,126 24,196 9.26
1998 260,906 -4.63 222,656 38,250 20,155 13,357 1.51 202,501 24,893 8.13
1999 299,924 14.95 261,522 38,402 26,233 13,209 1.99 235,289 25,193 9.34
2000 306,245 2.11 266,617 39,628 32,199 13,554 2.38 234,418 26,074 8.99
2001 322,134 5.19 281,908 40,226 37,209 13,529 2.75 244,699 26,697 9.17
2002 340,237 5.62 303,564 36,673 53,991 13,464 4.01 249,573 23,209 10.75
2003 338,333 -0.56 299,986 38,347 60,179 13,963 4.31 239,807 24,384 9.83
2004 326,881 -3.38 287,990 38,891 57,874 14,517 3.99 230,116 24,374 9.44
2005 309,414 -5.34 270,275 39,139 67,538 14,300 4.72 202,737 24,839 8.16
Source: The Life Insurance Association of the Republic of China (2007)
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
It helps us to understand four linked and active elements in mobile-learning through
discussing above documents. In the constructivism learning place, the mobile-learners
are able to take related medium to study the contents given by instruction providers.
Their thinking abilities and learning performance can thereby being cultivated and,
the education training cost that the enterprises spend can also be decreased. Being
supported by four elements, the mobile-learning makes people acquire new
knowledge more actively and immediately without any time or space obstruction. In
addition, the mobile-learning satisfies various demands asked by learners. They can
study the instruction contents more flexibly by using mobile carriers, communications
technology and medium.
For enterprises, either e-learning or mobile-learning is a huge forward step. It helps
people to study in working and assist in processing comprehensive tasks, even has
substantial impacts upon the company’s profit and loss. So generally, the traditional
learners’ visions have been expanded by mobile-learning. Talking about insurance in
current competitive world, the staff training is the key point that decides the fate of
company, which usually spends large proportion of its resources in staff training. Such
action might decrease the flexibility of its resources distribution.
Learners can use wireless communication technology, such as smart phone, PDA
and other mobile carriers to study high-related knowledge immediately, particularly
for those who want to acquire knowledge urgently. For salesmen, the time distribution
flexibility is extremely important to promote their business. The wireless
communication is able to help them to obtain information related to new products and
search other related sales knowledge. Such method decreases training time to the large
extent and strengthens immediate outcome generated from knowledge transfer. Plus,
the wireless communication makes new staffs get used to new working environment
and business, know the company’s regulations, business policies, working procedures
and its future vision, etc. For the enterprises, they can test the learners’ performances
supported by appropriate evaluating system to decrease expensive costs in new
The progress and convenience of science and technology continues to develop
mobile-learning application fast. Yet, it still encounters many challenges, including
the ideas that the enterprises are supposed to have while introducing the
mobile-learning, the instruction content design and instruction methods, as well as
how to avoid collateral damages caused by mobile carriers. We try to help enterprises
to find out how to increase staffs’ learning achievements by mobile-learning and,
make them get used to the work to promote their performances. To increase
successful ratio and training efficiency for insurance operators in mobile-learning, the
study raised the following suggestions aiming at Introduction Policy, Instruction
Design of Mobile-learning, Damages caused by Science and Technology Application
as well as Working Performance.
1.Introduction Policy for Enterprises
For enterprises, to introduce the mobile-learning will have global effect upon the
staffs across the company. From the introduction experiences of ERP, B2B and EC,
most employees will resist to introduce science and technology as they generate
changes. The senior executives shall therefore support related departments to achieve
higher successful ratio. Their supports provided to human resources department are
key elements to determine the successful or failed introduction.
Incomplete introduction policy is the other primary reason to obstruct the
enterprises in using the mobile-learning. The complete introduction policy covers
many aspects including what problems that the mobile-learning will solve, the profits
it generates, the beginning training and how it costs, the necessary budget for its
maintenance, as well as taking the mobile-learning as supporting tool, etc. Plus, it
should be understood that the real emphasis is achievements presented by such
learning. Only after clarifying these problems, do the enterprises solve their problems
by promoting employees’ skills forwardly and eventually increasing their integral
performances through the mobile-learning.
2.Instruction Design of Mobile-learning
The impacts generated by mobile carriers make us to reconsider the design of
instruction action and contents, such as changing the learning place, selection of
hardware equipment, internet application, learning tools matching and interactive
model design, etc. All these are important factors that we should consider carefully in
3.Damages caused by Science and Technology Application
As stated above, the mobile-learning is promoted and used widely by booming
science and technology. But it is also challenged by overloaded information,
inappropriate information browsing, attention diverting, damage upon human body
and abuses of science and science ant technology. So with exception of conveniences
of time and space, we have to consider other appropriate questions, such as how to
use contents of time, place and action instructions to make staffs study the content fast
and safe in mobile-learning.
4. Working Performances
The more the staff feels to complete the tasks or education training assisted by
science and technology, the more that the tasks, functions of science and technology
and staffs coincided with each other; the working performances will be increased by
strengthening the demands requested by tasks and its degree of matching with science
& technology. From this point of view, the staffs should accept science & technology
and want to use them. Plus, the technology and its supporting tasks shall also
cooperate closely. Based upon this, the study argues that besides providing mobile
carriers and other related science & technology tools, we should also consider the
staffs’ applications for mobile carriers, their cognition of action instruction contents
and user interface operation ability, etc. Moreover, the study expresses that the staffs
will be equipped with skills regarding using mobile-learning by training courses. The
mobile-learning contents shall satisfy the staffs’ requests upon their jobs. It helps
learners to promote their individual performances and therefore obtain the greatest
advantages for enterprises.
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