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figure 4.3 four Measures of Voter Turnout

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figure 4.3 four Measures of Voter Turnout Powered By Docstoc
					          Four Measures of Voter Turnout, Presidential Elec
      ANES = American National Election Survey; VC = Votes Cast;
                    VAP = Voting Age Population; VEP = Votin

                            ANES: RV/VAP


                             Census: RV/VAP



                        VC/VAP




52   56    60    64    68     72    76     80    84     88
residential Elections, 1952-2008
 C = Votes Cast; RV = Reported Voting
    VEP = Voting-Eligible Population
                                             80


                                             70

                                VC /VEP
                                             60


                                             50


                                             40
        88    92     96    00      04   08
 75
                                                                                                                                                       75



 65
                                                                                                                                                       65



 55
                                                                                                                                                       55



 45
                                                                                                                                                       45



                                                                                              1988
      1948
               1952
                         1956
                                   1960
                                           1964
                                                  1968
                                                         1972
                                                                 1976
                                                                          1980
                                                                                    1984


                                                                                                      1992
                                                                                                             1996
                                                                                                                    2000
                                                                                                                            2004




                                                                                                                                                            1948
                                                                                                                                                                    1952
                                                                                                                                                                               1956
                                                                                                                                                                                         1960
  VC - votes cast RV - reported votinng
                                                                                                                                                        VC - votes cast RV - reported votinng
  VAP - voting age populaiton      VAC - voting age citizens
  VEP - voting eligible population ANES: American National Election Survey                                                                              VAP - voting age populaiton      VAC
                                                                                                                                                        VEP - voting eligible population ANES: Ame
  sources: US Elections Project : http://elections.gmu.edu
  Census Bureau http://census.gov/population/www/docdemo/voting.html                                                                                    sources: US Elections Project : http://electio
                                                                                                                                                        Census Bureau http://census.gov/populati


figure 4.1 Four Measures of Voter Turnout, 1948-2004

                                                                 http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/voting.html

Four Measures of Voter Turnout, 1948-2004




   75                                                                                                                                                              Voter Turnout in Preside
                                                                                                                                                                   Percent of Voting Age an
                                                                                                                                                                   65
   65
                                                                                                                                                                   60

   55
                                                                                                                                                                   55

                                                                                                                                                                   50

   45                                                                                                                                                              45
        1952

                  1956

                                1960

                                          1964

                                                  1968

                                                          1972

                                                                   1976

                                                                             1980

                                                                                           1984

                                                                                                     1988

                                                                                                             1992

                                                                                                                     1996

                                                                                                                              2000

                                                                                                                                     2004




                                                                                                                                                                        1952

                                                                                                                                                                                  1956




   VC - votes cast RV - reported votinng VAP - voting age population                                                                                           VC: Votes Cast
   ANES: American National Election Survey                                                                                                                     Figure 4.6: populaiton VEP
                                                                                                                                                               VAP - voting age Voter Turnout,




                                                                                                                                            Figure 5: Four Measures of Voter Turno
Figure 4.3: Three Measures of Voter Turnout
                                                                                                                                            ANES = American National Election Survey;
                                                                                                                                                    VAP = Voting Age Population;
                                                                          VAP = Voting Age Population;


sources: US Elections Project : http://elections.gmu.edu;
Census Bureau http://census.gov/population/www/docdemo/voting.html




                                                                     52
               1960
                         1964
                                   1968
                                            1972
                                                     1976
                                                             1980
                                                                     1984
                                                                            1988
                                                                                   1992
                                                                                          1996
                                                                                                 2000
                                                                                                        2004


       cast RV - reported votinng
 voting age populaiton       VAC - voting age citizens
 voting eligible population ANES: American National Election Survey
ces: US Elections Project : http://elections.gmu.edu
us Bureau http://census.gov/population/www/docdemo/voting.html




      Turnout in Presidential Elections:
 Percent of Voting Age and Voter Eligible Population
                                                                                          1992
                      1960

