Cats by ewghwehws


									Small Animal
Cats- Unit F
Competency 15.00

   Use information specific to each
  breed to choose the best cat for a
             given use.
         Cat Breeds
• Differ in color, patterns, length of
  hair, shape and length of ears, shape
  and color of eyes, head shape, body
  conformation, size, and disposition

• For our discussions we will focus on
  the two major types of hair:
  – Shorthaired Breeds
  – Longhaired Breeds
Objective 15.01
  • Describe major shorthaired and
    longhaired breeds of cats

      Pictures courtesy of Google Images
Shorthair Breeds
• Ruddy (orange-brown), red and blue,
  all ticked with darker colors at tips of
  each hair
• Medium sized
  – Muscular cat
• Almond shaped eyes
• Very active
  – Fond of water
  – Can be taught to retrieve
  American Shorthair
    (Domestic Shorthair)

• Came to US with English settlers
• 34 recognized color patterns
  – tabby is the most common color
• Medium to large sized
• Affectionate
  – makes great lap cat
American Shorthair
 (Domestic Shorthair)
     Bombay (1958)
• Relatively new breed resulting from
  Burmese x American Shorthair
  – Medium sized cat
  – Jet black
  – Copper or gold colored eyes
• Disposition
  – Graceful, charming, and get along well
    with others, even strangers
      British Shorthair
• Oldest Natural English breed
  –   Larger and taller than American Shorthair
  –   Large rounded head
  –   Big, round copper or gold eyes
  –   Quiet, easy going, docile nature
       • likes to sleep a lot
British Shorthair
• Originated in the Unites States
• 1930’s
• Cross between Siamese x Burma
  – Medium-sized
  – Sable-brown in color with gold eyes
  – Good disposition, enjoy being held
     • Can become bossy, stubborn, and
         Cornish Rex
• Small to medium size
• Oval eyes and curves or rippling hair
• Must be kept indoors
  – lacks guard hairs to protect it from the
Cornish Rex
         Devon Rex
• Resulted from feral (wild) domestic
  cat x cared-for stray
  – Medium sized cat with wavy hair coat
  – Large, wide-based ears are set low and
    distinctive to this breed
Devon Rex
     Japanese Bobtail
• Known for calico (tortoiseshell or 3
  – Calico is some shade of black, orange
    (red), and white.
• Distinctive short (bob) tail
  – Is kinked to form a “pom” or “bunny tail”
• The tail is sensitive
  – Care must be taken to prevent injury and
    pain when handling the cat
Japanese Bobtail
• Highly prized, rare cat of Thailand
  – Protective of family members, and
    reserved with strangers
• Medium-sized cat
  – Silver blue fur tipped with silver
     • Produces a halo effect
• Among earliest European breeds
  – result of a genetic mutation
• Medium-sized
  – affectionate cat
  – tends to be better in one-to-one relationships
• The BEST show Manx cats do not have a tail
  – others have a short tail (stumpy)
  – some have a long tail (longy)
• Known for one-on-one devotion to
  one person
• Eye color is always deep blue
• Head forms an equilateral triangle
  from the nose to the tips of the ears
  – Very little pigmentation in color pattern
  – Pigmentation is darker at the points
  – Color is restricted to the points: mask,
    ear, foot and tip of tail
• Medium-sized
   – very long and refined
• Siamese cats are very unpredictable;
  however, they are described as talkative,
• Fearless cats of extraordinary intelligence.
• Siamese cats are particularly sensitive to
  vaccinations and anesthetics
•   Small breed
•   Known for its’ quiet, shy disposition
•   Males weigh at most 6 pounds
•   Females usually weigh less than 4
Crossed with Abyssinian recessive
carriers for long hair
Friendly, affectionate, prefers company,
playful, very active
medium size
usually orange-brown ticked with black
or red ticked with brown coat
gold or green eyes
     Snowshoe Breed
• Medium to large size
   – Similar to American Shorthair
      • white feet
   – Bright blue eyes are large, oval
   – Ears are large and broad at base
   – Wedgeshaped head
• The mask, tail, ears, and legs are usually
  defined seal or blue with the masking colors
  covering the entire face, except for inverted
  white V-shaped pattern over mouth and
Snowshoe Breed
• Canadian origin in the late 1960’s
• Known for its tough, wrinkled hairless skin
• Indoor cat
  – cannot survive outdoors
  – depends upon people for survival
  – Constantly purrs
• Adores body contact and is very affectionate
• Normal body temperature is 4°F higher than
  most other breeds
  – unable to store body fat
  – must eat more frequently to maintain its body
Longhair Breeds
Balinese and Javanese
•   Body style of Siamese, but long hair
•   Warm
•   Vocal
•   Persistent
•   Eyes are deep vivid blue
Balinese and Javanese
• Sturdy cat of medium to large size
• Long, silky coat that does not mat
  – requires little care
• Very sociable
  – needs the company of others
• White paws - trait
  – Eyes are round
  – Ears are medium with rounded tips
     Longhaired Manx
• Alert and sweet natured
• Excellent with other pets and children
• Large cat that is tailless
Cymric Longhaired Manx
Himalayan and Kashmir
•   (Siamese x Persian x Birman)
•   Medium to large size
•   Persian type cat
•   Long, flowing hair coat with Siamese
Himalayan and Kashmir
         Maine Coon
• Oldest natural breed in North America
  – native American origin
• Large-sized
  – reaches 12 -18 pounds
• Brown tabby is the best known color
• Lovable and friendly
  – has a tiny voice that squeaks and chirps
Maine Coon
• One of the oldest and most popular breeds
• Medium to large size
   – short, compact body
   – large head
   – small rounded ears
• Well mannered
   – easy going
   – quiet cats
• Make good apartment cats and excellent companions
• Require daily grooming
   – removes and knots
• Requires regular bathing
   – removes excess oil from the coat
• Originated in the US during the
• Exceptionally large
• Heavy breed
• Blue eyes
• Docile, quiet, and composed
  – named because they show little signs of
    fear or pain
  – take a floppy posture when handled
• Himalayan x Burmese
• Medium size
• Oriental style
  – essentially a long-haired Burmese
• Follows owner like a puppy
• Few exist in the United States
      Turkish Angora
• Small to medium-sized cat
• Polite
• Intelligent
  – very responsive
  – easily trained to perform tricks
• Prefers a clean, almost spotless
Turkish Angora
Objective 15.02
  • Select a cat based on qualifying
  Selecting a Pet Cat
          The Cat vs. The Dog

