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comparative sociology week 18 .ppt - Find


									Comparing welfare systems

         Week 18
    Comparative Sociology
• Reading for next week is:

• Parkhurst J (2005) 'Health system factors influencing maternal
  health services: a four country comparison' Health Policy 73 (2) 127-

• Key Reading for week 21 is only now available
  by hard copy. An alternative is:

• Joppke C (1999) ‘How immigration is changing
  citizenship: a comparative view’ Ethnic and Racial
  Studies 22 (4) 629–652
• Looked at the different models of

• Considered theories that nation-states
  have particular cultures

• Look at the idea of culture-clash
• What are welfare systems?

• ‘Three worlds of welfare capitalism’
     • Liberal
     • Conservative
     • Social democratic

• The case of lone-motherhood
    What are welfare systems
• The provision that nation-states make for
  those that are unable to care for
       –   Sickness
       –   Old-age
       –   Housing
       –   Education
       –   Unemployment

• A contract between governments and
  peoples- (citizenship)
        Early welfare systems
• Prior to 19th century largely individual
  benefactors and religious organisations –local
• Rise of industrialization
• Fears of social disorder led to new forms of
  – 1834 Poor Law in the UK
  – Bismarck Social Insurance in Germany
• Fears of ‘race’ degeneration and rise of
              1834 Poor Law
•   Provision for paupers – ‘indoor relief’
•   Setting up of Workhouses
•   Stigma
•   ‘Respectable poor’ could be entitled to
    outdoor relief
    Bismarck Social Insurance
• Compulsory insurance for workers
     •   Sickness
     •   Accidents
     •   Old age
     •   Invalidity
• Contributory scheme
  – Initially contributions only form
  – Later state contributions added
• Widely copied over Europe
            Welfare Capitalism
• Following the second world war many
  western states expanded or developed
  their welfare systems
• UK Beveridge Report identified five giants
  to be eliminated
     •   Disease
     •   Ignorance
     •   Squalor
     •   Idleness
     •   Want
         Welfare Questions
• To what extent are the ‘poor’ responsible
  for their poverty?

• Does welfare create dependency?

• Who should be entitled to welfare
           Welfare Questions
• Discuss with the person sitting next to you:
  the questions of welfare

     • To what extent are the ‘poor’ responsible for their

     • Does welfare provision create dependency?

     • Who should be entitled to welfare provision?
              ‘Three worlds’
• Esping-Anderson identified three ideal types of
  welfare capitalism

  – Liberal
  – Conservative
  – Social Democratic

• These relate to wider ideas in nation-states
  about the economy, equality and the family
• Related to liberal ideas about the economy
  – Individualism
  – Modest social insurance
  – Means-tested benefits
  – Minimum entitlement
  – Stigma

• The US, Australia and UK
      Liberal welfare reform

• Does reducing welfare end dependency or
  make poverty worse?
• Family-based entitlement
  – Less emphasis on the market
  – Rights are related to class and status
     • Occupational benefits
     • Emphasis on breadwinners
  – Basic provision – but no redistribution of income
  – Traditional family structures preserved

• France, Germany, Italy
            Promoting Gender/
            Racial Inequality?
•   Security of main breadwinner
    – Inadequate provision for women & minority-
      ethnic groups who have a less secure
      relationship to labour market
•   Minimum services for
    children, elderly, less-abled
    – Assumption of women as carers
         Social Democratic
• Aim to promote equality through social
  – Universal benefits
  – Comprehensive benefits
  – High standards not minimum needs

• Sweden, Norway, Denmark
                High Cost
• High taxation rates to pay for universal

• Based on near full-employment

• Economic changes have forced cuts in
• Discuss these three different models of
  welfare. Which system do you think is the
  best overall?
    Support for Lone Mothers
• Liberal
  – Stigmatised as ‘welfare queens’ or
  – Drain on public funds
  – Benefits minimum
     • To prevent lone motherhood
     • Emphasis on finding work
     • Making fathers pay
        – Child Support Agency UK
• Breadwinner model of social insurance does not
  adapt easily to other family forms
   – Compulsory maintenance payments from fathers in
• Lone mothers have to rely on lower paying
  ‘assistance’ benefits rather than ‘insurance’
• Minimum provision of childcare
• Lone motherhood a ‘risk’ but not
          Social Democratic
• Women as citizen-workers
  – Generous state support
  – Childcare easily available
  – Parental leave schemes

• Lone motherhood not stigmatized

• No obligation to ‘name’ father
           Different models

• Discuss with the person sitting next to you
  the advantages and disadvantages of
  each welfare model in relation to lone
        Cultural Assumptions
• Liberal and Corporatists models see women
  primarily as mothers rather than workers
  – Dependency should be on men rather than the state

• Social Democratic models see women as
  – Lone parenthood per se not an issue, but family-
    friendly models needed to ensure women can
    participate in the labour market
• Considered the development of welfare

• Looked at Esping-Anderson’s three
  different models

• Shown how capitalism and culture shape
  welfare provision.
               Next week
• Looking at healthcare systems

• Relating this to the models of welfare
  outlined today

• Continuing to consider the role of capital
  and culture

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