                                1964

                                          1968

                                                   1972

                                                            1976

                                                                    1980

                                                                            1984

                                                                                   1988



                                                                                                 1996

                                                                                                        2000

                                                                                                               2004




 VC: Votes Cast
                            VEP - % of Voting Age
 Figure 4.6: Voter Turnout, voting eligible populationand
      voting age populaiton                                                                 Voting Eligible Populations




 Measures of Voter Turnout, Presidential Elections, 1952-2008
National Election Survey; VC = Votes Cast; RV = Reported Voting
oting Age Population; VEP = Voting-Eligible Population
oting Age Population; VEP = Voting-Eligible Population

                                                                        80
                   ANES

                                                                        70
                   RV/VAP
                                                              VC /VEP
                                                                        60


              VC/VAP
                                                                        50



                                                                        40
              68                         84              00
         Year     Turnout
                     Rate


                       NES


                             Figure 5: Four Measures of Voter Turnout, Presidential Elections, 1952
                             ANES = American National Election Survey; VC = Votes Cast; RV = Reported Voting
                                     VAP = Voting Age Population; VEP = Voting-Eligible Population
                ANES         VC/VAP VC /VEP RV/VAP RV/VAC
1   52                73            62          62
1          56         73            59          60         ANES
1          60         79            63          64
1          64         78            62          63      69 RV/VAP
1          68         76            61          61      68
1          72         73            55          56      63
1          76         72            54          55      59
1          80         71            53          54      59         64
1          84         74            53          55       VC/VAP 65
                                                        60
1          88         70            50          53      57         62
1          92         75            55          58      61         68
1          96         73            48          52      54         58                         48.1
1          00         73            50          54      55         60
                                 52    56     60   64   68    72    76   80             84   88
           04         77            55          60      58         64 ANES              VC/VAP
           08       76.0          56.8        61.7    58.2       64.0


         1950                      42.8       43.5
         1954                      43.0       43.4
         1958       57.6           44.3       44.9
         1962       60.4           47.0       47.6
         1966       62.3           48.2       48.6        55.4
         1970       59.4           46.6       47.2        54.6
         1974       52.5           38.2       39.0        44.7
         1978       54.5           37.2       38.2        45.9        48.9
         1982       60.4           39.9       42.1        48.5        51.9
         1986       52.5           36.5       38.8        46.0        49.4
         1990       46.6           36.5       39.6        45.0        49.3
         1994       55.7           38.9       41.5        45.0        48.4
         1998       52.1           36.1       38.7        41.9        45.3


         1948 12.84442
1952 11.39143
1956 13.58103
1960 16.23776
1964 15.73476
1968 14.97844
1972 17.59178
1976 18.03043
1980 18.58675
1984 20.35445
1988 19.31686
1992 20.09231
1996 23.99001
2000 21.52221
dential Elections, 1952-2008
     = Reported Voting
le Population

                                     80 labels             lable2
                                           1948.0             2004.0
                                           1948.0   55.0      2004.0
                                     70
                                           1948.0   65.0      2004.0
                                           1948.0   75.0      2004.0
                           VC /VEP         1948.0
                                     60



                                     50



                                     40
              92    96  00  04  08
             VC /VEP RV/VAP RV/VAC
 Vote for
 Highest
  Office




 (1000’s)


   61552
   62027
   68838
   70645
   73213
   77719
   81556
   86515
   92653
   91595
  104405
   96263
  105326




   41984
   43854
   47203
   53141
   56188
   58014
   55944
   58918
   67616
   64991
   67859
   75106
   72537



11.80054
10.81044
12.89621
15.37232
15.03186
14.41939
16.69415
16.86049
16.80692
 16.6408
15.75337
14.92623
20.64543
17.54151




           Percent
  Voting- Turnout Rate       Non-    Prisoners   Overseas   Turnout Rate   NES -VAP       NES -       NES
      Age                 Citizens                 Voters                    Turnout Reconciled
Population                                                                      Rate       VAP