• Requires less care
  – independent nature
• Lower feeding cost
  – smaller
• Initial purchase price is less
 Qualities to consider
• Adult cats are better for elderly or
  busy owners
• Kittens adapt quickly
• Females reach sexual maturity at 5
  – estrus cycle every three weeks
• Friendly affectionate pets
  – “they don’t usually kill or injure small
 Qualities to consider
• Pedigree animals have certain
  – most cats are mixed breeds
• Long haired breeds require frequent
  – require air conditioned facilities
• Mixed breeds are cheaper to
Choosing a healthy cat
1. Look for signs of health
  –   Pale pink gums
  –   White teeth
  –   Nose should be cool and slightly damp
  –   Clean glossy coat
  –   Free of mats
Proper teeth cleaning can prevent
the absorption of toxins and
bacteria present in the mouth
which can damage internal organs.
Most veterinarians can clean teeth and
 do so regularly for most cat owners
Choosing a healthy cat
2. Look for signs of illness
  – Discharge from the eyes or nose
  – Buildup of wax in the ears
     • ear mites
  – External Parasites
     • Fleas
  – Internal Parasites
     • Potbellied cats may indicate worm
 Competency 16.00

Use techniques that improve the
       well being of cats.
Objective 16.01
  • Discuss grooming practices for cats
        Grooming Cats
• Removes old and dead hair
• Provides opportunity to check for:
  –   Parasites
  –   Skin disorders
  –   Eye problems
  –   Ear problems
       Longhaired Cats
• Need daily care to keep free of tangles and
• Equipment
  –   Combs
  –   Blunt end scissors
  –   Nail clippers
  –   Grooming brush
  –   Grooming powder
Grooming Longhaired Cats
 • Procedures for longhair cats
   – 1st-Use a wide tooth comb for animal
   – 2nd- Use a small toothed comb
   – Once all tangles are out, brush hair in
     opposite direction of growth occasionally
     and sprinkle grooming powder
      • This removes old hair and reduces
   – Check for parasites, skin disorders, eye
     and ear problems
  Longhair Grooming
• Comb with two sizes of teeth (fine
  toothed and a flea comb).
• Nail Clippers
• Grooming brush natural bristles
  (nylon causes static)
• Grooming powder such as baby
  powder, talcum, or cornstarch.
    Shorthair Grooming
•   Rubber grooming brush
•   Fine-toothed/ flea comb
•   Soft chamois, silk, nylon pad
•   Rubber grooming brush
    – Avoid removing good hair
Flea Combs
       Bathing Cats
1. Start bathing as early as 4 months
2. Avoid splashing or running water when cat
   is present
3. Use ~4 inches of warm water
4. Gently lower cat into the water until the
   entire cat is wet
5. Keep water our of eyes and ears
6. Apply a baby shampoo to the wet coat,
   lather and rinse
   • Medicated shampoo for fleas
7. Towel dry or use a hairdryer
     Other Grooming
• Check teeth and gums
  – Dry food helps to clean the teeth
• Check for ear mites
  – Dark, crumbly wax indicates mites
  – Use ear drops to treat
• Used special clippers to trim claws
  – Do not cut into pink area of claw, it will
  – Scratching post helps to reduce claw
Objective 16.02
  • Describe major health concerns for
• Infectious
  –   Cat Distemper (FPV)
  –   Feline herpes virus (FHV)
  –   Feline calicivirus (FCV)
  –   Feline Rhinotracheitis (FVR)
  –   Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP)
  –   Feline Leukemia (FeLV)
  –   Feline Enteric Corona virus (FECV)
  –   Rabies
 Feline Panleukopenia
• Feline distemper
  –   caused by a parvo virus or DNA virus
  –   Abnormally low white blood cell count
  –   Affects young cats
  –   75% death rate
• Spread by direct contact but also
  from food and water, bedding, litter
  boxes, etc.
 Feline Panleukopenia
• Symptoms:
  –   Depression
