Leadership for Rigor and Relevance by dfhdhdhdhjr

VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 109

									                Dr. Gary M. Fields
                Senior Consultant
      International Center for Leadership in
                    Education




  Leadership for
Rigor, Relevance
and Relationships
    ??? Why ???
Rigorous and Relevant
      Learning
   Rigor and Relevance
          ???? Why
Changing Nature of Work
International Comparisons
Changing Youth
Focus on Learning
Not All Succeeding
Explain What is Important
It is what is on THE test
Increase Student Motivation/Engagement
Makes Teaching More Exciting
Rigor
            Relevance




My only
 skill is
  taking
   tests.
 Ask Me.....
 “How will I
ever use what
I’m learning
   today?”
There aren’t two worlds
 -- education and
 work, there is one
 world -- life.

             Willard Wirtz
  Improving Instruction
                        Traditional
• Consistent progress
• School driven
• Teaching ‘things’
    right
• Teacher centered
• More content
    Improving Instruction
                       Rigor/Relevance
• Sense of urgency
• Standards driven
• Teaching the right
  ‘things’
• Student centered
• More application
                         Rigorous and
  Traditional              Relevant

• Teaching focused   • Learning focused
• Time-based         • Competency-based
                     • Interdisciplinary
• Fragmented         • Real World
• Textbooks            Problems
                     • Constantly
• Routine              Challenging
 International Center for
 Leadership in Education


Rigor/Relevance
  Framework
    Rigor/Relevance Framework
K
N
O
W
      C             D
L
E
D
G
E     A             B
         APPLICATIO
             N
Knowledge
Taxonomy

Verb List
          Knowledge Taxonomy
               1. Knowledge
   Arrange            Match
   Check              Name
   Choose             Point to
   Find               Recall
   Group              Recite
   Identify           Repeat
   Label              Say
   List               Select
   Locate             Write
         Knowledge Taxonomy
         2. Comprehension
   Advance          Interpret
   Calculate        Outline
   Change           Project
   Convert          Propose
   Contemplate      Reword
   Define           Submit
   Explain          Transform
   Extrapolate      Translate
   Infer            Vary
          Knowledge Taxonomy
              3. Application

   Adopt              Manipulate
   Consume            Mobilize
   Capitalize on      Operate
   Devote             Put to use
   Employ             Relate
   Exercise           Solve
   Handle             Start
   Maintain           Take up
   Make use of        Utilize
        Knowledge Taxonomy
                4. Analysis
   Assay               Include
   Audit               Inspect
   Breakdown           Look at
   Canvass             Scrutinize
   Check out           Sift
   Dissect             Survey
   Deduce              Study
   Divide              Test for
   Examine             Uncover
          Knowledge Taxonomy
                5. Synthesis
   Blend               Develop
   Build               Evolve
   Cause               Form
   Combine             Generate
   Compile             Make up
   Compose             Originate
   Conceive            Produce
   Construct           Reorder
   Create              Structure
         Knowledge Taxonomy
            6. Evaluation
   Accept           Grade
   Appraise         Judge
   Arbitrate        Prioritize
   Assess           Rank
   Award            Rate
   Decide           Reject
   Classify         Rule on
   Criticize        Settle
   Determine        Weigh
             Assimilation
            of knowledge

 Thinking
Continuum

             Acquisition
            of knowledge
             Knowledge
•Bits of information
•Core Facts
•Terms/Definitions
•Student will know....
     Knowledge - Examples
•Branches of government
•Key vocabulary
•Structure of DNA
•Location of states
•Significant dates in US history
•Prime numbers
  Knowledge Taxonomy

6. Evaluation
5. Synthesis
4. Analysis
3. Application
2. Comprehension
1. Recall Knowledge
Knowledge Taxonomy
         Managing Resources
 6 Evaluate spending habits of
   spouse
 5 Set goals based on budget
 4 Match expenses to budget
 3 Buy something within budget
 2 Explain values
 1 Identify money
Application
  Model
          Action
         Continuum

