Child

Document Sample
Child Powered By Docstoc
					The Child and Youth Population in South
               Australia

                          A Profile




        A report prepared by the Australian Bureau of Statistics
      (Adelaide Office) for the SA Government Agencies Statistical
     Committee (GASC), utilising the 2004 State Consultancy Fund.

                             October 2004
                             CONTENTS




                                                                                                                                                    Page

CHAPTER
                         Preface          ............................................................................................................. iv
                         Symbols and Other Usages .................................................................................. vi


                         1          Population.................................................................................................. 1


                         2          Health .......................................................................................................17


                         3          Education and Training .............................................................................45


                         4          Labour Force ............................................................................................71


                         5          Living Arrangements and Housing ............................................................88


                         6          Income ....................................................................................................107


                         7          Safety and Justice...................................................................................121




ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
                             List of tables ....................................................................................................142




                                                    THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                                             iii
PREFACE



‘Compared with previous generations, children and young people in South
Australia today have some of the best prospects for living healthier and longer
lives. Children and young people are brighter and in some ways more capable
and adaptable than children have perhaps been in the past. However, the social
and economic context in which children and young people are growing up in
South Australia poses important challenges for children’s lifelong outcomes,
for families, for Government and the community’.

Child Protection Review Report: ‘Our Best Investment: A State Plan to Protect and
Advance the Interests of Children’, (‘The Layton Report’), 2003 § 3.2



This report has been produced in response to recognised State Government needs to
provide a rich information source to policy developers, decision makers and service
providers in areas that will facilitate improved outcomes for South Australian children,
young people and their families.

The Profile was prepared by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (Adelaide Office) for
the South Australian Government Agencies Statistical Committee (GASC) utilising the
2004 State Consultancy Fund.

The Child and Youth Population in South Australia: A Profile focuses on a broad
range of issues and is arranged into seven chapters of interest:
!   Population;
!   Health
!   Education and Training;
!   Labour Force;
!   Living Arrangements and Housing;
!   Income; and
!   Safety and Justice.

Valuable advice and input was provided by members of the Steering Committee
which included representatives from the following agencies and organisations :
    Department of Health
    Department for Families and Communities
    Department of Education and Children’s Services
    Department of Further Education, Employment,
         Science and Technology
    Department of Justice
    Aboriginal Housing Authority
    SA Housing Trust
    Public Health Information Development Unit (University of Adelaide)
    Youth Affairs Council of South Australia
                                                                                              PREFACE




                   The project brief specified certain age groups that were to be used wherever possible
                   in the Profile. These age groups were 0-7, 8-11, 12-17 and 18-24. These age groups
                   conform to areas of responsibility within certain key State agencies. While these age
                   groupings were used wherever possible, it should be noted that they were not
                   available for quite a number of topics/datasets, in which case standard 5-year age
                   groups (0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-24) or other relevant or available groupings were
                   used.



                   When referring to numbers and percentages in the text of the report, rounding has
                   been applied. For exact figures, refer to the Tables supplied in each Chapter.

                   For further information about this report, please contact Liz Finlay on (08) 8237 7417
                   or email elizabeth.finlay@abs.gov.au




                   October 2004




SYMBOLS AND OTHER USAGES

                   ABS            Australian Bureau of Statistics

                   AIHW           Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

                   ANZSIC         Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification

                   ASCO2          Australian Standard Classification of Occupations, Second Edition

                   ARR            Apparent retention rate

                   BMI            Body Mass Index

                   CDEP           Community Development Employment Programs (for indigenous
                                  persons)

                   DASC           Drug and Alcohol Services Council

                   DECS           SA Department of Education and Children’s Services

                   DEST           (Commonwealth) Dept of Education, Science and Training

                   ERP            Estimated resident population

                   FT             Full-time

                   FTE            Full Time Equivalent

                   ICD            International Classification of Disease

                   IMR            Infant Mortality Rate


                                       THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE         v
PREFACE




                               ISAAC         Integrated South Australian Activity Collection – SA Department of
                                             Health

                               MCEETYA       Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth
                                             Affairs

                               n.a.          not available or not applicable

                               NCVER         National Centre for Vocational Education Research

                               n.e.c.        not elsewhere classified

                               NESB          From a non-English speaking background

                               nfd           not further defined

                               n.p.          not available for publication but included in totals where applicable

                               OCSAR         Office of Crime Statistics and Research

                               PT            Part-time

                               R-7           Reception to Year 7 (i.e. Primary levels in South Australian schools)

                               SA            South Australia

                               SAPOL         SA Police

                               SAAP          Supported Accommodation Assistance Program

                               SASP          South Australia’s Strategic Plan

                               SRR           Standardised rate ratio

                               VET           Vocational Education and Training

                               YLD           Healthy years of life lost due to disability

                               YLL           Years of life lost due to premature death.

                               $             Dollar

                               %             per cent

                               ‘000          thousands




vi   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
CHAPTER         1   POPULATION




INTRODUCTION

                    The South Australian Government released its ‘Population Policy for South Australia’
                    in March 2004. That policy recognises the importance of sustainable population
                    growth and proposes a number of targets and strategies to meet its objectives. In
                    common with many developed parts of the world, South Australia is experiencing the
                    challenges of slow population growth, a sustained period of low fertility and an ageing
                    population. Numbers of children and young people have declined over the last ten
                    years. This Chapter examines demographic trends related to South Australia’s
                    children and young people including future population estimates. It also looks at
                    South Australia’s overall demographic context (natural increase, overseas and
                    interstate migration), young Indigenous people and, finally, the cultural diversity of
                    young South Australians (including new arrivals).



                      South Australia’s population aged under 25 has declined from 35% of the total in
                      1993 to 32% in 2003 and is projected to further decline to 29% in 2013 and 26% in
                      2023. If the population projections prove to be correct the consequences will be
                      significant.



AGE STRUCTURE

                    Table 1.1 towards the end of this Chapter shows that the population of South
                    Australia’s children and young people has declined over the last ten years and is
                    projected to continue to decline over the next twenty years, both in actual numbers
                    and as a proportion of the total population. This is according to the ABS Population
                    Projection Series B – the middle (medium) series of the three alternative series (high,
                    medium and low). The ageing of the population, which is already evident in the
                    current age structure, is expected to continue. This is the inevitable result of
                    sustained low fertility combined with increasing life expectancy. While these factors
                    are clearly evident for both South Australia and Australia as a whole, there are several
                    demographic characteristics which accentuate the situation for South Australia. For
                    many years South Australia has experienced a pattern of net interstate migration
                    outflow, comparatively low net overseas migration inflow and a fertility rate below the
                    Australian average.

                    It should be noted that ABS population projections are not predictions or forecasts.
                    They are an assessment of what would happen if the assumed levels of the
                    components of population change – births, deaths and migration – were to hold over
                    time.

                    The South Australian population aged under 25 has declined from 516,610 in 1993 to
                    491,670 in 2003 and is projected to further decline to 454,030 in 2013 and 413,750 in
                    2023. As a proportion of the total population the under 25s represented 35% in 1993,
                    32% in 2003 and are projected to be 29% in 2013 and 26% in 2023. If the population
                    projections prove to be correct the consequences will be significant.

                                          THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE        1
CHAPTER      1   • POPULATION




                              The two graphs below show the actual age structure in single years for (i) South
                              Australia and (ii) Australia for 1993 and 2003 and also projections (ABS Series B) for
                              2013 and 2023. The graphs illustrate that the population of children and young
                              people of all ages in South Australia is projected to decline by 2023, significantly for
                              those aged 0-21 but less so for those aged 22-24. On the other hand, there are less
                              significant changes projected for Australia as a whole. Tables 1.1 (South Australia)
                              and 1.2 (Australia) provide more detail.



                              AGE STRUCTURE, SINGLE YEARS, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 1993 to 2023


                               '000
                               24

                               22

                               20

                               18

                               16

                               14
                                                                                                                 1993
                               12                                                                                2003
                                                                                                                 2013
                                                                                                                 2023
                               10
                                      0   2     4       6      8     10       12      14   16    18        20   22      24
                                                                           age (years)
                              Source: ABS Estimated Resident Population by State (1993 and 2003),
                                                     ABS Population Projections Series B (2013 and 2023)




                              AGE STRUCTURE, SINGLE YEARS, AUSTRALIA, 1993 to 2023

                               '000
                              300

                              280

                              260

                              240

                              220
                                                                                                                 1993
                              200                                                                                2003
                                                                                                                 2013
                                                                                                                 2023
                              180
                                      0   2      4       6     8      10      12      14   16    18    20       22   24
                                                                           age (years)
                              Source: ABS Estimated Resident Population by State (1993 and 2003),
                                                     ABS Population Projections Series B (2013 and 2023)



DEMOGRAPHIC CONTEXT

                              To gain a better understanding of the population dynamics of South Australia’s
                              children and young people, it is useful to examine key demographic trends over the
                              last ten years or so.



2   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                              CHAPTER           1   • POPULATION




                   The graph below depicts each of the three components of recent population change
                   for South Australia – i.e. natural increase (the excess of births over deaths), net
                   overseas migration and net interstate migration for the period 1991-92 to 2002-03.
                   The overall combination of these factors has had a tendency to reduce the child and
                   youth population of South Australia.



                   COMPONENTS OF ANNUAL POPULATION GROWTH: SOUTH AUSTRALIA,
                   1991-92 TO 2002-03


                    persons
                                                                               Total annual population growth
                    12500
                                                                               Natural increase
                                                                               Net overseas migration
                    10000                                                      Net interstate migration
                     7500

                     5000

                     2500

                         0

                    –2500

                    –5000

                    –7500
                                1992-93       1994-95       1996-97       1998-99      2000-01        2002-03
                   Source: Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS Cat. No. 3101.0)



NATURAL INCREASE

                   There has been a steady decline in the number of births in South Australia since the
                   1960s. In 1991-92 there were 19,660 births while in 2002-03 there were 17,240 (see
                   Table 1.3 towards the end of this Chapter). At the same time the number of deaths
                   has been gradually increasing from 11,060 in 1991-92 to 11,700 in 2002-03. The
                   graph below depicts the net consequence of these two trends. The natural increase
                   in 1991-92 was 8,600 persons, falling steadily to 5,540 persons by 2002-03.
                   BIRTHS, DEATHS AND NATURAL INCREASE: SOUTH AUSTRALIA,
                   1991-92 TO 2002-03


                   persons
                                                                                            Natural increase
                   22500
                                                                                            Births
                   20000                                                                    Deaths

                   17500
                   15000
                   12500
                   10000
                     7500
                     5000
                     2500
                         0
                                1992-93      1994-95       1996-97       1998-99       2000-01       2002-03
                   Source: Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS Cat. No. 3101.0)



                                             THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE 3
CHAPTER      1   • POPULATION




                              A comparison of the rates of natural increase for South Australia and Australia as a
                              whole (see graph below) shows that South Australia is lagging behind the national
                              average. The rate of natural increase is the percentage increase in population
                              attributable solely to natural increase. The rate of natural increase for South Australia
                              in 1991-92 of 0.6% has declined to 0.4% by 2002-03. The rate for Australia has also
                              declined - from 0.8% to 0.6% - but is nevertheless much higher than South Australia.
                              Factors that may be giving rise to this difference include South Australia’s higher
                              proportion of older people (hence more deaths) and a fertility rate lower than that of
                              Australia as a whole.



                              NATURAL INCREASE RATE (a): SOUTH AUSTRALIA AND AUSTRALIA,
                              1991-92 TO 2002-03


                                %
                                                                                                             South Australia
                               0.8
                                                                                                             Australia

                               0.7

                               0.5

                               0.4

                               0.3

                               0.1

                               0.0
                                        1992-93        1994-95         1996-97        1998-99        2000-01         2002-03
                              (a) The percentage increase in population attributable solely to natural increase.
                              Source: Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS Cat. No. 3101.0)



                           Each of the components of South Australia’s population growth – natural increase,
                           net overseas migration and net interstate migration – has recorded results below
                           the Australian average for the last 10-15 years and more. While the phenomenon
                           of ‘declining natural increase’ appears to be firmly entrenched, there is scope for
                           improvement in net overseas migration and net interstate migration




OVERSEAS MIGRATION

                              Low levels of overseas migration have been a feature of South Australia’s recent
                              demographic experience. This is in marked contrast to the 1950s and 1960s when
                              South Australia had high levels of overseas migration. Over the last five years South
                              Australia, Tasmania and the ACT experienced the lowest rates of net overseas
                              migration, whereas Western Australia and NSW experienced the highest (ABS
                              Australian Demographic Statistics Cat. No. 3101.0). In general terms, overseas
                              migration can help in the short term to replenish the population, particularly when
                              fertility rates are low and the resident population is ageing.




4   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                                     CHAPTER            1   • POPULATION




                       NET OVERSEAS MIGRATION RATE (a): SOUTH AUSTRALIA AND AUSTRALIA,
                       1991-92 TO 2002-03


                         %
                                                                                                      South Australia
                        0.8
                                                                                                      Australia

                        0.7

                        0.5

                        0.4

                        0.3

                        0.1

                        0.0
                                  1992-93        1994-95        1996-97        1998-99         2000-01        2002-03
                       (a) The percentage increase in population attributable solely to net overseas migration.
                       Source: Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS Cat. No. 3101.0)



INTERSTATE MIGRATION

                       Interstate migration, the movement of people across States and Territories, is an
                       important determinant of population distribution. For example, ABS interstate
                       migration figures show (Migration, Australia, Cat. No. 3412.0) in 2002-03 Queensland
                       gained a net 39,200 persons from interstate migration while New South Wales lost
                       31,800. Most other States and Territories experienced modest net losses from
                       interstate migration in 2002-03. Western Australia, for example, lost 2,800 and ACT
                       1,650. As for South Australia, the net loss was slightly less than 1,500 in 2002-03 –
                       the difference between 29,860 arrivals from other States/Territories and 31,350
                       departures to interstate destinations. Table 1.5 towards the end of this Chapter
                       shows trends over time for South Australia in terms of net population gain or loss by
                       age group from interstate migration. For children aged under 15 inflow has generally
                       been balanced by outflow resulting in negligible gains or losses for that age group.
                       On the other hand, the age group 15-24 has consistently experienced net losses from
                       interstate migration, however this has moderated significantly in recent years (from
                       1,100 in 1996-97 to 330 in 2002-03).



YOUNG INDIGENOUS PEOPLE

                       Indigenous children and young people in South Australia are a very important group
                       to quantify. It is often accepted that this group fares less well than the general
                       population and are more likely to experience deprivation and hardship in many
                       aspects of their lives – for instance health, education, labour market opportunities and
                       the justice system.




                                                  THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE 5
CHAPTER      1   • POPULATION




                              In 2001, the estimated number of Indigenous South Australians aged under 25 years
                              was 14,480 persons. This represented 3.0% of South Australia’s population aged
                              under 25 years. The equivalent proportion for Australia as a whole was 2.4%. Over
                              the ten years from 1991 to 2001 the number of Indigenous South Australians aged
                              under 25 years is estimated to have grown from 11,920 to 14,480 (see Table 1.6 for
                              more details and data sources).

                              The graph below shows that this growth was largely restricted to those in the age
                              groups 5-9, 10-14 and 15-19. It is important to note that the Census question on
                              Indigenous status (upon which these estimates are mainly based) relies on self-
                              identification. It is accepted that across Australia, an increasing propensity to identify
                              as Indigenous has been observed in recent Population Censuses. Consequently, this
                              factor may contribute to some of the growth in the numbers of Indigenous children
                              and young people.




                              YOUNG INDIGENOUS PEOPLE BY AGE GROUP, 1991, 1996 AND 2001



                                 no.
                                                                                                                   1991
                               4000
                                                                                                                   1996
                                                                                                                   2001

                               3000



                               2000



                               1000



                                  0
                                             0-4              5-9            10-14            15-19            20-24
                                                                            age (years)

                                  Source: Experimental Estimates of the Indigenous Population, 1991-1996 (ABS 3230.0)
                                          Australian Demographic Statistics Quarterly (Sept Qtr 2002 edition) (ABS 3101.0)




                              Another feature of South Australia’s (and Australia’s) Indigenous population is that it is
                              comparatively young. Data derived from ABS Australian Demographic Statistics
                              Quarterly, Cat. No. 3101.0 and Experimental Estimates of the Indigenous population,
                              Cat. No. 3230.0 shows, in 2001, the median age of South Australia’s Indigenous
                              population was 20.8 years, while for Australia it was 20.5 years. This compares to
                              median ages of 37.6 years and 35.7 years for the total populations of South Australia
                              and Australia respectively. This large difference could be attributable to the higher
                              fertility rate and shorter life expectancy of Indigenous persons compared to non-
                              Indigenous persons.




6   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                 CHAPTER            1   • POPULATION




   Indigenous children and young people account for 57% of the total Indigenous
   population in South Australia, representing a majority of the Indigenous population.
   This is significantly different to the non-Indigenous population which implies that the
   Indigenous population would require higher levels of access to family, child and youth
   services.


Unlike the non-Indigenous population, the Indigenous child and youth population
accounts for the majority of the population. This implies that Indigenous families,
children and young people are a significant target group within the Indigenous
population.




   Young Indigenous people are more likely to have moved their place of usual
   residence than their non-Indigenous counterparts. This is an important consideration
   in terms of approaches to culturally appropriate service delivery. The graph below
   shows that at the time of the 2001 Census 30% of SA’s Indigenous children aged 1-7
   years had changed their place of usual residence within a 12 month period compared
   to 20% for their non-Indigenous counterparts. For those aged 8-11 years, 23% of
   Indigenous children moved compared to 15.0% for non-Indigenous. A wider gap
   existed for those aged 12-17, while for those aged 18-24, the rates were less than
   40% for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous youth.



   PROPORTION OF YOUNG PEOPLE WHO MOVED (a) IN THE 12 MONTHS UP TO
   THE 2001 POPULATION CENSUS, BY AGE GROUP AND INDIGENOUS STATUS

          %
                                                                                     Indigenous
         50
                                                                                     Non-Indigenous


         40


         30


         20


         10


         0
                       1-7                  8-11                  12-17                 18-24
                                                   Age group (years)


   (a)   Their place of usual residence in August 2001 was different to their place of usual residence in August
         2000.
   Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing, unpublished data




                              THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE 7
CHAPTER      1   • POPULATION




                              Given the nature of the problems facing the Indigenous population as a whole, young
                              people and children are a significant target group to implement preventative and early
                              intervention strategies to improve wellbeing indicators. Focus on whole of family
                              wellbeing, and this significantly young target group may prove to increase the status
                              of Indigenous people.




CULTURAL DIVERSITY – YOUNG SOUTH AUSTRALIANS FROM NON-ENGLISH SPEAKING
BACKGROUNDS (NESB)

                              Culturally diverse children and young people may have needs that are different from
                              the needs of the general child and youth population. Two quite different groups of
                              children and young people will be examined in this Section – firstly, those from a non-
                              English speaking background (NESB) and secondly, new arrivals to South Australia.

                              The 2001 Population Census shows that the majority of children and young people
                              from non-English speaking backgrounds (NESB) are born in Australia. These
                              children and young people usually have a parent or parents who were born overseas
                              in a non-English speaking country. For this reason a breakdown of languages spoken
                              at home is a better indicator of those from non-English speaking backgrounds.

                              Table 1.7 shows that in 2001 44,440 (or 9%) of South Australians aged under 25
                              spoke a language other than English at home. This is less than the 52,990 (or 10%)
                              recorded ten years previously in 1991. In 2001 the languages other than English
                              most frequently spoken by young South Australians were Greek, Italian, Vietnamese
                              and Chinese languages. Those languages showing an increase in usage over the ten
                              years to 2001 include Serbian and Arabic (including Lebanese). Those languages
                              showing a significant decrease in usage include Italian, Greek and German reflecting
                              the passage of time since the large migrant intake from Italy, Greece and Germany in
                              the 1950s and 1960s.

                              For purposes of comparison Table 1.7 also shows (in the right hand column) the
                              proportions of under 25s in Australia as a whole speaking a language other than
                              English at home in 2001. The rate for Australia (14%) was higher than that for South
                              Australia (9%) reflecting the higher proportion of migrants who settle in States other
                              than South Australia and the lower proportion of overseas students studying in South
                              Australia. In particular, there were comparatively higher rates at the national level of
                              those speaking Arabic (including Lebanese), Chinese languages, Spanish and also
                              certain languages not separately listed in the table such as Turkish and languages
                              specific to the Indian sub-continent (e.g. Hindi and Tamil).



CULTURAL DIVERSITY – YOUNG NEW ARRIVALS FROM OVERSEAS

                              At the 2001 Census there were slightly less than 11,000 young ‘usual residents’ of
                              South Australia who had arrived within the last five years from overseas countries.
                              Table 1.8 at the end of this Chapter gives a detailed breakdown by country of birth of
                              these new arrivals.




8   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                          CHAPTER           1    • POPULATION




             Around 30% (3,300 children and young people) were from the main English-speaking
             countries such as United Kingdom, New Zealand and South Africa. As the graph
             below indicates this group tended to be relatively evenly distributed across the age
             groups.

             As for those from other countries (7,670 children and young people), the largest group
             was clearly those aged 18-24. Included in this group would be long-term students
             from South East Asia who regarded South Australia as their place of usual residence.
             It would also include migrants (including refugees) from, for example, the Middle East,
             Bosnia-Herzegovina and Sub-Saharan African countries.



             1.7 NEW ARRIVALS FROM OVERSEAS (ARRIVED 1996-2001), USUAL
             RESIDENTS OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA – PERSONS AGED 0-24 BY AGE GROUP,
             2001 POPULATION CENSUS



               no.
                                                                          Main English-speaking countries
             4000
                                                                          Other countries



             3000



             2000



             1000



                 0
                              0-7                8-11                 12-17                  18-24
                                               Age groups of new arrivals (years)

             Source: 2001 Population Census, data available on request.




CONCLUSION

             It is clear that, in common with many other developed parts of the world, South
             Australia is experiencing the challenges of slow population growth, a sustained period
             of low fertility and an ageing population. It has been shown in this Chapter that the
             number of children and young people has declined over the last ten years and are
             projected to decline further over the next ten or twenty years. It will be a challenge for
             the South Australian community to adapt to and to come to terms with this decline and
             all of its implications.

             While representing only 3% of South Australia’s children and young people, young
             Indigenous persons are a significant group within the Indigenous population as a
             whole and, considering the information presented in this profile, represent a
             disadvantaged group requiring specific attention. It is important that, as a society, we
             continue to strive to ensure that all young Indigenous persons are given every
             opportunity to reach their potential.




                                        THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE 9
CHAPTER          1   • POPULATION




TABLE 1.1        AGE STRUCTURE - CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE: SOUTH AUSTRALIA: 1993 to 2023



                                  South Australia
                                   Actual ERP…………..               Projections (Series B)…..

           Age                           1993              2003              2013              2023

           0                           19,774            17,240            15,473            15,129
           1                           19,676            17,624            15,535            15,245
           2                           19,865            17,829            15,683            15,346
           3                           20,094            18,312            15,923            15,449
           4                           19,959            18,704            16,156            15,551
           5                           19,817            18,662            16,409            15,631
           6                           19,961            18,975            16,649            15,684
           7                           20,554            19,515            16,896            15,726
           8                           20,568            20,068            17,165            15,777
           9                           20,925            19,829            17,418            15,811
           10                          20,344            20,170            17,672            15,852
           11                          20,148            20,272            17,870            15,913
           12                          20,011            20,129            18,211            16,057
           13                          19,333            20,153            18,643            16,263
           14                          19,374            20,206            18,955            16,465
           15                          19,327            20,153            18,895            16,696
           16                          19,863            20,359            19,244            16,984
           17                          20,227            21,009            19,783            17,243
           18                          20,919            21,155            20,349            17,509
           19                          21,151            21,336            20,126            17,775
           20                          22,317            20,979            20,436            17,990
           21                          23,276            20,513            20,429            18,090
           22                          23,851            20,253            20,205            18,330
           23                          22,949            19,435            20,024            18,536
           24                          22,329            18,788            19,880            18,698

                                   South Australia
                                    Actual ERP………..…..   Projections (Series B)…..
                                        1993        2003          2013            2023
                                    Persons (no.)…………………..………….....……………….

           0-7                        159,700           146,861           128,724           123,761
           8-11                        81,985            80,339            70,125            63,353
           12-17                      118,135           122,009           113,731            99,708
           18-24                      156,792           142,459           141,449           126,928
           Total 0-24                 516,612           491,668           454,029           413,750
           25 and over                944,062         1,035,753         1,117,098         1,181,437
           Total all ages           1,460,674         1,527,421         1,571,127         1,595,187

                                    Proportion of total population (%)……………….…
           0-7                          10.9               9.6            8.2                   7.8
           8-11                          5.6               5.3            4.5                   4.0
           12-17                         8.1               8.0            7.2                   6.3
           18-24                        10.7               9.3            9.0                   8.0
           Total 0-24                   35.4              32.2           28.9                  25.9
           25 and over                  64.6              67.8           71.1                  74.1
           Total all ages              100.0             100.0          100.0                 100.0



Source: ABS Estimated Resident Population by State (1993 and 2003), ABS Population Projections Series B (2013 and 2023)




10    THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                                                CHAPTER           1   • POPULATION




TABLE 1.2        AGE STRUCTURE - CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE: AUSTRALIA: 1993 to 2023


                                   Australia
                                    Actual ERP…………..               Projections (Series B)…..

           Age                            1993              2003              2013              2023

           0                          258,357           247,051           236,752           245,946
           1                          257,838           246,884           236,570           246,457
           2                          260,822           254,525           238,082           247,266
           3                          260,235           257,560           240,731           248,044
           4                          255,270           258,641           243,366           248,795
           5                          253,861           258,626           246,214           249,520
           6                          253,397           263,979           249,135           250,118
           7                          256,854           266,994           252,064           250,574
           8                          257,790           273,212           255,007           251,007
           9                          257,403           273,494           257,931           251,509
           10                         258,857           274,778           260,627           251,967
           11                         255,193           276,655           262,236           252,399
           12                         254,688           278,429           271,419           254,198
           13                         248,149           275,754           274,396           257,067
           14                         248,812           272,828           275,631           259,822
           15                         249,292           270,589           275,667           262,837
           16                         251,490           271,427           281,285           266,067
           17                         255,761           276,180           284,572           269,351
           18                         264,759           279,796           291,136           272,634
           19                         272,343           278,795           292,070           276,218
           20                         282,994           283,386           293,954           279,785
           21                         297,536           280,643           296,372           282,077
           22                         302,070           277,644           298,588           291,710
           23                         283,738           269,652           296,775           295,350
           24                         276,463           265,511           294,598           297,536

                                   Australia
                                    Actual ERP…………..      Projections (Series B)…..
                                        1993         2003            2013           2023
                                     Persons (no.)………….………………………….

           0-7                      2,056,634         2,054,260         1,942,914         1,986,720
           8-11                     1,029,243         1,098,139         1,035,801         1,006,882
           12-17                    1,508,192         1,645,207         1,662,970         1,569,342
           18-24                    1,979,903         1,935,427         2,063,493         1,995,310
           Total 0-24               6,573,972         6,733,033         6,705,178         6,558,254
           25 and over             11,093,121        13,148,436        15,198,236        17,154,634
           Total all ages          17,667,093        19,881,469        21,903,414        23,712,888

                                     Proportion of total population (%)……………….…
           0-7                           11.6              10.3            8.9                   8.4
           8-11                           5.8               5.5            4.7                   4.2
           12-17                          8.5               8.3            7.6                   6.6
           18-24                         11.2               9.7            9.4                   8.4
           Total 0-24                    37.2              33.9           30.6                  27.7
           25 and over                   62.8              66.1           69.4                  72.3
           Total all ages               100.0             100.0          100.0                 100.0



Source: ABS Estimated Resident Population by State (1993 and 2003), ABS Population Projections Series B (2013 and 2023)




                                                               THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE 11
CHAPTER         1    • POPULATION




TABLE 1.3      NATURAL INCREASE IN POPULATION: SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 1991-92 TO 2002-03



                                                                                     Natural      Natural Increase rate (a)……..
         Year                            Births              Deaths                Increase       South Australia         Australia
                                            no.                 no.                      no.                    %                %

         1991-92                        19,655               11,060                   8,595                    0.59           0.79
         1992-93                        19,819               11,351                   8,468                    0.58           0.78
         1993-94                        19,381               11,375                   8,006                    0.55           0.76
         1994-95                        19,475               11,522                   7,953                    0.54           0.73
         1995-96                        18,839               11,339                   7,500                    0.51           0.69
         1996-97                        18,576               11,625                   6,951                    0.47           0.69
         1997-98                        18,330               11,728                   6,602                    0.45           0.65
         1998-99                        18,399               11,648                   6,751                    0.45           0.65
         1999-00                        17,896               11,590                   6,306                    0.42           0.64
         2000-01                        17,414               11,919                   5,495                    0.37           0.62
         2001-02                        17,579               11,807                   5,772                    0.38           0.60
         2002-03                        17,242               11,699                   5,543                    0.36           0.59


         (a) The percentage increase in the population attributable solely to natural increase.


         Source: Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS Cat. 3101.0)




TABLE 1.4       NET OVERSEAS MIGRATION: SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 1991-92 TO 2002-03

                                    Net Overseas                Net Overseas Migration rate (a)...
            Year                        Migration                  South Australia            Australia
                                              no.                               %                    %

            1991-92                            2,897                                 0.20               0.40
            1992-93                            1,546                                 0.11               0.17
            1993-94                            1,994                                 0.14               0.26
            1994-95                            2,883                                 0.20               0.45
            1995-96                            3,653                                 0.25               0.58
            1996-97                            3,106                                 0.21               0.48
            1997-98                            3,160                                 0.21               0.43
            1998-99                            2,682                                 0.18               0.52
            1999-00                            3,829                                 0.26               0.57
            2000-01                            2,765                                 0.18               0.71
            2001-02                            2,798                                 0.19               0.57
            2002-03                            4,679                                 0.31               0.64


            (a) The percentage increase in the population attributable solely to
                    net overseas migration


            Source: Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS Cat. 3101.0)




12   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                                             CHAPTER      1   • POPULATION




TABLE 1.5         INTERSTATE MIGRATION: SOUTH AUSTRALIA BY AGE GROUP, 1991-92 TO 2002-03


             Age                                       1991-92          1996-97    2001-02      2002-03

                                                ARRIVALS FROM INTERSTATE

             0-4                                         2,276            2,636      2,444        2,438
             5-9                                         2,116            2,323      2,007        2,033
             10-14                                       1,669            1,849      1,641        1,683
             15-19                                       1,882            2,219      2,518        2,440
             20-24                                       3,755            3,944      3,624        3,446
              Total 0-24                                11,698           12,971     12,234       12,040
             25 and over                                15,048           16,360     17,131       17,816
               Total all ages                           26,746           29,331     29,365       29,856

                                                DEPARTURES INTERSTATE

             0-4                                         2,080            2,380      2,277        2,232
             5-9                                         2,081            2,474      2,123        2,020
             10-14                                       1,683            2,091      1,685        1,842
             15-19                                       1,876            2,557      2,602        2,452
             20-24                                       4,064            4,705      4,110        3,767
              Total 0-24                                11,784           14,207     12,797       12,313
             25 and over                                15,620           18,442     18,422       19,040
               Total all ages                           27,404           32,649     31,219       31,353

                                                NET GAIN/LOSS DUE TO INTERSTATE MIGRATION

             0-4                                            196              256       167          206
             5-9                                             35             -151      -116           13
             10-14                                          -14             -242       -44         -159
             15-19                                            6             -338       -84          -12
             20-24                                         -309             -761      -486         -321
              Total 0-24                                    -86           -1,236      -563         -273
             25 and over                                   -572           -2,082    -1,291       -1,224
               Total all ages                              -658           -3,318    -1,854       -1,497



Source: Migration, Australia (Cat 3412.0) and ABS data available on request.




                                                                  THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE 13
CHAPTER        1   • POPULATION




TABLE 1.6 ESTIMATED RESIDENT INDIGENOUS POPULATION, AGE GROUPS BY SEX, SOUTH
AUSTRALIA: AT JUNE 1991, 1996 AND 2001


                                                        At June……………………
          Age                                           1991      1996                 2001

                                                                 MALES

          0-4                                           1,549           1,542         1,590
          5-9                                           1,291           1,544         1,735
          10-14                                         1,027           1,291         1,577
          15-19                                         1,032           1,024         1,354
          20-24                                           991           1,009         1,031
           Total 0-24                                   5,890           6,410         7,287
          25 and over                                   3,858           4,400         5,317
            Total all ages                              9,748          10,810        12,604

                                                                 FEMALES

          0-4                                          1,491            1,516         1,625
          5-9                                          1,310            1,489         1,677
          10-14                                        1,064            1,310         1,549
          15-19                                        1,091            1,064         1,317
          20-24                                        1,077            1,076         1,020
           Total 0-24                                  6,033            6,455         7,188
          25 and over                                  4,028            4,786         5,752
            Total all ages                            10,061           11,241        12,940

                                                                 PERSONS

          0-4                                          3,040            3,058         3,215
          5-9                                          2,601            3,033         3,412
          10-14                                        2,091            2,601         3,126
          15-19                                        2,123            2,088         2,671
          20-24                                        2,068            2,085         2,051
           Total 0-24                                 11,923           12,865        14,475
          25 and over                                  7,886            9,186        11,069
            Total all ages                            19,809           22,051        25,544

          MEDIAN AGE (Years) (a)

          Males                                            n.a            20.0          20.2
          Females                                          n.a            21.2          21.4
          Persons                                          n.a            20.6          20.8

          (a) The age at which half the population is older and half is younger.