             VAP                                             Reconciled                 Turnout        Pre-
                                                                  VAP                      Rate    Election
                                                                                                  Response
                                                                                                      Rate
                                                                    (%)
  (1000’s)          (%)   (1000’s)               (1000’s)
                                     (1000’s)
    99929          61.6      1899        168     704.613            62.2        11.4       10.8       77.2
  104515           59.3      1986         190    590.562            60.0        13.6       12.9         85
  109672           62.8      2193         213    581.856            63.6        16.2       15.4
  114090           61.9      2282         214    761.136            62.6        15.7       15.0       80.6
  120285           60.9      2766         187    1141.44            61.4        15.0       14.4       77.4
  140777           55.2      3640         196    888.522            56.1        17.6       16.7         75
  152308           53.5      4558         263    855.976            54.7        18.0       16.9       70.4
  163945           52.8      6827         330    986.241            54.6        18.6       16.8       71.8
  173995           53.3     13252         462 1350.492              57.0        20.4       16.6       72.1
  181956           50.3     13942         628 1369.634              53.9        19.3       15.8       70.5
  189687           55.0     17826         884 1465.308              60.2        20.1       14.9         74
  196928           48.9     13948        1180 1314.474              52.2        24.0       20.6         71
  205813           51.2     16500        1386 1672.448              55.2        21.5       17.5       61.2




    98134          42.8      1880         166    170.476            43.5
  102075           43.0      1939         183    429.345            43.4
  106447           44.3      2129         206     427.95            44.9        13.2       12.7
  112952           47.0      2259         219    530.901            47.6        13.4       12.8
  116638           48.2      2363         200    789.427            48.6        14.1       13.7
  124498           46.6      3148         196    834.845            47.2        12.8       12.2
  146338           38.2      4148         218     590.41            39.0        14.3       13.6
  158369           37.2      5780         284     683.67            38.2        17.3       16.3
  169643           39.9     10554         414     852.26            42.1        20.5       18.3
  177922           36.5     12223         545     864.24            38.8        16.0       13.7
  185888           36.5     16297         774 1058.282              39.6        10.1        7.1
  193163           38.9     13205        1055    931.722            41.5        16.8       14.2
  200929           36.1     15070        1222    1145.43            38.7        16.0       13.4



     79.4
          69.7
          77.3

          74.7
            67
          63.3
          59.8
          62.8
          63.9
          61.3
          66.1
          63.9
          52.6




          80
                                                                NES Response Rate
          70

          60
Percent




          50

          40

          30
                                                                NES - VAP Turnout Rate
          20
                                                                NES - Reconciled VAP Turnout Rate
          10
               1944

                      1948

                             1952

                                    1956

                                           1960

                                                  1964

                                                         1968

                                                                   1972

                                                                          1976

                                                                                 1980

                                                                                        1984

                                                                                               1988

                                                                                                      1992

                                                                                                             1996

                                                                                                                    2000

                                                                                                                           2004




                                                                     Year
    NES         NES




      Re-       Post-
Interview    Election
     Rate   Response
                Rate




    90.3        69.7
    90.9        77.3
    93.9
    92.7        74.7
    86.6          67
    84.4        63.3
    84.9        59.8
    87.4        62.8
    88.6        63.9
      87        61.3
    89.3        66.1
      90        63.9
      86        52.6




                78.1


                77.1
                76.6
                  70
                68.9
                72.3
                67.7
                70.6
                74.1
                63.9
NES /VAP
            http://www.electionstudies.org/nesguide/nesguide.htm   http://elections.gmu.edu/NES_Bias.htm
CQ - /VAP
            http://elections.gmu.edu/voter_turnout.htm
McD /VEP
            http://elections.gmu.edu/voter_turnout.htm
CPS /VAP
            http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/voting/cps2004.html
CPS /VAC
            http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/voting/cps2004.html
tions.gmu.edu/NES_Bias.htm
    Year   Turnout   Vote for  Voting- Turnout             Non-    Prisoners   Overseas
              Rate   Highest       Age Rate             Citizens                 Voters
                      Office Population