 Acquisition          Application
of knowledge         of knowledge
         Application Model


1 Knowledge of one discipline
2 Application within discipline
3 Application across
   disciplines
4 Application to real-world
   predictable situations
5 Application to real-world
   unpredictable situations
Application Model
     Managing Resources
1   Know money values
2   Solve word problems
3   Relate wealth to quality
    of life
4   Prepare budget
5   Handle lottery
    winnings
 Application
   Model

Decision Tree
   Application Model
           Decision Tree




International Center for Leadership in Education 1997
   Application Model
           Decision Tree
  Is it Application?
       If NO                                            Level 1




International Center for Leadership in Education 1997
   Application Model
           Decision Tree
  Is it Application?
       If NO                                            Level 1
  If YES - Is it real world?
       If NO and one discipline                         Level 2
       If NO and interdisciplinary                      Level 3




International Center for Leadership in Education 1997
Application Model
        Decision Tree
Is it Application?
     If NO                         Level 1
If YES - Is it real world?
     If NO and one discipline      Level 2
     If NO and interdisciplinary   Level 3
If YES - Is it unpredictable?
     If NO                         Level 4
     If YES
                                   Level 5
    Activity

   Levels of
Application Model
•Conducting a scientific         •Computer spreadsheet
experiment                       •Word processing
•Reading a historical novel      •Poetry
•Basic computation (add,         •Measurement of area
subtract, multiply, divide)      •Interpersonal communication
•Measuring volume of liquids     •Physical fitness
•Technical writing               •Nutrition
•Speaking to an audience         •Parenting
•Determining probability         •Citizenship
•Personal health and wellness    •Economics
•Predicting events based on      •U . S. Geography
probability                      •Scientific classification
•Critical viewing skills         systems
•Collecting and analyzing data   •Cellular Biology
•Correct grammatical use of      •Writing letters
language                         •Preparing a personal budget
         Application Model


1 Knowledge of one discipline
2 Application within discipline
3 Application across
   disciplines
4 Application to real-world
   predictable situations
5 Application to real-world
   unpredictable situations
    Rigor/Relevance Framework

6     Knowledge
5
4
3
2
                 Application
1
       1   2     3   4    5
    Rigor/Relevance Framework
K
N
O
W
      C             D
L
E
D
G
E     A             B
         APPLICATIO
             N
    Rigor/Relevance Framework
K
N    Assimilation    Adaptation
O
W        C               D
L
E
D    Acquisition     Application
G
E
         A               B
           APPLI CAT I O N
           Rigor/Relevance Framework
              Teacher/Student Roles
             C                  D
                 Student         Student
R   High
                  Think        Think & Work
I
G
O                               B
R
             A
                 Teacher         Student
    Low
                  Work            Work

                   Low               High
                         RELEVANCE
           Rigor/Relevance Framework
            Did Students Get it Right?

              C Rational        D
                                  Right
R   High
                  Answer        Questions
I
G
O
R
              A                 B
                   Right          Right
    Low
                  Answer        Procedure

                   Low               High
                         RELEVANCE
    Benefits of Using Rigor and
            Relevance?
 Better prepare students for future work
 Way to focus student learning on
  priority standards
 Ensure student achieve standards
 Align curriculum, instruction and
  assessment
 Prepare for state tests
 Increase student interest and motivation
           Rigor/Relevance Framework

            ELA - Read for Information

            C                       D
            Read and analyze            Debate proposed
    High
R          biotech editorial for      legislation related to
           scientific accuracy         genetic engineering
I
G
O           A                       B
R            Read a science
                                        Read and follow
    Low      experiment and
                                   directions for experiment
             identify needed
                                       on DNA extraction
                materials

                     Low                       High
                             RELEVANCE
            Rigor/Relevance Framework
ELA –  Read literature to build an understanding of the
many dimensions of human experience

            C                       D
             Write a letter to       Design a brochure for
     High   Romeo on how to          teenagers on how to
 R           resolve family       resolve family conflict for a
 I             conflicts.             community agency.
 G
 O          A                       B
 R          Read Romeo and         Create a list of do's and
     Low    Juliet and identify    don'ts for today's teens
             characters and         based on Romeo and
                  issues.                   Juliet.