          Source: Experimental Estimates of the Indigenous Population, 1991-1996 (ABS 3230.0)
                   Australian Demographic Statistics Quarterly (Sept Qtr 2002 edition) (ABS 3101.0)




14   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                                            CHAPTER        1   • POPULATION




TABLE 1.7 LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME, SOUTH AUSTRALIA: PERSONS UNDER 25 BY AGE GROUP,
1991 AND 2001 CENSUSES

          1991 CENSUS -
                                                         Age groups……...………………..…                  Total
          Language spoken at home                       0-7      8-11    12-17 18-24                0-24       SA %    Aust %
                                                        no.       no.      no.   no.                 no.          %         %

          German                                        418         293          633       834     2,178         0.4      0.3
          Greek                                       2,201       1,188        2,359     4,435    10,183         2.0      1.6
          Italian                                     2,109       1,431        3,210     6,360    13,110         2.6      1.8
          Spanish                                       341         229          362       386     1,318         0.3      0.6
          Russian                                       127          67          128       177       499         0.1      0.1
          Croatian                                      233         149          328       533     1,243         0.2      0.4
          Serbian                                        99          76          136       180       491         0.1      0.1
          Polish                                        619         371          592       458     2,040         0.4      0.2
          Arabic (incl Lebanese)                        444         271          350       370     1,435         0.3      1.3
          Khmer                                         399         324          180       264     1,167         0.2      0.1
          Vietnamese                                  1,286         847        1,114     1,276     4,523         0.9      0.8
          Filipino languages                            203         123          169       213       708         0.1      0.3
          Chinese languages                             922         522        1,001     1,790     4,235         0.8      1.6
          Australian Indigenous languages               534         292          439       551     1,816         0.4      0.4
          Other languages                             1,757       1,216        2,098     2,971     8,042         1.6      3.5
          Total speaking languages other
          than English at home                      11,692        7,399       13,099    20,798    52,988        10.4     13.1

          Speaks English only                      141,838       70,295     103,211    130,104   445,448        87.3     83.7
          Not stated                                 5,838        1,617       1,804      2,536    11,795         2.3      3.2

          Total                                    159,368       79,311     118,114    153,438   510,231       100.0    100.0



          2001 CENSUS -
                                                         Age groups……...………………..…                  Total
          Language spoken at home                       0-7      8-11    12-17 18-24                0-24       SA %    Aust %
                                                        no.       no.      no.   no.                 no.          %         %

          German                                        226         141          292       253       912         0.2      0.2
          Greek                                       1,847       1,001        1,509     1,895     6,252         1.3      0.9
          Italian                                     1,194         798        1,399     2,210     5,601         1.2      0.8
          Spanish                                       216         163          300       406     1,085         0.2      0.4
          Russian                                       180         109          216       175       680         0.1      0.1
          Bosnian                                       124          97          154       138       513         0.1      0.1
          Croatian                                      172         120          220       304       816         0.2      0.2
          Serbian                                       294         182          339       384     1,199         0.2      0.2
          Polish                                        244         250          537       597     1,628         0.3      0.2
          Iranic                                        242         149          269       345     1,005         0.2      0.2
          Arabic (incl. Lebanese)                       478         294          444       587     1,803         0.4      1.5
          Khmer                                         282         207          438       451     1,378         0.3      0.2
          Vietnamese                                  1,640         805        1,261     1,638     5,344         1.1      1.1
          Tagalog (Filipino)                            198         109          200       273       780         0.2      0.3
          Chinese languages                             916         564        1,000     2,297     4,777         1.0      2.3
          Australian Indigenous Languages               557         324          509       519     1,909         0.4      0.4
          Other languages                             2,906       1,069        1,839     2,947     8,761         1.8      4.6
          Total speaking languages other
          than English at home                       11,716        6,382      10,926    15,419    44,443         9.3     13.7

          Speaks English only                      126,591       70,318     106,357    111,207   414,473        86.3     80.6
          Not stated                                 9,879        3,082       3,985      4,232    21,178         4.4      5.7

            Total                                  148,186       79,782     121,268    130,858   480,094       100.0    100.0


Source: 1991 and 2001 Censuses of Population and Housing – data available on request




                                                               THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE 15
CHAPTER       1    • POPULATION




TABLE 1.8 NEW ARRIVALS FROM OVERSEAS (ARRIVED 1996-2001), SOUTH AUSTRALIA – PERSONS
AGED 0-24 BY AGE GROUP, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS


                                                                           Age groups………….……………..
         Country of Birth                                                  0-7    8-11 12-17 18-24           Total

         Main English-speaking countries-
          Canada                                                           52          16     33      44       145
          New Zealand                                                     279         167    167     254       867
          South Africa                                                    187         149    150      75       561
          United Kingdom                                                  495         334    331     233     1,393
          United States of America                                        118          51     47     113       329
            Total main English-speaking countries                       1,131         717    728     719     3,295

         Other countries -
          Afghanistan                                                      31          19      46     121      217
          Bosnia and Herzegovina                                           39          80     171     156      446
          Cambodia                                                          6          14      26      55      101
          China (excl. SARs (a) and Taiwan Province)                       47          32     123     299      501
          Croatia                                                          18          25      85      64      192
          Germany                                                          66          25      22      29      142
          Hong Kong (SAR (a) of China)                                     32          24      93     215      364
          India                                                           114          33      25     127      299
          Indonesia                                                        57          29      62     102      250
          Iran                                                             39          29      66      63      197
          Iraq                                                             30          40      38      28      136
          Japan                                                            32          13      52     121      218
          Korea, Republic of (South)                                       90          19      44      82      235
          Malaysia                                                         60          20      39     671      790
          Norway                                                            4           3       0     127      134
          Philippines                                                     111          53      63     105      332
          Singapore                                                        28          12      33     178      251
          Sub-Saharan African countries (b)                                85          45      48     117      295
          Sudan                                                            17          21      31      33      102
          Taiwan                                                            4          11      24      78      117
          Thailand                                                         46          29      40      67      182
          Viet Nam                                                         38          28      71     182      319
          Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of                                  62          43      47      72      224
          Other countries                                                 445         280     327     573    1,625
            Total other countries                                       1,501         927   1,576   3,665    7,669

                  Total                                                 2,632       1,644   2,304   4,384   10,964

        (a) SAR - Special Administrative Region (of China)


        (b) Excluding South Africa. Includes countries such as Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia.




16   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
CHAPTER               2       HEALTH


INTRODUCTION

                              Increasingly, research shows that the health and development of children and young
                              people result from complex interactions of the social, biological and ecological
                              environments in which they live (Stanley et al. 2002). If these are supportive, they
                              provide a strong foundation for the development of competence and coping skills that
                              underpin learning, behaviour and health throughout life. However, a lack of enabling
                              social and environmental conditions is reflected in poorer health and developmental
                              outcomes.

                              In South Australia over the last twenty years, there have been significant
                              improvements in many indicators of child and youth health overall – for example,
                              continuing increases in life expectancy, falling perinatal and infant mortality rates, and
                              reductions in mortality rates from many diseases as a result of improved living
                              conditions, technological advances (such as better treatments for childhood
                              leukaemias) and specific environmental interventions (such as road safety initiatives).
                              However, not everyone has shared equally in these benefits. Life expectancies for
                              Indigenous children and young people in this State are still many years behind those
                              for their non-Indigenous counterparts, and Indigenous infant mortality rates are also
                              significantly higher (Tennant et al. 2003).

                              While some indicators show that the health of children and young people has
                              improved, evidence suggests that other outcomes have remained static or have
                              declined. For example, mental health problems now affect up to 20 per cent of young
                              people (Sawyer et al. 2000), and, when persistent, are associated with poor
                              educational outcomes, relationship difficulties, and high rates of welfare dependence,
                              delinquency and criminality (Nicholson et al. 2002). Suicide rates continue to be
                              among the highest in the developed world, especially for young men in rural areas.
                              Chronic health problems such as asthma, obesity and arthritis are affecting growing
                              numbers of children and young people, and preventable injuries and harmful
                              behaviours (such as smoking and substance use) remain prevalent, despite the
                              introduction of a range of national prevention initiatives (Nicholson et al. 2002).




                                Increasingly, research shows that the health and development of
                                children and young people result from complex interactions of the social,
                                biological and ecological environments in which they live (Stanley et al.
                                2002).




17   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




                              Furthermore, these health problems are distributed unequally across the South
                              Australian population. They are more prevalent for particular groups of children, and
                              young people such as those disadvantaged by :

                                  low income, poor parental education, remote and rural locations, and unsupported
                                  single parents;

                                  many Indigenous children and youth;

                                  refugee children and young people being held in immigration detention facilities
                                  and other young migrants from war-affected countries;

                                  children in protective care and juvenile offenders;

                                  young homeless people and those who experience violence in their lives.

                              continue to be at risk of poorer outcomes, particularly in the areas of health,
                              development and education (Nicholson et al. 2000; Turrell et al. 1999; Tennant et al.
                              2003). Research indicates that these inequalities in health will only be improved by
                              policies that address the underlying social and economic conditions in which many
                              disadvantaged children and young people live (Stanley et al. 2002).

                              An eclectic range of health indicators appear in this Chapter. Firstly, a look at how
                              young South Australians (aged 18-24) measure up in four key health risk factors
                              related to lifestyle. Next there is a summary of an SA Dept of Health study of ‘Burden
                              of Disease’ as it relates to children and young people. Other topics covered are
                              pregnancy outcomes for women under 25 years and also infant mortality. There is
                              reference to Indigenous health indicators, information on selected procedures
                              performed in SA hospitals and, finally, some results from a survey of drug and alcohol
                              use among South Australian school children.



KEY HEALTH RISK FACTORS

                              The latest National Health Survey conducted by ABS was in 2001. Four important
                              health risk measures are shown in the graph below for persons aged 18-24 years.
                              Rates for South Australian young people are compared with their national
                              counterparts for smoking status, alcohol consumption at risky levels, lack of exercise
                              and adverse body mass index (BMI). BMI is calculated from self-reported height and
                              weight information, using the formula: weight (kg) divided by the square of height (m).
                              To produce a measure of the prevalence of overweight or obesity in adults, BMI
                              values are grouped as follows:

                                  Underweight: Less than 18.5;

                                  Normal range: 18.5 to less than 20 and 20.0 to less than 25.0;

                                  Overweight: 25.0 to less than 30.0; and

                                  Obese: 30.0 and greater.

                              Table 2.1 towards the end of this Chapter provides more information.




18   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                  CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




KEY HEALTH RISK FACTORS, PROPORTION OF PERSONS AGED 18-24,
SOUTH AUSTRALIA AND AUSTRALIA, 2001


 %
                                                                         South Australia
40
                                                                         Australia



30



20



10



  0
             Smoker             Risky alcohol      No exercise (b)       Overweight (c)
                               consumption (a)
(a) Risky and high alcohol risk
(b) Sedentary exercise level
(c)   Overweight or obese body mass index (BMI)
Source: National Health Survey (ABS Cat. No. 4364.0), unpublished data




Interestingly, the results for young South Australians are lower than the national
average in all four measures. For smoking and risky alcohol consumption the
difference is marginal, but for exercise and the incidence of overweight persons the
difference is better than marginal.

Nevertheless, the SA results warrant concern as these key health risk factors are
essentially lifestyle issues and are preventable. The fact remains that 30% of South
Australians aged 18-24 are smokers, 10% consume alcohol at risky levels, 19% do
not exercise and 25% are overweight. The SA Strategic Plan 2004 lists the following
targets –

      !     To reduce the percentage of young cigarette smokers by 10% within ten
            years;

      !     To reduce the percentage of South Australians who are overweight or obese
            by 10% within ten years; and

      !     To exceed the Australian participation in sport and physical activity within ten
            years.

While the National Health Survey data shown above is for those aged 18-24 there is
some body mass index data (BMI) collected for South Australian 4-year olds. Recent
data obtained from the Public Health Information Development Unit (PHIDU,
University of Adelaide) show that around 18% of South Australian 4-year olds are
overweight or obese – for boys the proportion was 16% while for girls it was 20%.
Height and weight measurements were taken by Child and Youth Health (CYH) staff
at child care and pre-school centres and it is claimed that around 80% of all South
Australian 4-year olds are included. Data is also available for geographic areas within
South Australia.


      THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                         19
CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




                               Rated on four key lifestyle measures, young South Australians scored a little better
                               than their national counterparts. However, the fact remains that 30% of South
                               Australians aged 18-24 are smokers, 10% consume alcohol at risky levels, 19% do
                               not exercise and 25% are overweight.




SA BURDEN OF DISEASE STUDY (1999-2001) – CHILD AND YOUTH PERSPECTIVE

                              Burden of disease methods estimate the illness and premature death associated with
                              a wide range of health problems for a given population. These summary measures
                              are used extensively throughout the world and were adapted and developed for the
                              Australian context by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). The
                              Strategic Planning and Population Health Division of the SA Department of Health
                              applied this method to describe the average amount of ill health and premature death
                              occurring in the South Australian population during the period 1999-2001. This
                              involved compiling the best available evidence (which may be uncertain or
                              incomplete) on incidence, prevalence, case fatality and degree of severity for a
                              comprehensive list of conditions adapted from International Classification of Disease
                              (ICD) standards.

                              The Study results include two components: mortality and morbidity. Loss due to
                              premature death (the mortality burden) is described in terms of Years of Life Lost, or
                              YLLs. They represent the number of years of expected life not lived due to death
                              from a condition. YLLs for a given condition, sex and age interval are the product of
                              the number of deaths from that condition in that age and sex category (N) and the
                              standard life expectancy at the mean age of death in that age interval (L): YLL = N × L .

                              Morbidity burden is represented by the number of healthy years of life lost due to
                              disability (YLD), where disability refers to any departure from an ideal health state.
                              YLDs are the product of the number of incident cases (I) of a given condition in the
                              reference period, the severity weight (between 0 and 1 where 1 is most severe)
                              assigned to stages within the condition (SW) and the average duration in years (L) of
                              the condition: YLD = I × SW × L . All results reported use 3% pa discounting.

                              More information on the methods and results from the South Australian Burden of
                              Disease study can be accessed at
                              http://www.health.sa.gov.au/burdenofdisease/DesktopDefault.aspx




20   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                   CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




Rates of Premature Death

RATES OF YEARS OF LIFE LOST (YLL) DUE TO PREMATURE DEATH
(AVERAGE 1999-2001), FOR YOUNG SOUTH AUSTRALIANS, BY AGE/SEX


Rate (a)
40                                                                                    Males
                                                                                      Females



30



20



10



  0
                    0-4                         5-14                          15-24
                                           Age group (years)


(a) The rate is the number of years of life lost (YLL) due to premature death per 1,000 persons of that age and
sex in one year.
Source: SA Dept of Health




The SA Department of Health estimated that the yearly average number of deaths
occurring during 1999-2001 resulted in the loss of 111,320 years of life (YLL) among
South Australians. The loss due to premature deaths in people aged less than 25
accounts for a relatively small proportion of total loss with 8% among males and 5% in
females.

The graph above shows a clear sex difference for those aged 0-4 years and an
almost threefold difference in the 15 to 24 group. A consistent change in YLL across
age groupings was apparent and, as the graph above shows, with the greatest rates
in the 0-4 age group, the lowest rates among the 5-14 age group but with the rates
increasing again in the 15-24 age group.



Rates of Morbidity

Among all South Australians, SA Department of Health estimates further 99,750
healthy years of life will be lost because of illness and injury occurring during one year
(the annual average of 1999-2001). More than one in five of these lost years will be
borne by young people aged less than 25 years and the graph below shows the rates
by age group and sex. The 5-14 group again has the lowest rates with rates in the
other two groups being at least two times greater. Males experience the greatest rate
of loss in the 0-4 group while females have the highest rates among 15 to 24 year
olds.




      THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                              21
CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




                              RATES OF HEALTHY YEARS OF LIFE LOST (YLD) DUE TO DISABILITY
                              CAUSED BY ILLNESS OR INJURY (AVERAGE 1999-2001), FOR YOUNG SOUTH
                              AUSTRALIANS, BY AGE/SEX

                               Rate (a)
                               80                                                                                     Males
                                                                                                                      Females



                               60



                               40



                               20



                                0
                                                  0-4                           5-14                          15-24
                                                                           Age group (years)

                              (a) The rate is the number of healthy years of life lost (YLD) due to disability caused by illness/injury per 1,000
                              persons of that age and sex in one year.


                              Source: SA Dept of Health




                              Conditions responsible for premature mortality loss

                              Table 2.2 towards the end of this Chapter lists the top 10 conditions contributing to
                              premature mortality in South Australian young males and females aged 0-4, 5-14 and
                              15-24.

                              Death in very young ages is relatively rare in South Australia and is often due to quite
                              uncommon causes compared to the population overall. The conditions of Low birth
                              weight, Other neonatal causes (for example newborns affected by maternal
                              hypertension) and Other congenital anomalies (such as multiple congenital
                              malformations) were responsible for over one-third of premature mortality in 0 to 4
                              years old children (see Table 2.2). The greater rates among infant males were largely
                              attributable to Other neonatal causes where the rate among males is nearly twice that
                              of females and Sudden infant death syndrome (3.4 and 0.5 YLL per 1000 in males
                              and females respectively).

                              Among the 5 to 14 year group, road traffic accidents emerged as the greatest cause
                              of premature life loss. Road traffic accidents were the leading cause of death in the
                              15 to 24 year group too, accounting for over one-third of loss. The premature death
                              associated with risk taking behaviour and potentially avoidable causes became
                              increasingly apparent in this age group. Deaths by suicide, violence and illicit drug
                              use accounted for over three quarters of premature death among males and almost
                              60% in females.




22   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                   CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




 In terms of Years of Life Lost, the top three conditions responsible for premature death are –

        !    For males aged 0-4: Other neonatal causes, Low birth weight, Sudden infant death syndrome.

        !    For females aged 0-4: Low birth weight, Other neonatal causes, Other congenital anomalies.

        !    For males aged 5-14: Road traffic accidents, Leukaemia, Other nervous system disorders.

        !    For females aged 5-14: Road traffic accidents, Other nervous system disorders, Brain cancer.

        !    For males aged 15-24: Road traffic accidents, Suicide, Heroin dependence and harmful use.

        !    For females aged 15-24: Road traffic accidents, Suicide, Heroin dependence and harmful use


 More detail is available from Table 2.2 towards the end of this Chapter
 .



                         Conditions responsible for loss of healthy years of life due to disability caused
                         by illness or injury

                         Table 2.3 towards the end of this Chapter lists the top 10 conditions contributing to the
                         loss of healthy years of life due to disability caused by illness or injury in South
                         Australian young males and females aged 0-4, 5-14 and 15-24.

                         Asthma is the leading cause of morbidity for both 0-4 and 5-14 age groupings and for
                         both sexes, responsible for over 25% of life lived with illness (see Table 2.3). Mental
                         disorders become prominent as leading causes of morbidity in the youngest age
                         group, initially in the form of Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and disorders
                         within the Autistic spectrum with markedly higher rates among males with rates 2.5
                         and 4 times those of females respectively. Depression emerged as a leading
                         condition for both sexes in the 5-14 year group.

                         Rates increased further in the 15-24 age group with depression being the leading
                         cause of life lived with disability among young women and at a rate almost 3.5 times
                         that of males. Mental health conditions including substance abuse dominate the Top
                         10 causes of loss and are responsible for over 70% of the loss borne by the 15-24
                         age group.



In terms of Healthy Years of Life Lost, the top three disabling conditions responsible for this are –
    !       For males aged 0-4: Asthma, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autism and Asperger’s
            syndrome
    !       For females aged 0-4: Asthma, Other chromosomal anomalies, Low birth weight.
    !       For males aged 5-14: Asthma, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Depression.
    !       For females aged 5-14: Asthma, Depression, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
    !       For males aged 15-24: Alcohol dependence and harmful use, Bipolar affective disorder,
            Schizophrenia.
    !       For females aged 15-24: Depression, Bipolar affective disorder, Alcohol dependence and
            harmful use

                          More detail is available from Table 2.3 towards the end of this Chapter.



                             THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE               23
CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




PREGNANCY OUTCOMES

                              Table 2.4 towards the end of this Chapter shows time-series data for the last five
                              years of selected pregnancy outcomes for South Australian women aged under 25
                              years (by age group):

                              - Births

                              - Terminations

                              - Low birthweight babies

                              - Pre-term births.

                              The graph below shows the numbers of births and terminations for women aged less
                              than 20 years and those aged 20-24 years over the period 1999 to 2003. A gradual
                              downward trend is observable in all indicators except pregnancy terminations for
                              women aged less than 20 years, which has shown a small increase. For more detail
                              see Table 2.4. Data for 2003 terminations was not available at the time of preparation
                              of this Profile.



                              BIRTHS AND TERMINATIONS (a), WOMEN AGED LESS THAN 20 AND 20-24,
                              SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 1999 TO 2003
                                no.
                                                                                       Age   <20 births
                              3500
                                                                                       Age   20-24 births
                                                                                       Age   <20 terminations
                              3000                                                     Age   20-24 terminations

                              2500

                              2000

                              1500

                              1000

                               500

                                  0
                                      1999               2000                 2001    2002                 2003
                              (a) Terminations data for 2003 not yet available.
                              Source: SA Dept of Health




                              The baby's birthweight is a key indicator of infant health. Babies are classified as low
                              birthweight if their birthweight is less than 2500 grams. Low birthweight babies have a
                              greater risk of poor health and dying, require longer hospitalisation after birth and are
                              more likely to develop significant disabilities.

                              Another key indicator of infant health is the length of gestation (duration of
                              pregnancy). A birth is pre-term if the length of gestation is less than 37 completed
                              weeks. Pre-term births are associated with many problems that cause significant
                              illness and mortality in newborn babies and may sometimes be associated with long
                              term disabilities.



24   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                        CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




The graph below shows the numbers of low birthweight babies and pre-term births for
women aged 15-19 years and those aged 20-24 years over the period 1999 to 2003.
In general the numbers for both indicators have stayed relatively stable over time. Of
note is the fall in the number of low birthweight babies for mothers aged 20-24 years
between 2002 and 2003. For more detail see Table 2.4 towards the end of this
Chapter.



LOW BIRTHWEIGHT BABIES AND PRE-TERM BIRTHS, WOMEN AGED LESS
THAN 20 AND 20-24, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 1999 TO 2003



 no.
                                                Age   <20 low birthweight babies
300
                                                Age   20-24 low birthweight babies
                                                Age   <20 pre-term births
                                                Age   20-24 pre-term births
250


200


150


100


  50
       1999             2000          2001               2002                 2003
Source: SA Dept of Health




       THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                  25
CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




INFANT MORTALITY

                              Australia’s Infant mortality has declined greatly in the last 100 years. In 1902, over 1
                              in 10 infants born did not survive to their first birthday (IMR of 107.1). In 2002-03, less
                              than 1 in 200 infants born will not survive their first year of life (IMR of 4.7). The early
                              decline in infant mortality has been linked to improvements in public sanitation and
                              health education. Later declines may be a consequence of the introduction of
                              universal health insurance (Medicare) and improvements in medical technology, such
                              as neonatal intensive care units. (ABS, Deaths, 2002, Cat. No. 3302.0)

                              The graph below shows current infant mortality rates for States/Territories and
                              Australia. The graph shows that ACT, Western Australia and South Australia have
                              the lowest rates of infant mortality. See Table 2.5 for more details.



                              INFANT MORTALITY RATES (a), STATES AND AUSTRALIA, AVERAGE FOR THE
                              FIVE YEARS TO 2002-03

                               rate
                              12.5


                              10.0


                               7.5


                               5.0


                               2.5


                               0.0
                                        NSW        Vic      Qld       SA       WA       Tas          NT   ACT   Aust
                              (a) Number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births in the same period
                              Source: Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS Cat. No. 3101.0)




26   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                         CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




INDIGENOUS HEALTH INDICATORS

                    The available evidence (including the Population Census 2001) suggests that
                    Indigenous people generally have much poorer health than other South Australians.
                    They have a shorter average life expectancy, higher mortality and hospital separation
                    rates, and experience higher rates of infant mortality than the rest of the South
                    Australian population. See the graph below for a 3 year moving average of infant
                    mortality rates comparing Indigenous and total rates.



                    INFANT MORTALITY RATES (a), SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 3 YR MOVING AVERAGE,
                    1993-95 TO 2000-0

                     Rate
                                                                                                          Indigenous
                     14
                                                                                                          Total

                     12

                     10

                      8

                      6

                      4
                          1995       1996        1997      1998         1999          2000           2001         2002
                                                    Average of 3 cal yrs ending.........
                     (a) No. of infant deaths (i.e. of infants aged < 12 mths) per 1,000 live births in same period.


                    Source: ABS, Deaths (Cat. No. 3302.0)




                    As discussed in Chapter 1, the Indigenous population has a much younger age profile
                    than the rest of the population in South Australia. The median age of the Indigenous
                    population is 20.8 years compared with 37.6 years for the rest of the South Australian
                    population

                    Since the beginning of the 20th century, life expectancy has increased markedly for
                    Australians overall, reflecting improvements in areas such as public health and
                    medical interventions. However, at the turn of the 21st century, Aboriginal and Torres
                    Strait Islander peoples had, on average, the same life expectancies as the total
                    Australian population in the early part of the 20th century (ABS, Australian Social
                    Trends, 2002, Cat. No.4102.0, p. 86). It is difficult to assess trends in Indigenous life
                    expectancy for South Australia because many of the historical data are of poor
                    quality. What is known is that Indigenous South Australians do not live as long.
                    Recent ABS data estimate their life expectancy at birth to be about 20 years less than
                    for other South Australians. In 1998- 2000 the adjusted life expectancy for Indigenous
                    males in South Australia was 55.3 years – 21.3 years less than for the total male
                    population. Similarly, in 1998-2000 the adjusted life expectancy for Indigenous
                    females was 61.2 years – 21.1 years less than for the total female population.




                            THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                                 27
CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




                              Cause of death data for Indigenous children is problematic as the numbers of deaths
                              of Indigenous children in South Australia are quite small. For example, in recent
                              years there were often less than 20 deaths registered of Indigenous children aged
                              less than 15 years. As the causes of these deaths were quite varied, it is not possible
                              to report them due to confidentiality issues.

                              The graph following shows crude death rates for Indigenous and non-Indigenous
                              children and youth aged 15 to 24 years.



                              CRUDE DEATH RATES (a), 15 to 24 YR AGE GROUP, SOUTH AUSTRALIA,
                              INDIGENOUS AND NON-INDIGENOUS PERSONS, 1996 - 2001


                               Rate
                               3                                                                         Indigenous
                                                                                                         Non-indigenous




                               2




                               1




                               0
                                        1996           1997             1998           1999       2000          2001
                               (a) No. of deaths per 1000 population.


                              Source: ABS, Deaths Australia (Cat. No. 3302.0), ABS Experimental estimates of the Aboriginal and Torres

                              Strait Islander population, 1996-2006 (Cat.No. 3231.0)




                              Administrative collections such as birth and death registrations and data collected by
                              community service providers are a major source of information about Indigenous
                              people. However, Indigenous people are not always accurately identified in many of
                              these data collections. Also, the changing propensity of people to identify as
                              Indigenous means estimates of the Indigenous population should be treated with
                              some caution.

                              A health issue of major concern is the scourge of petrol sniffing amongst Indigenous
                              children and young people, particularly in remote communities such as those in the
                              Anungu Pitjanyjantjara Lands in South Australia’s Far North West. Chronic and
                              prolonged petrol sniffing often results in severe and irreversible disability.

                              In 2003 the ABS Adelaide Office completed an Indigenous Profile publication for SA
                              Government. It is available to State Government users in the Consultancy container
                              of ABS@ and has a section on Health. Another useful reference (despite having no
                              data by State) may be The Health and Welfare of Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres
                              Strait Islander Peoples, 2003, a joint ABS/AIHW publication, Cat. No. 4704.0.




28   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                              CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




SELECTED PROCEDURES PERFORMED IN SA HOSPITALS

                    Separation rates for 'selected' procedures and conditions may be interpreted as
                    indicators of the appropriateness of hospital admissions, and may also be indicators
                    of the availability and accessibility of primary care services.

                    A number of procedures and conditions, particularly relevant to the child and youth
                    population, have been selected for examination:

                        !    Appendicectomy

                        !    Caesarean section

                        !    Myringotomy (a surgical procedure to drain fluid and place tubes in the
                             eardrums)

                        !    Arthroscopy

                        !    Tonsillectomy

                        !    Asthma

                    Table 2.6 towards the end of this Chapter shows the numbers of such procedures and
                    conditions for the period 1998-99 to 2002-03. Table 2.7 presents standardised rate
                    ratios (SRRs) for each procedure/condition over five years as a way of comparing the
                    South Australian experience against Australia overall. If the SRR is greater than one
                    then the hospital separation rate for SA per head of population is higher than the
                    national average. SRR values of less than one indicate a State rate under the
                    national rate. It is a useful indicator for comparison purposes as an SRR of 1.50, for
                    example, indicates a state rate 50% above the national rate, while an SRR of 0.50
                    would indicate a state rate half that of Australia overall.

                    An SRR is not published if the number of hospital separations for SA is less than 30.

                    The graphs below and Table 2.7 show that SA's separation rates for Caesarian
                    sections, Myringotomies, Arthroscopies, Tonsillectomies and Asthma were higher
                    than the national average for patients aged under 25 years. Conversely, separation
                    rates for Appendicectomies were lower than Australia overall.

                    Of the six selected procedures and conditions, the highest SA SRRs generally related
                    to Myringotomies. Over 4,000 of these eardrum procedures were performed in SA
                    hospitals during 2002-03, mostly on patients aged under 25 years, and this represents
                    a rate 72% above the national average for this age cohort (SRR=1.72). A maximum
                    value of 2.04 (i.e. a rate more than twice the national average) was recorded in 2001-
                    02 for patients aged 0 to 4 years.




                        THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE           29
CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




                              SRRs were also high for Asthma for 0-24 year olds, ranging from 1.46 to 1.62 over
                              the five year period ending 2002-03. This could be an indication of the difficulty in
                              accessing primary care services for the treatment of Asthma. On the other hand
                              cases of asthma in SA may be more severe, therefore necessitating treatment in the
                              hospital sector.



                              STANDARDISED RATE RATIO (SRR) (a) FOR SELECTED PROCEDURES AND
                              CONDITIONS FOR PERSONS AGED LESS THAN 25 YEARS, SA HOSPITALS,
                              1998-99 TO 2002-03

                               SRR
                                                                                                          Appendicectomy
                               2.0
                                                                                                          Caesarean section
                                                                                                          Myringotomy
                               1.8

                               1.6

                               1.4

                               1.2

                               1.0

                               0.8
                                 1998-99              1999-00              2000-01              2001-02              2002-03




                               SRR
                                                                                                               Arthroscopy
                               1.8
                                                                                                               Tonsillectomy
                                                                                                               Asthma


                               1.6



                               1.4



                               1.2



                               1.0
                                 1998-99              1999-00              2000-01              2001-02              2002-03


                              a) If the SRR is greater than one then the hospital separation rate for SA per head of population is higher
                              than the national average. SRR values of less than one indicate a State rate under the national rate.
                              Source: SA Department of Health (using ISAAC data)




30   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                  CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




DRUG AND ALCOHOL USE AMONG SOUTH AUSTRALIAN SCHOOLCHILDREN

                   At three yearly intervals, school students from across Australia participate in a
                   national survey of alcohol, tobacco and other drug use. The most recent survey was
                   conducted in 2002 and was coordinated in South Australia by the Cancer Council SA,
                   in collaboration with the Drug and Alcohol Services Council and the SA Smoking and
                   Health Project.

                   Students in Years 7 through to 12 were recruited from Government, Catholic and
                   Independent schools throughout South Australia to participate in the survey. In 2002
                   the survey achieved a sample size of 2,839 South Australian students aged between
                   12 and 17 years.

                   Survey participants were asked to provide information on a “Substance ever used”
                   basis and also a “Substance used in the last week” basis. The graphs below and
                   Table 2.8 at the end of this Chapter show details on the latter measure for 1996, 1999
                   and 2002. The Survey asked about the use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis and
                   also other drugs of concern such as steroids, inhalants, amphetamines,
                   hallucinogens, ecstasy, heroin and cocaine.



                   SA SCHOOL STUDENTS AGED 12-17, PROPORTION WHO USED TOBACCO IN
                   THE LAST WEEK, BY SEX, 1996, 1999 AND 2002

                     %
                                                                                                  Males
                    20
                                                                                                  Females



                    15



                    10



                     5



                     0
                                    1996                       1999                        2002
                   Source: “Drug and Alcohol Use Among SA School Students, Summary Results from the Australian Students
                            Drug and Alcohol Survey”, Drug and Alcohol Services Council (DASC).




                   An apparent reduction is evident in the proportion of South Australian school students
                   who are smoking cigarettes (and other tobacco products). However, the rate of
                   smoking is consistently higher for girls than for boys over this six year time period.

                   Survey results show that recent tobacco use was highest among 16 year old boys and
                   15 year old girls with 21% and 26% respectively reporting that they had smoked in the
                   previous week.




                         THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                       31
CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




                              SA SCHOOL STUDENTS AGED 12-17, PROPORTION WHO USED ALCOHOL IN
                              THE LAST WEEK, BY SEX, 1996, 1999 AND 2002
                                %
                                                                                                             Males
                               40
                                                                                                             Females



                               30



                               20



                               10



                                0
                                               1996                       1999                        2002
                              Source: “Drug and Alcohol Use Among SA School Students, Summary Results from the Australian Students
                                       Drug and Alcohol Survey”, Drug and Alcohol Services Council (DASC).




                              Unlike the data for smoking, there is an apparent increase in the proportion of school
                              children who consumed alcohol in the previous week. Boys are more likely than girls
                              to have consumed alcohol in the previous week.

                              The 2002 Survey found that for boys the proportion of students reporting use of
                              alcohol in the previous week rises from 22% of 13 year olds to 40% of 15 year olds to
                              59% of 17 year olds. For girls, reported use in the previous week increases
                              substantially from ages 13 to 15 and then remains constant between ages 15 and 17
                              at around 40%.



                              SA SCHOOL STUDENTS AGED 12-17, PROPORTION WHO USED CANNABIS IN
                              THE LAST WEEK, BY SEX, 1996, 1999 AND 2002

                                %
                                                                                                             Males
                               20
                                                                                                             Females



                               15



                               10



                                5



                                0
                                              1996                        1999                        2002
                              Source: “Drug and Alcohol Use Among SA School Students, Summary Results from the Australian Students
                                       Drug and Alcohol Survey”, Drug and Alcohol Services Council (DASC).




32   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                        CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug among South Australian school
students, however, as the graph above indicates, there has been a significant
reduction over the last six years in the proportion of students who reported use in the
previous week. In 1996 16% of boys in the survey were weekly cannabis users
whereas by 2002 that proportion has almost halved to 8%. For girls the decline was
from 11% in 1996 to 6% in 2002.

Table 2.8 at the end of this Chapter has details about use in the previous week of
other drugs of concern. The use of inhalants is of concern with usage rates of around
4%. For drugs such as steroids, heroin, cocaine, hallucinogens and ecstasy, usage
rates were below 1% in 2002.

More information about this Survey can be obtained from the Drug and Alcohol
Services Council.




    THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE            33
CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




                              REFERENCES



                              Glover J, Harris K and Tennant S. A Social Health Atlas of Australia (Second edition),
                              Volume 1: Australia. Openbook Publishers: Adelaide, 1999.



                              Keating DP and Hertzman C (eds.). Developmental Health and the Wealth of
                              Nations: Social, Biological and Educational Dynamics. The Guilford Press: New York,
                              1999.



                              Nicholson J, Sanson A, Rempel L, Smart D and Patton G. Longitudinal studies of
                              children and youth: Implications for future studies. In Children’s Health and
                              Development: new research directions for Australia. (Sanson A, ed.) Australian
                              Institute of Family Studies (AIFS). Australian Institute of Family Studies:
                              Commonwealth of Australia 2002.



                              Sawyer M, Arney F, Baghurst P, Clark JJ, Graetz BW, and Kosky RJ. The mental
                              health of young people in Australia. Canberra: DHAC, 2000.



                              Stanley F, Sanson A and McMichael T. New ways of causal pathways thinking for
                              public health. In Children’s Health and Development: new research directions for
                              Australia. (Sanson A, ed.) Australian Institute of Family Studies (AIFS). Australian
                              Institute of Family Studies: Commonwealth of Australia 2002.



                              Tennant S, Hetzel D and Glover J. A Social Health Atlas of Young South Australians
                              (Second edition). Public Health Information Development Unit, The University of
                              Adelaide 2003.



                              Turrell G, Oldenburg B, McGuffog I and Dent R. Socioeconomic Status and Health:
                              Towards a national research program and a policy and intervention agenda.
                              Queensland University of Technology, School of Public Health, Ausinfo: Canberra,
                              1999.