  –   loss of appetite
  –   high fever
  –   lethargy
  –   vomiting
  –   diarrhea
  –   dehydration
Feline herpes virus (FHV)
 • Caused by respiratory virus infection
   – Shed in discharges from the nose, eyes,
   – transmitted through direct contact
 • Can remain dormant for years
Feline herpes virus (FHV)
 • Symptoms
   –   depression
   –   sneezing
   –   coughing
   –   severe eye and nasal discharges
   –   increase in temperature
Feline Rhinotracheitis
• Widespread disease
• Caused by the Herpes virus infection
  – confined to the upper respiratory tract
• Symptoms:
  – sneezing
  – discharges from eyes and nasal
Feline Rhinotracheitis
Feline Calicivirus (FCV)
• Respiratory virus infection
• Discharges from the nose, eyes,
  – transmitted from direct contact.
• Symptoms- Depression, sneezing,
  coughing, severe eye and nasal
  discharges with an increase in
Feline Leukemia (FeLV)
• Severely limits the cat’s immune systems
  – virus is excreted primarily in the cat’s salivary
  – also present in respiratory, fecal and urine
• Spread through direct contact and by
  sharing litter, food, water, etc.
• Symptoms:
  – low grade fever, vomiting, soft or watery
    diarrhea, blood in the feces and dehydration
Feline Enteris Corona virus
  • Ingestion of contaminated feces in
    kittens between four and twelve
    weeks of age.
  • Symptoms: low grade fever,
    vomiting, soft or watery diarrhea,
    blood in the feces and dehydration.
   Feline Infectious
 Peritonitis virus (FIP)
• FIP occurs when FECV mutates
• Affect those with weak immune
• Leads to organ failure
• Symptoms:
  – fever
  – loss of appetite
  – depression
  – weight loss
• Fatal viral disease
• Spread by the saliva of an infected
  warm blooded animal
• Cat become highly agitated and
  possibly aggressive
     Cat Disease Review
• Feline panleukopenia
    – Cat Distemper (FPV) Low White Cell Count and
      high death rate
•   Feline herpes virus (FHV)
•   Feline calicivirus (FCV)            Respiratory
•   Feline Rhinotracheitis (FVR)
•   Feline Leukemia (FeLV)
•   Feline Enteric Corona virus (FECV)
•   Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP)
•   Rabies
Suggested Feline Vaccination
• 5 Weeks
  – Panleukopenia (distemper)-Killed,
    Rhinotracheitis, Calicivirus
• 9 Weeks
  – Panleukopenia, Rhinotracheitis,
    Calicivirus, Chlamydia, Leukemia
Suggested Feline Vaccination
• 12 to 15 Weeks*
  – Panleukopenia, Rhinotracheitis,
    Calicivirus, Chlamydia, Leukemia
• 16 to 19 Weeks*
  – Feline Infectious Peritonitis, Ringworm,
    First rabies

  *Follow label directions for booster
• Non-infectious
  – Feline Urological syndrome (fus)
  – Entropion
  – Wet eye
• Entropion
  – eyeball sinks into socket and the eyelid
    spasms with discomfort.
• Wet Eye
  – excessive tear production
  – blockage of drainage canal causing the
    tears to overflow at the inner corner of
    the eyes
Feline Urologic syndrome (fus)
  • A feline urinary
    tract disease also
    referred to as
  • May range from
    mild inflammation
    to blockage of the
  • uremic poisoning
    and death can
   Internal Parasites
• Toxoplasmosis- prtozoan parasite
  Toxoplasm gondii infection
• Ascarids-Toxocara cati
• Hookworm-Ancylostoma tubaeforme
• Tapeworm-Dipylidium caninum
     External Parasites
•   Lice- Felicola subrostratus
•   Mites-denidex cati
•   Feline Scabies-Notoedres cati
•   Feline Mites-ear mites, walking
    dandruff mites, chiggers, fleas and
Fungal Diseases and Poisonings

 • Cats and dogs share the same
   concerns for fungal diseases and
   –   Insecticides
   –   Plants
   –   Household cleaners
   –   Rodenticides
   –   Antifreeze

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