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comparative sociology week 18 .ppt - Find

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									Comparing welfare systems



         Week 18
    Comparative Sociology
                           Notices
• Reading for next week is:

• Parkhurst J (2005) 'Health system factors influencing maternal
  health services: a four country comparison' Health Policy 73 (2) 127-
  138


• Key Reading for week 21 is only now available
  by hard copy. An alternative is:

• Joppke C (1999) ‘How immigration is changing
  citizenship: a comparative view’ Ethnic and Racial
  Studies 22 (4) 629–652
                  Recap
• Looked at the different models of
  capitalism

• Considered theories that nation-states
  have particular cultures

• Look at the idea of culture-clash
                     Outline
• What are welfare systems?

• ‘Three worlds of welfare capitalism’
     • Liberal
     • Conservative
     • Social democratic


• The case of lone-motherhood
    What are welfare systems
• The provision that nation-states make for
  those that are unable to care for
  themselves:
       –   Sickness
       –   Old-age
       –   Housing
       –   Education
       –   Unemployment


• A contract between governments and
  peoples- (citizenship)
        Early welfare systems
• Prior to 19th century largely individual
  benefactors and religious organisations –local
  provision
• Rise of industrialization
• Fears of social disorder led to new forms of
  provision
  – 1834 Poor Law in the UK
  – Bismarck Social Insurance in Germany
• Fears of ‘race’ degeneration and rise of
  eugenics
              1834 Poor Law
•   Provision for paupers – ‘indoor relief’
•   Setting up of Workhouses
•   Stigma
•   ‘Respectable poor’ could be entitled to
    outdoor relief
    Bismarck Social Insurance
• Compulsory insurance for workers
     •   Sickness
     •   Accidents
     •   Old age
     •   Invalidity
• Contributory scheme
  – Initially contributions only form
    workers
  – Later state contributions added
• Widely copied over Europe
            Welfare Capitalism
• Following the second world war many
  western states expanded or developed
  their welfare systems
• UK Beveridge Report identified five giants
  to be eliminated
     •   Disease
     •   Ignorance
     •   Squalor
     •   Idleness
     •   Want
         Welfare Questions
• To what extent are the ‘poor’ responsible
  for their poverty?

• Does welfare create dependency?

• Who should be entitled to welfare
  provision?
           Welfare Questions
• Discuss with the person sitting next to you:
  the questions of welfare

     • To what extent are the ‘poor’ responsible for their
       poverty?

     • Does welfare provision create dependency?

     • Who should be entitled to welfare provision?
              ‘Three worlds’
• Esping-Anderson identified three ideal types of
  welfare capitalism

  – Liberal
  – Conservative
  – Social Democratic


• These relate to wider ideas in nation-states
  about the economy, equality and the family
                  Liberal
• Related to liberal ideas about the economy
  – Individualism
  – Modest social insurance
  – Means-tested benefits
  – Minimum entitlement
  – Stigma


• The US, Australia and UK
      Liberal welfare reform


• Does reducing welfare end dependency or
  make poverty worse?
                  Corporatist
• Family-based entitlement
  – Less emphasis on the market
  – Rights are related to class and status
     • Occupational benefits
     • Emphasis on breadwinners
  – Basic provision – but no redistribution of income
  – Traditional family structures preserved


• France, Germany, Italy
            Promoting Gender/
            Racial Inequality?
•   Security of main breadwinner
    – Inadequate provision for women & minority-
      ethnic groups who have a less secure
      relationship to labour market
•   Minimum services for
    children, elderly, less-abled
    – Assumption of women as carers
         Social Democratic
• Aim to promote equality through social
  programmes
  – Universal benefits
  – Comprehensive benefits
  – High standards not minimum needs


• Sweden, Norway, Denmark
                High Cost
• High taxation rates to pay for universal
  benefits

• Based on near full-employment

• Economic changes have forced cuts in
  benefits
• Discuss these three different models of
  welfare. Which system do you think is the
  best overall?
    Support for Lone Mothers
• Liberal
  – Stigmatised as ‘welfare queens’ or
    ‘scroungers’
  – Drain on public funds
  – Benefits minimum
     • To prevent lone motherhood
     • Emphasis on finding work
     • Making fathers pay
        – Child Support Agency UK
                  Corporatist
• Breadwinner model of social insurance does not
  adapt easily to other family forms
   – Compulsory maintenance payments from fathers in
     Germany
• Lone mothers have to rely on lower paying
  ‘assistance’ benefits rather than ‘insurance’
  benefits
• Minimum provision of childcare
• Lone motherhood a ‘risk’ but not
  deviant
          Social Democratic
• Women as citizen-workers
  – Generous state support
  – Childcare easily available
  – Parental leave schemes


• Lone motherhood not stigmatized

• No obligation to ‘name’ father
           Different models


• Discuss with the person sitting next to you
  the advantages and disadvantages of
  each welfare model in relation to lone
  motherhood.
        Cultural Assumptions
• Liberal and Corporatists models see women
  primarily as mothers rather than workers
  – Dependency should be on men rather than the state


• Social Democratic models see women as
  workers
  – Lone parenthood per se not an issue, but family-
    friendly models needed to ensure women can
    participate in the labour market
              Summary
• Considered the development of welfare
  systems

• Looked at Esping-Anderson’s three
  different models

• Shown how capitalism and culture shape
  welfare provision.
               Next week
• Looking at healthcare systems

• Relating this to the models of welfare
  outlined today

• Continuing to consider the role of capital
  and culture

								
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