34   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                                CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




TABLE 2.1 FOUR KEY HEALTH RISK FACTORS, NUMBER AND PROPORTION OF PERSONS AGED 18-24,
SOUTH AUSTRALIA AND AUSTRALIA, 2001



                                                      Smoker           Total persons    Proportion
                                                        '000                     '000           %

        South Australia                                   38.6                  130.5        29.6
        Australia                                        559.1                1,784.3        31.3




                               Risky alcohol consumption               Total persons    Proportion
                                                    '000                         '000           %

        South Australia                                   13.6                  130.5        10.4
        Australia                                        202.2                1,784.3        11.3




                                    No exercise (sedentary)            Total persons    Proportion
                                                       '000                      '000           %

        South Australia                                   24.5                  130.5        18.7
        Australia                                        404.0                1,784.3        22.6




                                       Overweight or obese             Total persons    Proportion
                                                       '000                      '000           %

        South Australia                                   31.9                  130.5        24.5
        Australia                                        486.4                1,784.3        27.3


        Source: ABS National Health Survey, 2001 (ABS Cat. 4364.0), unpublished data




                                     THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE    35
CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




TABLE 2.2     TOP 10 CONDITIONS CONTRIBUTING TO PREMATURE MORTALITY – YEARS OF LIFE LOST
(YLL) (a) AND RATE PER 1,000, AGE AND SEX, AVERAGE 1999-2001


                                                                 Rate/                                                                     Rate/
           Males 0-4 years                          YLL (a)     1,000                 Females 0-4 years                       YLL (a)      1,000

     1     Other neonatal causes                      302.3        6.4            1   Low birth weight                           199.7        4.4
     2     Low birth weight                           217.8        4.6            2   Other neonatal causes                      159.7        3.5
     3     Sudden infant death syndrome               162.9        3.4            3   Other congenital anomalies                 125.7        2.8
     4     Other congenital anomalies                 143.9        3.0            4   Congenital heart disease                   105.8        2.3
     5     Birth trauma and asphyxia                  113.5        2.4            5   Birth trauma and asphyxia                   95.0        2.1
     6     Congenital heart disease                   104.8        2.2            6   Other nervous system disorders              75.6        1.7
     7     Other nervous system disorders              70.6        1.5            7   Other chromosomal anomalies                 61.5        1.3
     8     Suffocation and foreign bodies              60.5        1.3            8   Suffocation and foreign bodies              40.7        0.9
     9     Other endocrine and metabolic               60.3        1.3            9   Other endocrine and metabolic               40.7        0.9
     10    Neonatal infections                         51.5        1.1           10   Other cardiovascular disease                32.7        0.7
           All other causes                           446.9        9.4                All other causes                           262.5        5.8
           Total                                     1735.1       36.5                Total                                     1199.7       26.3



           Males 5-14 years                                                           Females 5-14 years

     1     Road traffic accidents                      145.4       1.4            1   Road traffic accidents                      98.5        1.0
     2     Leukemia                                     48.7       0.5            2   Other nervous system disorders              59.5        0.6
     3     Other nervous system disorders               39.3       0.4            3   Brain cancer                                19.7        0.2
     4     Other transport accidents                    39.1       0.4            4   Leukemia                                    19.5        0.2
     5     Suffocation & foreign bodies                 29.2       0.3            5   Other congenital anomalies                  10.0        0.1
     6     Other benign neoplasms                       19.5       0.2            6   Other endocrine and metabolic               10.0        0.1
     7     Fires/burns/scalds                           19.5       0.2            7   Rheumatoid artritis                         10.0        0.1
      8    Meningitis                                   19.3       0.2            8   Falls                                       10.0        0.1
      9    Other cardiovascular disease                  9.9       0.1            9   Other cardiovascular disease                 9.8        0.1
     10    Congenital heart disease                      9.9       0.1           10   Asthma                                       9.8        0.1
           All other causes                             78.1       0.8                All other causes                            68.3        0.7
           Total                                       457.9       4.4                Total                                      325.0        3.3



           Males 15-24 years                                                          Females 15-24 years

     1     Road traffic accidents                      891.4       8.8           1    Road traffic accidents                     217.8        2.3
     2     Suicide & self-inflicted injuries           606.5       6.0           2    Suicide & self-inflicted injuries          103.3        1.1
     3     Heroin dependence & harmful use            156.3        1.5            3   Heroin dependence & harmful use             96.5        1.0
      4    Homicide & violence                         74.2        0.7            4   Homicide & violence                         47.1        0.5
      5    Poisoning                                   65.3        0.6            5   Leukemia                                    44.9        0.5
      6    Polydrug dependence & harmful use           64.1        0.6            6   Epilepsy                                    28.8        0.3
      7    Other nervous system disorders              56.2        0.6            7   Bone and connective tissue cancers          25.8        0.3
      8    Leukemia                                    55.7        0.6            8   Asthma                                      19.5        0.2
      9    Other transport accidents                   55.4        0.5            9   Polydrug dependence & harmful use           19.5        0.2
     10    Brain cancer                                37.1        0.4           10   Other congenital anomalies                  19.3        0.2
           All other causes                           426.0        4.2                All other causes                           216.9        2.3
           Total                                     2488.2       24.6                Total                                      839.6        8.7




     (a)     YLL – Years of Life Lost from a condition occurring in the equivalent of a one year period (i.e. the annual average of 1999, 2000 and 2001)

     Source: SA Department of Health




36    THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                                                CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




TABLE 2.3    TOP 10 CONDITIONS CONTRIBUTING TO LOSS OF HEALTHY YEARS OF LIFE (YLD) DUE TO
DISABILITY CAUSED BY ILLNESS OR INJURY – HEALTHY YEARS OF LIFE LOST (YLD) (a) AND RATE PER
1,000, AGE AND SEX, AVERAGE 1999-2001


                                                               Rate/                                                                       Rate/
      Males 0-4 years                            YLD (a)      1,000                 Females 0-4 years                          YLD (a)    1,000

  1   Asthma                                        552.7       11.6           1    Asthma                                       368.7       8.1
  2   Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder      371.2        7.8            2   Other chromosomal anomalies                  234.0       5.1
  3   Autism and Asperger's syndrome                339.6        7.1           3    Low birth weight                             174.3       3.8
  4   Other chromosomal anomalies                   198.9        4.2            4   Other congenital anomalies                   152.7       3.3
  5   Other congenital anomalies                    192.6        4.0           5    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder     142.2       3.1
  6   Low birth weight                              174.1        3.7           6    Mental retardation                           101.2       2.2
  7   Mental retardation                            137.9        2.9            7   Congenital heart disease                      96.1       2.1
  8   Other chronic respiratory diseases            135.5        2.8            8   Other chronic respiratory diseases            83.3       1.8
  9   Down syndrome                                 118.4        2.5            9   Autism and Asperger's syndrome                82.8       1.8
 10   Congenital heart disease                      110.7        2.3           10   Otitis media                                  69.7       1.5
      All other causes                             1047.3       22.0                All other causes                             874.5      19.2
      Total                                        3378.9       71.0                Total                                       2379.4      52.2



      Males 5-14 years                                                              Females 5-14 years

  1   Asthma                                        845.1        8.2            1   Asthma                                       972.9      10.0
  2   Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder      321.3        3.1            2   Depression                                   242.0       2.5
  3   Depression                                    211.0        2.0            3   Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder     124.1       1.3
  4   Separation anxiety disorder                   104.3        1.0            4   Separation anxiety disorder                   98.9       1.0
  5   Falls                                          99.9        1.0            5   Bulimia nervosa                               73.3       0.8
  6   Type 1 diabetes                                67.1        0.7            6   Anorexia nervosa                              69.2       0.7
  7   Iron-deficiency anaemia                        65.0        0.6            7   Iron-deficiency anaemia                       67.8       0.7
  8   Epilepsy                                       46.7        0.5            8   Type 1 diabetes                               64.5       0.7
  9   Striking and crushing accidents                46.6        0.5            9   Falls                                         61.5       0.6
 10   Otitis media                                   41.9        0.4           10   Otitis media                                  46.9       0.5
      All other causes                              470.6        4.6                All other causes                             520.8       5.3
      Total                                        2319.7       22.5                Total                                       2341.9      24.0



      Males 15-24 years                                                             Females 15-24 years

  1 Alcohol dependence and harmful use              942.2        9.3           1    Depression                                  1036.0      10.7
  2 Bipolar affective disorder                      524.4        5.2           2    Bipolar affective disorder                   518.5       5.4
  3 Schizophrenia                                   392.1        3.9            3   Alcohol dependence and harmful use           488.3       5.1
  4 Depression                                      363.4        3.6            4   Social phobia                                432.6       4.5
  5 Social phobia                                   346.5        3.4            5   Asthma                                       359.7       3.7
  6 Borderline personality disorder                 313.3        3.1            6   Schizophrenia                                322.1       3.3
  7 Heroin dependence & harmful use                 311.0        3.1            7   Bulimia nervosa                              240.2       2.5
  8 Generalised anxiety disorder                    205.0        2.0            8   Heroin dependence & harmful use              229.1       2.4
  9 Cannabis dependence and harmful use             188.2        1.9            9   Anorexia nervosa                             225.9       2.3
 10 Post-traumatic stress disorder                  144.0        1.4           10   Generalised anxiety disorder                 206.2       2.1
    All other causes                               1640.0       16.2                All other causes                            2125.1      22.0
    Total                                          5370.1       53.1                Total                                       6183.6      64.1




      (a) YLD – Healthy Years of Life Lost due to a disability from an illness or injury occurring in the equivalent of a one year period (i.e. the annual
      average of 1999, 2000 and 2001)

      Source: SA Department of Health




                                                 THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                                37
CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




TABLE 2.4      PREGNANCY OUTCOMES, AGE OF MOTHER LESS THAN 25 YEARS, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 1999
TO 2003




                                                          Calendar Year
                 Age of Mother                1999     2000     2001       2002     2003

                                          Number of Births
                 <15 years                       6       13        3           7        9
                 15-19 years                 1,004      917      942         959      936
                 20-24 years                 2,862    2,792    2,755       2,766    2,696
                 Total <25 years             3,872    3,722    3,700       3,732    3,641
                 25 years and over          14,647   14,150   14,004      14,013   14,203

                                          Number of Terminations
                 <15 years                     35        28       30          20     nya
                 15-19 years                1,134     1,093    1,166       1,242     nya
                 20-24 years                1,638     1,540    1,560       1,490     nya
                 Total <25 years            2,807     2,661    2,756       2,752     nya
                 25 years and over          2,853     2,885    2,815       2,711     nya

                                          Number of Low Birthweight babies
                 <15 years                      1        1        0         1          0
                 15-19 years                   88       95       97        79         98
                 20-24 years                  211      219      204       215        189
                 Total <25 years             300       315      301       295        287
                 25 years and over            918      980      898       962        962

                                          Number of Pre-term births
                 <15 years                      1         2         0          1        0
                 15-19 years                  102        96       102         84      110
                 20-24 years                  230       266       220        231      229
                 Total <25 years              333       364       322        316      339
                 25 years and over          1,172     1,165     1,114      1,154    1,165


        Source: SA Department of Health




38   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                                             CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




TABLE 2.5    INFANT DEATHS AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES, STATES/TERRITORIES AND AUSTRALIA,
1998-99 TO 2002-03



    Period                            NSW            Vic         Qld           SA         WA           Tas         NT    ACT    Aust

                                              Number of Infant Deaths (a)

    1998-99                             438          318         274           83         120               41     44     22    1,340
    1999-00                             482          304         260           70         114               38     41     18    1,327
    2000-01                             465          255         290           78         105               43     33     13    1,282
    2001-02                             350          266         234           72          94               30     35     10    1,091
    2002-03                             400          297         241           73          79               28     34     19    1,171



                                              Infant Mortality Rates (b)
    1998-99                            5.11        5.36      5.82      4.51               4.75        6.42       12.23   5.22    5.36
    1999-00                            5.62        5.09      5.49      3.91               4.58        6.55       11.28   4.35    5.32
    2000-01                            5.45        4.35      6.05      4.48               4.30        7.32        8.85   3.22    5.18
    2001-02                            4.16        4.40      4.91      4.10               3.92        5.11        9.36   2.53    4.41
    2002-03                            4.62        5.13      4.98      4.06               3.20        4.82        9.10   4.77    4.71

    Average
    1998-99 to 2002-03                 4.99         4.87        5.45         4.21         4.15        6.04       10.16   4.02    5.00


    (a) An infant death is the death of a live-born child who dies before reaching his/her first birthday


    (b) Infant deaths per 1,000 live births in the same year.


    Source: Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS Cat. 3101.0)




                                              THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                       39
CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




  TABLE 2.6 NUMBER OF SA HOSPITAL SEPARATIONS (a) (b) FOR SELECTED PROCEDURES AND
    CONDITIONS, BY AGE GROUP, 1998-99 TO 2002-03

 Appendicectomy                                           1998-1999         1999-2000               2000-2001   2001-2002   2002-2003

                                                           no. seps.         no. seps.              no. seps.   no. seps.   no. seps.
     0 to 4 years                                                    19              27                   16          22              18
     5 to 7 years                                                    36              34                   37          38              46
     8 to 11 years                                                  174             139                  168         165         164
     12 to 15 years                                                 251             232                  220         232         244
     16 to 17 years                                                 125             152                  123         102         115
     18 to 21 years                                                 235             196                  233         179         200
     22 to 24 years                                                 111             113                  107         113         130
     0 to 24 years subtotal                                         951            893                   904         851         917
     25 years and over                                          1,024             1,030                 1,044       1,057       1,024
     TOTAL                                                      1,975             1,923                 1,948       1,908       1,941


 Caesarean section                                        1998-1999         1999-2000               2000-2001   2001-2002   2002-2003

                                                           no. seps.         no. seps.              no. seps.   no. seps.   no. seps.
     0 to 4 years                                                   n.a.            n.a.                 n.a.        n.a.        n.a.
     5 to 7 years                                                   n.a.            n.a.                 n.a.        n.a.        n.a.
     8 to 11 years                                                  n.a.            n.a.                 n.a.        n.a.        n.a.
     12 to 15 years                                                   4              13                     6           3             1
     16 to 17 years                                                  53              46                   46          48              44
     18 to 21 years                                                 277             269                  279         308         290
     22 to 24 years                                                 384             366                  354         418         404
     0 to 24 years subtotal                                         718            694                   685         777         739
     25 years and over                                          3,835             3,794                 3,816       4,333       4,337
     TOTAL                                                      4,553             4,488                 4,501       5,110       5,076


 Myringotomy                                              1998-1999         1999-2000               2000-2001   2001-2002   2002-2003

                                                           no. seps.         no. seps.              no. seps.   no. seps.   no. seps.
     0 to 4 years                                               2,629             2,313                 2,515       2,507       2,338
     5 to 7 years                                               1,020               844                 1,075       1,073        913
     8 to 11 years                                                  335             257                  318         322         277
     12 to 15 years                                                  85              77                   86          83              75
     16 to 17 years                                                  12              14                   19          18              15
     18 to 21 years                                                  25              24                   27          28              19
     22 to 24 years                                                  12              17                   16          18              15
     0 to 24 years subtotal                                     4,118            3,546                 4,056       4,049       3,652
     25 years and over                                              409             439                  521         502         498
     TOTAL                                                      4,527             3,985                 4,577       4,551       4,150

(a) Includes both public and private hospitals in South Australia

(a) Separation: A completed episode of care for an admitted patient, as recorded by the hospital.

Source: SA Department of Health (using ISAAC data)




                                                                                                                            (Cont.)

40     THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                                            CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




  TABLE 2.6 (Cont)  NUMBER OF SA HOSPITAL SEPARATIONS (a) (b) FOR SELECTED PROCEDURES
    AND CONDITIONS, BY AGE GROUP, 1998-99 TO 2002-03


   Arthroscopy                                            1998-1999          1999-2000              2000-2001   2001-2002        2002-2003

                                                           no. seps.           no. seps.            no. seps.   no. seps.        no. seps.
      0 to 4 years                                                    4                 9                 11            5                3
      5 to 7 years                                                  n.a.                3                   1           1                4
      8 to 11 years                                                  28                25                 22          18               18
      12 to 15 years                                                257              291                 246         219              211
      16 to 17 years                                                294              283                 306         317              236
      18 to 21 years                                                676              673                 715         705              650
      22 to 24 years                                                587              669                 588         548              504
      0 to 24 years subtotal                                   1,846               1,953               1,889       1,813            1,626
      25 years and over                                       11,049              11,666               11,723      12,650           11,974
      TOTAL                                                   12,895              13,619               13,612      14,463           13,600


   Tonsillectomy                                          1998-1999          1999-2000              2000-2001   2001-2002        2002-2003

                                                           no. seps.           no. seps.            no. seps.   no. seps.        no. seps.
      0 to 4 years                                                  654              665                 680         817              755
      5 to 7 years                                                  733              583                 575         755              612
      8 to 11 years                                                 421              327                 352         413              366
      12 to 15 years                                                296              292                 291         312              291
      16 to 17 years                                                176              149                 187         188              162
      18 to 21 years                                                281              281                 263         291              298
      22 to 24 years                                                131                80                104         117              118
      0 to 24 years subtotal                                   2,692               2,377               2,452       2,893            2,602
      25 years and over                                             571              489                 463         569              587
      TOTAL                                                     3,263              2,866                2,915       3,462            3,189


   Asthma                                                 1998-1999          1999-2000              2000-2001   2001-2002        2002-2003

                                                           no. seps.           no. seps.            no. seps.   no. seps.        no. seps.
      0 to 4 years                                              2,041              1,590                1,741       1,606            1,266
      5 to 7 years                                                  587              517                 655         506              400
      8 to 11 years                                                 526              407                 559         387              313
      12 to 15 years                                                352              277                 284         218              169
      16 to 17 years                                                116              128                 130          91               66
      18 to 21 years                                                176              169                 186         144              113
      22 to 24 years                                                124              114                 118          74               53
      0 to 24 years subtotal                                   3,922               3,202               3,673       3,026            2,380
      25 years and over                                         1,779              1,809                1,859       1,763            1,476
      TOTAL                                                     5,701              5,011                5,532       4,789            3,856

(a) Includes both public and private hospitals in South Australia

(a) Separation: A completed episode of care for an admitted patient, as recorded by the hospital.

Source: SA Department of Health (using ISAAC data)




                                               THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                 41
CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




  TABLE 2.7 STANDARDISED RATE RATIO (SRR) (a) OF SA HOSPITAL SEPARATIONS (b) (c) FOR
    SELECTED PROCEDURES AND CONDITIONS, BY AGE GROUP, 1998-99 TO 2002-03

     Appendicectomy                         1998-1999         1999-2000         2000-2001         2001-2002           2002-2003

                                         Standardised      Standardised      Standardised      Standardised        Standardised
                                         sep. rate ratio   sep. rate ratio   sep. rate ratio   sep. rate ratio     sep. rate ratio

      0 to 4 years                                  n.a.              n.a.              n.a.              n.a.                n.a.
      5 to 7 years                                 0.75              0.81              0.91              0.90                1.12
      8 to 11 years                                0.90              0.75              0.91              0.88                0.90
      12 to 15 years                               0.89              0.91              0.88              0.96                1.01
      16 to 17 years                               0.94              1.13              0.89              0.81                0.89
      18 to 21 years                               0.99              0.86              1.02              0.81                0.88
      22 to 24 years                               0.79              0.87              0.80              0.87                1.01
      0 to 24 years subtotal                      0.90              0.90              0.91              0.89                0.95
      25 years and over                            0.97              0.97              0.96              0.98                0.95
      TOTAL                                        0.92              0.92              0.92              0.93                0.94


     Caesarean section                      1998-1999         1999-2000         2000-2001         2001-2002           2002-2003

                                         Standardised      Standardised      Standardised      Standardised        Standardised
                                         sep. rate ratio   sep. rate ratio   sep. rate ratio   sep. rate ratio     sep. rate ratio

      0 to 4 years                                  n.a.              n.a.              n.a.              n.a.                n.a.
      5 to 7 years                                  n.a.              n.a.              n.a.              n.a.                n.a.
      8 to 11 years                                 n.a.              n.a.              n.a.              n.a.                n.a.
      12 to 15 years                                n.a.              n.a.              n.a.              n.a.                n.a.
      16 to 17 years                               1.71              1.50              1.25              1.35                1.30
      18 to 21 years                               1.24              1.25              1.15              1.17                1.09
      22 to 24 years                               1.18              1.14              1.08              1.17                1.13
      0 to 24 years subtotal                      1.22              1.21              1.12              1.18                1.12
      25 years and over                            1.02              0.97              0.92              0.99                0.91
      TOTAL                                        1.06              1.02              0.96              1.03                0.95


     Myringotomy                            1998-1999         1999-2000         2000-2001         2001-2002           2002-2003

                                         Standardised      Standardised      Standardised      Standardised        Standardised
                                         sep. rate ratio   sep. rate ratio   sep. rate ratio   sep. rate ratio     sep. rate ratio

      0 to 4 years                                 1.89              1.78              1.95              2.04                1.92
      5 to 7 years                                 1.45              1.21              1.66              1.70                1.53
      8 to 11 years                                1.47              1.21              1.65              1.63                1.48
      12 to 15 years                               1.44              1.27              1.56              1.61                1.47
      16 to 17 years                                n.a.              n.a.              n.a.              n.a.                n.a.
      18 to 21 years                                n.a.              n.a.              n.a.              n.a.                n.a.
      22 to 24 years                                n.a.              n.a.              n.a.              n.a.                n.a.
      0 to 24 years subtotal                      1.68              1.51              1.80              1.86                1.72
      25 years and over                            1.52              1.50              1.78              1.74                1.79
      TOTAL                                        1.60              1.45              1.72              1.77                1.66



For footnotes see next page.




                                                                                                                 (Cont.)

42     THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                                           CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




  TABLE 2.7 (Cont.) STANDARDISED RATE RATIO (SRR) (a) OF SA HOSPITAL SEPARATIONS (b) (c) FOR
    SELECTED PROCEDURES AND CONDITIONS, BY AGE GROUP, 1998-99 TO 2002-03


     Arthroscopy                                        1998-1999         1999-2000          2000-2001         2001-2002         2002-2003

                                                    Standardised      Standardised        Standardised      Standardised      Standardised
                                                    sep. rate ratio   sep. rate ratio     sep. rate ratio   sep. rate ratio   sep. rate ratio

        0 to 4 years                                           n.a.              n.a.                n.a.              n.a.               n.a.
        5 to 7 years                                           n.a.              n.a.                n.a.              n.a.               n.a.
        8 to 11 years                                          n.a.              n.a.                n.a.              n.a.               n.a.
        12 to 15 years                                         1.55              1.59               1.57              1.45              1.50
        16 to 17 years                                         1.53              1.42               1.57              1.71              1.39
        18 to 21 years                                         1.63              1.54               1.70              1.68              1.66
        22 to 24 years                                         1.71              1.90               1.74              1.74              1.66
        0 to 24 years subtotal                                1.63              1.64                1.68             1.67              1.60
        25 years and over                                      1.62              1.59               1.55              1.63              1.56
        TOTAL                                                  1.65              1.62               1.59              1.66              1.59


     Tonsillectomy                                      1998-1999         1999-2000          2000-2001         2001-2002         2002-2003

                                                    Standardised      Standardised        Standardised      Standardised      Standardised
                                                    sep. rate ratio   sep. rate ratio     sep. rate ratio   sep. rate ratio   sep. rate ratio

        0 to 4 years                                           1.13              1.17               1.33              1.40              1.31
        5 to 7 years                                           1.29              1.09               1.23              1.42              1.25
        8 to 11 years                                          1.20              1.06               1.30              1.37              1.27
        12 to 15 years                                         1.14              1.25               1.36              1.35              1.30
        16 to 17 years                                         1.27              1.11               1.44              1.40              1.28
        18 to 21 years                                         1.31              1.26               1.22              1.26              1.29
        22 to 24 years                                         1.37              0.89               1.20              1.30              1.31
        0 to 24 years subtotal                                1.22              1.13                1.29             1.37              1.28
        25 years and over                                      1.55              1.40               1.31              1.41              1.44
        TOTAL                                                  1.22              1.12               1.24              1.32              1.25


     Asthma                                             1998-1999         1999-2000          2000-2001         2001-2002         2002-2003

                                                    Standardised      Standardised        Standardised      Standardised      Standardised
                                                    sep. rate ratio   sep. rate ratio     sep. rate ratio   sep. rate ratio   sep. rate ratio

        0 to 4 years                                           1.61              1.62               1.63              1.74              1.47
        5 to 7 years                                           1.47              1.64               1.71              1.82              1.62
        8 to 11 years                                          1.65              1.66               1.96              1.86              1.71
        12 to 15 years                                         1.46              1.48               1.55              1.67              1.59
        16 to 17 years                                         1.37              1.47               1.56              1.49              1.34
        18 to 21 years                                         1.02              1.09               1.22              1.20              1.10
        22 to 24 years                                         1.11              1.06               1.17              1.01              0.85
        0 to 24 years subtotal                                1.50              1.53                1.61             1.67              1.46
        25 years and over                                      1.15              1.19               1.29              1.37              1.26
        TOTAL                                                  1.34              1.36               1.45              1.51              1.35

a) The table presents standardised rate ratios (SRRs) for each procedure/condition over five years as a way of comparing the South Australian
    experience against Australia overall. If the SRR is greater than one then the hospital separation rate for SA per head of population is
    higher than the national average. SRR values of less than one indicate a State rate under the national rate.

(a) Includes both public and private hospitals in South Australia

(a) Separation: A completed episode of care for an admitted patient, as recorded by the hospital.

Source: SA Department of Health (using ISAAC data)




                                               THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                          43
CHAPTER 2 • HEALTH




TABLE 2.8    DRUG AND ALCOHOL USE AMONG SOUTH AUSTRALIAN SCHOOL STUDENTS AGED 12-17,
1996, 1999 AND 2002



                                                             Proportion who used in the last week

         Substance                     Year                  Males          Females      Persons
                                                                 %                %           %


         Tobacco                       1996                     16.9              18.7      17.8
                                       1999                     16.3              17.4      16.8
                                       2002                     12.9              15.1      14.1

         Alcohol                       1996                     31.0              28.6      29.9
                                       1999                     36.7              32.1      34.5
                                       2002                     35.0              31.3      33.1

         Cannabis                      1996                     15.6              11.2      13.5
                                       1999                     14.5               8.0      11.2
                                       2002                      8.2               6.2       7.1

         Steroids                      1996                      0.8               0.2        0.5
                                       1999                      1.1               0.1        0.7
                                       2002                      0.6               0.3        0.5

         Inhalants                     1996                      5.8               5.5        5.6
                                       1999                      5.0               4.0        4.6
                                       2002                      4.5               3.7        4.0

         Amphetamines                  1996                      1.6               0.6        1.1
                                       1999                      2.4               1.2        1.8
                                       2002                      1.2               1.4        1.3

         Hallucinogens                 1996                      1.4               1.4        1.3
                                       1999                      3.1               0.6        1.9
                                       2002                      0.6               0.5        0.6

         Ecstasy                       1996                      0.7               0.0        0.4
                                       1999                      1.5               0.4        1.0
                                       2002                      0.6               0.4        0.5

         Heroin                        1996                      0.9               0.3        0.6
                                       1999                      1.4               0.4        0.9
                                       2002                      0.4               0.3        0.4

         Cocaine                       1996                      0.7               0.2        0.4
                                       1999                      1.7               0.2        1.0
                                       2002                      0.4               0.3        0.3

         Source: "Drug and Alcohol Use Among SA School Students,
                Summary Results from the Australian Students Drug and Alcohol Survey",
                Drug and Alcohol Services Council (DASC)




44   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
CHAPTER               3       EDUCATION AND TRAINING


INTRODUCTION

                              Education and training are widely accepted as fundamental priorities for South
                              Australia’s further progress and wellbeing. This Chapter examines preschool
                              enrolments, patterns of school enrolments, measures of retention in school education
                              and measures of educational performance at Primary levels. It also examines
                              destinations of school leavers, participation in post school education and overseas
                              student enrolments. Finally, there is some 2001 Population Census data showing
                              details of internet usage by children and young people. One of the stated targets of
                              South Australia’s Strategic Plan (SASP - see www.stateplan.sa.gov.au ) is to
                              ‘increase the level of internet use in metropolitan and regional South Australia’.




CHILDREN’S SERVICES

                              The term Children’s Services refers to those services of a non-compulsory nature that
                              are provided for the benefit of children and their families. The Children’s Services
                              sector involves government, community and private operators.

                              Children can attend non-government preschool programs from the age of 3. In the
                              government system, however, four-year-old children may attend four sessions of
                              preschool per week for four terms prior to commencing school. Children younger than
                              four who are Indigenous, live in rural areas, or who have special developmental
                              needs, may attend earlier.

                              The Department of Education and Children’s Services operates most of the State’s
                              preschool programs and provides funds to Catholic preschools and other non-
                              government organisations employing their own staff. The total number of eligible
                              children (including three, four and five year olds) enrolled in preschools in May 2003
                              was about 18,160. The following graph shows that there has been a steady decline in
                              the number of four-year-olds in the population, but that the total of enrolments in
                              preschool has increased in 2003. The 2003 enrolment figures indicate that
                              approximately 91% of the state’s four-year-olds were enrolled in preschool in Term 2,
                              2003.




45   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                 CHAPTER               3   •   EDUCATION             AND          TRAINING




                              PRESCHOOL ENROLMENTS, COMPARED TO POPULATION OF FOUR YEAR
                              OLDS, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 1994 to 2003

                                no.
                                                                                                             Enrolments
                              20500
                                                                                                             Total 4 yr olds SA


                              20000


                              19500


                              19000


                              18500


                              18000
                                        1994     1995     1996     1997     1998       1999    2000     2001      2002 2003*
                              Note: Includes 3,4 and 5 yr old children enrolled in DECS funded preschools only.
                              2003* ABS Population Projections Australia, Cat. No. 3222.0.
                              Source: DECS, Preschool Staffing Data Collection Term 2 and ABS Population by Age and Sex, Cat. No. 3201.0.



SCHOOL ENROLMENTS - OVERVIEW

                              The decline in the population of South Australia’s children and young people over the
                              last ten years, as shown in Chapter 1, was particularly present in the age group 0-7
                              and has yet to impact dramatically on total school enrolments. There has, however,
                              been a drift of enrolments from South Australian government schools to non-
                              government schools, particularly for Primary level (R-7) enrolments. The graph below
                              depicts such changes from 1999 to 2003. Table 3.1 at the end of this Chapter
                              provides more detail.


                              SCHOOL ENROLMENTS (FTE (a)), SOUTH AUSTRALIA, BY LEVEL OF
                              EDUCATION (b) AND CATEGORY OF SCHOOL, 1999 AND 2003


                                FTE (a)
                                                                                                                          1999
                               125000
                                                                                                                          2003


                               100000


                                    75000


                                    50000


                                    25000


                                        0
                                                 Gov't Primary       N-Gov't Primary       Gov't Secondary    N-Gov't Secondary



                              (a)     FTE – Full time equivalent students. This is a measure that takes into account the participation of part
                                      time students.
                              (b)     Primary levels are in the range - Reception to Year 7 (R-7). Secondary levels are in the range – Year 8
                                      to Year 12 (8-12)
                              Source: Schools, Australia (ABS Cat. No. 4221.0) and ABS data available on request.


46   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                     CHAPTER            3    •   EDUCATION               AND       TRAINING




                    Table 3.1 shows that primary level (R-7) enrolments have remained constant at 63%
                    of all enrolments between 1999 and 2003. The government sector share of R-7
                    enrolments has gradually decreased from 73% to 70% (approx 6450 students) and
                    the relative share of secondary students between sectors has also decreased from
                    67% to 64% (approx 1,760 students). The combined effect has been represented by
                    a decrease of 8,200 FTE in government schools between 1999 and 2003 and a
                    corresponding increase in non-government schools of 7,150 FTE. Over the period
                    1999 to 2003, government schools have attracted an average of 69% and non-
                    government schools an average of 31% of all school enrolments. Government
                    schools still have a higher ratio of primary enrolments to secondary enrolments (13:7)
                    compared to non-government schools (12:8).



SCHOOL ENROLMENTS – METROPOLITAN/COUNTRY

                    Table 3.2 provides details of metropolitan/country patterns in school enrolments. A
                    notable difference between government and non-government education is the
                    distribution into metropolitan/country classifications. The government sector ratio of
                    students in metropolitan region to country region is 13:7 whereas the non-government
                    sector demonstrates a ratio of 17:3. It should be noted however that a significant
                    number of secondary students in metropolitan non-government schools are from rural
                    areas.



SCHOOL ENROLMENTS – BY AGE

                    The impact of lower fertility rates is illustrated through a decline in the number of
                    enrolments of children aged 5, 6 and 7 years of age as the graph below illustrates.
                    While at present the decline is more pronounced in these lower age categories, ABS
                    age projections suggest that the decline in enrolments is likely to continue and extend
                    across older age groups.



                    SCHOOL ENROLMENTS (FTE (a)), SOUTH AUSTRALIA, BY SELECTED AGE (IN
                    YRS) OF STUDENT, 1999, 2001 AND 2003


                   Age
                     5       1999
                     6       2001
                             2003
                     7
                     8
                     9
                   10
                   11
                   12
                   13
                   14
                   15
                   16
                   17

                    12000             14000             16000           18000              20000             22000
                                                           Enrolments (FTE)
                    (a) FTE – Full time equivalent students. This is a measure that takes into account the participation of part
                    time students.
                    Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, data available on request


                                           THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                            47
                                                         CHAPTER         3   •   EDUCATION          AND     TRAINING




                              Table 3.3 shows that, in general, the proportions of persons attending school to the
                              total population have remained relatively consistent over the last 5 years for most age
                              groupings. The participation of young adults (age 18-20) in post compulsory school
                              education has increased slightly during 1999 to 2003 from 5.1% to 5.6%. It is
                              anticipated that with an increase of VET in government schools and the inclusion of
                              such participation within the scope of the National Schools Statistical Collection
                              (NSSC), this proportion will increase. According to DECS statistics, government
                              schools have accounted (on average) for 77% of school education for the age group
                              18-20 and almost exclusively for the age group 21+.



APPARENT RETENTION RATES

                              The apparent retention rate (ARR) is generally defined as the number of full-time (FT)
                              students in Year 12 in any year, expressed as a percentage of the number who
                              started secondary schooling 4 years earlier (in Year 8 for SA, Qld, WA and NT) or 5
                              years earlier (in Year 7 for NSW, Vic, Tas and ACT). Similar rates can be calculated
                              based on Full-time Equivalent (FTE) or person counts and often convey quite different
                              outcomes.

                              The apparent retention rate statistic is published annually in a number of national
                              reports including:

                                  !    Australian Bureau of Statistics, Schools, Australia (Cat. No. 4221.0)

                                  !    Productivity Commission Report on Government Services

                                  !    MCEETYA National Report on Schooling



                              The statistic is termed ‘apparent’ since it does not account for:

                                  !    students who repeat a year;

                                  !    adult re-entry students (from an earlier Year 8 cohort);

                                  !    inter-sector school transfers;

                                  !    interstate migration;

                                  !    students who spread Year 12 over 2 years or more; and

                                  !    State differences in enrolment policy and full-time Year 12 workloads.


                              Despite its crude calculation methodology, the ARR can be a useful indicator at a
                              state level, in conjunction with other measures. This assumes that movements in and
                              out of the state are fairly constant and have relatively minimal impact. It provides a
                              general indication of the proportion of the original year 8 cohort still in schooling.
                              However, broken down to smaller sub-groups, the movement of population cohorts
                              makes the ARR measure more problematic.