                     Low                       High
                             RELEVANCE
            Rigor/Relevance Framework
           Math - represent mathematical
           situations with algebraic symbols

            C                      D
    High   Solve problems with    Create formulas to predict
R           multiple unknowns      changes in stock prices
I
G
O           A                      B
R          Read word problem,     Determine quantities of
    Low    create an expression    building materials for
              to solve for an      multiple construction
                 unknown                  projects

                    Low                      High
                            RELEVANCE
            Rigor/Relevance Framework
Science - Understand energy conversion in living
     systems and interdependence of organisms.

             C                      D
             Create a science         Design a consumer
     High       project to             brochure on light
 R             demonstrate          requirements for indoor
 I           photosynthesis            flowering plants
 G
 O           A                      B
 R                Describe            Solve a case study
      Low    photosynthesis and    problem on location of a
            importance to plants   greenhouse to maximize
                and humans                 sunlight.

                     Low                      High
                             RELEVANCE
            Rigor/Relevance Framework
History - Understand the causes and global
      consequences of World War II.

             C original
             Analyze
                                     D
              documents and        Summarize global impacts
     High
 R          summarize reasons        of WWII and project
            for US opposition to      impacts of Iraq war
 I              entering WWII
 G
 O           A                       B
 R
               Identify nations    Interview local WWII veterans
     Low    involved and reasons     and describe impacts from
                  for WWII                their perspective.

                      Low                      High
                             RELEVANCE
              Rigor/Relevance Framework
Foreign Language - Engage in conversations in languages
other than English to provide and obtain information, express
feelings and emotions, and exchange opinions

              C                     D
      High     Read and analyze
                                        Teach language
  R             literary work in
                                     to younger students.
  I            second language.

  G
  O           A                     B
  R
      Low       Speak common              Role play
                 vocabulary.            conversations.


                       Low                    High
                              RELEVANCE
             Rigor/Relevance Framework
Physical Education - Achieve and maintain a
health-enhancing level of physical fitness.

             C                     D
             Contrast exercises
      High     by impacts on      Design a weight training
  R           specific muscle     program for a paraplegic
  I               groups.
  G
  O          A                     B
  R           Describe correct
                procedure for      Regularly follow weight
      Low
             performing weight        training regimen
              training exercise

                      Low                    High
                             RELEVANCE
             Rigor/Relevance Framework
ART – Understand and apply media, techniques and
processes


             C                     D
                                  Express emotions and
             Contrast painting
      High                        feelings with color and
  R               styles.
                                          images.
  I
  G
  O          A                     B
  R
               Explain the            Create holiday
      Low      color wheel.         crafts/ornaments.


                      Low                     High
                              RELEVANCE
             Rigor/Relevance Framework
Music –    Perform on instruments, alone and with
others, a variety of music

             C                     D
               Compare and
      High                        Revise and perform a new
  R          contrast different
                                    musical arrangement
              musical styles
  I
  G
  O          A                     B
  R
      Low        Memorize          Perform musical piece
                  notes                from memory


                     Low                     High
                             RELEVANCE
           Rigor/Relevance Framework

Information Systems - Publish web pages

            C                      D
            Compare features
    High    and advantages of       Design a web site for a
R          software options for        local business
I          creating web pages.
G
O           A                      B
R
    Low                           Convert a print document
           Identify HTML codes
                                       to a web page


                     Low                      High
                            RELEVANCE
            Rigor/Relevance Framework
Construction - Apply safe and effective building
                      techniques

            C                      D
            Compare heat loss
     High                          Design and construct
 R          ratings and cost of
                                      storage shed.
 I
            building materials.