             NES                           VAP



                     (1000’s)
                                (1000’s)         (%)    (1000’s)               (1000’s)
                                                                   (1000’s)
0   1948     63.9      48833      95573          51.1      2198        156      229.68
0   1952     73.0      61552      99929          61.6      1899         168    704.613
0   1956     72.9      62027    104515           59.3      1986         190    590.562
0   1960     79.0      68838    109672           62.8      2193         213    581.856
0   1964     77.7      70645    114090           61.9      2282         214    761.136
0   1968     75.8      73213    120285           60.9      2766         187    1141.44
0   1972     72.8      77719    140777           55.2      3640         196    888.522
0   1976     71.6      81556    152308           53.5      4558         263    855.976
0   1980     71.4      86515    163945           52.8      6827         330    986.241
0   1984     73.6      92653    173995           53.3     13252         462 1350.492
0   1988     69.7      91595    181956           50.3     13942         628 1369.634
0   1992     75.1    104405     189687           55.0     17826         884 1465.308
0   1996     72.9     96263     196928           48.9     13948        1180 1314.474
0   2000     72.7    105326     205813           51.2     16500        1386 1672.448




1   1950               41984      98134          42.8      1880         166    170.476
1   1954               43854    102075           43.0      1939         183    429.345
1   1958     57.6      47203    106447           44.3      2129         206     427.95
1   1962     60.4      53141    112952           47.0      2259         219    530.901
1   1966     62.3      56188    116638           48.2      2363         200    789.427
1   1970     59.4      58014    124498           46.6      3148         196    834.845
1   1974     52.5      55944    146338           38.2      4148         218     590.41
1   1978     54.5      58918    158369           37.2      5780         284     683.67
1   1982     60.4      67616    169643           39.9     10554         414     852.26
1   1986     52.5      64991    177922           36.5     12223         545     864.24
1   1990     46.6      67859    185888           36.5     16297         774 1058.282
1   1994     55.7      75106    193163           38.9     13205        1055    931.722
1   1998     52.1      72537    200929           36.1     15070        1222    1145.43
   Turnout NES -VAP      NES -        NES         NES         NES
      Rate   Turnout Reconciled
                Rate      VAP

Reconciled              Turnout        Pre-         Re-       Post-
     VAP                   Rate    Election   Interview    Election
                                  Response         Rate   Response
                                      Rate                    Rate
       (%)


      52.1      12.8       11.8       83.9        94.6        79.4
      62.2      11.4       10.8       77.2        90.3        69.7
      60.0      13.6       12.9         85        90.9        77.3
      63.6      16.2       15.4                   93.9
      62.6      15.7       15.0       80.6        92.7        74.7
      61.4      15.0       14.4       77.4        86.6          67
      56.1      17.6       16.7         75        84.4        63.3
      54.7      18.0       16.9       70.4        84.9        59.8
      54.6      18.6       16.8       71.8        87.4        62.8
      57.0      20.4       16.6       72.1        88.6        63.9
      53.9      19.3       15.8       70.5          87        61.3
      60.2      20.1       14.9         74        89.3        66.1
      52.2      24.0       20.6         71          90        63.9
      55.2      21.5       17.5       61.2          86        52.6




      43.5
      43.4
      44.9      13.2       12.7                               78.1
      47.6      13.4       12.8
      48.6      14.1       13.7                               77.1
      47.2      12.8       12.2                               76.6
      39.0      14.3       13.6                                 70
      38.2      17.3       16.3                               68.9
      42.1      20.5       18.3                               72.3
      38.8      16.0       13.7                               67.7
      39.6      10.1        7.1                               70.6
      41.5      16.8       14.2                               74.1
      38.7      16.0       13.4                               63.9
Table A-1. Reported Voting and Registration by Race, Hispanic Origin, Sex and Age Groups: November 1964 to 2004