                              .




48   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                   CHAPTER            3   •    EDUCATION               AND        TRAINING




Table 3.4 shows details of Apparent Retention Rates for each State and Territory and
for Australia as a whole for the years 1999 to 2003. Each of the three measures
described above (FT, FTE and Persons) appear in the table.

In South Australia (and also Tasmania) there are much higher than average rates of
part-time participation in Year 12 studies, hence the ‘full-time’ apparent retention rate
is likely to be misleading. For South Australia, the Full-time Equivalent (FTE)
measure is considered to be a more useful and meaningful indicator as part-time
students are included and converted into full-time equivalent units. The graph below
demonstrates the difference in results of the two measures – Full-time and Full-time
Equivalent for South Australia and Australia.



COMPARISON OF APPARENT RETENTION RATES (YR 7/8 TO YR 12) – FTE
AND FT, SOUTH AUSTRALIA AND AUSTRALIA, ALL SCHOOLS, 1999 TO 2003


                                                                                     SA (FTE)
ARR (%)                                                                              AUST (FTE)
82.5                                                                                 SA (FT)
                                                                                     AUST (FT)
80.0

77.5

75.0

72.5

70.0

67.5

65.0
       1999                 2000                  2001                 2002                   2003




Source: ABS Schools Australia (Cat. No. 4221.0) and MCEETYA data.
FTE - Full-time equivalent (part-time students are converted to full-time equivalent units)
FT - Full-time students only
Note: ‘All Schools’ comprise both Government and Non-Government Schools.




It can be seen that, while there is a large disparity in the Full-time ARR when
comparing South Australia and Australia, FTE rates are at similar levels.

There is a notable difference between higher retention achieved for all South
Australian schools and lower retention within the government sector as shown in
Table 3.4. The profile of students in non-government schools is different to
government schools for a variety of reasons. The incidence of part-time students is
minimal in non-government schools but quite prevalent in the upper secondary years
of government schools.




                       THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                     49
                                                              CHAPTER           3   •   EDUCATION              AND         TRAINING




                              SA Department of Education and Children’s Services (DECS) records show that
                              Indigenous enrolments in South Australia government schools have increased by 930
                              FTE from 5,710 FTE in 1999 to 6,640 FTE in 2003. This represents a growth of 16%.
                              Identification issues together with improved systems for collecting school data may
                              have contributed to this increase. Irrespective of this growth, the retention of
                              Indigenous students in secondary education is dramatically different to the total
                              population and warrants specific consideration. The Yr 8-12 FTE ARR for Indigenous
                              students in government schools in 2003 was 30% compared to 68% for all FTE
                              students in government schools (see Table 3.5 for more information). The graph
                              below shows the Yr 8-12 FTE ARR for Indigenous students in government schools for
                              the period 1999 to 2003, together with two intermediate steps – (i) Yr 8 to 10 and (ii)
                              Yr 10 to 12. The improvement in Yr 8-10 retention appears encouraging. However,
                              there appears to be emerging issues in the retention of Year 10 Indigenous students
                              to Year 12.



                              INDIGENOUS STUDENTS: APPARENT RETENTION RATES (FTE), SOUTH
                              AUSTRALIA, GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS, 1999 TO 2003

                              ARR(%)
                              100                                                                         Yr 8 to Yr 10
                                                                                                          Yr 10 to Yr 12
                                                                                                          Yr 8 to Yr 12
                               90

                               80

                               70

                               60

                               50

                               40

                               30

                               20
                                    1999               2000                2001                 2002                2003
                              Source: SA Dept of Education and Children’s Services (Accountability and Strategic Futures)




                                The retention of Indigenous students in secondary education is dramatically
                                different to the total population and warrants specific consideration.




50   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                     CHAPTER         3     •   EDUCATION   AND   TRAINING




EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE – PRIMARY LEVEL STUDENTS

                    Literacy and Numeracy testing commenced in South Australian schools in 1997 for
                    Year 3 and Year 5 students. Testing of Year 7 students commenced in 2001. The
                    collection of this data is administered by the Department of Education and Children’s
                    Services (DECS) and undergoes rigorous analysis and equating of results across
                    years and at a national level. It provides a rich source of information for assessing the
                    performance and development of students as they progress through their schooling
                    years. This is particularly important at the classroom level. See Table 3.6 for details
                    of test scores.




                    DECS STATE TEST MEAN SCORES, LITERACY, 1999 TO 2003

                    score
                                  Year 3 Literacy
                    67.5
                                  Year 5 Literacy
                    65.0          Year 7 Literacy

                    62.5
                    60.0
                    57.5
                    55.0
                    52.5
                    50.0
                    47.5
                    45.0
                           1999               2000               2001             2002       2003
                    Source: SA Dept of Education and Children’s Services




                    DECS STATE TEST MEAN SCORES, NUMERACY, 1999 TO 2003


                    score
                                  Year 3 Numeracy
                    67.5
                                  Year 5 Numeracy
                    65.0          Year 7 Numeracy

                    62.5
                    60.0
                    57.5
                    55.0
                    52.5
                    50.0
                    47.5
                    45.0
                           1999               2000               2001             2002       2003
                    Source: SA Dept of Education and Children’s Services




                                          THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE   51
                                                             CHAPTER           3     •   EDUCATION        AND        TRAINING




                              The following graph illustrates that Indigenous students have performed at a lower
                              level than the general student population in both literacy and numeracy. One point on
                              the literacy scale represents 4 months of learning, suggesting that Indigenous
                              students are approximately 2 years behind the total cohort. One point on the
                              numeracy scale represents 3 months of learning, indicating that there is a similar lag
                              by Indigenous students in numeracy



                              DIFFERENCE IN MEAN SCORES: INDIGENOUS STUDENTS TO GENERAL
                              STUDENT POPULATION, 1999 TO 2003


                               difference
                                0                                                                  Yr   3 Literacy
                                                                                                   Yr   5 Literacy
                               –1                                                                  Yr   3 Numeracy
                                                                                                   Yr   5 Numeracy
                               –2
                               –3
                               –4
                               –5
                               –6
                               –7
                               –8
                               –9
                                    1999             2000                2001               2002               2003
                              Source: SA Dept of Education and Children’s Services




DESTINATIONS OF SCHOOL LEAVERS

                              The graph below and Table 3.7 towards the end of this Chapter show details of the
                              main activity undertaken by South Australian school leavers in May of the year after
                              they have left school. These results are from an ABS Survey undertaken in May of
                              each year – the Survey of Education and Work.

                              The Survey indicates that there have been, on average, around 20,000 young South
                              Australians leaving school each year in the period 1999 to 2003. In this five year
                              period the estimated number of school leavers ranged from a low of 18,300 in 2000 to
                              a high of 23,500 in 2001.

                              Outcomes for school leavers have fluctuated considerably over the last five years.
                              The proportion of school leavers whose main activity in the year after they had left
                              school was full-time post-school education, fell from 48% (9,500 persons) in 1999 to
                              41% (7,600 persons) in 2003. This is largely a consequence of an apparent decline
                              over the last five years in transitions straight from school to full-time university degree
                              courses.

                              Table 3.7 also shows that the proportion of school leavers whose main activity in the
                              year after they had left school was employment ranged from 33% (6,600 persons) in
                              1999 to 48% (11,300 persons) in 2001. The years 2002 and 2003 both registered
                              declines over the previous year – 8,300 and 6,900 persons respectively.

52   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                      CHAPTER           3    •   EDUCATION              AND         TRAINING




                     MAIN DESTINATION (PRIMARY ACTIVITY) OF SA SCHOOL LEAVERS (a), MAY
                     SURVEY, 1999 TO 2003

                      persons
                                                                                  Full-time post-school education
                      12500
                                                                                  Employed
                                                                                  Unemployed

                      10000


                       7500


                       5000


                       2500


                           0
                                     1999             2000            2001             2002             2003



                     (a)   Persons aged 15-24 who attended school in the previous year but are not attending school in the current
                           year.

                     Source: Education and Work (ABS Cat. No. 6227.0), data by State for school leavers aged 15-24 available
                     on request




HIGHER EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING

                     Participation in higher education and vocational education and training is important to
                     the development of a highly skilled workforce capable of delivering sustainable
                     economic growth and social inclusion.

                     Over time, globalisation, industry restructuring, technological change, and societal
                     and demographic changes have all impacted on the economy, and in particular, the
                     types of jobs available to young people.

                     These factors have resulted in increased demands on young people to remain in
                     education and training longer to acquire the necessary skills and abilities required by
                     employers.

                     The challenge will be to ensure that young people are equipped with the necessary
                     skills and abilities to take up the opportunities afforded by an ageing workforce and
                     the retirement from the labour market of a significant number of skilled workers over
                     the next decade.




PARTICIPATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

                     There are three universities in South Australia – the University of Adelaide, Flinders
                     University and the University of South Australia – and together they have total
                     enrolments exceeding 60,000 students (DEST). The scope of this Profile
                     encompasses persons up to the age of 24 years and there were around 32,820 higher
                     education students in this age group in 2004. For more detail see Table 3.8 towards
                     the end of this Chapter.



                                            THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                      53
                                                                      CHAPTER     3     •   EDUCATION         AND         TRAINING




                              HIGHER EDUCATION ENROLMENTS, STUDENTS AGED UNDER 25 YEARS,
                              FULL-TIME AND PART-TIME (a) STATUS, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 1999 TO 2004


                                 no.
                                                                                                              Full-time
                               30000
                                                                                                              Part-time

                               25000


                               20000

                               15000

                               10000

                                5000


                                         0
                                                  1999          2000      2001           2002     2003            2004
                              (a) Part-time is less than 75% of full-time course load
                              Source: SA Dept of Further Education, Employment, Science and Technology (DFEEST)




                              The graph above shows that university enrolments by those aged under 25 years
                              have experienced increases over the last few years. In 1999 there were 27,540
                              university students aged under 25 years, while by 2004 there were 32,820 – an
                              overall increase of 19%. For more detail see Table 3.8. The increase in enrolments
                              is possibly a consequence of both increased domestic enrolments and increased
                              enrolments by overseas students.

                              The graph below shows enrolments by Indigenous students aged under 25 years in
                              South Australian universities. Again, the trend is an increasing one. See Table 3.9
                              for more detail.



                              HIGHER EDUCATION ENROLMENTS (a), INDIGENOUS STUDENTS AGED
                              UNDER 25 YEARS, FULL-TIME AND PART-TIME (b) STATUS, SOUTH
                              AUSTRALIA, 1999 TO 2004
                                no.
                                                                                                              Full-time
                               200
                                                                                                              Part-time



                               150



                               100



                                50



                                    0
                                               1999          2000        2001           2002     2003             2004
                              (a)       At first semester each year
                              (b) Part-time is less than 75% of full-time course load
                              Source: SA Dept of Further Education, Employment, Science and Technology (DFEEST)




54   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                   CHAPTER          3    •   EDUCATION          AND        TRAINING




PARTICIPATION IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING (VET)

                     In 2003, there were approximately 40,530 Vocational Education and Training (VET)
                     students aged between 12 and 24 in South Australia. Nearly 80 per cent of these
                     students were aged 18-24. Table 3.10 shows that the total number of VET students
                     has grown over the 5-year period 1999 to 2003, most notably for students aged 12-17
                     years. The average annual growth rate for South Australian VET students aged 12-
                     17 was 1.9 per cent per annum over the period 1999-2003 while the rate for students
                     aged 18-24 was 0.3 per cent per annum. Apprenticeships and traineeships, whereby
                     young people combine work with a structured learning program, comprise a significant
                     part of the VET sector. NCVER advises that there were 17,240 young people aged
                     less than 25 undertaking apprenticeships and traineeships in South Australia in 2003.

                     Indigenous students undertaking South Australian VET activity represented 2.9 per
                     cent of the total number of VET students in 1999. Rapid growth in the number of
                     Indigenous VET students over the 5-year period shown has resulted in this proportion
                     increasing to 4 per cent in 2003. The rapid increase in Indigenous VET students has
                     been most notable for students aged 12-17 where enrolments have increased at an
                     annual average rate of 17 per cent. Indigenous enrolments for VET students aged
                     18-24 have increased at 7 per cent per annum. See Table 3.10 for more details of the
                     number of Indigenous VET students.



                     VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING (VET) ENROLMENTS – AGE 12-17
                     AND 18-24, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 1999 TO 2003
                        no.
                                                                                               Age 12-17
                      40000
                                                                                               Age 18-24



                      30000



                      20000



                      10000



                           0
                                    1999           2000           2001           2002            2003
                     Source: SA Dept of Further Education, Employment, Science and Technology (DFEEST)




                                           THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE          55
                                                             CHAPTER           3   •   EDUCATION        AND       TRAINING




OVERSEAS STUDENT ENROLMENTS

                              A target in SASP is to increase South Australia’s share of overseas students. Data
                              sourced from AEI – International Education Network (a part of the Australian
                              Department of Education, Science and Training) shows that, in 2003, South
                              Australia’s share of overseas student enrolments in all education sectors was 4.4%,
                              which is less than our overall population share of 7.7% (ABS Population by Age and
                              Sex, Cat. No. 3201.0). Further details are in Tables 3.11 and 3.12. Only data for
                              2002 and 2003 appear in this Profile as data for earlier years were collected and
                              compiled on a different basis.

                              In 2003 there were 13,470 overseas student enrolments in South Australia, up from
                              11,030 in 2002, an increase of 22%. It should be noted that data by age group is not
                              available, but according to AEI, the majority of overseas students are aged under 25
                              years. The graph below shows that most overseas student enrolments in South
                              Australia were in the higher education (or university) sector with 6,510 enrolments in
                              2003, up from 5,090 in 2002.



                              OVERSEAS STUDENT ENROLMENTS IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA BY EDUCATION
                              SECTOR, 2002 AND 2003



                               persons
                               8000                                                                        2002
                                                                                                           2003



                               6000



                               4000



                               2000



                                   0
                                            Higher        Vocational       School          ELICOS (a)   Other
                                                                       Education Sector
                              (a) ELICOS: English Language Intensive Courses for Overseas Students
                              Source: AEI – International Education Network (www.aei.dest.gov.au)




                              Table 3.12 shows that of the 13,470 overseas students in 2003, 2,500 were from
                              China, 1,990 from Malaysia, 1,410 from Hong Kong and 1,060 from Japan. Other
                              important source countries include Korea and Singapore.

                              South Australia’s share of national overseas student enrolments was 4.0% in 2002,
                              rising to 4.4% in 2003. The graph below shows that South Australia’s market
                              penetration is higher in school education but lower in the vocational education sector.




56   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                    CHAPTER          3   •   EDUCATION                AND         TRAINING




                    SOUTH AUSTRALIA’S SHARE OF AUSTRALIA’S OVERSEAS STUDENT
                    ENROLMENTS BY EDUCATION SECTOR, 2002 AND 2003



                                                                                                          2002
                       SA as % of                                                                         2003
                     8    Aust


                     6


                     4


                     2


                     0
                             Higher        Vocational     School      ELICOS (a)          Other        TOTAL
                                                            Education Sector
                    ELICOS: English Language Intensive Courses for Overseas Students.
                    Source: AEI – International Education Network (www.aei.dest.gov.au)



INTERNET USAGE BY CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE

                    A stated target of SASP is to ‘increase the level of internet use in metropolitan and
                    regional South Australia by 20% within 10 years’. A Census question on internet
                    usage was asked for the first time in 2001 and provides good base-line data for
                    internet usage. In this Section we will examine internet usage by children and young
                    people in Adelaide (Statistical Division), the rest of South Australia, total South
                    Australia and Australia as a whole.

                    The graph below shows that the rate of internet usage by children and young people
                    in Adelaide was a little higher than the national average. However, for rural and
                    regional South Australia (‘Rest of SA’), while there is parity for children of school age,
                    the rate for those aged 18-24 years (36%) is very much less than that for Adelaide
                    (59%) and Australia (57%). For more detail see Tables 3.13 and 3.14.

                    PROPORTION OF CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE BY AGE GROUP WHO
                    USED THE INTERNET IN THE WEEK PRIOR TO CENSUS NIGHT, 2001.
                      %
                                                                                                     Adelaide
                     100
                                                                                                     Rest of SA
                                                                                                     Total SA
                                                                                                     Australia
                      75



                      50



                      25



                         0
                                    8-11                12-17              18-24                  Total 8-24
                                                            Age groups (years)
                         Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing, data available on request




                                           THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                 57
                                                                              CHAPTER             3   •    EDUCATION            AND   TRAINING




TABLE 3.1 SCHOOL ENROLMENTS (FTE (a)), SOUTH AUSTRALIA, BY LEVEL OF EDUCATION AND
CATEGORY OF SCHOOL, 1999 TO 2003

                      Level of school education……….
      Year              Primary (b)     Secondary (c)                        Total

                    Government Schools
      1999                116,676                      62,535            179,210
      2000                115,416                      62,062            177,477
      2001                114,287                      61,935            176,222
      2002                112,128                      61,216            173,344
      2003                110,230                      60,778            171,008

                    Non-Government Schools
      1999                 43,024                      31,075              74,099
      2000                 43,996                      31,386              75,383
      2001                 45,172                      31,707              76,879
      2002                 46,428                      32,604              79,031
      2003                 47,773                      33,471              81,244

                    All Schools
      1999                 159,700                     93,609            253,309
      2000                 159,412                     93,448            252,860
      2001                 159,459                     93,642            253,101
      2002                 158,556                     93,820            252,375
      2003                 158,003                     94,249            252,252


(a)   FTE – Full time equivalent students. This is a measure that takes into account the participation of part time students.
(b) Primary levels are in the range - Reception to Year 7 (R-7)
(c) Secondary levels are in the range – Year 8 to Year 12 (8-12)
Source: Schools, Australia (ABS Cat. No. 4221.0) and ABS data available on request.




58     THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                           CHAPTER            3    •   EDUCATION              AND   TRAINING




TABLE 3.2 SCHOOL ENROLMENTS (FTE (a)), SOUTH AUSTRALIA, METROPOLITAN/COUNTRY, BY
CATEGORY OF SCHOOL, 1999 TO 2003


                         SA Region…………….……..….
           Year           Metropolitan (b) Country                            Total SA

                       Government Schools
           1999                  119,770                    59,440             179,210
           2000                  118,819                    58,658             177,477
           2001                  118,172                    58,049             176,222
           2002                  116,041                    57,303             173,344
           2003                  114,275                    56,733             171,008

                       Non-Government Schools
           1999                   61,690                    12,409              74,099
           2000                   62,589                    12,794              75,383
           2001                   63,598                    13,282              76,879
           2002                   65,318                    13,713              79,031
           2003                   67,150                    14,095              81,244

                       All Schools
           1999                       181,460               71,849             253,309
           2000                       181,408               71,452             252,860
           2001                       181,770               71,331             253,101
           2002                       181,359               71,016             252,375
           2003                       181,424               70,828             252,252


(a) FTE – Full time equivalent students. This is a measure that takes into account the participation of part time students.
(b) Adelaide Statistical Division
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, data available on request




                                                                 THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE             59
                                                                          CHAPTER            3   •    EDUCATION                AND   TRAINING




TABLE 3.3 SCHOOL ENROLMENTS (FTE (a)), SOUTH AUSTRALIA, BY AGE, 1999, 2001 AND 2003


          Age                          1999             2001            2003

          Single Years -
          4                           1,117            1,142            1,055
          5                          18,841           18,398           18,007
          6                          19,864           19,791           18,980
          7                          19,820           19,643           19,296
          8                          19,893           19,959           19,888
          9                          19,907           19,783           19,758
          10                         19,841           19,968           19,960
          11                         19,752           19,932           20,024
          12                         19,908           19,907           19,996
          13                         20,206           19,737           19,954
          14                         20,196           19,747           19,877
          15                         19,542           19,187           19,342
          16                         17,209           17,546           17,411
          17                         12,524           13,330           13,461
          18                          2,212            2,425            2,593
          19                            487              567              682
          20                            231              232              247
          21 and over                 1,761            1,807            1,689

           Total                   253,309          253,101           252,220

          Age groups -
          4-7                       59,642           58,973            57,338
          8-11                      79,393           79,642            79,630
          12-17                    109,584          109,455           110,040
          18-20                      2,929            3,224             3,523
          21 and over                1,761            1,807             1,689

          Proportion of total population (%) -
          4-7                     74.9         75.6                      75.6
          8-11                    99.0         99.0                      99.1
          12-17                   89.6         89.2                      90.2
          18-20                    5.1          5.3                       5.6


 (a) FTE – Full time equivalent students. This is a measure that takes into account the participation of part time students.
 Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, data available on request




60    THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                       CHAPTER           3    •     EDUCATION             AND    TRAINING




TABLE 3.4 APPARENT RETENTION RATES (a) – YEAR 7/8 TO YEAR 12, STATES AND AUSTRALIA, FULL-
TIME, FULL-TIME EQUIVALENT AND PERSONS, 1999 TO 2003

    ALL SCHOOLS (b) -

    Year                         NSW          VIC        QLD         SA         WA           TAS        NT        ACT        AUST

    1999             FT           67.6       76.2        77.5       67.0        71.5         66.7      52.9        92.5       72.3
                    FTE           69.5       77.1        78.5       73.9        73.3         77.6      59.6        92.6       74.4
                  Persons         70.4       78.2        80.2       80.6        75.1         92.6      64.4        92.6       76.4

    2000             FT           67.5       77.2        77.3       65.4        71.3         69.5      49.7        87.1       72.3
                    FTE           69.4       78.3        78.3       73.8        72.8         81.6      53.6        87.1       74.5
                  Persons         70.2       79.2        79.8       80.4        74.5         91.7      55.8        87.2       76.2

    2001             FT           68.2       79.3        79.0       66.4        72.0         68.7      50.9        89.3       73.4
                    FTE           69.3       80.5        79.9       74.8        74.1         81.6      55.6        89.3       75.6
                  Persons         70.2       81.7        81.3       81.3        77.0         94.8      59.4        89.4       77.6

    2002             FT           69.9       80.9        81.3       66.7        73.7       72.6        53.0        88.1       75.1
                    FTE           70.9       82.2        82.8       75.9        75.4       89.1        55.8        88.2       77.4
                  Persons         71.8       83.4        84.7       83.3        77.5       104.3       57.7        88.3       79.6

    2003             FT           70.5       81.4        81.5       67.1        71.2       74.9        56.3        89.7       75.4
                    FTE           71.7       82.7        82.7       75.9        71.8       92.6        57.5        90.1       77.6
                  Persons         72.7       83.9        84.6       82.6        72.3       107.8       59.1        90.7       79.5



    GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS -

    Year                         NSW          VIC        QLD         SA         WA           TAS        NT        ACT        AUST

    1999             FT           61.2       69.8        71.8       58.1        66.5       65.7        60.0       110.0       66.4
                    FTE           63.8       71.1        73.4       67.2        69.1       80.7        69.1       110.1       69.4
                  Persons         64.9       72.7        75.9       76.2        71.8       101.4       75.2       110.2       72.4

    2000             FT           61.0       71.1        72.2       56.2        66.0       69.8        58.9       104.8       66.6
                    FTE           63.6       72.7        73.6       67.6        68.2       86.3        64.0       104.8       69.8
                  Persons         64.7       74.0        75.9       76.6        70.7       100.1       66.6       104.9       72.3

    2001             FT           62.0       73.7        73.6       57.4        65.9       68.5        59.7       107.6       67.8
                    FTE           63.5       75.6        75.0       68.9        68.9       86.2        66.4       107.6       70.9
                  Persons         64.7       77.4        77.1       77.8        73.1       104.3       71.4       107.7       73.9

    2002             FT           63.8       74.4        76.5       56.9        69.0       72.9        63.1        98.7       69.5
                    FTE           65.2       76.4        78.7       69.5        71.6       95.4        66.3        98.9       72.9
                  Persons         66.4       78.2        81.5       79.7        74.7       116.2       67.9        99.0       76.0

    2003             FT           65.0       74.9        76.1       56.8        64.8       74.5        69.0       101.0       69.6
                    FTE           66.7       76.9        77.9       68.2        65.6       98.9        69.5       101.7       72.8
                  Persons         68.1       78.8        80.8       77.3        66.4       119.9       70.8       102.7       75.7


Source: ABS Schools Australia (Cat. No. 4221.0) and MCEETYA data.


(a) The calculation of Year 12 apparent retention rates uses year 7 and 8 enrolments depending on the primary/secondary structure in a particular
State/Territory. For example, 2003 Year 12 apparent retention rates in NSW, VIC, TAS and ACT equals Year 12 enrolments in 2003 divided by Year 7
enrolments in 1998. On the other hand, 2003 Year 12 apparent retention rates in QLD, SA, WA and NT equals Year 12 enrolments in 2003 divided by
Year 8 enrolments in 1999.
(b) ‘All Schools’ comprise both Government and Non-Government Schools within Australia




                                                             THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                     61
                                                                         CHAPTER        3   •    EDUCATION    AND   TRAINING




TABLE 3.5 INDIGENOUS STUDENTS: APPARENT RETENTION RATES (FTE), SOUTH AUSTRALIA,
GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS, 1999 TO 2003


         Year                  Yr 8 to Yr 10           Yr 10 to Yr 12     Yr 8 to Yr 12

         1999                            70.7                   35.5                 22.5
         2000                            72.4                   39.5                 24.9
         2001                            77.1                   44.8                 31.7
         2002                            78.2                   45.7                 33.1
         2003                            83.6                   39.1                 30.1


Source: SA Dept of Education and Children’s Services




TABLE 3.6 DECS STATE TEST MEAN SCORES, ALL STUDENTS AND INDIGENOUS STUDENTS, SOUTH
AUSTRALIA, 1999 TO 2003


                                                 1999            2000        2001           2002       2003

          Year 3 Literacy
                     All Students                 49.2            48.3        49.2              49.0   49.0
                     Indigenous                   44.5            42.8        43.6              42.9   43.3

          Year 5 Literacy
                     All Students                 55.1            54.5        55.8              55.9   55.4
                     Indigenous                   49.3            49.4        50.3              50.4   49.0

          Year 7 Literacy
                     All Students                                             59.7              61.0   60.1
                     Indigenous                                               54.3              56.0   54.8

          Year 3 Numeracy
                    All Students                  49.7            49.0        49.4              51.1   49.5
                    Indigenous                    42.5            40.9        42.6              43.0   43.7

          Year 5 Numeracy
                    All Students                  57.4            56.3        56.7              57.2   59.3
                    Indigenous                    49.0            48.9        50.0              49.7   52.8

          Year 7 Numeracy
                    All Students                                              64.3              65.5   65.6
                    Indigenous                                                55.9              59.8   58.8



Source: SA Dept of Education and Children’s Services




62     THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                         CHAPTER            3   •   EDUCATION                 AND   TRAINING




TABLE 3.7 MAIN DESTINATION (PRIMARY ACTIVITY) OF SA SCHOOL LEAVERS (a), MAY SURVEY,
1999 TO 2003



      Destination
      (Primary Activity)                                            1999        2000        2001        2002          2003

                                                                   PERSONS………………………………
      Full-time post-school education                              9,500       7,100       8,200       9,800          7,600
        Of which - Higher Education                                5,800       4,600       5,700       5,200          3,900
                   TAFE                                            3,200       2,100       2,300       3,800          2,800

      Not in full-time post-school education                      10,400      11,200      15,300     12,800      11,100
        Of which - Employed                                        6,600       8,700      11,300      8,300       6,900
                     Unemployed                                    3,400       2,100       3,000      2,900       3,300

      Total School Leavers                                        19,900      18,300      23,500     22,600      18,700


                                                                   PROPORTION (%)………………………
      Full-time post-school education                               47.7   38.8    34.9 43.4                           40.6
        Of which - Higher Education                                 29.1   25.1    24.3 23.0                           20.9
                   TAFE                                             16.1   11.5     9.8 16.8                           15.0

      Not in full-time post-school education                         52.3        61.2       65.1        56.6           59.4
        Of which - Employed                                          33.2        47.5       48.1        36.7           36.9
                     Unemployed                                      17.1        11.5       12.8        12.8           17.6

      Total School Leavers                                         100.0       100.0       100.0       100.0          100.0



(a)   Persons aged 15-24 who attended school in the previous year but are not attending school in the current year.

Source: Education and Work (ABS Cat. No. 6227.0), data by State for school leavers aged 15-24 available on request




                                                               THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE               63
                                                                      CHAPTER      3   •    EDUCATION    AND    TRAINING




TABLE 3.8  HIGHER EDUCATION ENROLMENTS (a), STUDENTS AGED UNDER 25 YEARS (BY SINGLE
YEAR OF AGE), FULL-TIME AND PART-TIME STATUS (b), SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 1999 TO 2004




     Year        Age                 FT            PT         Total     Year       Age            FT      PT     Total


     1999       <18                 41              2           43      2000      <18              34       8       42
                 18              2,902            215        3,117                 18           2,501     210    2,711
                 19              5,013            481        5,494                 19           4,809     557    5,366
                 20              4,606            746        5,352                 20           4,860     812    5,672
                 21              3,754          1,001        4,755                 21           3,873   1,075    4,948
                 22              2,698          1,155        3,853                 22           2,634   1,064    3,698
                 23              1,704          1,012        2,716                 23           1,749   1,003    2,752
                 24              1,323            883        2,206                 24           1,262     831    2,093
              Total <25         22,041          5,495       27,536              Total <25      21,722   5,560   27,282

     2001       <18                 56             15           71      2002      <18              41      10       51
                 18              2,549            214        2,763                 18           2,611     276    2,887
                 19              4,807            558        5,365                 19           4,987     749    5,736
                 20              4,967            816        5,783                 20           5,010     957    5,967
                 21              4,177          1,066        5,243                 21           4,564   1,328    5,892
                 22              2,814          1,231        4,045                 22           3,205   1,435    4,640
                 23              1,729          1,054        2,783                 23           1,935   1,276    3,211
                 24              1,327            988        2,315                 24           1,309   1,078    2,387
              Total <25         22,426          5,942       28,368              Total <25      23,662   7,109   30,771

     2003       <18                 61             13           74      2004      <18              58       9       67
                 18              2,338            207        2,545                 18           2,189     295    2,484
                 19              4,887            774        5,661                 19           4,596     856    5,452
                 20              5,202          1,114        6,316                 20           5,044   1,197    6,241
                 21              4,473          1,318        5,791                 21           4,537   1,626    6,163
                 22              3,452          1,634        5,086                 22           3,487   1,724    5,211
                 23              2,184          1,482        3,666                 23           2,337   1,812    4,149
                 24              1,500          1,196        2,696                 24           1,622   1,433    3,055
              Total <25         24,097          7,738       31,835              Total <25      23,870   8,952   32,822



     (a)    At first semester of each year
     (b)    Part-time is less than 75% of full-time course load.


     Source: SA Department of Further Education, Employment, Science and Technology (DFEEST)




64    THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                        CHAPTER      3   •     EDUCATION     AND     TRAINING




TABLE 3.9  HIGHER EDUCATION ENROLMENTS (a), INDIGENOUS STUDENTS AGED UNDER 25 YEARS (BY
SINGLE YEAR OF AGE), FULL-TIME AND PART-TIME STATUS (b), SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 1999 TO 2004




         Year         Age               FT           PT         Total        Year        Age          FT       PT     Total


         1999        <18                 0            0            0         2000       <18            1        1         2
                      18                23            1           24                     18           21        6        27
                      19                30            2           32                     19           28        2        30
                      20                28           10           38                     20           23       10        33
                      21                24           10           34                     21           28        7        35
                      22                11            5           16                     22            8       11        19
                      23                14            7           21                     23           12        3        15
                      24                15            8           23                     24            7        9        16
                   Total <25           145           43          188                  Total <25      128       49       177

         2001        <18                 0            0            0         2002       <18            0        0         0
                      18                14            2           16                     18           17                 17
                      19                28            2           30                     19           41        7        48
                      20                29            6           35                     20           30        4        34
                      21                22            3           25                     21           17        9        26
                      22                20            6           26                     22           19        3        22
                      23                10            7           17                     23           10       11        21
                      24                11            9           20                     24           11       10        21
                   Total <25           134           35          169                  Total <25      145       44       189

         2003        <18                 0            0            0         2004       <18            2        0         2
                      18                18            4           22                     18           25        3        28
                      19                36            6           42                     19           28       10        38
                      20                31            5           36                     20           30        9        39
                      21                29            8           37                     21           37        7        44
                      22                13           14           27                     22           20       12        32
                      23                10            6           16                     23           11       13        24
                      24                10            5           15                     24            6       13        19
                   Total <25           147           48          195                  Total <25      159       67       226




   (a)     At first semester of each year
   (b)    Part-time is less than 75% of full-time course load


   Source: SA Department of Further Education, Employment, Science and Technology (DFEEST)




                                                                THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE   65
                                                                  CHAPTER          3     •   EDUCATION   AND   TRAINING




TABLE 3.10 VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING (VET) ENROLMENTS – TOTAL AND INDIGENOUS,
SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 1999 TO 2003



                                            Total enrolments             Enrolments of Indigenous
     Year                                 of persons aged…                       persons aged………..
                                        12-17         18-24                      12-17        18-24

     1999                               8,127           31,341                      348            786
     2000                               7,929           32,712                      409            881
     2001                               8,756           31,472                      685            949
     2002                               9,130           32,506                      719          1,091
     2003                               8,778           31,754                      662          1,033

     1999-2003 change                     651              413                      314           247

     Average annual %
     change 1999-2003                     1.9               0.3                   17.4            7.1


     Source: SA Dept of Further Education, Employment, Science and Technology (DFEEST)




66   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                    CHAPTER        3    •     EDUCATION   AND   TRAINING




TABLE 3.11 OVERSEAS STUDENT ENROLMENTS IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA AND AUSTRALIA BY EDUCATION
SECTOR, 2002 AND 2003


     Education Sector                              2002                   2003    Change
                                                   (no.)                  (no.)      (%)

    SOUTH AUSTRALIA:
     Higher Education                             5,090               6,507            27.8
     Vocational Education                         1,366               1,621            18.7
     School Education                             1,325               1,738            31.2
     ELICOS (a)                                   1,997               2,266            13.5
     Other                                        1,248               1,335             7.0
      TOTAL                                      11,026              13,467            22.1

    AUSTRALIA:
     Higher Education                          116,934              136,252            16.5
     Vocational Education                       59,470               57,326            -3.6
     School Education                           23,273               26,799            15.2
     ELICOS (a)                                 58,336               60,930             4.4
     Other                                      20,342               22,017             8.2
      TOTAL                                    273,855              303,324            10.8

    SOUTH AUSTRALIA'S SHARE OF TOTAL:
                                   2002                                   2003
                                    (%)                                    (%)
     Higher Education               4.4                                    4.8
     Vocational Education           2.3                                    2.8
     School Education               5.7                                    6.5
     ELICOS (a)                      3.4                                    3.7
     Other                           6.1                                    6.1
      TOTAL                          4.0                                    4.4


    (a) ELICOS: English Language Intensive Courses for Overseas Students


    Source: AEI - International Education Network (www.aei.dest.gov.au)




                                                           THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE   67
                                                                    CHAPTER            3   •   EDUCATION   AND   TRAINING




TABLE 3.12 OVERSEAS STUDENT ENROLMENTS IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA AND AUSTRALIA BY COUNTRY
OF CITIZENSHIP, 2002 AND 2003



          Country of Citizenship                        2002                   2003        Change
                                                        (no.)                  (no.)          (%)

         SOUTH AUSTRALIA:
          China                                        1,811               2,502               38.2
          Hong Kong (SAR of China)                     1,137               1,405               23.6
          India                                          258                 380               47.3
          Indonesia                                      338                 390               15.4
          Korea, Republic of                             678                 948               39.8
          Japan                                          928               1,056               13.8
          Malaysia                                     1,537               1,986               29.2
          Singapore                                      551                 605                9.8
          Taiwan                                         337                 414               22.8
          Thailand                                       412                 456               10.7
          United States of America                       487                 479               -1.6
          Other                                        2,552               2,846               11.5
            TOTAL                                     11,026              13,467               22.1

         AUSTRALIA:
          China                                      47,931               57,579               20.1
          Hong Kong (SAR of China)                   22,091               23,803                7.7
          India                                      11,364               14,386               26.6
          Indonesia                                  20,985               20,336               -3.1
          Korea, Republic of                         18,658               22,159               18.8
          Japan                                      17,329               18,987                9.6
          Malaysia                                   17,530               19,779               12.8
          Singapore                                  12,062               11,843               -1.8
          Taiwan                                      9,953               10,559                6.1
          Thailand                                   15,643               17,025                8.8
          United States of America                   11,064               12,189               10.2
          Other                                      69,245               74,679                7.8
            TOTAL                                   273,855              303,324               10.8


         Source: AEI - International Education Network (www.aei.dest.gov.au)




68   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                             CHAPTER       3   •     EDUCATION    AND   TRAINING




TABLE 3.13 NUMBER OF CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE BY AGE GROUP BY INTERNET USAGE (IN THE WEEK
PRIOR TO CENSUS NIGHT), 2001

                                                               Age groups………………………..
    Internet use                                               8-11      12-17 18-24 Total 8-24
                                                                no.        no.   no.        no.

