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Comparing welfare systems Week 18 Comparative Sociology Notices • Reading for next week is: • Parkhurst J (2005) 'Health system factors influencing maternal health services: a four country comparison' Health Policy 73 (2) 127- 138 • Key Reading for week 21 is only now available by hard copy. An alternative is: • Joppke C (1999) ‘How immigration is changing citizenship: a comparative view’ Ethnic and Racial Studies 22 (4) 629–652 Recap • Looked at the different models of capitalism • Considered theories that nation-states have particular cultures • Look at the idea of culture-clash Outline • What are welfare systems? • ‘Three worlds of welfare capitalism’ • Liberal • Conservative • Social democratic • The case of lone-motherhood What are welfare systems • The provision that nation-states make for those that are unable to care for themselves: – Sickness – Old-age – Housing – Education – Unemployment • A contract between governments and peoples- (citizenship) Early welfare systems • Prior to 19th century largely individual benefactors and religious organisations –local provision • Rise of industrialization • Fears of social disorder led to new forms of provision – 1834 Poor Law in the UK – Bismarck Social Insurance in Germany • Fears of ‘race’ degeneration and rise of eugenics 1834 Poor Law • Provision for paupers – ‘indoor relief’ • Setting up of Workhouses • Stigma • ‘Respectable poor’ could be entitled to outdoor relief Bismarck Social Insurance • Compulsory insurance for workers • Sickness • Accidents • Old age • Invalidity • Contributory scheme – Initially contributions only form workers – Later state contributions added • Widely copied over Europe Welfare Capitalism • Following the second world war many western states expanded or developed their welfare systems • UK Beveridge Report identified five giants to be eliminated • Disease • Ignorance • Squalor • Idleness • Want Welfare Questions • To what extent are the ‘poor’ responsible for their poverty? • Does welfare create dependency? • Who should be entitled to welfare provision? Welfare Questions • Discuss with the person sitting next to you: the questions of welfare • To what extent are the ‘poor’ responsible for their poverty? • Does welfare provision create dependency? • Who should be entitled to welfare provision? ‘Three worlds’ • Esping-Anderson identified three ideal types of welfare capitalism – Liberal – Conservative – Social Democratic • These relate to wider ideas in nation-states about the economy, equality and the family Liberal • Related to liberal ideas about the economy – Individualism – Modest social insurance – Means-tested benefits – Minimum entitlement – Stigma • The US, Australia and UK Liberal welfare reform • Does reducing welfare end dependency or make poverty worse? Corporatist • Family-based entitlement – Less emphasis on the market – Rights are related to class and status • Occupational benefits • Emphasis on breadwinners – Basic provision – but no redistribution of income – Traditional family structures preserved • France, Germany, Italy Promoting Gender/ Racial Inequality? • Security of main breadwinner – Inadequate provision for women & minority- ethnic groups who have a less secure relationship to labour market • Minimum services for children, elderly, less-abled – Assumption of women as carers Social Democratic • Aim to promote equality through social programmes – Universal benefits – Comprehensive benefits – High standards not minimum needs • Sweden, Norway, Denmark High Cost • High taxation rates to pay for universal benefits • Based on near full-employment • Economic changes have forced cuts in benefits • Discuss these three different models of welfare. Which system do you think is the best overall? Support for Lone Mothers • Liberal – Stigmatised as ‘welfare queens’ or ‘scroungers’ – Drain on public funds – Benefits minimum • To prevent lone motherhood • Emphasis on finding work • Making fathers pay – Child Support Agency UK Corporatist • Breadwinner model of social insurance does not adapt easily to other family forms – Compulsory maintenance payments from fathers in Germany • Lone mothers have to rely on lower paying ‘assistance’ benefits rather than ‘insurance’ benefits • Minimum provision of childcare • Lone motherhood a ‘risk’ but not deviant Social Democratic • Women as citizen-workers – Generous state support – Childcare easily available – Parental leave schemes • Lone motherhood not stigmatized • No obligation to ‘name’ father Different models • Discuss with the person sitting next to you the advantages and disadvantages of each welfare model in relation to lone motherhood. Cultural Assumptions • Liberal and Corporatists models see women primarily as mothers rather than workers – Dependency should be on men rather than the state • Social Democratic models see women as workers – Lone parenthood per se not an issue, but family- friendly models needed to ensure women can participate in the labour market Summary • Considered the development of welfare systems • Looked at Esping-Anderson’s three different models • Shown how capitalism and culture shape welfare provision. Next week • Looking at healthcare systems • Relating this to the models of welfare outlined today • Continuing to consider the role of capital and culture
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