 G
 O          A                      B
 R            List safety
            procedures in         Use construction power
     Low
               building               tools correctly.
            construction.

                     Low                    High
                            RELEVANCE
Quadrant A
Students read each act of Romeo and Juliet out loud in character and answer
comprehension questions. They also memorize and recite teacher-selected scenes. Through
teacher-led classroom discussion, students draw comparisons between Romeo and Juliet
and Bernstein’s West Side Story.

Quadrant B
Students translate scenes from Romeo and Juliet into contemporary language and
contemporary settings. Included in this is research into the time period in which the play was
written and performed and an intense study of significant characters. They perform their
revised scenes for peers.

Quadrant C
Students write an extended literary analysis of Romeo and Juliet after reading a number of
literary critiques of the play. Using information literacy skills, each student accesses,
evaluates, and synthesizes outside sources to support a thesis statement.

Quadrant D
Students are asked to adapt a scene and its themes into another time period. Students
select civil war, wild west, the Victorian era, the Roaring Twenties, post World War II, hippie
culture, or the disco era. Based upon their historical research, students design a portfolio
that includes script, set design, costume design, a dictionary of terms from the era, and a
marketing plan for the redesigned scene. Students present their scene to an audience
beyond their classroom.
RR Handbook Page 40
RR Resources
  Rigor/
Relevance
Handbook
Instructional Strategies:
 How to Teach for Rigor
     and Relevance
        Selecting Strategies on
           Rigor/Relevance
•   Brainstorming          • Inquiry
•   Community service      • Instructional
•   Compare and contrast     technology
•   Cooperative learning   • Internship
•   Creative arts          • Lecture
•   Demonstration          • Literature
                           • Memorization
•   Games
                           • Note-taking/graphic
•   Group discussion         organizers
•   Guided practice        • Presentations/
                              exhibitions
       Selecting Strategies on
          Rigor/Relevance
• Problem-based            • Simulation/role
  learning                   playing
• Project design           • Socratic seminar
• Recognition and          • Teacher questions
  rewards                  • Total physical
• Research                   response
• Review and re-teaching   • Video
• Setting objectives and   • Work-based learning
  advance organizers       • Writing
Selection of
Strategies
Based on
Rigor/
Relevance
Framework




   Page 1
Selection of
Strategies
Based on
Rigor/
Relevance
Framework




   Page 2
Revised Staff
Development
     Kit
Assessment
       Rigor/Relevance Framework


High

       Traditional   Performance
          Tests
Low




           Low                High
               Primary Assessments
            Rigor/Relevance Framework
K
    • Extended             • Portfolio
N                          • Product
      Response
O   • Product                Performance
W     Performance          • Interview
                           • Self Reflection
L
E
D   • Multiple Choice     • Process
    • Constructed           Performance
G                         • Product
     Response
E                           Performance


            APPLI CAT I O N
Increasing the Level of
 Rigor and Relevance
  Increasing Rigor and
       Relevance
Challenging Assessments
Interdisciplinary Instruction
Reading in the Content Area
Relationships
Use of Technology
New Teaching Ideas
Peer Teaching Observations
Action Research
Continuous Professional Development
Suggestion for
Sequencing Learning
   Don’t always start in Quadrant
    A
   Consider starting with real
    world problems
   Use inquiry for launching
    activities
   Use variety of individual and
    group student work
 Planning
Instruction
         Rigorous and Relevant
               Instruction
                  Student Learning



   Expected        Instruction                   Actual
    Student                                     Student
  Performance                                 Performance
                  Assessment
Rigor/Relevance                          Rigor/Relevance
                  Student Learning




                                     Feedback
                                     Reflection
             Planning Rigorous and Relevant Instruction
                                  STEPS
     Step 1                Step 2                 Step 3            Step 4