    ADELAIDE:
    Yes, at home only                                        12,502            32,312      25,814       70,628
    Yes, elsewhere (a) only                                   7,554            13,447      19,338       40,339
    Yes, both at home and elsewhere (a)                       3,425            12,657      15,366       31,448
      Total internet users                                   23,481            58,416      60,518      142,415
    Did not use the internet                                 29,634            25,094      39,624       94,352
    Internet use not stated                                   2,159             2,642       2,801        7,602
    Total                                                    55,274            86,152     102,943      244,369

    REST OF SA
    Yes, at home only                                         4,216            10,096       4,277       18,589
    Yes, elsewhere (a) only                                   4,215             7,365       4,152       15,732
    Yes, both at home and elsewhere (a)                       1,071             3,761       1,590        6,422
      Total internet users                                    9,502            21,222      10,019       40,743
    Did not use the internet                                 13,909            12,524      16,397       42,830
    Internet use not stated                                   1,099             1,370       1,499        3,968
    Total                                                    24,510            35,116      27,915       87,541



    TOTAL SA
    Yes, at home only                                        16,718            42,408      30,091       89,217
    Yes, elsewhere (a) only                                  11,769            20,812      23,490       56,071
    Yes, both at home and elsewhere (a)                       4,496            16,418      16,956       37,870
      Total internet users                                   32,983            79,638      70,537      183,158
    Did not use the internet                                 43,543            37,618      56,021      137,182
    Internet use not stated                                   3,258             4,012       4,300       11,570
    Total                                                    79,784           121,268     130,858      331,910

    AUSTRALIA
    Yes, at home only                                      263,754             626,160     461,212    1,351,126
    Yes, elsewhere (a) only                                107,512             212,173     302,250      621,935
    Yes, both at home and elsewhere (a)                     46,867             182,791     240,722      470,380
      Total internet users                                 418,133           1,021,124   1,004,184    2,443,441
    Did not use the internet                               607,957             506,422     685,066    1,799,445
    Internet use not stated                                 52,356              68,197      76,392      196,945
    Total                                                1,078,446           1,595,743   1,765,642    4,439,831

    (a) Elsewhere - e.g. at school, university, public library, workplace,
           at a friend's or relative's home.

    Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




                                                               THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE   69
                                                                           CHAPTER   3    •   EDUCATION   AND   TRAINING




TABLE 3.14 PROPORTION OF CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE BY AGE GROUP BY INTERNET USAGE (IN THE
WEEK PRIOR TO CENSUS NIGHT), 2001


                                                         Proportion………………
 Internet use                                              8-11      12-17        18-24   Total 8-24
                                                             %          %            %            %

 ADELAIDE:
 Yes, at home only                                          22.6           37.5    25.1        28.9
 Yes, elsewhere (a) only                                    13.7           15.6    18.8        16.5
 Yes, both at home and elsewhere (a)                         6.2           14.7    14.9        12.9
   Total internet users                                     42.5           67.8    58.8        58.3
 Did not use the internet                                   53.6           29.1    38.5        38.6
 Internet use not stated                                     3.9            3.1     2.7         3.1
 Total                                                     100.0          100.0   100.0       100.0

 REST OF SA
 Yes, at home only                                          17.2           28.8    15.3        21.2
 Yes, elsewhere (a) only                                    17.2           21.0    14.9        18.0
 Yes, both at home and elsewhere (a)                         4.4           10.7     5.7         7.3
   Total internet users                                     38.8           60.4    35.9        46.5
 Did not use the internet                                   56.7           35.7    58.7        48.9
 Internet use not stated                                     4.5            3.9     5.4         4.5
 Total                                                     100.0          100.0   100.0       100.0



 TOTAL SA
 Yes, at home only                                          21.0           35.0    23.0        26.9
 Yes, elsewhere (a) only                                    14.8           17.2    18.0        16.9
 Yes, both at home and elsewhere (a)                         5.6           13.5    13.0        11.4
   Total internet users                                     41.3           65.7    53.9        55.2
 Did not use the internet                                   54.6           31.0    42.8        41.3
 Internet use not stated                                     4.1            3.3     3.3         3.5
 Total                                                     100.0          100.0   100.0       100.0

 AUSTRALIA
 Yes, at home only                                          24.5           39.2    26.1        30.4
 Yes, elsewhere (a) only                                    10.0           13.3    17.1        14.0
 Yes, both at home and elsewhere (a)                         4.3           11.5    13.6        10.6
   Total internet users                                     38.8           64.0    56.9        55.0
 Did not use the internet                                   56.4           31.7    38.8        40.5
 Internet use not stated                                     4.9            4.3     4.3         4.4
 Total                                                     100.0          100.0   100.0       100.0

 (a) Elsewhere - e.g. at school, university, public library, workplace,
        at a friend's or relative's home.


 Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




70    THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
CHAPTER               4       LABOUR FORCE


INTRODUCTION


                              For most people, the time between the age of 15 and 24 is one of significant
                              transition. Some make a smooth transition from school to post-school education and
                              then to the beginnings of a career path. For many others the transition runs less
                              smoothly. Often a period of unemployment will be a feature of some young people’s
                              labour force experience. Economic and social changes over recent times (for
                              example, technological change and industry restructuring) have had an effect on
                              young South Australians’ labour market options. One of the most significant impacts
                              for young people has been the decline in the number of full-time ‘entry level’ positions
                              that become available. At the same time there is an expectation that young people
                              should prolong their time in education and training.

                              This Chapter examines the themes of employment and unemployment. There are
                              sections on casual employment and also the labour force experience of young
                              Indigenous people. There is some information on occupations and industries that
                              young people are working in and, finally, some information on an emerging issue of
                              concern - that of families with no employed parent.


EMPLOYMENT


                              Young people can take a range of different pathways in the transition from education
                              to a career. Some combine employment with ongoing study; some spend time
                              seeking employment or working in a variety of temporary jobs; still others settle into a
                              career path quickly. Regardless of whether they are studying or not, the income
                              derived from employment is an important resource for young people. It may be their
                              only economic resource; or may represent an important step in increasing their
                              economic independence. Employment also provides an opportunity to develop work
                              and social skills. However, employment for young people can be quite different to
                              employment for older people, and is often characterised by lower paid jobs, less
                              skilled occupations and less job security. (Australian Social Trends, 2004, ABS Cat.
                              No. 4102.0).



                                One of the most significant impacts for young people has been the decline in the
                                number of full-time ‘entry level’ positions that become available. At the same time
                                there is an expectation that young people should prolong their time in education
                                and training.




71   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
CHAPTER      4   •   LABOUR     FORCE




                              Table 4.1 and the two graphs below show trends in full-time (FT) and part-time (PT)
                              employment for young South Australians aged 15-19 and 20-24 over the last five
                              years. The most noticeable difference is that part-time employment for persons aged
                              15-19 is much greater than full-time employment whereas the opposite is true for
                              persons aged 20-24. While the trend in full-time employment has remained relatively
                              stable over the last five years for both age groups, part-time employment has
                              increased.




                              NUMBER OF EMPLOYED PERSONS AGED 15-19, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, FULL-
                              TIME (a) AND PART-TIME (b) STATUS, 1998-99 TO 2003-04


                               '000
                                                                                                  Aged 15-19 employed FT (a)
                               40
                                                                                                  Aged 15-19 employed PT (b)



                               30



                               20



                               10



                                0
                                         1998-99        1999-00        2000-01        2001-02        2002-03       2003-04




                              NUMBER OF EMPLOYED PERSONS AGED 20-24, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, FULL-
                              TIME (a) AND PART-TIME (b) STATUS, 1998-99 TO 2003-04



                                '000
                                                                                                   Aged 20-24 employed FT (a)
                                60
                                                                                                   Aged 20-24 employed PT (b)




                                40




                                20




                                 0
                                          1998-99        1999-00        2000-01        2001-02        2002-03      2003-04


                                    (a) Persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week in all jobs.
                                    (b) Persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week in all jobs.


                                    Source: ABS Labour Force Survey




72   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                              CHAPTER            4        LABOUR           FORCE




                     Table 4.1 also shows the proportion or ratio of South Australians aged 15-19 and 20-
                     24 years who are employed. Just under half of all 15-19 year olds are employed
                     either full-time or part-time whereas the equivalent proportion for those aged 20-24
                     years is a little under three-quarters. Details for Australia as a whole also appear in
                     the table for purposes of comparison and they exhibit very similar proportions/ratios to
                     that of South Australia.

                     In terms of labour force participation, persons aged 15-19 are much less likely to be in
                     the labour force (i.e. neither working nor looking for work) than persons aged 20-24.
                     A common situation for persons aged 15-19 is the combination of full-time study with
                     part-time work (derived from ABS, Labour Force, Australia, Cat. No. 6202.0).

                     There are significant differences in the number of hours per week that persons aged
                     15-19 and 20-24 work. On average, employed persons aged 15-19 work around 22
                     hours per week compared with an average of 34 hours for 20-24 year olds and 38
                     hours for those aged over 25 (derived from ABS Labour Force data).


UNEMPLOYMENT RATES

                     One of the indicators chosen as a ‘top level goal’ in the ‘South Australia: Strategic
                     Plan, 2004’ was youth unemployment, specifically the full-time unemployment rate for
                     those aged 15-19. The goal (as stated in SASP) is “ to equal or better the national
                     rate within five years”. The graphs below show the full-time unemployment rate (see
                     graph note (a) for definition) for those aged 15-19 and also for those aged 20-24.
                     South Australia’s rate is compared with that of Australia over the period 1998-99 to
                     2003-04. Table 4.2 towards the end of this Chapter provides more detail.



                     FULL-TIME UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (a), PERSONS AGED 15-19, SOUTH
                     AUSTRALIA AND AUSTRALIA, 1998-99 TO 2003-04



                      %
                                                                                                     South Australia
                     35
                                                                                                     Australia

                     30

                     25

                     20

                     15

                     10

                      5

                      0
                      1998-99           1999-00          2000-01          2001-02          2002-03           2003-04

                     (a) Full-time unemployment rates are calculated as follows – the number of persons in the age group who

                     were unemployed and seeking full-time work as a proportion of the full-time labour force in that age group.

                     The full-time labour force is the sum of those seeking full-time work plus those working full-time.


                     Source: ABS, Labour Force, Australia (Cat.No. 6202.0.5.001)




                                            THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                           73
CHAPTER      4   •   LABOUR     FORCE




                              FULL-TIME UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (a), PERSONS AGED 20-24, SOUTH
                              AUSTRALIA AND AUSTRALIA, 1998-99 TO 2003-04


                                 %
                                                                                                              South Australia
                               20.0
                                                                                                              Australia
                               17.5

                               15.0

                               12.5

                               10.0

                                7.5

                                5.0

                                2.5

                                0.0
                                  1998-99          1999-00          2000-01         2001-02          2002-03          2003-04

                              (a) Full-time unemployment rates are calculated as follows – the number of persons in the age group who

                              were unemployed and seeking full-time work as a proportion of the full-time labour force in that age group.

                              The full-time labour force is the sum of those seeking full-time work plus those working full-time.


                              Source: ABS, Labour Force, Australia (Cat.No. 6202.0.5.001)




                              It is noted that South Australia’s full-time unemployment rate has been higher than
                              Australia’s over the period shown both for persons aged 15-19 and those aged 20-24.
                              It is also noted that, over time, South Australia’s rate has shown modest improvement
                              generally commensurate with the trend for Australia as a whole.

                              The data shows, compared with 20-24 year olds, unemployed young people aged 15
                              to 19 are far more likely to be looking for part-time work.

                              ABS Labour Force data also shows the labour force status of young people varies for
                              males and females. The major differences include:

                                    !     20 to 24 year old females are less likely to be participating in the labour force
                                          than males of the same age;

                                    !     employed females are more likely to be working part-time compared with
                                          males, in both age cohorts; and

                                    !     unemployed males are more likely to be seeking full-time work than
                                          unemployed females.




74   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                CHAPTER        4      LABOUR        FORCE




CASUAL EMPLOYMENT

                    A key feature of the labour market over the past decade or so has been the growth in
                    casual employment. It has been suggested that the key drivers of this have been
                    growth in industries that are relatively reliant on casual labour and a general increase
                    in demand from employers for more flexible forms of employment to meet peak
                    demand periods.

                    It is considered that some employers prefer casual employment due to the greater
                    flexibility it offers and some employees prefer it for the wage premium most casual
                    employees receive.

                    A large proportion of casual employment exists among 15 to 24 year olds. There are
                    almost 50,000 people in this age group who are ‘self-identified’ casuals, representing
                    over 35% of all casual workers in the State. The majority (60%) of young casual
                    workers are females.

                    For some young people, these job opportunities can become stepping stones to
                    permanent employment. For others, however, they can give rise to a lack of
                    employment security and the risk of becoming trapped long-term in this often low-paid
                    unskilled market.



INDIGENOUS YOUNG PEOPLE

                    There are approximately 4,700 Indigenous South Australians aged 15 to 24 years.
                    The youth (aged 15-24) full-time unemployment rate for Indigenous persons in the
                    State is 37%, much higher than the State average of around 17% (2001 Population
                    Census).

                    Educational attainment is a key contributor to the high level of disadvantage
                    experienced by Indigenous people. Compared with the general South Australian
                    population, Indigenous people have historically recorded lower school retention rates
                    and a significantly smaller share have non-school qualifications (2001 Population
                    Census). However, the participation of Indigenous students in vocational education
                    and training (VET) has increased by 50% in the last five years (See Chapter 3).

                    The graph following and Table 4.3 give details of the sector of employment of young
                    Indigenous persons who were employed at the time of the 2001 Census, by weekly
                    hours worked.




                                        THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE      75
CHAPTER      4   •   LABOUR     FORCE




                              NUMBER OF EMPLOYED INDIGENOUS PERSONS AGED 15-24 BY SECTOR OF
                              EMPLOYMENT, BY WEEKLY HOURS WORKED, SOUTH AUSTRALIA,
                              2001 POPULATION CENSUS


                               persons
                               400                                                                        <35 hours
                                                                                                          35+ hours



                               300



                               200



                               100



                                 0
                                      C'wealth Govt   State Govt   Local Govt Private Sector   CDEP (a)   Not stated


                                  (a) Community Development Employment Program


                                  Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




                              Of a total of 1,360 young Indigenous persons who were employed at the time of the
                              2001 Census, there were 740 in the Private Sector – mainly in the fields of retail,
                              manufacturing, hospitality, construction, health services and other services. There
                              were more working full-time than part-time in the Private Sector. A further 370 were
                              engaged in a range of Community Development Employment Programs (CDEP),
                              which operate largely in Indigenous communities in the Far North and the Far West
                              regions of South Australia. Most CDEP workers worked less than 35 hours per week.
                              Others worked in Commonwealth and State agencies and also Local Government.



OCCUPATIONS

                              What sort of paid work do young South Australians do?

                              The occupations in which young people are employed differs considerably from that of
                              the general working-age population. Tables 4.4 and 4.5 towards the end of this
                              Chapter give details of the ‘top twenty’ occupation groups for young South Australians
                              aged 15-19 and those aged 20-24 at the time of the 2001 Population Census.




76   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                              CHAPTER         4      LABOUR        FORCE




                  Table 4.4 shows that for those aged 15-19, around 13,630 (or one third of the total of
                  41,220) worked as ‘elementary sales workers’ – clearly ranked the most frequently
                  nominated occupation group on the list. Typically these workers would be casual
                  part-time sales assistants or checkout operators working for supermarkets, fast food
                  chains or other retail businesses. A large proportion would still be students.
                  ‘Labourers’ was the second ranked occupation group for those aged 15-19 with
                  around 7,780 employed teenagers (or 19%). We have seen already in Table 4.1 that
                  around two-thirds of teenage workers are part-time workers. Many of the other
                  occupations in the ‘top twenty’ are similarly unskilled or semi-skilled occupations. On
                  the other hand, there are large numbers working as apprentices in a variety of trades.

                  Table 4.5 shows that for those aged 20-24 ‘elementary sales workers’ and ‘labourers’
                  were also ranked as the top two occupation groups but comprised a much smaller
                  proportion of the total. Of a total of 62,440 employed persons aged 20-24, 8,000
                  (13%) were elementary sales workers while 7,690 (12%) were labourers. By way of
                  contrast with teenage workers, there is much more representation by skilled
                  occupation groups in the ‘top twenty’ list for those aged 20-24. For example,
                  Business and IT Professionals is the occupation group ranked sixth with 2,730
                  workers. Managing Supervisors are ranked seventh. The list also shows that young
                  graduates are now entering the workforce as, for example, registered nurses,
                  journalists, teachers, and other professional occupations. Also many of the
                  apprentices have now become fully-fledged tradespersons in a range of sectors.

INDUSTRY GROUPS

                  In what industries do young South Australians work?

                  Tables 4.6 and 4.7 towards the end of this Chapter give details of the ‘top twenty’
                  industry groups in which young South Australians aged 15-19 and those aged 20-24
                  were employed at the time of the 2001 Population Census. Food Retailing was the
                  industry group that topped the list for both age groups.

                  Table 4.6 shows that for those aged 15-19, around 12,610 (or just over 30% of the
                  total of 41,220) worked in the Food Retailing sector – clearly the first ranked industry
                  sector on the list. The next three ranking industry groups were Personal and
                  Household Goods Retailing, Hospitality and Motor Vehicle Retailing and Services
                  (which includes automotive fuel retailing) respectively. The fact that these four top the
                  list is consistent with the large numbers of sales assistants (mainly part-time) noted in
                  the Occupation Section above. Less prominent are Construction, Agriculture and
                  Manufacturing which would employ teenagers as labourers and process workers and,
                  to a lesser extent, apprentices. Business Services and also Personal Services each
                  have over 1,000 teenage employees. The Business Services sector would include
                  young people engaged in clerical work in offices and would also include those
                  engaged as cleaners. The Personal Services sector includes hairdressing salons and
                  video hire outlets.




                                    THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE        77
CHAPTER      4   •   LABOUR     FORCE




                              Table 4.7 shows that for those aged 20-24 Retailing and Hospitality industry groups
                              also head the list but comprised a much smaller proportion of the total than for those
                              aged 15-19. By way of contrast with teenage workers, there was a much more
                              diverse range of industry groups represented. For example, Business Services had
                              5,220 employees and Health Services 3,380. The sub-categories within Business
                              Services that employ many 20-24 year olds include accounting services, IT
                              consultancy services, legal services and employment placement services. For Health
                              Services the sub-categories include hospitals, nursing homes, and medical and dental
                              practices. Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing, with 2,900 employees aged 20-
                              24 includes the motor vehicle manufacturing industry.




CHILDREN IN FAMILIES WITH NO EMPLOYED PARENT

                              Families with no employed parent have been identified as a matter of policy concern
                              by Australian governments in recent years (Reference Group on Welfare Reform,
                              2000, DFACS, Canberra). These families not only experience economic
                              disadvantage, but also may have reduced social opportunities which may impact on
                              their wellbeing. Research suggests that children living in families with no employed
                              parent are particularly at risk, as the absence of a resident employed parent may
                              negatively impact on the child’s immediate material wellbeing as well as adversely
                              affecting their future income, ‘social class’ and economic success (Gregory, R.G,
                              1999 – Discussion Paper No. 406, Centre for Economic Policy Research, ANU,
                              Canberra). Table 4.8 at the end of this Chapter provides estimates of the proportion
                              of children aged under 15 living in jobless families for each State and Territory of
                              Australia. In 2002 Tasmania had the highest proportion (21%) while ACT had the
                              lowest (11%); South Australia had 20% and Australia as a whole 18%.

                              The graph below shows that, for each of the last five years, South Australia’s rate was
                              generally a little higher than the Australian average (with the exception of 1999).
                              Looking at different types of families – around 10% of children in couple families have
                              neither parent employed, whereas around 55% of children in one-parent families do
                              not have their parent employed (Australian Social Trends, 2004, ABS Cat. No.
                              4102.0).




78   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                  CHAPTER          4        LABOUR       FORCE




PROPORTION OF CHILDREN AGED LESS THAN 15 IN FAMILIES WITH NO
EMPLOYED PARENT, SOUTH AUSTRALIA AND AUSTRALIA, 1998 TO 2002



 %
                                                                       South Australia
25
                                                                       Australia


20


15


10


 5


 0
           1998            1999            2000            2001             2002
Source: Benchmarked from the ABS Survey of Income and Housing - unpublished data



In South Australia there are large variations when small area data is observed. Using
2001 Census data there are parts of the Northern Adelaide region with rates above
40%, while parts of Eastern Adelaide, the Barossa, the Adelaide Hills and the South
East are below 10%.




                    THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE            79
CHAPTER        4   •   LABOUR           FORCE




TABLE 4.1 YOUNG EMPLOYED PERSONS, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, BY FULL-TIME AND PART-TIME STATUS,
1998-99 TO 2003-04



                                                                                             Proportion employed (d)
                             Employed       Employed                Total         Civilian
        Year (a)            Full-time (b) Part-time (c)         employed        population      SA          Aust
                                   ('000)        ('000)            ('000)           ('000)       %            %

                                            Aged 15-19
        1998-99                      15.2           30.8              46.0           99.6     46.1          47.6
        1999-00                      16.8           30.9              47.7          100.9     47.3          49.1
        2000-01                      17.5           32.8              50.3          102.5     49.1          49.7
        2001-02                      16.2           35.3              51.5          103.2     49.9          49.0
        2002-03                      17.5           34.8              52.3          103.6     50.5          49.6
        2003-04                      17.7           34.2              51.8          104.0     49.8          50.7

                                            Aged 20-24
        1998-99                      49.4           19.6              69.0           99.4     69.4          73.1
        1999-00                      50.6           19.9              70.4           95.8     73.5          74.4
        2000-01                      50.9           19.9              70.9           95.1     74.5          74.3
        2001-02                      48.8           21.9              70.6           95.8     73.7          73.4
        2002-03                      49.4           23.9              73.3           98.1     74.7          73.5
        2003-04                      49.3           25.4              74.7          101.6     73.5          73.9

        (a) Monthly annual average
        (b) Persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week in all jobs.
        (c) Persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week in all jobs.
        (d) Total employed as a % of civilian population.


        Source: ABS Labour Force Survey




80   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                                              CHAPTER     4   LABOUR   FORCE




TABLE 4.2 YOUNG PERSONS WHO ARE UNEMPLOYED AND SEEKING FULL-TIME WORK, SOUTH
AUSTRALIA, 1998-99 TO 2003-04


                                                                               FT unemployment rate (b)
                           Unemployed and FT labour force
       Year (a)            seeking FT work       (c)                               SA              Aust
                              ('000)           ('000)                              %                %

                                                 Aged 15-19
       1998-99                    7.6                 22.9                        33.4             25.2
       1999-00                    6.9                 23.7                        29.1             21.9
       2000-01                    5.7                 23.2                        24.5             22.6
       2001-02                    6.6                 22.8                        29.0             24.2
       2002-03                    5.4                 22.9                        23.7             22.5
       2003-04                    6.4                 24.1                        26.7             21.4



                                                 Aged 20-24
       1997-98                    10.6                63.4                        16.8             13.9
       1998-99                    10.1                59.5                        17.0             12.4
       1999-00                    7.5                 58.0                        12.9             10.3
       2000-01                    6.5                 57.4                        11.4             10.5
       2001-02                    6.5                 55.3                        11.8             11.4
       2002-03                    7.2                 56.6                        12.7             11.1
       2003-04                    6.9                 56.2                        12.3             10.1


       (a) Monthly annual average


       (b)   Full-time unemployment rates are calculated as follows – the number of persons
       in the age group who were unemployed and seeking full-time work as a proportion
       of the full-time labour force in that age group.

       (c) The full-time labour force is the sum of those seeking
       full-time work plus those working full-time


       Source: ABS Labour Force Survey




                                                          THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE    81
CHAPTER           4   •   LABOUR         FORCE




TABLE 4.3 NUMBER OF EMPLOYED INDIGENOUS PERSONS AGED 15-24 BY EMPLOYMENT SECTOR, BY
WEEKLY HOURS WORKED, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS


                                                     Weekly hours worked…………………………
     Sector                                          35 or more Less than 35 Not stated   Total

     Commonwealth Government Agencies                      36          21           6       63
     State Government Agencies                             66          31           6      103
     Local Government                                      23          13           4       40

     Private Sector                                       368         321          46      735

     CDEP (a)                                              24         321          22      367

     Sector not stated                                     10          13          29       52

       Total                                              527         720         113     1,360

     (a) Community Development Employment Program


     Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




82     THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                                        CHAPTER            4        LABOUR   FORCE




TABLE 4.4 TOP TWENTY OCCUPATION GROUPS (RANKED), EMPLOYED PERSONS AGED 15-19 YEARS,
SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS


        Occupation Group (a)                                                                                      no.

        Elementary Sales Workers                                                                               13,633
        Labourers and Related Workers                                                                           7,781
        Intermediate Service Workers                                                                            3,801
        Intermediate Production and Transport Workers                                                           3,758
        Intermediate Clerical Workers                                                                           2,127
        Other Tradespersons and Related Workers (incl apprentices) (b)                                          1,112
        Construction Tradespersons (incl apprentices)                                                             811
        Food Tradespersons (incl apprentices)                                                                     785
        Automotive Tradespersons (incl apprentices)                                                               770
        Mechanical and Fabrication Engineering Tradespersons (incl apprentices)                                   706
        Managing Supervisors (Sales and Service)                                                                  661
        Elementary Service Workers                                                                                531
        Electrical and Electronics Tradespersons (incl apprentices)                                               528
        Other Associate Professionals (c)                                                                         431
        Elementary Clerks                                                                                         378
        Intermediate Sales and Related Workers                                                                    300
        Skilled Agricultural and Horticultural Workers                                                            295
        Business and Administration Associate Professionals                                                       273
        Farmers and Farm Managers                                                                                 265
        Business and Information Professionals                                                                    239

        Other (incl not stated)                                                                                 2,034

        Total                                                                                                  41,219

        (a) Australian Standard Classification of Occupations, Second Edition (ASCO2) - Sub-Major categories
        (b) Mainly apprentice hairdressers and apprentice cabinetmakers
        (c) Mainly sportspersons and related support workers


        Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




                                                        THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE            83
CHAPTER       4    •   LABOUR            FORCE




TABLE 4.5 TOP TWENTY OCCUPATION GROUPS (RANKED), EMPLOYED PERSONS AGED 20-24 YEARS,
SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS



           Occupation Group (a)                                                                                           no.

           Elementary Sales Workers                                                                                     7,999
           Labourers and Related Workers                                                                                7,687
           Intermediate Clerical Workers                                                                                6,634
           Intermediate Service Workers                                                                                 6,181
           Intermediate Production and Transport Workers                                                                4,763
           Business and Information Professionals                                                                       2,725
           Managing Supervisors (Sales and Service)                                                                     2,153
           Other Tradespersons and Related Workers (incl apprentices) (b)                                               1,999
           Business and Administration Associate Professionals                                                          1,940
           Mechanical and Fabrication Engineering Tradespersons (incl apprentices)                                      1,720
           Construction Tradespersons (incl apprentices)                                                                1,473
           Health Professionals (c)                                                                                     1,318
           Social, Arts and Miscellaneous Professionals (d)                                                             1,304
           Automotive Tradespersons (incl apprentices)                                                                  1,275
           Electrical and Electronics Tradespersons (incl apprentices)                                                  1,259
           Education Professionals                                                                                      1,256
           Intermediate Sales and Related Workers                                                                       1,191
           Food Tradespersons (incl apprentices)                                                                        1,033
           Secretaries and Personal Assistants                                                                            901
           Science, Building and Engineering Professionals                                                                816

           Other (incl not stated)                                                                                      6,817

           Total                                                                                                       62,444

           (a) Australian Standard Classification of Occupations, Second Edition (ASCO2) - Sub-Major categories
           (b) Mainly hairdressers, cabinetmakers and printers (incl apprentices)
           (c) Mainly registered nurses but also occupational therapists, pharmacists, medical imaging professionals, etc
           (d) Includes, for example, designers, social welfare professionals, journalists, legal professionals, etc


           Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




84   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                                      CHAPTER     4   LABOUR     FORCE




TABLE 4.6 TOP TWENTY INDUSTRY GROUPS (RANKED), EMPLOYED PERSONS AGED 15-19 YEARS,
SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS



        Industry Groups (a)                                                                     no.

        Food Retailing                                                                     12,608
        Personal and Household Good Retailing                                               4,846
        Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants ('Hospitality')                                4,722
        Motor Vehicle Retailing and Services (incl Automotive Fuel Retailing)               1,597
        Business Services                                                                   1,524
        Agriculture                                                                         1,277
        Personal Services                                                                   1,065
        Construction Trade Services                                                         1,010
        Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing                                                 931
        Sport and Recreation                                                                  831
        Personal and Household Good Wholesaling                                               750
        Health Services                                                                       730
        Food, Beverage and Tobacco Manufacturing                                              711
        General Construction                                                                  547
        Education                                                                             525
        Community Services                                                                    486
        Metal Product Manufacturing                                                           419
        Other Manufacturing (Furniture, Sporting Goods, etc)                                  407
        Machinery and Motor Vehicle Wholesaling                                               365
        Retail Trade, undefined                                                               345

        Other (incl not stated)                                                             5,523

        Total                                                                              41,219

       (a) Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) -
              Subdivision (2-digit) categories

       Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




                                                        THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE   85
CHAPTER       4    •    LABOUR           FORCE




TABLE 4.7 TOP TWENTY INDUSTRY GROUPS (RANKED), EMPLOYED PERSONS AGED 20-24 YEARS,
SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS




          Industry Groups (a)                                                               no.

          Food Retailing                                                                  5,522
          Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants ('Hospitality')                            5,406
          Personal and Household Good Retailing                                           5,275
          Business Services                                                               5,220
          Health Services                                                                 3,375
          Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing                                           2,898
          Education                                                                       2,498
          Motor Vehicle Retailing and Services (incl Automotive Fuel Retailing)           2,169
          Construction Trade Services                                                     2,112
          Agriculture                                                                     2,084
          Government Administration                                                       1,635
          Food, Beverage and Tobacco Manufacturing                                        1,633
          Personal Services                                                               1,562
          Personal and Household Good Wholesaling                                         1,507
          Community Services                                                              1,437
          Finance                                                                         1,123
          Sport and Recreation                                                            1,089
          General Construction                                                            1,068
          Metal Product Manufacturing                                                     1,007
          Communication Services (Telecommunications, Postal)                               995

          Other (incl not stated)                                                        12,829

          Total                                                                          62,444

          (a) Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) -
                  Subdivision (2-digit) categories


          Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




86   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                                 CHAPTER     4          LABOUR   FORCE




TABLE 4.8 PROPORTION OF CHILDREN AGED LESS THAN 15 IN FAMILIES WITH NO EMPLOYED PARENT,
SOUTH AUSTRALIA AND AUSTRALIA, 1998 TO 2002



         State                           1998           1999           2000           2001       2002
                                           %              %              %              %          %

         NSW                              21.0           18.8           16.3          17.7       17.3
         Vic                              18.4           17.7           16.1          16.6       16.7
         QLD                              20.4           18.6           17.8          19.9       20.5
         SA                               22.4           18.2           19.1          18.7       19.7
         WA                               16.4           17.2           16.5          17.1       17.5
         Tas                              21.6           24.2           20.8          20.9       20.6
         NT                               14.6           13.2           16.2          15.6       13.3
         ACT                               8.9           13.2           13.2          11.7       10.8
         Australia                        19.7           18.3           16.8          17.9       17.9

         Source: Benchmarked from the ABS Survey of Income and Housing -unpublished data




                                                    THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE    87
CHAPTER               5       LIVING ARRANGEMENTS AND HOUSING


INTRODUCTION

                              People are likely to live in a greater number of household types over a lifetime than in
                              the past. Increasingly, living arrangements across a lifetime may also include living
                              alone or in a group household before forming a long-term partnership, or living as a
                              lone parent or alone after separation or divorce. It is acknowledged also that living
                              arrangements have (and will continue to) vary widely with culture and life
                              circumstances.

                              This Chapter looks at living arrangement patterns for South Australian children and
                              young people at the 2001 Census, including dwelling tenure. There is also a Section
                              on children and young people living in a household where there is no motor vehicle.
                              There is a Section looking at housing issues in respect of Indigenous children and
                              young people and, towards the end, short Sections on overcrowding and
                              homelessness.




LIVING ARRANGEMENTS: CHILDREN UNDER 15

                              Around 20% of South Australian children under 15 years of age live in one parent
                              families. The graph below shows details of children in one- and two-parent families as
                              at the 2001 Census of Population and Housing. Table 5.1 has more detail.

                              Table 5.1 also shows that the proportion of children in one-parent families increases
                              as they get older with 18% of those aged 0-7 years in one-parent families, 22% of
                              those aged 8-11 years and 24% of those aged 12-14 years.



                              LIVING ARRANGEMENTS: CHILDREN AGED UNDER 15 (a) BY AGE GROUP
                              AND FAMILY TYPE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS
                                persons
                                                                                                 In two parent family
                               125000
                                                                                                 In one parent family


                               100000


                                75000


                                50000


                                25000


                                     0
                                                      0-7                         8-11                12-14
                                                                             Age group (years)



                              (a) Enumerated in occupied private dwellings
                              Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing



88   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                               CHAPTER             5     •   LIVING        ARRANGEMENTS                    AND         HOUSING




LIVING ARRANGEMENTS: YOUNG PEOPLE AGED 15-24

                    Living arrangements for those aged 15-24 are far more diverse, particularly for those
                    aged 20-24 who are often making the transition from the parental home to
                    independent living. See the graphs below and Table 5.3.



                    LIVING ARRANGEMENTS: YOUNG PEOPLE AGED 15-24 YEARS BY AGE
                    GROUP, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS

                     persons
                                                                                    Living in the parental home
                     60000
                                                                                    Living outside the parental home
                                                                                    Other (a)



                     40000




                     20000




                           0
                                           15-17                         18-19                       20-24
                                                                    Age group (years)
                     (a) Other – includes those enumerated in non-private dwellings, those enumerated in non-classifiable
                    households and also visitors from within Australia (i.e. at the time of the Census they were not in their usual
                    place of residence).
                    Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




                    LIVING ARRANGEMENTS: SELECTED CATEGORIES OF YOUNG PEOPLE
                    AGED 18-19 AND 20-24 YEARS LIVING INDEPENDENTLY (a), SOUTH
                    AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS




                     Partner in a couple family with children

                     Partner in a couple family (no children)


                                                 Lone parent

                                   Group household member


                                                 Living alone
                                                                                                         Age 18-19
                                                                                                         Age 20-24

                                                                0      2500 5000 7500 10000 12500 15000
                                                                                 persons



                    (a) In occupied private dwellings.
                    Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




                                           THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                           89
CHAPTER      5   •   LIVING    ARRANGEMENTS               AND     HOUSING




                              At the 2001 Census, persons aged 15-24 years living with parents were classified as
                              either dependent students or non-dependent children. Over one-third (35%) of all
                              South Australian persons aged 15-24 years were living in the parental home as
                              dependent students. A further 26% were living with parents as non-dependent
                              children. As would be expected, the proportion of young people living in the parental
                              home decreased with age, from 88% of 15-17 year-olds to 40% of 20-24 year-olds.
                              See Table 5.3 for more detail. The proportion of young adults living in the parental
                              home has increased since the 1980s – attributable in part to a deferral of leaving
                              home until completion of study or achievement of financial independence (‘Young
                              adults living in the parental home’, Australian Social Trends, 2000, ABS Cat No.
                              4102.0).

                              In terms of the age groups covered by this Profile, those aged 20-24 years are the
                              most significant group to have established living arrangements away from the parental
                              home. Around 52% (or 46,580) of South Australian 20-24 year-olds live in an
                              independent situation. Table 5.3 shows that a significant number of these (18,460
                              persons) are in a partnership or marriage – some with children but the majority
                              without. A further 10,960 live in group households (of unrelated individuals), while
                              7,300 live alone. Another significant group amongst independent 20-24 year-olds are
                              sole parents, numbering 2,740 persons.



CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE ENUMERATED IN NON-PRIVATE DWELLINGS

                              While a relatively small proportion of the total, there were 1,830 children aged 0-14
                              years and a further 5,740 young people aged 15-24 years enumerated in non-private
                              dwellings at the 2001 Population Census. Tables 5.2 (for children) and 5.4 (for young
                              people) give details of the type of non-private dwellings in which these children and
                              young people were enumerated.

                              Of those aged 15-24, there were 1,820 in residential colleges (usually university
                              students), 820 were in boarding schools and 650 were in a prison or a detention
                              centre. There were 420 staying in staff quarters (e.g. at a defence facility), 210 were
                              in boarding houses, while 100 were in refuges or hostels for the homeless. Others
                              were away from home in hospital or in a hotel or motel.

                              As for those aged under 15, it is notable that 190 such children were enumerated in a
                              detention institution for adults.



DWELLING TENURE

                              The graph below and Table 5.5 show details of dwelling tenure for children and young
                              people who live in the parental home. For children aged 0-14 years the majority
                              (71%) live in a dwelling that is owned or being purchased by their parents. A further
                              7% live in a dwelling that is rented from the State housing authority, while 18% live in
                              private and other types of rented dwellings. Children in one parent families are far
                              more likely to live in rented dwellings, both public and private sector compare to other
                              types of tenure.




90   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
              CHAPTER            5    •   LIVING       ARRANGEMENTS               AND       HOUSING




Dwelling tenure patterns for children and young people aged 15-24 years who live in
the parental home exhibit somewhat different patterns to those aged 0-14. Home
ownership is higher and the proportion living in rented dwellings is lower.

CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE PARENTAL HOME: DWELLING
TENURE (PROPORTIONS), SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS

  %
                                                                                Age 0-14
 60
                                                                                Age 15-24




 40




 20




  0
                  Owned              Being purchased      Rented-Public    Rented-Private


Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




Focusing now on those young people who have left the parental home, the graph
below and Table 5.6 illustrate patterns of dwelling tenure for the main groups. Private
rental is clearly the dominant mode of housing for all groups and particularly for those
living in group households. A reasonable proportion (39%) of those in a partnership
or marriage are already purchasing their own home. Public sector rental, while
comparatively small, is utilised particularly by sole parents (22% of their housing).

YOUNG PEOPLE AGED 15-24 YEARS WHO ARE LIVING INDEPENDENTLY (c),
SELECTED GROUPS, DWELLING TENURE (PROPORTIONS), SOUTH
AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS


  %
                                                Partner (a)
 80
                                                Lone parent
                                                Group h'hd (b)
                                                Living alone

 60



 40



 20



      0
                   Owned             Being purchased       Rented-Public   Rented-Private
(a)       In a partnership or marriage.
(b)       Group household member.
(c)       In occupied private dwellings
Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing



                           THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE          91
CHAPTER      5   •   LIVING    ARRANGEMENTS                  AND    HOUSING




CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN HOUSEHOLDS WITHOUT A MOTOR VEHICLE

                              Children and young people living in households without a motor vehicle may suffer
                              social isolation and a more restricted range of cultural, educational and recreational
                              options as a consequence of reduced mobility.

                              The graph below shows that this is largely an issue for those living in one parent
                              families and that the situation is likely to improve as children get older. Around one in
                              six (or 17% of) children aged 0-7 years living in one parent families live in a household
                              without a motor vehicle. This proportion falls to 12% for those aged 12-14 years and
                              to 6% for those aged 20-24 years. The incidence of children in two parent families
                              living in a household with no motor vehicle is very much lower ranging from 2% for
                              those age 0-7 years to 0.4% for those aged 20-24 years. Table 5.7 towards the end
                              of this Chapter shows more detail.



                              PROPORTION OF CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE LIVING IN THE PARENTAL
                              HOME WHERE THERE IS NO MOTOR VEHICLE, AGE GROUP AND FAMILY
                              TYPE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS

                                %
                                                                                          In a two parent family
                               20
                                                                                          In a one parent family



                               15



                               10



                                5



                                0
                                         0-7          8-11         12-14        15-17    18-19         20-24
                                                                     Age group (years)
                              Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




                              Looking now at those young people who have left home to live independently, the
                              graph below shows that 28% to 46% of those aged 15-17 years live in a household
                              with no motor vehicle. For the age groups 18-19 years and 20-24 years, those who
                              are sole parents and also those who live alone are far less likely to live in a household
                              with a motor vehicle than those in a partnership or marriage or those living in group
                              households

                              The least disadvantaged group (by this measure) are those aged 20-24 years in a
                              partnership or marriage where only 4% lived in a household with no motor vehicle.
                              Table 5.7 towards the end of this Chapter shows more detail.



92   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                  CHAPTER            5    •   LIVING     ARRANGEMENTS           AND      HOUSING




                    YOUNG PEOPLE WHO ARE LIVING INDEPENDENTLY (c): PROPORTION
                    LIVING IN A HOUSEHOLD WHERE THERE IS NO MOTOR VEHICLE, SELECTED
                    GROUPS BY AGE GROUP, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS



                      %
                                                                                         Partner (a)
                     50
                                                                                         Lone parent
                                                                                         Group hhd (b)
                                                                                         Lone person
                     40


                     30


                     20


                     10


                          0
                                           15-17                     18-19              20-24
                                                                Age group (years)
                    (a)       In a partnership or marriage.
                    (b)       Group household member.
                    (c)       In occupied private dwellings
                    Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




INDIGENOUS CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE

                    The relationship between adequate housing and the general health and wellbeing of
                    the Indigenous community has been a focus of concern, underlying a range of
                    programs and policies targeted towards the needs of the Indigenous population.



                    Housing in Remote Communities

                    Having a home that provides adequate shelter and basic services is an expectation of
                    most Australians. The lack of such housing, or difficulties with the supply of drinking
                    water, electricity and sewerage systems, has a major impact on the quality of life of
                    many Indigenous communities and the children and young people who live there.
                    Information from the 2001 Community Housing and Infrastructure Needs Survey
                    (CHINS), conducted by the ABS on behalf of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
                    Commission (ATSIC) describes the housing circumstances of people living in
                    Indigenous communities located in remote parts of South Australia and other States
                    and Territories with remote communities.

                    The CHINS research has found that two of the major problems with living conditions
                    of Indigenous people are with the inadequate supply of houses and with the poor
                    quality of much of the housing that is available, both being regarded as unacceptable
                    by general community standards.




                                               THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE   93
CHAPTER      5   •   LIVING    ARRANGEMENTS              AND     HOUSING




                              It may be for these reasons that some Indigenous people share their dwellings with
                              other people, increasing the level of crowding in their household. However many also
                              prefer to live, or at least sleep, near kin. As a result, dwellings occupied by
                              Indigenous people tend to have more people than those of other Australians. In
                              remote Indigenous communities, the average occupancy ratio was 5.8 people per
                              dwelling, compared to the national average of 2.6

                              The condition of dwellings in terms of the extent of repairs required provides further
                              insight into the quality of housing. Around 30% of all community-owned or managed
                              dwellings in these communities needed either major repairs or replacement. The
                              reliability of the infrastructure provided is also important. The provision and
                              maintenance of basic essential services such as water, sewerage and power, are
                              critical elements in the development of a healthy living environment. In SA’s remote
                              communities water supply is often bore water and electricity is mainly sourced from
                              community generators. While the large majority of people living in remote Indigenous
                              communities have access to these services, many communities experience problems
                              in their operation and maintenance. In other words, the services are often deficient in
                              terms of reliability and dependability.



                              Housing in Non Remote Areas

                              While some of the issues mentioned above are also relevant for Indigenous families in
                              non-remote parts of South Australia, there are a number of other problems that these
                              families are likely to face. The majority of Indigenous families in South Australia live
                              in non-remote areas of the State and, as such, often have to negotiate satisfactory
                              outcomes within the “mainstream housing market”. Organisations such as the
                              Aboriginal Housing Authority and the SA Housing Trust continue to have very
                              important roles in assisting families to obtain housing.

                               The following section is based on data and information provided by the South
                              Australian Housing Trust and the Aboriginal Housing Authority. Youth is defined as
                              young people under 25 years of age and children are defined as under 11 years of
                              age.



                              Public Housing

                              It is important to note that while the Aboriginal Housing Authority (AHA) houses only
                              Indigenous people, the South Australian Housing Trust (SAHT) offers housing to both
                              Indigenous and non-Indigenous customers.

                              The Aboriginal Housing Authority and the South Australian Housing Trust measure
                              demand for public housing through waiting lists. Waiting list information at June 2004
                              showed the vast majority of customers on the AHA waiting list were between 25 and
                              34 years of age (41%) whereas youth registered on the waiting list represented 15%.
                              This compares with 27% and 22% respectively for the SAHT. The lower proportion of
                              young people on the AHA waiting list is considered to be partly due to the aging of the
                              customers on the waiting list and secondly due to the demand for Indigenous housing
                              being usually from large families, which have their young people as occupants rather
                              than young people applying for housing themselves.

94   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
        CHAPTER        5   •   LIVING     ARRANGEMENTS              AND     HOUSING




Most young Indigenous people in AHA properties are usually part of a family unit. At
June 2004, 53% of all AHA occupants were aged less than 25. Of these, 94% were
sons and daughters of the tenant. In comparison, 29% of SAHT occupants were aged
less than 25 years (90% were sons and daughters).

In 2003/04, young Indigenous people were allocated 18% of total AHA properties
available. In 2002/03 the proportion was 13%, in 2001/02 17% and in 2000/01 19%.
While the proportion of young new tenants is lower than for properties with the SAHT
(see below), the AHA houses a much higher proportion of families – between 50%
and 63% since 2000/01 (compared to between 31% and 35% for the SAHT).

The SAHT allocated 22% of its new tenancies in 2003/04 to young people, 24% in
2002/03, 23% in 2001-02 and 24% in 2000/01.

An important issue for young Indigenous people who seek to become independent
are the barriers that sometimes arise when they try to rent a flat or a house in the
private rental market. The potential for discrimination by landlords and real estate
agents, while rarely overt, may nevertheless result in non-Indigenous tenants being
preferred to Indigenous tenants.



Dwelling tenure for children aged under 15 years in the parental home –
Indigenous status

The graph below and Table 5.8 towards the end of this Chapter provide 2001 Census
details of dwelling tenure for Indigenous and non-Indigenous children aged under 15
years living in the parental home.

At the time of the 2001 Census around a quarter of Indigenous children living in the
parental home lived in a dwelling that was owned or being purchased by their family.
For non-Indigenous children the proportion was nearly three quarters. A high
proportion of Indigenous children (36%) were living in public housing (i.e. rented from
the SA Housing Trust, the Aboriginal Housing Authority or other State agencies),
while a further 15% were living in dwellings rented from a community or co-operative
housing group, particularly in remote communities.

Similar proportions of Indigenous and non-Indigenous children (around 16%) lived in
dwellings rented from private landlords or real estate agents.




                  THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE         95
CHAPTER      5   •   LIVING    ARRANGEMENTS                          AND     HOUSING




                              CHILDREN AGED UNDER 15 YEARS IN THE PARENTAL HOME: INDIGENOUS
                              STATUS, DWELLING TENURE (PROPORTIONS), SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001
                              POPULATION CENSUS


                                %
                                                                                                                  Indigenous
                               60
                                                                                                                  Non-Indigenous




                               40




                               20




                                    0
                                             Owned          Buying        Rented(a)      Rented(b)      Rented(c)      Rented(d)



                              (a)       Rented from a State housing authority
                              (b)       Rented from a community or co-operative housing group
                              (c)       Rented from a private landlord or real estate agent
                              (d)       Rented from other type of landlord (incl employer, incl not stated landlord type)
                              Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




                              Dwelling tenure for young people aged 15-24 living independently – Indigenous
                              status

                              The graph below and Table 5.9 towards the end of this Chapter provide 2001 Census
                              details of dwelling tenure for Indigenous and non-Indigenous young people aged 15-
                              24 years who are living independently (in occupied private dwellings).

                              Indigenous youth are far more likely than their non-Indigenous counterparts to be
                              living in public housing (27%) and in dwellings rented from a community or co-
                              operative housing group (25%). They are far less likely to be owning or buying their
                              dwelling or to be renting in the private sector.




96   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
          CHAPTER             5   •    LIVING         ARRANGEMENTS                        AND    HOUSING




YOUNG PEOPLE AGED 15-24 YEARS LIVING INDEPENDENTLY (e) -
INDIGENOUS STATUS, DWELLING TENURE (PROPORTIONS), SOUTH
AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS


 %
                                                                               Indigenous
60
                                                                               Non-Indigenous

50


40

30


20

10

  0
          Owned          Buying        Rented(a)      Rented(b)       Rented(c)      Rented(d)
(a)   Rented from a State housing authority
(b)   Rented from a community or co-operative housing group
(c)   Rented from a private landlord or real estate agent
(d)   Rented from other type of landlord (incl employer, incl not stated landlord type)
(e)   In occupied private dwellings
Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




Indigenous children aged under 15 years in households without a motor
vehicle.

Several pages back general data was provided showing the proportion of children
living in a home without a motor vehicle at the time of the 2001 Census – an indicator
of lack of mobility.

22% of Indigenous children aged under 15 years are in homes with no motor vehicle,
while for non-Indigenous children the proportion is much lower (4%).




                       THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                   97
CHAPTER      5   •   LIVING    ARRANGEMENTS                 AND         HOUSING




OVERCROWDING

                              Households that require two or more additional bedrooms are deemed to be
                              overcrowded (Commonwealth – State Housing Agreement (CSHA) and Council of
                              Australian Governments (COAG) definition). Census data can be used to identify the
                              number of households that do not have sufficient bedrooms (need at least one
                              additional bedroom) and the extra number required for the particular household,
                              based on the characteristics and number of residents in the household.

                              Estimates of the number and proportion of overcrowded households – i.e. those with
                              insufficient bedrooms, requiring 2 or more additional bedrooms – can be made on
                              examination of family composition (age and sex of children). The graph below and
                              Table 5.10 indicate that around 11% of households with children require one extra
                              bedroom to accommodate all family members satisfactorily, while around 2% require
                              two or more extra bedrooms. There appears to be little difference between one- and
                              two-parent families.



                              HOUSEHOLDS WITH CHILDREN: PROPORTION WITH INSUFFICIENT
                              BEDROOMS, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS

                               %
                                                                                    Couple with children household
                              20
                                                                                    One parent family household



                              15



                              10



                               5



                               0
                                           One extra bedroom required         2 or more extra bedrooms required


                              Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing



HOMELESSNESS

                              Homelessness is an issue of considerable importance to the SA Government.

                              South Australia’s Strategic Plan has as one of its targets to “halve the number of
                              ‘rough sleepers’ in South Australia by 2010”. This refers to ‘primary homelessness’ of
                              whom there were a total of 900 persons enumerated in South Australia at the 2001
                              Census. Of this total, 130 were aged 0-11 years, 80 were aged 12-18 years and 70
                              were aged 19-24 years.




98   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
        CHAPTER       5   •   LIVING    ARRANGEMENTS             AND     HOUSING




In June 2004 an important report was released – ‘Counting the Homeless, 2001,
South Australia’, Chamberlain, C. and McKenzie, D, Swinburne University and RMIT
University. This report, which is based largely on ABS Census data, broadens the
definition of homelessness to include secondary homelessness and tertiary
homelessness. Secondary homelessness includes people who move frequently from
one form of temporary shelter to another. It includes those staying in emergency or
transitional accommodation provided under the Supported Accommodation
Assistance Program (SAAP). It also includes people residing temporarily with other
households because they have no accommodation of their own and also includes
people staying in boarding houses on a short-term basis.

Tertiary homelessness refers to those people who live in boarding houses on a
medium to long-term basis.

A part of this report gives estimates of homeless numbers by age group. Taking this
broader view of homelessness (i.e. primary, secondary and tertiary homelessness
combined), the report estimates that there were 7,590 homeless persons in South
Australia in 2001. Of this total, an estimated 820 were aged 0-11 years, 2,390 were
aged 12-18 years and 690 were aged 19-24 years.




                 THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE      99
CHAPTER        5    •   LIVING          ARRANGEMENTS                      AND       HOUSING




TABLE 5.1  LIVING ARRANGEMENTS: NUMBER OF CHILDREN UNDER 15 YEARS ENUMERATED IN
OCCUPIED PRIVATE DWELLINGS BY FAMILY TYPE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS

                                                         Age group……………………….………
      Family type                                           0-7        8-11    12-14                                         Total

      In one parent family                              25,411                 17,140                13,519                56,070
      In two parent family                             116,369                 59,597                43,559               219,525
      Total                                            141,780                 76,737                57,078               275,595

      Not applicable (a)                                  6,224                 2,902                 2,465                11,591

      Total (b)                                        148,004                 79,639                59,543               287,186

      (a) Not applicable - Includes those enumerated in non-private dwellings, those enumerated in non-classifiable households
         and also visitors from within Australia (i.e. at the time of the Census they were not in their usual place of residence).


      (b) Excludes overseas visitors.


      Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




TABLE 5.2  NUMBER OF CHILDREN UNDER 15 YEARS ENUMERATED IN NON-PRIVATE DWELLINGS BY
TYPE OF NON-PRIVATE DWELLING, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS


                                                                                       Age group……………………………
       Type of Non-private Dwelling                                                     0-7       8-11 12-14 Total 0-14

       Hotel, motel                                                                     123              51                75          249
       Staff quarters                                                                    10               4                 0           14
       Boarding house, private hotel                                                      0               0                17           17
       Boarding school                                                                    0              46               235          281
       Residential college, hall of residence                                             3               0                94           97
       Public hospital (not psychiatric)                                                310              23                30          363
       Private hospital (not psychiatric)                                                93               3                 0           96
       Psychiatric hospital or institution                                               10               3                 3           16
       Hostel for homeless, night shelter, refuge                                        63              12                 9           84
       Childcare institution                                                              0               0                12           12
       Corrective institution for children                                                0               0                 9            9
       Other welfare institution                                                          7               0                 4           11
       Prison, corrective and detention institution for adults                          105              58                30          193
       Other and not classifiable                                                        58             164               167          389
        Total                                                                           782             364               685        1,831


       Note: Small cells in this table have been randomly adjusted to avoid the release of confidential data.


       Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




100   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                  CHAPTER             5   •    LIVING         ARRANGEMENTS                        AND     HOUSING




TABLE 5.3  LIVING ARRANGEMENTS: NUMBER OF YOUNG PEOPLE AGED 15-24 YEARS BY FAMILY
TYPE AND RELATIONSHIP WITHIN HOUSEHOLD, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS


                                                                            Age group………………….
                                                                              15-17    18-19  20-24                               Total

  Youth in the parental Home
         Two parent family
                Non-dependent child                                            4,870         11,231          21,082          37,183
                Dependent student                                             36,357          8,961           7,278          52,596
                 Total                                                        41,227         20,192          28,360          89,779

           One-parent family
                 Non-dependent child                                           2,440           3,548           6,188         12,176
                 Dependent student                                            10,166           2,233           1,674         14,073
                  Total                                                       12,606           5,781           7,862         26,249

           Total                                                              53,833         25,973          36,222         116,028


  Youth outside the parental home
         Couple family without children
               Husband/wife in a registered marriage                              25             148          4,068           4,241
               Partner in de facto marriage                                      257           1,188          8,526           9,971
               Other related individual                                          242             284            440             966
                 Total                                                           524           1,620         13,034          15,178

           Couple family with children
                 Husband/wife in a registered marriage                             8              92           2,558              2,658
                 Partner in de facto marriage                                     87             401           3,305              3,793
                 Other related individual                                        316             266             398                980
                   Total                                                         411             759           6,261              7,431

           One-parent family
                 Lone parent                                                     164             464           2,738              3,366
                 Other related individual                                        296             216             848              1,360
                  Total                                                          460             680           3,586              4,726

           Other family
                  Other related individual                                       700           1,367           3,354              5,421

           Non-family households
                 Group household member                                          617           2,808         10,964          14,389
                 Lone persons                                                    470           1,477          7,300           9,247
                 Unrelated individual living in
                  a family household (a)                                         752           1,016          2,083           3,851
                  Total                                                        1,839           5,301         20,347          27,487

           Total                                                               3,934           9,727         46,582          60,243

  Total members of classifiable households                                    57,767         35,700          82,804         176,271

  Not applicable (b)                                                          3,704           3,886           8,144          15,734

  Total (c)                                                                   61,471         39,586          90,948         192,005

  (a) For example, a boarder.

  (b) Not applicable - Includes those enumerated in non-private dwellings, those enumerated in non-classifiable households
      and also visitors from within Australia (i.e. at the time of the Census they were not in their usual place of residence).

  (c) Excludes overseas visitors.

  Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




                                                             THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                     101
CHAPTER            5   •    LIVING         ARRANGEMENTS                     AND       HOUSING




TABLE 5.4  NUMBER OF YOUNG PEOPLE AGED 15-24 YEARS ENUMERATED IN NON-PRIVATE
DWELLINGS BY TYPE OF NON-PRIVATE DWELLING, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS



                                                                                   Age group………………………
      Type of Non-private Dwelling                                                 15-17      18-19 20-24              Total

      Hotel, motel                                                                    88              114        476     678
      Staff quarters                                                                  29              136        259     424
      Boarding house, private hotel                                                   47               37        129     213
      Boarding school                                                                712               62         46     820
      Residential college, hall of residence                                         119              744        953   1,816
      Public hospital (not psychiatric)                                               40               36        140     216
      Private hospital (not psychiatric)                                               8                4         19      31
      Psychiatric hospital or institution                                              3                9         55      67
      Hostel for the disabled                                                          3               11         42      56
      Hostel for homeless, night shelter, refuge                                      45               17         41     103
      Corrective institution for children                                             34                0          0      34
      Prison, corrective and detention institution for adults                         62               97        490     649
      Other and not classifiable                                                     175              145        311     631
        Total                                                                      1,365            1,412      2,961   5,738


      Note: Small cells in this table have been randomly adjusted to avoid the release of confidential data.


      Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




102      THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                 CHAPTER        5      •   LIVING       ARRANGEMENTS          AND        HOUSING




TABLE 5.5  CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE PARENTAL HOME: FAMILY TYPE, DWELLING TENURE,
SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS
                                                In one parent family       In couple family           Total   Proportion
Dwelling tenure                                            (Persons)             (Persons)        (Persons)          (%)



                                                                       Children aged 0-14
Fully owned                                                   5,729                 53,277          59,006          21.4
Being purchased                                              15,632                122,400         138,032          50.1
Rented - State housing authority                             11,455                   7,777         19,232           7.0
Rented - Private and other                                   21,372                 29,533          50,905          18.5
Other tenure                                                  1,056                   4,176          5,232           1.9
Tenure not stated                                               826                   2,362          3,188           1.2
 Total                                                       56,070                219,525         275,595         100.0


                                                                       Children/young people aged 15-24
Fully owned                                                   6,023                 38,704        44,727            38.5
Being purchased                                               9,459                 40,623        50,082            43.2
Rented - State housing authority                              4,031                  2,655         6,686             5.8
Rented - Private and other                                    6,026                  5,866        11,892            10.2
Other tenure                                                    356                  1,011         1,367             1.2
Tenure not stated                                               354                    920         1,274             1.1
 Total                                                       26,249                 89,779       116,028           100.0

Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




TABLE 5.6 YOUNG PEOPLE AGED 15-24 YEARS WHO HAVE LEFT THE PARENTAL HOME, SELECTED
GROUPS, DWELLING TENURE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS


                                                              In a                               Group
                                                       partnership              Lone          household         Living
  Dwelling tenure                                      or marriage             parent           member           alone

                                                                NUMBER OF PERSONS
  Fully owned                                                1,249           190                    645           917
  Being purchased                                            8,046           421                  1,856         1,557
  Rented - State housing authority                             946           733                    388           716
  Rented - private and other                                 9,541         1,901                 10,999         5,269
  Other tenure                                                 626            56                    286           509
  Tenure not stated                                            255            65                    215           280
   Total                                                    20,663         3,366                 14,389         9,248

                                                                PROPORTION (%)
  Fully owned                                                  6.0          5.6                     4.5           9.9
  Being purchased                                             38.9         12.5                    12.9          16.8
  Rented - State housing authority                             4.6         21.8                     2.7           7.7
  Rented - private and other                                  46.2         56.5                    76.4          57.0
  Other tenure                                                 3.0          1.7                     2.0           5.5
  Tenure not stated                                            1.2          1.9                     1.5           3.0
   Total                                                     100.0        100.0                   100.0         100.0

  Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




                                                          THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE       103
CHAPTER          5   •   LIVING       ARRANGEMENTS            AND       HOUSING




TABLE 5.7  PROPORTION OF CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE LIVING IN HOUSEHOLDS WITH NO MOTOR
VEHICLE, AGE GROUPS, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS


                                                       Age group…………………………………………
                                                       0-7    8-11 12-14 15-17 18-19 20-24
                                                        %       %     %     %     %     %

  Living in the parental home -
       In a two parent family                          1.6     1.1         1.1        0.8      0.6        0.4
       In a one parent family                         17.0    13.1        11.7        9.5      6.8        5.9

  Living outside the parental home (selected groups only) -
       In a partnership or marriage              n.a        n.a            n.a       27.9     10.2        4.2
       Lone parent                               n.a        n.a            n.a       25.8     37.8       24.8
       Group household member                    n.a        n.a            n.a       26.0     13.7        9.4
       Lone person                               n.a        n.a            n.a       46.5     33.5       20.9

  Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




TABLE 5.8   CHILDREN AGED UNDER 15 YEARS IN THE PARENTAL HOME: INDIGENOUS STATUS, DWELLING
TENURE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS

                                                                                       Non-             Not
      Dwelling tenure                                        Indigenous          Indigenous          stated     Total

                                                                      NUMBER OF CHILDREN UNDER 15 YEARS
      Fully owned                                                      460      57,915         631       59,006
      Being purchased                                                1,603     134,879       1,550      138,032
      Rented - State/Territory housing authority                     3,010      15,707         515       19,232
      Rented - Community or co-operative housing group               1,288       1,426          46        2,760
      Rented - Private                                               1,378      40,754       1,013       43,145
      Rented from employer                                             106       2,814          61        2,981
      Rented - other and not stated                                    268       1,689          62        2,019
      Other tenure                                                     158       4,965         106        5,229
      Tenure not stated                                                137       2,747         304        3,188
        Total                                                        8,408     262,896       4,288      275,592

                                                                    PROPORTION (%)
      Fully owned                                                   5.5        22.0                   14.7       21.4
      Being purchased                                              19.1        51.3                   36.1       50.1
      Rented - State/Territory housing authority                   35.8         6.0                   12.0        7.0
      Rented - Community or co-operative housing group             15.3         0.5                    1.1        1.0
      Rented - Private                                             16.4        15.5                   23.6       15.7
      Rented from employer                                          1.3         1.1                    1.4        1.1
      Rented - other and not stated                                 3.2         0.6                    1.4        0.7
      Other tenure                                                  1.9         1.9                    2.5        1.9
      Tenure not stated                                             1.6         1.0                    7.1        1.2
        Total                                                     100.0       100.0                  100.0      100.0

      Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




104     THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                              CHAPTER   5   •   LIVING    ARRANGEMENTS             AND   HOUSING




TABLE 5.9  YOUNG PEOPLE AGED 15-24 YEARS LIVING INDEPENDENTLY (a) - INDIGENOUS STATUS,
DWELLING TENURE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS


                                                                              Non-           Not
  Dwelling tenure                                       Indigenous      Indigenous        stated          Total

                                                     No.of YOUNG PEOPLE 15-24 LIVING INDEPENDENTLY (a)
  Fully owned                                                   68       5,670             81        5,819
  Being purchased                                              148      14,528             97      14,773
  Rented - State/Territory housing authority                   496       3,094             66        3,656
  Rented - Community or co-operative housing group             468         521              9          998
  Rented - Private                                             498      28,615           230       29,343
  Rented from employer                                          29         803              6          838
  Rented - other and not stated                                 51       1,336             16        1,403
  Other tenure                                                  50       1,799             19        1,868
  Tenure not stated                                             58         836           138         1,032
    Total                                                    1,866      57,202            662      59,730

                                                                 PROPORTION (%)
  Fully owned                                                     3.6         9.9          12.2            9.7
  Being purchased                                                 7.9        25.4          14.7           24.7
  Rented - State/Territory housing authority                     26.6         5.4          10.0            6.1
  Rented - Community or co-operative housing group               25.1         0.9           1.4            1.7
  Rented - Private                                               26.7        50.0          34.7           49.1
  Rented from employer                                            1.6         1.4           0.9            1.4
  Rented - other and not stated                                   2.7         2.3           2.4            2.3
  Other tenure                                                    2.7         3.1           2.9            3.1
  Tenure not stated                                               3.1         1.5          20.8            1.7
    Total                                                       100.0       100.0         100.0          100.0

  (a) In occupied private dwellings


  Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




                                                  THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE    105
CHAPTER        5   •   LIVING       ARRANGEMENTS                AND       HOUSING




TABLE 5.10  OVERCROWDING IN HOUSEHOLDS WITH CHILDREN, SOUTH AUSTRALIA,
2001 POPULATION CENSUS



                                                             Insufficient bedrooms…...…...…....…
                                                                           2 or more     Total with
                                                             One extra          extra   insufficient
                                               Sufficient     bedroom      bedrooms      number of
  Household type                              bedrooms         required     required     bedrooms        Total

                                                    Number of dwellings
  Couple with children household                  150,623      20,176          3,593        23,769     174,392
  One parent family household                      53,115       6,417          1,587         8,004      61,119

                                                    Proportion (%)
  Couple with children household                    86.4          11.6           2.1          13.6      100.0
  One parent family household                       86.9          10.5           2.6          13.1      100.0

  Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




106   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
CHAPTER              6        INCOME


INTRODUCTION

                              Most children and young people depend on their parents for shelter and for financial
                              and emotional support. However, the need for support changes as teenagers
                              progress to adulthood and seek to establish their independence. The period of this
                              transition can vary greatly among young people depending on their individual
                              capacities and life opportunities. Some children and young people are not able to
                              depend on parents or families, and are required through life circumstances to live
                              independently (or with a considerable degree of independence) regardless of whether
                              they are ready.

                              This Chapter looks at the range of incomes of South Australian families with children
                              at the time of the 2001 Population Census. Indigenous children and those living in
                              one parent families are more likely to find themselves comparatively disadvantaged in
                              terms of parental incomes. Many young people aged 15-24 years living in the
                              parental home are students. Their family and individual incomes are examined,
                              together with non-students aged 15-24 years living in the parental home. Also in this
                              Chapter we look at how those young people who have left the parental home are
                              faring, in terms of income. Another section looks at the incidence of financial stress
                              amongst families with dependent children.




CHILDREN UNDER 15 YEARS



                              Income inequality is an important issue when examining the wellbeing of South
                              Australian children and families. At the time of the 2001 population Census, 25% of
                              Australian families had total incomes of less than $600 per week, i.e. low income
                              families (the bottom income quartile). All income measures used relate to gross
                              income. The graph below and Table 6.1 show that a substantial proportion of South
                              Australian children aged 0-14 years live in low-income families. For example, at the
                              time of the 2001 Population Census there were 72,830 children living in families with
                              incomes below $600 per week, representing 29% of South Australian children aged 0-
                              14 years (where family income is known).




107   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                                                  CHAPTER            6   •   INCOME




                              CHILDREN UNDER 15 YEARS (a) – WEEKLY FAMILY INCOME (b) BY FAMILY
                              TYPE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS

                                 no.
                                                                                                      In one parent family
                               40000
                                                                                                      In two parent family



                               30000



                               20000



                               10000



                                     0
                                          <$400       $400-     $600-     $800- $1,000- $1,200- $1,500- $2,000+
                                                                        Family income (weekly)
                              (a)   In occupied private dwellings
                              (b)   The sum of the weekly incomes of all persons in the family aged 15 years and over
                              Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing



                              Looking at family type, 77% of children living in one parent families lived in families
                              with incomes below $600 per week, while for those living in two parent families the
                              proportion was 16%.

                              Measures of poverty and ‘poverty lines’ are complex and, at times, controversial. In
                              brief, poverty lines are threshold income values. If a family’s income is below the
                              value applicable for that family, then that family is deemed to be in poverty. Also,
                              poverty itself means different things to different people. For example, experts
                              recognise 3 different approaches to defining poverty: absolute poverty, relative
                              poverty and subjective poverty (ABS Australian Social Trends 1998, Income &
                              Expenditure – Income Distribution: Poverty: Different assumptions, different profiles,
                              Australia Now).

                              The composition of the family (one or two parent family, 1, 2, 3 or more dependent
                              children, etc.) and also whether an adult within the family is or is not employed are
                              important to some measures of poverty. Within the parameters of this Profile we are
                              unable to examine concepts of poverty in such detail. However, in fairly basic terms,
                              a family with one or more children which has an income below $600 per week may be
                              considered to have a comparatively restricted range of options in terms of
                              expenditures on housing, education, transport, household goods, health services and
                              recreation. Financial stress and cash flow problems are more likely to be a feature of
                              such families than those with higher incomes.