                           Student                                 Learning
Focus of Learning                           Assessment
                         Performance                              Experiences
                           R/R
                                 Alignment with            Alignment with
                                  Performance               Assessment
          Student
          Learning

          Standards
        Best Practices
            Student
          Differences
           Reading
             Multiple Paths to Rigor and Relevance




Rigor/Relevance
  Framework
                          Student                    Student Work
                        Performance


                          Assessment


                            Learning
                           Experiences
                    Multiple Paths to Rigor and Relevance


                  Brainstorm           Brainstorm        Revise Unit in
                 Concepts or          Work in Multiple      Course
              Essential Questions      Disciplines
                                                           Syllabus
  Use Idea to
   Brainstorm
   Concepts,                                                        State
Knowledge, Skills
                                                                  Standards
 and Behaviors


    Rigor/Relevance
      Framework
                                      Student                     Student Work
                                    Performance


                                     Assessment


                                       Learning
                                      Experiences
Change Seems
   to be an
Over-whelming
    Task?
    Common Instructional Model
       The Art and Science of teaching
• How do ALL teachers BEGIN the lesson?

• How do ALL teachers END each lesson?

• How do ALL teachers ENGAGE students
  in their learning?

• How do ALL teachers help students
  PRACTICE what they are learning?
      International Center
               for
         Leadership in
           Education


Build Relationships
―When you have
high
expectations, you
have to have high
support.‖
         Eugene White
              Relationships
 The single most important characteristic of a high
              performing high school?
• What is your             • School with parents
  definition?              • School with
• Culture - “how a           community
  school does              • Every class, every
  business”                  day
• Theory x/y leadership • Many schools need to
• Adult to adult             re-culture
• Adult to student         • In-service vs.
• Student to student         UBIQUITOUS
   Supportive Behaviors
Showing Respect
Taking Interest
Active Listening
Frequent Contact
Encouragement
Avoiding “Put Downs
Displaying Student Work
Writing Encouraging Notes
Identifying Unique Talents
Supportive Behaviors cont’d.
  Celebrating Accomplishments
  Serving As Role Model
  Using One-to-One Communication
  Encouraging Students to Express Opinions/Ideas
  Creating Inviting Classroom Climate
  Exhibiting Enthusiasm
  Using Positive Humor
  Students Praising Peers
Research on
Relationships
Metlife Survey of the American
           Teacher

    New students are bullied or teased?

           very often/often 18%
             sometimes 33%

New students are helped by other students ?

          very often/often 52%
            sometimes 37%
Survey of 10-12th Grade Students on Relationships




                  Metlife Survey of the American Teacher 2005
How many young people are ready?
Researchers Gambone and colleagues estimate
  that
•   43% of youth are doing well at being
    economically self-sufficient, having healthy
    habits and healthy relationships, and being
    involved in institutions and in their community
but
• 22% are having difficulty
Gambone
  The special importance of
  encouragement highlights the likely
 importance of strong teacher-student
relationships in affecting achievement,
  especially for African American and
          Hispanic students.


                     Ronald Ferguson
                    Harvard University
Relationships
Clearly Important ?
 How to Quantify?
 How to Develop?
Relationship Model
0.   Isolated
1.   Known
2.   Receptive
3.   Reactive
4.   Proactive
5.   Sustained
6.   Mutually Beneficial
           Relationship Model
1. Known       Teachers get to know students and
               their families
2. Receptive   Have frequent contact with students
               and show interest
3. Reactive    Some positive support when
               requested, but sporadic
4. Proactive   Support from individuals that take the
               initiative.
5. Sustained   Fully supported from all individuals
               over time
6. Mutually    Mutually supportive learning
    Beneficial community
              In The Classroom
                   Classroom Mgt.     Relationship Building