                              The graph below and Table 6.2 show that, compared to most other States and
                              Territories, South Australia has a higher proportion of children in families with incomes
                              less than $600 per week. The proportion of 29% for South Australia is only exceeded
                              by Tasmania (33%) and Northern Territory (34%). ACT had the lowest proportion
                              (16%), while the Australian average was 26%. However, in this regard, it should be
                              noted that there may be differences in the relative costs of living between the States
                              and Territories.



108   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                                        CHAPTER         6   •   INCOME




                    CHILDREN UNDER 15 YEARS (a) – PROPORTION IN FAMILIES WHERE
                    WEEKLY FAMILY INCOME (b) IS LESS THAN $600 PER WEEK, STATES AND
                    AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS


                      %
                     40



                     30



                     20



                     10



                      0
                             NSW        Vic       Qld      SA        WA       Tas       NT       ACT    AUST
                    (a)   In occupied private dwellings
                    (b)   The sum of the incomes of all persons in the family aged 15 years and over.
                    Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




                      Compared to most other States and Territories, South Australia has a
                      higher proportion of children in families with family incomes of less than
                      $600 per week. However, in this regard, it should be noted that there
                      may be differences in the relative costs of living between the States and
                      Territories.




INDIGENOUS CHILDREN UNDER 15 YEARS

                    In line with other indicators in this Profile, Indigenous children are disadvantaged
                    when comparative family income distributions are examined. The graph below and
                    Table 6.3 show that over 30% of Indigenous children live in families with family
                    incomes below $400 per week. For non-Indigenous children the proportion was 13%.

                    Using $600 per week as a threshold, there were 56% of Indigenous children in
                    families with family incomes below $600 per week. For non-Indigenous children the
                    proportion was 28%.




                                         THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE              109
                                                                                                      CHAPTER           6   •   INCOME




                              PROPORTION OF CHILDREN AGED UNDER 15 YEARS (a) – WEEKLY FAMILY
                              INCOME (b) BY INDIGENOUS STATUS, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION
                              CENSUS
                              (a)       In occupied private dwellings
                                %
                                                                                                              Indigenous
                               40
                                                                                                              Non-Indigenous



                               30



                               20



                               10



                                    0
                                           <$400      $400 -     $600 -     $800 - $1,000 - $1,200 - $1,500 - $2,000+
                                                                          Family income (weekly)
                              (b)       The sum of the weekly incomes of all persons in the family aged 15 years and over
                              Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




YOUNG PEOPLE AGED 15-24 YEARS LIVING IN THE PARENTAL HOME



                              Young people aged 15-24 years who live in the parental home, lived in families whose
                              income tended to be considerably higher than for those aged 0-14 years (as shown
                              above). A range of factors may explain this. For example, parental incomes may be
                              higher as parents become better established in careers and the imperative for parents
                              to remain home with children or work reduced hours is diminished as children grow
                              older. Another factor could be that some young people may now in fact be
                              contributing to family income.

                              Around 62% of young people aged 15-24 years who live in the parental home lived
                              with families whose income exceeded $1,000 per week. Conversely around 16%
                              lived in families with incomes of less than $600 per week. See Table 6.4 for more
                              detail.




110   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                   CHAPTER              6    •   INCOME




YOUNG PEOPLE AGED 15-24 YEARS LIVING IN THE PARENTAL HOME –
WEEKLY FAMILY INCOME (a) BY FAMILY TYPE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001
POPULATION CENSUS


  no.
                                                                      In one parent family
20000
                                                                      In two parent family



15000



10000



 5000



      0
           <$400      $400-     $600-     $800- $1,000- $1,200- $1,500- $2,000+
                                        Family income (weekly)
(a) The sum of the weekly incomes of all persons in the family aged 15 years and over
Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




 Some consider that more young adults in their 20s are continuing to
 live in the parental home for longer periods than was the case 20-30
 years ago. This may be attributable in part to deferring leaving home
 until completion of study or achievement of financial independence
 and ability to afford to live independently.




Looking now at individual incomes of young people aged 15-24 years who live in the
parental home. The graph below and Table 6.5 show details of individual income for
students and non-students. The majority of young people living at home are full-time
students. Around 40% of these full-time students had no income, while a further 50%
had weekly incomes of under $160. Part-time students typically had incomes of
$160-$399 per week. The incomes of those who were non-students would comprise
in some cases, income from jobs and in other cases income from government
benefits such as Newstart.




                    THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                    111
                                                                                            CHAPTER           6   •   INCOME




                              YOUNG PEOPLE AGED 15-24 YEARS LIVING IN THE PARENTAL HOME –
                              INDIVIDUAL WEEKLY INCOME BY STUDENT STATUS, SOUTH AUSTRALIA,
                              2001 POPULATION CENSUS



                                 no.
                                                                                                  Full-time student
                               25000
                                                                                                  Part-time student
                                                                                                  Not a student
                               20000


                               15000


                               10000


                                5000


                                    0
                                            Nil     $1 -     $80 -      $160 - $300 - $400 -      $500 -    $600+
                                                                     Individual income (weekly)
                              Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




                              There are many financial reasons for young people to remain living in the parental
                              home including: inability to afford to live independently due to low junior wages; the
                              cut off rate for the Youth Allowance (see next section); high costs of the private rental
                              market; considerable waiting lists for public housing arrangements (see Chapter 5
                              Living Arrangements and Housing) and being a carer (of the family/parent(s)).




YOUNG PEOPLE AGED 15-24 YEARS LIVING INDEPENDENTLY



                              As shown in Chapter 5 a wide range of young people aged 15-24 years are living
                              independently. The vast majority of this group is aged 20-24 years. Some are
                              married or in a partnership (with or without dependent children), others live with
                              friends or flatmates in a ‘group household’ situation, others live alone and yet others
                              have the responsibility of sole parenthood.

                              Individual incomes for this group are generally low for a variety of reasons. Some are
                              engaged in long-term higher education or vocational studies. As we have seen in
                              Chapter 4, the likelihood of unemployment is comparatively high amongst this group
                              and those who are in employment may be in part-time or unskilled jobs where
                              incomes are low.

                              It should also be noted that the cut-off rate for Youth Allowance means a young
                              person needs to be 25 before they are considered independent and their parent(s)’s
                              income is no longer included in calculations for eligibility criteria.




112   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                CHAPTER            6       •   INCOME




The graph below and Table 6.6 show that incomes tended to range between $400 to
$799 per week for those employed full-time. Around 73% of those employed full-time
had weekly incomes within this range. For those employed part-time, weekly incomes
were typically in the range $160 to $299. It is likely that many of this group combined
part-time work with post-school education commitments such as university or
vocational studies. It is probable that those who were not employed would often be in
receipt of some sort of Centrelink payment.



YOUNG PEOPLE AGED 15-24 YEARS LIVING INDEPENDENTLY (a) –
INDIVIDUAL WEEKLY INCOME BY EMPLOYMENT STATUS, SOUTH
AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS



   no.
                                                                      Employed full-time
 8000
                                                                      Employed part-time
                                                                      Not employed

 6000



 4000



 2000



      0
             Nil       $1 -     $160 -     $300 - $400 - $500 -        $600 -    $800+
                                         Individual income (weekly)
(a)   In occupied private dwellings
Source: 2001 Census of Population and Dwellings




                     THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                 113
                                                                                                          CHAPTER            6     •   INCOME




HOUSEHOLD FINANCIAL STRESS INDICATORS

                              Some South Australian families with children can face greater difficulties in
                              maintaining or improving their standard of living, and in coping with financial stress
                              than others. Young people living independently (alone or in share housing) could also
                              face similar high financial stress situations. In this report the term financial stress is
                              used to indicate financial problems and difficulties. The extent to which young people
                              experience financial difficulties may relate to their available income, eligibility for
                              support payments, levels of debt, and access to public housing. The extent to which
                              families experience financial difficulties may be related to whether they have savings,
                              equity in a home or other assets and also their level of debt. The level and security or
                              predictability of income can also be an important determinant of financial health. A
                              recent ABS survey – the General Social Survey, 2002 - provides a general overview
                              of the proportion of households experiencing financial stress. See Table 6.7 further
                              on in this Chapter for details.

                              The graph below (and Table 6.7) shows details of the proportion of family households
                              with dependent children that experienced various kinds of cash flow problems over a
                              12 month period in 2001/2002. SA and national data is shown for couple families,
                              however, for one parent families only national data is available. In this report it is
                              assumed that SA and national data for one parent families are likely to be broadly
                              similar if SA data was available.

                              TYPE OF CASH FLOW PROBLEM EXPERIENCED IN LAST 12 MONTHS:
                              PROPORTION OF FAMILIES WITH DEPENDENT CHILDREN BY FAMILY TYPE,
                              2002

                                %
                                                                                                          Couple family - SA
                               40
                                                                                                          Couple family - Aust
                                                                                                          One parent family - Aust

                               30



                               20



                               10



                                    0
                                             (a)         (b)        (c)         (d)        (e)      (f)           (g)        (h)
                                                                          Type of cash flow problem



                              Type of cash flow problem –
                              (a)       Unable to pay electricity, gas or telephone bills on time.
                              (b)       Unable to pay mortgage or rent payments on time.
                              (c)       Unable to pay car registration or insurance on time.
                              (d)       Unable to make minimum payment of credit card.
                              (e)       Pawned or sold something because cash was needed.
                              (f)       Went without meals
                              (g)       Sought financial help from family or friends.
                              (h)       Sought assistance from welfare or community organisations.
                              Source: ABS General Social Survey, 2002 (Cat No. 4159.0 and 4159.4.55.001)




114   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                          CHAPTER            6    •   INCOME




In Australia, around 15% of two parent families with dependent children reported that
in the last 12 months they had been unable to pay an electricity, gas or telephone bill
on time because they were short of money. For one parent families the proportion
was much higher at 37%.

10% of one parent families had to pawn or sell something because cash was needed,
while the rate for two parent families was 3%. Further, it is of concern that 8% of one
parent families reported that they went without meals because they were short of
money.

A quarter of one parent families had sought financial help from family or friends to
avert a cash flow problem and 12% had approached welfare or community
organisations for aid and assistance

The graph below (and Table 6.7) shows details of the proportion of family households
with dependent children that took various kinds of dissaving actions over a 12 month
period in 2001/2002. Similar proportions of one- and two-parent families reduced
mortgage payments, drew down savings, increased credit card debt levels and took
out personal loans. One parent families were more likely to enter into a loan
agreement with family or friends than two parent families.



TYPE OF DISSAVING ACTION TAKEN IN LAST 12 MONTHS: PROPORTION OF
FAMILIES WITH DEPENDENT CHILDREN BY FAMILY TYPE, 2002


  %
                                                                          Couple family - SA
 25
                                                                          Couple family - Aust
                                                                          One parent family - Aust
 20


 15


 10


      5


      0
                 (a)            (b)           (c)             (d)           (e)             (f)
                                        Type of dissaving action taken
Type of dissaving action taken –
(a)       Reduced home loan repayments
(b)       Drew on accumulated savings or term deposits
(c)       Increased the balance owing on credit cards by $1,000 or more
(d)       Entered into a loan agreement with family or friends
(e)       Took out a personal loan
(f)       Sold household goods or jewellery


Source: ABS General Social Survey, 2002 (Cat No. 4159.0 and 4159.4.55.001)




                         THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                    115
                                                                                                   CHAPTER   6   •   INCOME




TABLE 6.1 CHILDREN AGED UNDER 15 YEARS (a) – WEEKLY FAMILY INCOME (b) BY FAMILY TYPE,
SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS


                                                             In one parent         In two parent
  Weekly family income (b)                                          family                family     Total

  <$200                                                               3,275               1,350      4,625
  $200-$299                                                           6,148               1,103      7,251
  $300-$399                                                          13,386               8,201     21,587
  $400-$499                                                          10,922              10,215     21,137
  $500-$599                                                           6,445              11,789     18,234
  $600-$699                                                           3,845              16,926     20,771
  $700-$799                                                           2,661              14,718     17,379
  $800-$999                                                           2,737              35,491     38,228
  $1,000-$1,199                                                       1,649              25,561     27,210
  $1,200-$1,499                                                         387              31,334     31,721
  $1,500-$1,999                                                         612              26,062     26,674
  $2,000 or more                                                         80              16,312     16,392

  Total where family income is stated                                52,147             199,062    251,209

  Family income not stated                                             3,923             20,463     24,386

  Total children aged under 15 years (a)                             56,070             219,525    275,595


  (a) In occupied private dwellings
  (b) The sum of the incomes of all persons in the family aged 15 years and over

  Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




TABLE 6.2  CHILDREN UNDER 15 YEARS (a) – NUMBER AND PROPORTION IN FAMILIES WHERE WEEKLY
FAMILY INCOME (b) IS LESS THAN $600 PER WEEK, STATES AND AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS

                          Children aged under 15 years………
                                                                         Proportion in
                                                                       families where
                            In families where     Total in families  family income is
                        family income is less where family income less than $600 per
       State             than $600 per week               is stated              week

                                             no.                       no.                    %

       NSW                             281,493                1,106,853                     25.4
       Vic                             195,448                  803,616                     24.3
       Qld                             182,323                  640,550                     28.5
       SA                               72,834                  251,209                     29.0
       WA                               87,443                  327,450                     26.7
       Tas                              28,110                   84,204                     33.4
       NT                               12,993                   38,644                     33.6
       ACT                               9,055                   55,886                     16.2

       AUST                            869,699                3,308,412                     26.3

       (a) In occupied private dwellings
       (b) The sum of the incomes of all persons in the family aged 15 years and over


       Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




116   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                                                   CHAPTER     6   •   INCOME




TABLE 6.3  CHILDREN AGED UNDER 15 YEARS (a) – WEEKLY FAMILY INCOME (b) BY INDIGENOUS
STATUS, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS


                                                                                       Non-
Weekly family income (b)                                      Indigenous         Indigenous   Not stated       Total

                                                                      NUMBER OF CHILDREN AGED UNDER 15 YEARS

<$200                                                                  369            4,115         142       4,626
$200-$299                                                              578            6,499         174       7,251
$300-$399                                                            1,328           19,695         564      21,587
$400-$499                                                            1,008           19,730         399      21,137
$500-$599                                                              757           17,162         315      18,234
$600-$699                                                              750           19,737         284      20,771
$700-$799                                                              472           16,679         228      17,379
$800-$999                                                              739           37,061         428      38,228
$1,000-$1,199                                                          477           26,447         286      27,210
$1,200-$1,499                                                          380           31,059         282      31,721
$1,500-$1,999                                                          287           26,164         223      26,674
$2,000 or more                                                         117           16,165         110      16,392

Total where family income is stated                                  7,262          240,513       3,435     251,210

Family income not stated                                             1,148           22,385         853      24,386

Total                                                                8,410          262,898       4,288     275,596


                                                                             PROPORTION (%)

<$200                                                                  5.1              1.7         4.1          1.8
$200-$299                                                              8.0              2.7         5.1          2.9
$300-$399                                                             18.3              8.2        16.4          8.6
$400-$499                                                             13.9              8.2        11.6          8.4
$500-$599                                                             10.4              7.1         9.2          7.3
$600-$699                                                             10.3              8.2         8.3          8.3
$700-$799                                                              6.5              6.9         6.6          6.9
$800-$999                                                             10.2             15.4        12.5         15.2
$1,000-$1,199                                                          6.6             11.0         8.3         10.8
$1,200-$1,499                                                          5.2             12.9         8.2         12.6
$1,500-$1,999                                                          4.0             10.9         6.5         10.6
$2,000 or more                                                         1.6              6.7         3.2          6.5

Total where family income is stated                                  100.0            100.0       100.0       100.0


(a) In occupied private dwellings
(b) The sum of the incomes of all persons in the family aged 15 years and over


Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




                                                             THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE   117
                                                                                                           CHAPTER          6   •   INCOME




TABLE 6.4   YOUNG PEOPLE AGED 15-24 YEARS LIVING IN THE PARENTAL HOME – WEEKLY FAMILY
INCOME (a) BY FAMILY TYPE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS


                                                                       In one           In two
                                                                       parent           parent
       Weekly family income (a)                                        family           family            Total

       <$200                                                              512              304              816
       $200-$299                                                        1,098              179            1,277
       $300-$399                                                        2,316              889            3,205
       $400-$499                                                        2,699            1,978            4,677
       $500-$599                                                        2,732            2,471            5,203
       $600-$699                                                        2,351            2,967            5,318
       $700-$799                                                        2,062            3,339            5,401
       $800-$999                                                        3,315            7,607           10,922
       $1,000-$1,199                                                    2,150            8,370           10,520
       $1,200-$1,499                                                    2,003           13,002           15,005
       $1,500-$1,999                                                    1,315           16,814           18,129
       $2,000 or more                                                     402           15,955           16,357

       Total where family income is stated                             22,955           73,875           96,830

       Family income not stated                                         3,294           15,904           19,198

       Total aged 15-24
       living in the parental home                                     26,249           89,779       116,028


       (a) The sum of the incomes of all persons in the family aged 15 years and over


       Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




TABLE 6.5  YOUNG PEOPLE AGED 15-24 YEARS LIVING IN THE PARENTAL HOME – INDIVIDUAL WEEKLY
INCOME BY STUDENT STATUS, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS



                                                      Full-time          Part-time
       Individual Weekly income                        student            student Not a student                     Total
                                                             no.                no.         no.                       no.

       $0                                                23,913                595               3,187             27,695
       $1 - $79                                          18,295                476               1,731             20,502
       $80 - $160                                        12,005                976               4,787             17,768
       $160 - $299                                        4,543              2,459               9,483             16,485
       $300 - $399                                          755              1,293               6,268              8,316
       $400 - $499                                          256                855               6,250              7,361
       $500 - $599                                          129                538               4,186              4,853
       $600 or more                                         173                597               3,806              4,576

       Not stated                                         6,600                 246              1,622              8,468

       Total aged 15-24
       living in the parental home                       66,669              8,035           41,320               116,024


      Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




118   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                                        CHAPTER       6   •   INCOME




TABLE 6.6  YOUNG PEOPLE AGED 15-24 YEARS LIVING INDEPENDENTLY (a) – INDIVIDUAL WEEKLY
INCOME BY EMPLOYMENT STATUS, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2001 POPULATION CENSUS


                                                 Employed       Employed
                                                      full-         part-            Not
 Individual Weekly income                             time           time       employed             Total

                                                        no.            no.            no.              no.

 $0                                                     50            105           2,861           3,016
 $1 - $159                                             118          2,070           7,292           9,480
 $160 - $299                                         1,358          4,788           6,874          13,020
 $300 - $399                                         2,729          2,962           2,223           7,914
 $400 - $499                                         5,268          2,001             667           7,936
 $500 - $599                                         5,588          1,072             256           6,916
 $600 - $799                                         5,867            847             176           6,890
 $800 or more                                        1,982            363             137           2,482

 Income not stated                                     306            320           1,449           2,075

 Total aged 15-24
 living independently                               23,266         14,528          21,935          59,729

 (a) In occupied private dwellings


 Source: 2001 Census of Population and Housing




                                                    THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE   119
                                                                                                CHAPTER     6   •   INCOME




TABLE 6.7 HOUSEHOLD FINANCIAL STRESS INDICATORS, HOUSEHOLDS WITH DEPENDENT CHILDREN,
SOUTH AUSTRALIA AND AUSTRALIA , 2002


                                                                                     COUPLE FAMILY         ONE PARENT FAMILY
                                                                                      SA    Australia           SA   Australia

                                                                                        PROPORTION (%)……………………………

Unable to raise $2,000 within a week for something important (a)                       13.1         12.8            **    41.3
Number of different types of cash flow problem/s in last 12 months (a)
   None                                                                                78.7         76.0            **    51.6
   One                                                                                 10.3         10.4            **    14.8
   Two                                                                                  4.0          5.1            **    11.1
   Three or more                                                                        6.1          6.3            **    21.8
Type/s of cash flow problem/s in last 12 months (b)
   Unable to pay electricity, gas or telephone bills on time                           14.8         14.6            **    36.6
   Unable to pay mortgage or rent payments on time                                      5.2          5.4            **    13.4
   Unable to pay car registration or insurance on time                                  7.0          7.4            **    13.4
   Unable to make minimum payment on credit card                                        3.9          4.4            **     8.6
   Pawned or sold something because cash was needed                                     2.4          2.5            **     9.9
   Unable to heat home                                                                  0.2          0.7            **     3.5
   Went without meals                                                                   n.a          1.0            **     8.0
   Sought financial help from family or friends                                         6.7          8.2            **    24.8
   Sought assistance from welfare or community organisations                            2.2          1.9            **    11.6
Number of different types of dissaving action/s taken in last 12 months (a)
   None                                                                                75.8         75.6            **    63.4
   One                                                                                 17.4         15.2            **    25.0
   Two                                                                                  4.6          5.2            **     8.3
   Three or more                                                                        1.5          2.5            **     2.8
Type/s of dissaving action/s taken in last 12 months (b)
   Reduced home loan repayments                                                          3.2         3.8            **     2.7
   Drew on accumulated savings or term deposits                                          9.2         9.7            **    11.5
   Increased the balance owing on credit cards by $1,000 or more                         6.3         8.0            **     7.4
   Entered into a loan agreement with family or friends                                  2.7         2.8            **     9.1
   Took out a personal loan                                                              5.6         4.1            **     7.3
   Sold household goods or jewellery                                                     1.1         1.4            **     6.6
   Sold shares, stocks or bonds                                                          1.3         1.9            **     1.4
   Sold other assets                                                                     1.6         1.5            **     2.7
   Other action taken                                                                    0.6         0.7            **     3.5


** Results for SA one parent families are not available as relative standard errors are greater than 50%
    and therefore considered too unreliable for general use
(a) Information for some households was not known or was not adequately reported.
(b) Households may have taken more than one of these actions, so the categories may not add to 100%

Source: ABS General Social Survey, 2002 (Cat. No.4159.0 and 4159.4.55.001)




120    THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
CHAPTER              7        SAFETY AND JUSTICE


INTRODUCTION

                                  The incidence of crime committed by young people is often reported on in the
                                  media.

                                  Young people can also be the victims of violence inflicted by adults through
                                  abuse, neglect, commercial exploitation, assault and homicide. A study by NSW
                                  Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research (Coumarelos C and Allen J “Predicting
                                  Violence Against Women: The 1996 Women’s Safety Survey”, Crime and Justice
                                  Bulletin, Contemporary Issues in Crime and Justice, No. 42, December 1988),
                                  has found that a history of violent victimisation, whether as a child or adult,
                                  predicts future victimisation. Victims of crime and their families can suffer
                                  physically, emotionally and financially. Any changes in crime rates and
                                  victimisation rates therefore are of ongoing concern to the community

                                  Just as direct experience of crime can affect people’s day-to-day lives and
                                  wellbeing, so too can fear of crime. Fear of becoming a victim and decreased
                                  feelings of safety may restrict a person’s participation in society. However,
                                  people’s perceptions of crime do not always align with levels of criminal activity
                                  and victimisation (Australian Social Trends, 2003, ABS Cat. No. 4102.0). It
                                  should be noted that administrative collections such as police statistics on
                                  apprehensions or recorded crimes, provide only one picture of the true level of
                                  crime. While the number of unreported crimes is difficult to measure, crime
                                  victimisation surveys typically show that overall only about 40% of crimes are
                                  reported to police and that the level of reporting to police varies widely according
                                  to the nature of the crime (ABS Recorded Crime, 2003, Cat. No. 4510.0). For this
                                  reason, the measurement of crime rates from police statistics should be treated
                                  with caution.

                                  This Chapter examines police apprehensions of children and youth aged 10 to 24
                                  years, as well as victims of crime data for youth aged 15 to 24 years. Other topics
                                  covered include child abuse and neglect and children in alternative care (aged 0
                                  to 17 years). Some information is also provided on youth (aged 15 to 24 years)
                                  perceptions of safety


POLICE APPREHENSIONS

                                  This section is limited to data on police apprehensions (specifically, the number
                                  of Police Apprehension Reports completed). No information is presented on the
                                  outcome of these apprehensions (e.g. withdrawn, referred to formal caution,
                                  family conference or court). For data on these areas, readers may wish to refer to
                                  Volumes 1 - 3 of the Crime and Justice Report, published annually by the Office
                                  of Crime Statistics and Research (OCSAR) and available at
                                  http://www.ocsar.sa.gov.au. All data on police apprehensions in this Chapter is
                                  sourced from SAPOL/OCSAR.




121   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
C H A P T E R 7 • SAFETY AND JUSTICE




                                                For youths who were aged 10 to 17 years at the time of the alleged offence, the
                                               Young Offenders Act 1993 (which came into operation on 1 January 1994)
                                               applies. Under the Act, depending upon the nature of the offending, there are
                                               several processing options, as follows:

                                                                      Informal cautions:

                                                                      These apply to offences considered ‘trivial’ by the operational
                                                                      police officer. They are given on the spot and are not formally
                                                                      recorded.

                                               Where police decide to formally apprehend a young person, there are three
                                               options:

                                                                      a. Formal cautions;

                                                                      b. Family conferences;

                                                                      c. Youth Court.

                                                                      If a youth commits a serious offence, is a repeat offender or
                                                                      fails to comply with a family conference undertaking, he/she
                                                                      may be formally charged and sent to the Youth Court.

                                               Persons aged 18 years or more at the time of an alleged offence are dealt with by
                                               the adult criminal justice system.

                                               A brief overview of recorded offending for young people aged 10 to 24 years
                                               during the period 2000/01 to 2002/03 for SA is provided in the first 3 sections
                                               following below.


 POLICE APPREHENSIONS1- DEMOGRAPHICS


                                               As shown in the graph below, between 2000/01 and 2002/03 the total number of
                                               police apprehensions involving young people aged 10 to 24 years ranged
                                               between 25,380 and 26,390 per financial year. This number of apprehensions is
                                               spread over a population of some 305,000 (ABS Estimated Resident Population
                                               by State (2003) – see Table 1.1 in Chapter 1).

                                               Most apprehensions involved young people in the age group 18 to 24 years, with
                                               the proportion increasing from 63% in 2000/01 to 66% in 2002/03.
                                               Apprehensions involving persons aged 18 to 24 years were stable between
                                               2000/01 and 2001/02, but increased by 6% in 2002/03 (up to 17,420).

                                               The number of apprehensions involving 10 to 14 year olds did not show any clear
                                               upward or downward trend, ranging between 2760 in 2000/01 and 2790 in
                                               2002/03.

                                               The number of apprehensions of persons aged 15 to 17 years declined in both
                                               2001/02 and 2002/03, with an overall decrease of 12% (from 6,960 in 2000/01 to
                                               6,110 in 2002/03).




 1
     It should be noted that this section refers to the number of apprehensions recorded, not discrete individuals. A person who has been apprehended
         on more than one occasion over the period in question will counted on each occasion.

122       THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                          C H A P T E R 7 • SAFETY AND JUSTICE




  NUMBER OF APPREHENSIONS PER YEAR 2000/01 TO 2002/03 FOR
  PERSONS AGED 10 TO 24




   Number
                                         2000-2001
   30000
                                         2001-2002
                                         2002-2003



   20000




   10000




        0
                  10-14           15-17               18-24        Total
                                      Age group (years)



  Source: OCSAR




  The proportion of apprehensions involving 10 to 14 year olds was stable between
  2000/01 and 2002/03, ranging between 10% and 11%.

  Between 2000/01 and 2002/03 there was a slight decrease in the proportion of
  apprehensions involving 15 to 17 year olds, from 27% to 23%.

  Males accounted for approximately eight out of ten of all the apprehensions
  involving persons aged 10 to 24 in the years 2000/01 to 2002/03. However, this
  figure varied according to the particular age group, with males accounting for a
  slightly lower percentage of apprehensions in the 10 to 14 years age range (78%
  averaged over the three periods, compared with 82% for 15 to 17 years and 84%
  for 18 to 24 years).

  Apprehensions for females aged 18 to 24 increased from 2,720 in 2000/01 to
  2,890 in 2002/03, while the number of apprehensions involving females aged 15
  to 17 years was stable (between 1,150 and 1,160).

  Refer to Table 7.1 at the end of this Chapter.




Most apprehensions involved young people in the age group 18 to 24 years, with
the proportion increasing from 63% in 2000/01 to 66% in 2002/03. Apprehensions
involving persons aged 18 to 24 years were stable between 2000/01 and 2001/02,
but increased by 6% in 2002/03 (up to 17,420).




 THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE              123
C H A P T E R 7 • SAFETY AND JUSTICE




 POLICE APPREHENSIONS INVOLVING INDIGENOUS PERSONS


                                              Between 2000/01 and 2002/03, the number of apprehensions involving persons
                                                                                                             2
                                              aged between 10 and 24 who were identified as Indigenous increased from
                                              2,920 to 3,610. This represents an increase in the proportion of Indigenous
                                              apprehensions from 11% to 14%.

                                              As shown in the graph below, the proportion of apprehensions involving an
                                              Indigenous person varied according to age group. In particular, substantially
                                              higher proportions of apprehensions involving persons aged 10 to 14 years were
                                              identified as Indigenous (24% to 32% over the years 2001/02 to 2002/03),
                                              compared with 10% to 16% of apprehensions involving persons aged 15 to 17
                                              years and 9% to 10% of those involving persons aged 18 to 24 years. This
                                              finding is consistent with other research by OCSAR that suggests that the age of
                                              first contact with the criminal justice system is generally younger for Indigenous
                                              persons (Scrzypiec, G. 2004,1984 Cohort Study).


                                              PERCENTAGE OF APPREHENSIONS PER YEAR THAT INVOLVED
                                              INDIGENOUS PERSONS 2000/01 TO 2002/03


                                              %
                                                                                                                 2000-2001
                                             40
                                                                                                                 2001-2002
                                                                                                                 2002-2003

                                             30



                                             20



                                             10



                                              0
                                                          10-14                15-17               18-24         Total
                                                                                   Age group (years)

                                              Source: OCSAR

                                              There were substantial differences in the age distribution of Indigenous and non-
                                              Indigenous apprehensions for the years 2000/01 to 2002/03. A much higher
                                              percentage of Indigenous apprehensions involved young persons aged 10 to 14
                                              (25% in 2002/03, compared with 8% for non-Indigenous apprehensions), while a
                                              lower proportion were aged 18 to 24 years (48% compared with 69% of non-
                                              Indigenous apprehensions). The proportion of apprehensions involving persons
                                              aged 15 to 17 years was similar for both groups (27% of Indigenous
                                              apprehensions compared with 23% for non-Indigenous).

                                              Refer to Table 7.2 at the end of this Chapter for further details.




 2
     As recorded by the Police officer completing the Apprehension Report, based on appearance.

124       THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                               C H A P T E R 7 • SAFETY AND JUSTICE




POLICE APPREHENSIONS – MOST SERIOUS CHARGE


                      This section looks at apprehensions for persons aged 10 to 24 according to the
                      type of offence. Where an apprehension report involved two or more different
                      charges, the most serious charge (e.g. the offence with the highest statutory
                      penalty) was included.

                      Most apprehensions over the period 2000/01 to 2002/03 involving a young person
                      aged between 10 and 24 years involved a driving offence as the most serious
                      charge. In fact over the period 2000/01 to 2002/03 the number of apprehensions
                      involving driving has increased from 8750 to 9540 and also increased as a
                      proportion of total apprehensions (from 33% to 36%).

                      10 to 14 year olds

                      Most apprehensions over the period 2000/01 to 2002/03 involving a young person
                      aged between 10 and 14 years had a property offence as the major charge (60%
                      in 2002/03), followed by offences against good order (21%) and violent offences
                      (14%).

                      Over the period 2000/01 to 20002/03 for the 10 to 14 year age group, the number
                      of apprehensions with property offence or good order offence as the most serious
                      charge increased, while the number with a violent offence as the major charge
                      was relatively stable.

                      Conversely, for the 10 to 14 year age group, the number of apprehensions with a
                      drug offence as the most serious charge decreased (from 150 in 2000/01 down to
                      about 20 in 2002/03). This is may be due to the Police Drug Diversion Initiative,
                      which commenced in South Australia in September 2001 and provided for a
                      range of diversion options for persons apprehended in possession of small
                      amounts of illicit drugs.

                      15 to 17 year olds

                      All offence type apprehensions for 15 to 17 year old young people were steady
                      between 2000/01 and 2002/03, except for drug offences which decreased from
                      590 to 90 (or by 85%). For 15 to 17 year olds, property offences also dominated
                      the major charge profile of apprehensions, although to a lesser extent than the
                      younger age group (41% in 2002/03 compared to 60% for apprehensions
                      involving young persons aged 10 to 14 years). In contrast to the younger age
                      group, over the period 2000/01 to 2002/03, the number of apprehensions
                      involving persons aged 15 to 17 years with a property offence as the major
                      charge decreased (from 2790 to 2530)

                      18 to 24 year olds

                      Driving offences dominated the major charge profile of apprehensions involving
                      persons aged 18 to 24 years, accounting for almost half of all apprehensions in
                      2002/03.




                     THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE          125
C H A P T E R 7 • SAFETY AND JUSTICE




                                  For young people aged 18 to 24, over the period 2000/01 to 2002/03, the number
                                  of driving offences increased from 7,380 to 8,250. This is possibly due to an
                                  increasing use of technology such as speed cameras and red light cameras,
                                  which also enable police to detect registration and licensing offences. The
                                  number of apprehensions involving an offence against good order also increased
                                  (from 2,780 to 3,060). Conversely, there was a decrease in the number of
                                  apprehensions involving a property offence as the major charge (from 3,990 to
                                  3,710).

                                  Refer to table 7.3 and 7.3a as well as the graph following.


                                  MOST SERIOUS OFFENCE PER APPREHENSION BY OFFENCE TYPE AND
                                  AGE 2002/03


                                   %
                                                                                                                      10-14
                                  80
                                                                                                                      15-17
                                                                                                                      18-24
                                                                                                                      10-24
                                  60



                                  40



                                  20



                                   0
                                            Violent          Property        Good order          Drugs            Driving
                                                                            Offence type

                                 Note: The offence group of ‘other’ has not been included in this graph due to small numbers.
                                 Source: OCSAR




                                  Females and Males

                                  In 2002/03, the most common major charge for males aged 10 to 24 was a driving
                                  offence (37%), followed by property offence (29%) and offences against good
                                  order (20%). In contrast, the most common major charge for females was a
                                  property offence (36%), followed by a driving offence 33%) and offences against
                                  good order (16%). Refer to Table 7.4 and Table 7.5 for further data on the
                                  number of apprehensions by offence type by sex.

                                  Indigenous

                                  The most serious offence profile of apprehensions involving Indigenous persons
                                  in 2002/03 was substantially different to that of non-Indigenous persons. As
                                  shown in the graph below, compared with apprehensions involving non-
                                  Indigenous persons, Indigenous apprehensions were more likely to have a
                                  violent, property or against good order offence as the most serious charge and
                                  less likely to have a drug or driving offence as the most serious charge.




126   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                       C H A P T E R 7 • SAFETY AND JUSTICE




While the majority of apprehensions in 10 to 14 year age group involved property
offences (56% and 61% for Indigenous and non-Indigenous respectively),
Indigenous apprehensions in this age group were higher than non-Indigenous
apprehensions involving an offence against good order as the major charge (28%
compared with 18% of non-Indigenous apprehensions). Conversely, the number
of Indigenous apprehensions involving a violent offence was 11% compared with
15%).