Rules                Mandated            Negotiated

                 Without Question       With Respect
Power
                 Passive and Quiet         Engaged
Effectiveness
                   Discouraged          Encouraged
Risk Taking     Negative Punishment       Positive
                                       Reinforcement
Control          Absolute Attention     Source of
                                      Encouragement
                      Public
Teacher Role     Pronouncements           Private
                                       Conversations
Voice
    8 Conditions that Make a
     Difference for Students
1. Belonging        5. Curiosity and
2. Heroes             creativity
                    6. Spirit and
3. Sense of           adventure
   accomplishment
                    7. Leadership and
4. Fun and            responsibility
   excitement       8. Confidence to take
                      action
  CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH
 PERFORMING HIGH SCHOOLS
• Focus on Student          • Leadership
  Interests and Needs –
  ―Getting to Small‖
                            • Professional
                              Development
• Culture of High
  Expectations for ALL      • 12th Grade
• Relationships at All      • 9th Grade
  Levels –
                            • LITERACY IS KING
  Personalization and
  adult collaboration       • Civility & Character
• Curriculum and            • Quality Support
  Instruction – Rigor and
                            • Unity of Purpose
  Relevance
• Use of Data
              Leadership
• Distributed
• Ownership Motivated (“empowering”)
• Level 5 –Uncommon combination of Will and
  Humility.
• Sense of Urgency - passionate
• Committed to shaping life – rather than being
  shaped by it.
• Take people to places they would not have gone
  alone.
 Leadership Imperatives for Rigor
         and Relevance
• As a leader, your single most valuable and
  important resource is your time.
• Where and how you spend your time tells
  your staff what your priorities are.
• You can delegate tasks – you cannot
  delegate leadership.
• You must inspect what you expect.
Serving as a high
school principal is
 like being a fire
hydrant on a dog
       farm.
   WHAT ARE WE ALL
         ABOUT?
To prepare our high school
graduates for a quality life
     after high school:

    >further education
         >a career
          >family
       >citizenship
OWNERSHIP PROCESS
  from observer to owner

     Owner

    Leader

    Partner

   Participant


   Observer
OWNERSHIP – EMPOWERMENT
             PROCESS

• ________ % READY AND PASSIONATE

• ________ % OBSERVERS-CAN BE
             INFLUENCED

• ________ % NO WAY-WAIT IT OUT
•            “Not Yet”
  “RENTERS OR HOMELESS”
   Do you have the will?

 Do you have the passion?

    How do you create
      ownership?

   Do you have a plan?
What resources are needed?
"Educational change
 depends on what
 teachers do and think -
 it's as simple and as
 complex as that."


                   Fullan and
                  Steigelbauer
The Tipping Point
Look at the world around you. It
 may seem like an immovable,
implacable place. It is not. With
the slightest push — in just the
 right place — it can be tipped.

                   Malcolm Gladwell
 Examples of Epidemics

Contagiousness
Little Causes can Have Big
Effects
Change Happens
Dramatically
Examples of Modern Change ( Epidemics)


   Infectious Disease
   Crime
   Teenage Smoking
   Teen Suicide
   TV, Books, and Movies
Three Rules of Epidemics

 The Law of the Few
  Connectors
  Mavens
  Salesman
 The Stickiness Factor
 The Power of Context
         Creating Stickiness

Stickiness is:
   Creative - Challenging the
   “Conventional Wisdom”
   Supported by Evaluation and
   Research
   People Friendly
Stickiness Strategies
   Think “Outside the Box”
   Collect Data to Measure Results
   Build on Human/Social Desires
Context Important in Education

   Adding data analysis in context of
   state assessments
   Buying technology in context of
   building project
   Changing organization in context
   of new administrator
   New instructional strategy in
   context of poor student performance
Comparison of Learning Models

   Planned Professional Development
        Tipping Point Learning
   Involve All People
  Involve Key Stakeholders
  Development Plans
  Learning Ideas
  Comprehensive and Detailed
  Clarity and Focus
  Detailed Solutions
  Collaborative Problem Solvers
   External
  Internal
   Mass Communication
  Reflection with Colleagues
  Start With Big Ideas
  Start with Small Improvements

								
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