As with the 10 to 14 year age group, the majority of apprehensions involving
persons aged 15 to 17 years had a property offence as the major charge,
regardless of Indigenous status (44% and 41% for Indigenous and non-
Indigenous apprehensions respectively). However, the number of Indigenous
apprehensions involving an offence against good order were higher than non-
Indigenous apprehensions (32% compared with 22% for non-Indigenous
apprehensions). Conversely the number of Indigenous apprehensions involving a
driving offence as the major charge were lower than non-Indigenous
apprehensions (8% compared with 21%) for this age group.

Refer to Tables 7.6 and 7.7 at the rear of this Chapter for more detailed data on
Indigenous and non-Indigenous apprehensions by offence type.


PERCENTAGE OF APPREHENSIONS BY MOST SERIOUS OFFENCE TYPE
AND INDIGENOUS STATUS
Source: OCSAR
  %
                                  Indigenous
 40
                                  Non-indigenous



 30



 20



 10



  0
          Violent      Property     Good order      Drugs        Driving
                                   Offence type




THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE          127
C H A P T E R 7 • SAFETY AND JUSTICE




 VICTIMS OF CRIME

                                  Data in this section is drawn from two sources: ABS Crime and Safety 2002, Cat.
                                  No. 4509.0 and ABS Recorded Crime 2003, Cat. No. 4510.0. The data from these
                                  publications refers to persons aged 15 years or more.

                                  Young people (aged 15 to 24 years) appear to be more at risk of being victims of
                                  crime than are people of other ages. See sections and graphs following. This
                                  may be because they are, in many cases, vulnerable to or impotent against
                                  persons who are more experienced than their victims, or who are in positions of
                                  authority over them. Young people are also likely to be victimised by other young
                                  people through robbery, theft or assault.

                                  It could also be said that young people tend to take more risks. They may go out
                                  to places of entertainment where dangers of theft and assault are known; they
                                  may experiment with drugs and alcohol; they may explore the limits of the
                                  boundaries of socially acceptable behaviour.

                                  The ABS Crime and Safety Survey shows that most young victims of robbery
                                  were males, who represented an estimated 81% (36,100 persons) of the 15 to 24
                                  age group of victims at the national level and, over 90% of the category in South
                                  Australia. For all age groups in South Australia, males represented 78% of the
                                  estimated 5,500 victims of robbery.

                                  The ABS publication Recorded Crime, compiled from police statistics, shows the
                                  number of reported robberies for all age groups for South Australia in 2002 was
                                  1,620, approximately 30% of the estimated incidents in the ABS Crime and Safety
                                  Survey mentioned above, for that year. Of the 15 to 24 age group, males
                                  accounted for 80% of the 580 reported victims of robbery in 2003 in South
                                  Australia and 78% of the 7010 reports nationally.

                                  The prevalence of recorded robbery victims in South Australia and Australia, by
                                  age group and by sex for 2003, is shown in the following graphs. Prevalence
                                  rates are higher for the age groups 15 to 19 and 20 to 24 as compared to the age
                                  group 25 and over. Males in all age groups have a higher rate of being a
                                  recorded victim of robbery than females, but most significantly in the younger age
                                  group of 15 to 19 years.




128   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                          C H A P T E R 7 • SAFETY AND JUSTICE




RECORDED VICTIMS OF ROBBERY AS A PROPORTION OF AGE GROUP
(%), SOUTH AUSTRALIA AND AUSTRALIA, 2003


  %
                                                                    South Australia
 0.4
                                                                    Australia



 0.3



 0.2



 0.1



 0.0
                 15-19                      20-24                25 and over
                                        Age Group (years)


Source: ABS Recorded Crime – Victims 2003, ABS Cat. No. 4510.0



RECORDED VICTIMS OF ROBBERY, RATES BY SEX AND AGE GROUP,
SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 2003


  %
                                                                            Male
 0.6
                                                                            Female




 0.4




 0.2




 0.0
                 15-19                      20-24                25 and over
                                        Age Group (years)
Source: ABS Recorded Crime – Victims 2003, ABS Cat. No. 4510.0




Similarly, the young are more subject to assault than is the general population.
See the graph following. Of the 195,000 persons aged 15-24 years in South
Australia in 2002, 15,000 (8%) had been assaulted in the previous 12 months,
while for persons aged over 25 years the prevalence rate was 5%.

In 2003, recorded instances of assault against persons 15 to 24 years of age in
South Australia amounted to 5,300 persons, a prevalence rate of 3%. For victims
over 25 years of age, the prevalence rate was 1%.




THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                   129
C H A P T E R 7 • SAFETY AND JUSTICE




                                  However, it is the 15-19 year olds who experience the higher number of assaults,
                                  with the ABS Crime and Safety Survey estimating that 9% of this group had been
                                  assaulted in 2002. The next highest prevalence of assault is found in persons
                                  aged 25-34 years (8%), followed by persons aged 20-24 (7%). See Table 7.9
                                  towards the end of the Chapter.

                                  There are marked differences in prevalence rates for assault between the sexes,
                                  with males having a greater chance of being assaulted in all age groups shown.



                                  VICTIMS OF ASSAULT, RATES BY SEX AND AGE GROUP, SOUTH
                                  AUSTRALIA, 2002


                                    %
                                                                                                        Male
                                   10
                                                                                                        Female


                                    8


                                    6


                                    4


                                    2


                                    0
                                                   15-19                       20-24           25 and over
                                                                           Age group (years)


                                  Source: Crime and Safety 2002, Cat. No. 4509.0




                                  As is shown in graph below, the 2002 ABS Crime and Safety survey of victims
                                  found that South Australians have a lower level of victimisation by assault than
                                  that found overall in Australia. Interestingly, the 2003 recorded crime results show
                                  that the prevalence of reported assaults in South Australia was higher in all age
                                  groups.




130   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                 C H A P T E R 7 • SAFETY AND JUSTICE




                      VICTIMS OF ASSAULT AS A PROPORTION OF AGE GROUP, SOUTH
                      AUSTRALIA AND AUSTRALIA, 2002


                       %
                                                                                     South Australia
                      10
                                                                                     Australia


                          8


                          6


                          4


                          2


                          0
                                      15-19                       20-24           25 and over
                                                              Age group (years)


                      Source: Crime and Safety 2002, ABS Cat. No. 4509.0




CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT


                      The South Australian government is responsible for child protection and
                      alternative care services. The Department for Families and Communities, through
                      the Children, Youth and Family Services Branch, has statutory responsibility,
                      under the Children’s Protection Act, 1993 for receiving notifications of suspected
                      child abuse and neglect, assessing and responding to those notifications. All data
                      and information in this section is from the Children, Youth and Family services
                      Branch.

                      South Australia, in common with other Australian States and Territories, has child
                      protection and alternative care legislation and/or policy that refer to balancing the
                      protection of children with the need to maintain and support the family. The
                      provision of practical assistance, support, supervision or specialist family
                      preservation services may enable the child to remain at home but, if this is not
                      possible, it may be necessary to place a child into alternative care with the goal of
                      later family reunification where feasible.

                      The data provided on child abuse and neglect covers notifications or “screened in
                      notification”, and confirmations. The term “screened in notification” refers to those
                      reports where the Department assesses that the information provided by a notifier
                      meets the threshold for consideration as a suspicion on reasonable grounds of
                      child abuse or neglect.

                      Data is maintained for young people aged 0 to 17 years. Confirmations are
                      notifications that have been assessed as meeting the criteria for a suspicion of
                      child abuse or neglect on reasonable grounds.




                     THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE               131
C H A P T E R 7 • SAFETY AND JUSTICE




                                  The number of screened in notifications has increased considerably over the last
                                  5 years, rising from 9590 to 14920 (55% increase). Over the same period,
                                  Indigenous notifications increased by 71%, with non-Indigenous increasing by
                                  52%. The overall 12 to 17 year old age group had the largest growth in
                                  notifications of 71% over the same period.

                                  The increase in the number of notifications may be due to a number of factors
                                  including:

                                                     Increased media attention to the issues of child abuse and
                                                     neglect;

                                                     Increased awareness about child abuse and neglect in the
                                                     community;

                                                     Factors occurring in various combinations that may place
                                                     children at risk, including poverty, drug and alcohol abuse,
                                                     domestic violence, intergenerational transmission of poor
                                                     parenting practice, stressful life events, mental health issues.

                                  See Tables 7.10 and 7.11 at the end of the Chapter for detailed data.

                                  Unpublished data shows that over the last five years there has been a
                                  proportionally higher increase in notifications concerning children under the age of
                                  2 years. Many of these notifications have combinations of risk factors, among the
                                  highest being domestic violence. It has become increasingly recognised that
                                  infants’ safety, health and wellbeing is compromised when living in households
                                  affected by domestic violence. See table 7.10.

                                  The increase in the number of confirmations is also significant, though not to the
                                  same degree as the increase in screened in notifications. Total confirmations
                                  have risen from 2090 to 2490 (19%) over the period 1999/00 to 2003/04. Over
                                  the same period Indigenous confirmations increased by 46%, with non-
                                  Indigenous increasing by 13%. The overall 0 to 7 age group had the largest
                                  growth in confirmations of 30%. See Table 7.11 towards the end of the Chapter
                                  for further details. In South Australia, neglect is the most common type of abuse
                                  substantiated (unpublished data).

                                  No comparisons have been provided with the child protection data in other
                                  Australian jurisdictions. Jurisdictional differences in legislation, policy and
                                  practice render such comparisons quite complex. While all jurisdictions are
                                  striving for similar goals, that is the safety and wellbeing of the child, preferably
                                  within his or her own family situation, there are very significant differences
                                  amongst States and Territories as to how notifications are assessed and
                                  responded to.



                                Total confirmations have risen from 2090 to 2490 (19%) over the period 1999/00 to
                                2003/04. Over the same period Indigenous substantiations increased by 46%, with
                                non-Indigenous increasing by 13%. The overall 0 to 7 age group had the largest
                                growth in confirmations of 30%.




132   THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                               C H A P T E R 7 • SAFETY AND JUSTICE




CHILDREN IN ALTERNATIVE CARE


                        The data discussed in this section (and in tables 7.12 and 7.13) presents
                        information on the numbers of children in alternative care in two ways. Firstly,
                        children who are in an alternative care placement, which is supported by financial
                        payment from government, at a given point of time, i.e. 30th June. Secondly, the
                        number of children who had at least one alternative care placement (financially
                        supported by government) during the financial year.

                        Alternative care is one of a range of services provided to children, young people
                        and their families, who are in need of care and protection. This type of service
                        assists and supports children and young people in a variety of care arrangements
                        other than with their parents. These arrangements include foster care,
                        placements with relatives or kin, and residential care. In most cases, children in
                        alternative care will also be on a care and protection order of some kind.

                        Some children are placed in alternative care because they were the subject of a
                        child protection substantiation and require a more protective environment. Other
                        situations in which a child may be placed in alternative care include where
                        parents are incapable of providing adequate care for the child, or where there is
                        family conflict. Children and young people may be in alternative care placement
                        for a short period of time and then return to the care of their immediate family.
                        Other children and young people may be in alternative care over many years. The
                        increase in the alternative care population is likely to be influenced by the
                        increase in child protection reported to Children, Youth and Family Services.

                        Over the past five years, there has been a 13% increase in the population in
                        alternative care. The largest growth in alternative care placements has occurred
                        in the overall age group 0 to 7 years (23%). Table 7.12 provides detailed data.

                        Table 7.13 shows numbers of young people aged 0 to 17 who have had at least
                        one alternative care placement during the year. The data shows that overall,
                        numbers have fallen from 1300 to 1000, a decrease of 23%.


PERCEPTIONS OF SAFETY


                        People between the ages of 15 and 24 (with little difference between the age
                        groups of 15 to 19 and 20 to 24 years) had much the same perceptions of
                        personal safety as did the remainder of the adult population. The proportion that
                        felt safe or very unsafe at home alone during the day was 3% for persons aged
                        15-24, and 4% for persons aged 25 or over. Similarly, 11% of young people
                        (aged 15 to 24 years) felt unsafe or very unsafe at home along during the night,
                        compared to 12% of the remainder of the population. (Source: Crime and Safety
                        ABS Cat. No. 4509.0)




                        THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE            133
C H A P T E R 7 • SAFETY AND JUSTICE




 Tables 7.1 to 7.8 relate to police apprehensions. Source for this data is OCSAR/SAPOL

 Apprehension data: A note about comprehensiveness

      It is also important to note that because these statistics are derived from operational records, they are affected by
      changes to the criminal law or justice administration. For example, the number of young people apprehended for
      drug offences may change substantially if police devote more (or less) resources to enforcing drug laws.
      Changes to police recording practices also impact upon the statistics. In 1999, for example, a modification to
      SAPOL work practices altered the way in which certain driving related offences (notably licencing, motor
      registration and dangerous or reckless driving) were entered onto the database, with the result that more of these
      offences were counted than previously. It is therefore misleading to compare apprehension statistics post 1999
      with those recorded prior to 1999. Hence, the data focuses on apprehension trends from the financial years
      2000/01 to 2002/03.




 Table 7.1         Number of apprehensions per year 2000/01 to 2002/03 by sex


                              Age group and year                     Sex

                                                       Males       Females      Persons
                              2000/01
                                  10 to 14 years            2203          553         2756
                                  15 to 17 years            5797         1159         6956
                                  18 to 24 years           13821         2722        16543
                                  Total                    21821         4434        26255

                              2001/02
                                  10 to 14 years            1992          607         2599
                                  15 to 17 years            5106         1157         6263
                                  18 to 24 years           13775         2741        16516
                                  Total                    20873         4505        25378

                              2002/03
                                  10 to 14 years            2184          603         2787
                                  15 to 17 years            4961         1150         6111
                                  18 to 24 years           14603         2888        17491
                                  Total                    21748         4641        26389




134    THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                C H A P T E R 7 • SAFETY AND JUSTICE




Table 7.2          Number of apprehensions per year 2000/01 to 2002/03 by Indigenous status


                     Age group and year                  Indigenous status

                                               Indigenous            Non-      Unknown          Total
                                                               Indigenous
                     2000/01
                         10 to 14 years                654           1960           142          2756
                         15 to 17 years                725           5912           319          6956
                         18 to 24 years               1540          14133           870         16543
                         Total                        2919          22005          1331         26255

                     2001/02
                         10 to 14 years                773           1670           156          2599
                         15 to 17 years                867           5084           312          6263
                         18 to 24 years               1515          14047           954         16516
                         Total                        3155          20801          1422         25378

                     2002/03
                         10 to 14 years                883           1700           204          2787
                         15 to 17 years                985           4803           323          6111
                         18 to 24 years               1740          14769           982         17491
                         Total                        3608          21272          1509         26389


Note: Indigenous status is as recorded by the Police officer completing the Apprehension Report, based on appearance.




Table 7.3          Number of apprehensions per year 2000/01 to 2002/03 by offence type



     Persons
     Age group and year                                         Offence type

                                   Violent      Property        Against        Drugs        Driving        Other          Total
                                                             good order

     2000/01
         10 to 14 years                358           1604           505          152           120             17          2756
         15 to 17 years                852           2793          1454          587          1249             21          6956
         18 to 24 years               1762           3994          2775          489          7379            144         16543
         Total                        2972           8391          4734         1228          8748            182         26255

     2001/02
         10 to 14 years                305           1610           513            62           94             15          2599
         15 to 17 years                753           2740          1370           223         1157             20          6263
         18 to 24 years               1769           3690          2807           488         7659            103         16516
         Total                        2827           8040          4690           773         8910            138         25378

     2002/03
         10 to 14 years                376           1675           583            15          106             32          2787
         15 to 17 years                812           2530          1426            86         1184             73          6111
         18 to 24 years               1783           3714          3058           399         8250            287         17491
         Total                        2971           7919          5067           500         9540            392         26389




                                      THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                  135
C H A P T E R 7 • SAFETY AND JUSTICE




 Table 7.3a        Apprehensions in 2002/03 : Number of apprehensions by most serious charge and age group




  Offence                                                               Age group
  type
                                                                                                                           Total
                        10 to 14 years              15 to 17 years                  18 to 24 years                  10 to 24 years
                            No.              %          No.               %             No.                 %           No.                  %
  Violent                  376             13.5           812           13.3             1783             10.2           2971              11.3
  Property                1675             60.1          2530           41.4             3714             21.2           7919               30
  Good order               583             20.9          1426           23.3             3058             17.5           5067              19.2
  Drugs                     15              0.5            86            1.4              399              2.3            500               1.9
  Driving                  106              3.8          1184           19.4             8250             47.2           9540              36.2
  Other                     32              1.1           73             1.2              287              1.6            392               1.5

  All offences            2787             100           6111            100         17491                100        26389                 100




 Table 7.4         Apprehensions in 2002/03 : Number of apprehensions by most serious charge and age group
      (males)




  Males
  Age group and year                                            Offence type


                                 Violent      Property       Against           Drugs            Driving          Other             Total
                                                          good order

  2000/01
      10 to 14 years                265           1292            404            118               108             16              2203
       15 to 17 years               655           2292           1202            511              1119             18              5797
       18 to 24 years              1539           3176           2420            359              6231             96           13821
       Total                       2459           6760           4026            988              7458            130           21821

  2001/02
      10 to 14 years                223           1239            383               46              86             15              1992
       15 to 17 years               567           2209           1117            190              1006             17              5106
       18 to 24 years              1496           2933           2445            388              6429             84           13775
       Total                       2286           6381           3945            624              7521            116           20873

  2002/03
      10 to 14 years                278           1299            478               13              93             23              2184
       15 to 17 years               633           2004           1164             66              1035             59              4961
       18 to 24 years              1529           2962           2676            311              6901            224           14603
       Total                       2440           6265           4318            390              8029            306           21748



136    THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                       C H A P T E R 7 • SAFETY AND JUSTICE




Table 7.5       Apprehensions in 2002/03 : Number of apprehensions by most serious charge and age group
  (females)




Females
Age group and year                                  Offence type


                         Violent    Property       Against         Drugs       Driving       Other        Total
                                                good order

2000/01
    10 to 14 years           93         312           101             34           12           1          553
    15 to 17 years          197         501           252             76          130           3         1159
    18 to 24 years          223         818           355            130         1148          48         2722
    Total                   513        1631           708            240         1290          52         4434

2001/02
    10 to 14 years           82         371           130             16            8           0          607
    15 to 17 years          186         531           253             33          151           3         1157
    18 to 24 years          273         757           362            100         1230          19         2741
    Total                   541        1659           745            149         1389          22         4505

2002/03
    10 to 14 years           98         376           105              2           13           9          603
    15 to 17 years          179         526           262             20          149          14         1150
    18 to 24 years          254         752           382             88         1349          63         2888
    Total                   531        1654           749            110         1511          86         4641




Table 7.6    Apprehensions in 2002/03 : Number of apprehensions by most serious charge and age group
  (Indigenous)

  Indigenous
  Age group and year                                  Offence type

                          Violent    Property       Against          Drugs      Driving       Other            Total
                                                 good order

  2000/01
      10 to 14 years           88         373           172                7         12              2          654
      15 to 17 years          133         305           214             25           42              6          725
      18 to 24 years          307         486           406             13          267          61            1540
      Total                   528        1164           792             45          321          69            2919

  2001/02
      10 to 14 years           73         492           186             11               9           2          773
      15 to 17 years          132         411           263             16           40              5          867
      18 to 24 years          329         478           416             15          268              9         1515
      Total                   534        1381           865             42          317          16            3155

  2002/03
      10 to 14 years           98         496           245                5         21          18             883
      15 to 17 years          121         429           310             12           82          31             985
      18 to 24 years          303         463           404             17          368         185            1740
      Total                   522        1388           959             34          471         234            3608


                               THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE              137
C H A P T E R 7 • SAFETY AND JUSTICE




 Table 7.7       Apprehensions in 2002/03 : Number of apprehensions by most serious charge and age group
      (Non-Indigenous)




      Non-Indigenous
      Age group and year                                Offence type

                               Violent   Property      Against         Drugs   Driving   Other   Total
                                                    good order

      2000/01
          10 to 14 years          253        1157         313            129       96      12    1960
          15 to 17 years          705        2384        1166            527     1120      10    5912
          18 to 24 years         1425        3434        2297            467     6437      73    14133
          Total                  2383        6975        3776           1123     7653      95    22005

      2001/02
          10 to 14 years          219        1008         309             48       75      11    1670
          15 to 17 years          594        2229        1041            186     1020      14    5084
          18 to 24 years         1403        3130        2327            464     6636      87    14047
          Total                  2216        6367        3677            698     7731     112    20801

      2002/03
          10 to 14 years          259        1034         312             10       74      11    1700
          15 to 17 years          662        1973        1055             70     1008      35    4803
          18 to 24 years         1438        3153        2613            376     7094      95    14769
          Total                  2359        6160        3980            456     8176     141    21272




 Table 7.8       Apprehensions in 2002/03 : Number of apprehensions by most serious charge and age group
      (Indigenous status unknown)



      Indigenous   status
      unknown
      Age group and year                                Offence type

                               Violent   Property      Against         Drugs   Driving   Other    Total
                                                    good order

      2000/01
          10 to 14 years           17          74           20            16       12        3     142
          15 to 17 years           14         104           74            35       87        5     319
          18 to 24 years           30          74           72             9      675       10     870
          Total                    61         252          166            60      774       18    1331

      2001/02
          10 to 14 years           13         110           18             3       10        2     156
          15 to 17 years           27         100           66            21       97        1     312
          18 to 24 years           37          82           64             9      755        7     954
          Total                    77         292          148            33      862       10    1422

      2002/03
          10 to 14 years           19         145           26             0       11        3     204
          15 to 17 years           29         128           61             4       94        7     323
          18 to 24 years           42          98           41             6      788        7     982
          Total                    90         371          128            10      893       17    1509


138     THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                      C H A P T E R 7 • SAFETY AND JUSTICE




TABLE 7.9  VICTIMS OF ROBBERY AND ASSAULT – PREVALENCE RATES BY AGE GROUP, SOUTH
  AUSTRALIA AND AUSTRALIA, 2002


                     Age group                          Robbery                           Assault
                                                         SA           Aust             SA              Aust
                     15 - 19                             1.7           1.6             8.6              9.9
                     20 - 24                             1.1            1.9               6.7           8.1
                     25 and over                         1.6            2.0               0.4           1.4
                     Total                               1.7            2.0               4.5           3.9


                    Source: ABS Crime and Safety (Cat. No. 4509.0) and unpublished data




TABLE 7.10          SCREENED IN NOTIFICATIONS – CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT



Age (years)         Indigenous status                    1999/00        2000/01           2001/02       2002/03      2003/04
0 - 7 years         Aboriginal                               826            969              1065          1265         1471
                    Non - Aboriginal                           4109           4301              4598          5397     5913
                                             Total             4935           5270              5663          6662     7384
8 - 11 years        Aboriginal                                  452            414               508           641      677
                    Non - Aboriginal                           1875           1991              2302          2765     3046
                                             Total             2327           2405              2810          3406     3723
12 - 17 years       Aboriginal                                  283            290               323           438      538
                    Non - Aboriginal                           1777           1854              2163          2671     2989
                                             Total             2060           2144              2486          3109     3527
Unknown             Aboriginal                                   30             19                30            31       39
                    Non - Aboriginal                           239            148               213           229       241
                                             Total              269            167               243           260      280
Total               Aboriginal                                 1591           1692              1926          2377     2725
                    Non - Aboriginal                           8000           8296              9277      11066       12192
                                             Total             9591           9988          11203         13443       14917




Source: Department for Families and Communities (Children, Youth and Family Services Branch)




                                         THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE                     139
C H A P T E R 7 • SAFETY AND JUSTICE




 TABLE 7.11          CONFIRMATIONS – CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT


Age (years)          Indigenous status                    1999/00        2000/01         2001/02       2002/03   2003/04
0 - 7 years          Aboriginal                               252            272             277           278       382
                     Non - Aboriginal                          841            818               925      1062      1038
                                              Total          1093            1090           1202         1340      1420
8 - 11 years         Aboriginal                               108              98            135          130       156
                     Non - Aboriginal                          425            418               446       501       419
                                              Total            533            516               581       631       575
12 - 17 years        Aboriginal                                 72             67                69        72        92
                     Non - Aboriginal                          375            317               364       377       391
                                              Total            447            384               433       449       483
Unknown              Aboriginal                                  3              1                 2         1         3
                     Non - Aboriginal                             9              8               12         2         9
                                              Total             12              9                14         3        12
Total                Aboriginal                                435            438               483       481       633
                     Non - Aboriginal                        1650            1561           1747         1942      1857
                                              Total          2085            1999           2230         2423      2490



 Source: Department for Families and Communities (Children, Youth and Family Services Branch)




 TABLE 7.12          CHILDREN IN ALTERNATIVE CARE AS AT 30th JUNE




 Age (years)          Indigenous status                    1999/00         2000/01        2001/02      2002/03   2003/04
 0 - 7 years          Aboriginal                                81              90             98          100        91
                      Non - Aboriginal                          278            288              262        320       351
                                               Total            359            378              360        420       442
 8 - 11 years         Aboriginal                                 63             63               54         67        66
                      Non - Aboriginal                          220            248              246        243       244
                                               Total            283            311              300        310       310
 12 - 17 years        Aboriginal                                 66             71               78         83        80
                      Non - Aboriginal                          358            377              421        395       368
                                               Total            424            448              499        478       448
 Total                Aboriginal                                210            224              230        250       237
                      Non - Aboriginal                          856            913              929        958       963
                                               Total           1066           1137              1159      1208      1200




 Source: Department for Families and Communities (Children, Youth and Family Services Branch)




140     THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                    C H A P T E R 7 • SAFETY AND JUSTICE




TABLE 7.13        CHILDREN WHO HAVE HAD AT LEAST ONE ALTERNATIVE CARE PLACEMENT



Age (years)         Indigenous status                    1999/00        2000/01         2001/02    2002/03   2003/04
0 - 7 years         Aboriginal                               150            153             150        126       115
                    Non - Aboriginal                          528            467             370      379       347
                                            Total             678            620             520      505       462
8 - 11 years        Aboriginal                                 52             41              49       58        47
                    Non - Aboriginal                          215            206             176      181       152
                                            Total             267            247             225      239       199
12 - 17 years       Aboriginal                                 52             66              53       66        53
                    Non - Aboriginal                          304            328             336      281       289
                                            Total             356            394             389      347       342
Total               Aboriginal                                254            260             252      250       215
                    Non - Aboriginal                        1047            1001             882      841       788
                                            Total           1301            1261           1134      1091      1003



   Source: Department for Families and Communities (Children, Youth and Family Services Branch)




                                       THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE              141
             LIST OF TABLES


POPULATION
             1.1   Age structure - children and young people:
                   South Australia: 1993 to 2023                                           10
             1.2   Age structure - children and young people:
                    Australia: 1993 to 2003                                                11
             1.3   Natural increase in population
                   South Australia, 1991-92 to 2002-03                                     12
             1.4   Net overseas migration:
                   South Australia, 1991-92 to 2002-03                                     12
             1.5   Interstate migration:
                   South Australia by age group, 1991-92 to 2002-03                        13
             1.6   Estimated resident Indigenous population,
                   age groups by sex, South Australia:
                   at June 1991, 1996 and 2001                                             14
             1.7   Language spoken at home, South Australia:
                   persons under 25 by age group,
                   1991 and 2001 censuses                                                  15
             1.8   New arrivals from overseas (arrived 1996-2001),
                   South Australia: persons aged 0-24 by age group,
                   2001 population census                                                  16


HEALTH
             2.1   Four key health risk factors,
                   Number and proportion of persons aged 18-24,
                   South Australia and Australia, 2001                                     35
             2.2   Top 10 conditions contributing to premature mortality - years
                   of life lost (YLL) and rate per 1,000, age and sex,
                   average 1999-2001 68                                                    36
             2.3   Top 10 conditions contributing to loss of healthy years of life (YLD)
                   due to disability caused by illness or injury - healthy years of life
                   lost (YLD) and rate per 1,000, age and sex, average 1999-2001           37
             2.4   Pregnancy outcomes, age of mother less than 25 years,
                   South Australia, 1999 to 2003                                           38
             2.5   Infant deaths and infant mortality rates, states/territories
                   and Australia, 1998-99 to 2002-03                                       39
             2.6   Number of SA hospital separations for selected procedures and
                   conditions, by age group, 1998-99 to 2002-03                            40
             2.7   Standardised rate ratio (SRR) of SA hospital separations for
                   selected procedures and conditions, by age group,
                   1998-99 to 2002-03                                                      42
             2.8   Drug and alcohol use among South Australian school students
                   aged 12-17, 1996, 1999 and 2002                                         44




                                                    THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION: A PROFILE   142
                                                                                                  LIST OF TABLES




EDUCATION AND TRAINNG
                        3.1   School enrolments (FTE), South Australia, by level of education
                              and category of school, 1999 to 2003                                    58
                        3.2   School enrolments (FTE), South Australia, metropolitan/country,
                              by category of school, 1999 to 2003                                     59
                        3.3   School enrolments (FTE), South Australia, by age,
                              1999, 2001 and 2003                                                     60
                        3.4   Apparent retention rates - year 7/8 to year 12, states and Australia,
                              full-time, full-time equivalent and persons, 1999 to 2003               61
                        3.5   Indigenous students: apparent retention rates (FTE),
                              South Australia, government schools, 1999 to 2003                       62
                        3.6   DECS state test mean scores, all students and Indigenous students,
                              South Australia, 1999 to 2003                                           62
                        3.7   Main destination (primary activity) of SA school leavers, May survey,
                              1999 to 2003                                                            63
                        3.8   Higher education enrolments, students aged under 25 years
                              (by single year of age), full-time and part-time status,
                              South Australia, 1999 to 2004                                           64
                        3.9   Higher education enrolments, Indigenous students aged under
                              25 years (by single year of age), full-time and part-time status,
                              South Australia, 1999 to 2004                                           65
                        3.10 Vocational education and training (VET) enrolments - total
                              and Indigenous, South Australia, 1999 to 2003                           66
                        3.11 Overseas student enrolments in South Australia and Australia
                              by education sector, 2002 and 2003                                      67
                        3.12 Overseas student enrolments in South Australia and Australia
                              by country of citizenship, 2002 and 2003                                68
                        3.13 Number of children and young people by age group by
                              internet usage (in the week prior to census night), 2001                69
                        3.14 Proportion of children and young people by age group by internet
                              usage (in the week prior to census night), 2001                         70


LABOUR FORCE
                        4.1   Young employed persons, South Australia, by ft/pt status,
                              1998-99 to 2003-04                                                      80
                        4.2   Young persons who are unemployed and seeking full-time work,
                              South Australia, 1998-99 to 2003-04                                     81
                        4.3   Number of employed Indigenous persons aged 15-24
                              by employment sector, by weekly hours worked,
                              South Australia, 2001 population census                                 82
                        4.4   Top twenty occupation groups (ranked), employed persons
                              aged 15-19 years, South Australia, 2001 population census               83
                        4.5   Top twenty occupation groups (ranked), employed persons
                              aged 20-24 years, South Australia, 2001 population census               84
                        4.6   Top twenty industry groups (ranked), employed persons
                              aged 15-19 years, South Australia, 2001 population census               85
                        4.7   Top twenty industry groups (ranked), employed persons
                              aged 20-24 years, South Australia, 2001 population census               86


                                             CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE       143
LIST    OF   TABLES




                               4.8   Proportion of children aged less than 15 in families with
                                     no employed parent, South Australia and Australia, 1998 to 2002       87




LIVING ARRANGEMENTS AND HOUSING


                               5.1   Living arrangements: number of children under 15 years
                                     enumerated in occupied private dwellings by family type,
                                     South Australia, 2001 population census                              100
                               5.2   Number of children under 15 years enumerated in non-private
                                     dwellings by type of non-private dwelling, South Australia,
                                     2001 population census                                               100
                               5.3   Living arrangements: number of young people aged 15-24 years
                                     by family type and relationship within household, South Australia,
                                     2001 population census                                               101
                               5.4   Number of young people aged 15-24 years enumerated in
                                     non-private dwellings by type of non-private dwelling,
                                     South Australia, 2001 population census                              102
                               5.5   Children and young people in parental home: family type,
                                     dwelling tenure, South Australia, 2001 population census             103
                               5.6   Young people aged 15-24 years who have left the parental home,
                                     selected groups, dwelling tenure, South Australia,
                                     2001 population census                                               103
                               5.7 Proportion of children and young people living in households
                                     with no motor vehicle, age groups, South Australia,
                                     2001 population census                                               104
                               5.8 Children aged under 15 years in the parental home:
                                     Indigenous status, dwelling tenure, South Australia,
                                     2001 population census                                               104
                               5.9 Young people aged 15-24 years living independently –
                                     Indigenous status, dwelling tenure, South Australia,
                                     2001 population census                                               105
                               5.10 Overcrowding in households with children, South Australia,
                                     2001 population census                                               106


INCOME
                               6.1   Children aged under 15 years – weekly family income
                                     by family type, South Australia, 2001 population census              116
                               6.2   Children aged under 15 years - number and proportion
                                     in families where weekly family income is less than $600
                                     per week, States and Australia, 2001 population census               116
                               6.3   Children aged under 15 years - weekly family income by
                                     Indigenous status, South Australia, 2001 population census           117
                               6.4   Young people aged 15-24 years living in the parental home –
                                     weekly family income by family type, South Australia,
                                     2001 population census                                               118




144    THE CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE
                                                                                              LIST OF TABLES




                     6.5   Young people aged 15-24 years living in the parental home –
                           individual weekly income by student status, South Australia,
                           2001 population census                                              118
                     6.6   Young people aged 15-24 years living independently –
                           individual weekly income by employment status,
                           South Australia, 2001 population census                             119
                     6.7   Household financial stress indicators, households with dependent
                           children, South Australia and Australia, 2002                       120


SAFETY AND JUSTICE


                     7.1   Number of apprehensions per year 2000/01 to 2002/03
                           by sex                                                              134
                     7.2   Number of apprehensions per year 2000/01 to 2002/03
                           by Indigenous status                                                135
                     7.3   Number of apprehensions per year, 2002/03 by offence type           135
                     7.3a Number of apprehensions, 2002/03
                           by most serious charge and age group                                136
                     7.4   Number of apprehensions per year, 2002/03
                           by most serious charge and age group (males)                        136
                     7.5   Number of apprehensions per year, 2002/03
                           by most serious charge and age group (females)                      137
                     7.6   Number of apprehensions, 2002/03
                           by most serious charge and age group (Indigenous)                   137
                     7.7   Number of apprehensions, 2002/03
                           by most serious charge and age group (non-Indigenous)               138
                     7.8   Number of apprehensions per year, 2002/03 by most serious charge
                           and age group (Indigenous status not known)                         138
                     7.9   Victims of robbery and assault – prevalence rates by age group,
                           South Australia and Australia, 2002                                 139
                     7.10 Screened in notifications – child abuse and neglect                  139
                     7.11 Confirmations – child abuse and neglect                              140
                     7.12 Children in alternative care as at 30th June                         140
                     7.13 Children who have had at least one alternative care placement        141




                                          CHILD AND YOUTH POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A PROFILE      145

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:59
posted:1/18/2012
language:English
pages:151