(Numbers in thousands)
                                               Total percent                          White                White non-Hispanic                 Black
                Total voting-
                    age            Total                        Citizen        Total        Citizen        Total        Citizen        Total
    Year         population      population                    population    population    population    population    population    population
Voted
        20042       215,694             58.3       125,750            63.8          60.3          65.4          65.8          67.2          56.3
        20043       215,694             58.3                          63.8          60.3          65.3          65.7          67.1          56.2
        2002        210,421             42.3                          46.1          44.1          47.5          48.0          49.1          39.7
        2000        202,609             54.7                          59.5          56.4          60.5          60.4          61.8          53.5
        1998        198,228             41.9                          45.3          43.3          46.3          46.5          47.4          39.6
        1996        193,651             54.2                          58.4          56.0          59.6          59.6          60.7          50.6
        1994        190,267             45.0                          48.4          47.3          50.0          50.1          51.0          37.1
        1992        185,684             61.3                          67.7          63.6          69.2          66.9          70.2          54.1
        1990        182,118             45.0                          49.3          46.7          50.5          49.0          51.4          39.2
        1988        178,098             57.4                          62.2          59.1          63.4          61.8          64.2          51.5
        1986        173,890             46.0                          49.4          47.0          50.1          48.9          50.7          43.2
        1984        169,963             59.9                          64.9          61.4          65.7          63.3          66.4          55.8
        1982        165,483             48.5                          51.9          49.9          52.8          51.5          53.4          43.0
        1980        157,085             59.3                          64.0          60.9          65.4          62.8          66.2          50.5
        1978        151,646             45.9                          48.9          47.3          50.1          48.6          50.6          37.2
        1976        146,548             59.2                           NA           60.9           NA            NA             NA          48.7
        1974        141,299             44.7                           NA           46.3           NA            NA             NA          33.8
        1972        136,203             63.0                           NA           64.5           NA            NA             NA          52.1
        1970        120,701             54.6                           NA           56.0           NA            NA             NA          43.5
        1968        116,535             67.8                           NA           69.1           NA            NA             NA          57.6
        1966        112,800             55.4                           NA           57.0           NA            NA             NA          41.7
        1964        110,604             69.3                           NA           70.7           NA            NA             NA          58.5
Registered
      20042         215,694             65.9                          72.1          67.9          73.6          73.5          75.1          64.4
        20043       215,694             65.9                          72.1          67.9          73.5          73.5          75.1          64.3
        2002        210,421             60.9                          66.5          63.1          67.9          67.9          69.4          58.5
        2000        202,609             63.9                          69.5          65.7          70.4          70.0          71.6          63.6
        1998        198,228             62.1                          67.1          63.9          68.2          67.9          69.3          60.2
        1996        193,651             65.9                          71.0          67.7          72.0          71.6          73.0          63.5
        1994        190,267             62.5                          67.1          64.6          68.4          68.1          69.4          58.5
        1992        185,684             68.2                          75.2          70.1          76.3          73.5          77.1          63.9
        1990        182,118             62.2                          68.2          63.8          69.1          66.7          69.9          58.8
        1988        178,098             66.6                          72.1          67.9          72.8          70.8          73.6          64.5
        1986        173,890             64.3                          69.0          65.3          69.5          67.7          70.2          64.0
        1984        169,963             68.3                          73.9          69.6          74.5          71.6          75.1          66.3
        1982        165,483             64.1                          68.5          65.6          69.4          67.5          70.1          59.1
        1980        157,085             66.9                          72.3          68.4          73.4          70.3          74.1          60.0
        1978        151,646             62.6                          66.7          63.8          67.5          65.4          68.2          57.1
        1976        146,548             66.7                           NA           68.3           NA            NA             NA          58.5
        1974        141,299             62.2                           NA           64.6           NA            NA             NA          54.2
        1972        136,203             72.3                           NA           73.4           NA            NA             NA          65.5
        1970        120,701             68.1                           NA           70.8           NA            NA             NA          64.5
        1968        116,535             74.3                           NA           75.4           NA            NA             NA          66.2
        1966        112,800             70.3                           NA           71.7           NA            NA             NA          60.2
        1964        110,604              NA                            NA            NA            NA            NA             NA           NA
                18 to 24 years
Voted
        20042         27,808            41.9                          46.7          42.6          47.5          48.5          49.8          44.0
        20043         27,808     41.9   46.7   42.6   47.4   48.4   49.7   44.0
        2002          27,377     17.2   19.3   17.4   19.4   19.9   20.4   19.3
        2000          26,712     32.3    NA    33.0    NA    37.2    NA    33.9
        1998          25,537     16.6    NA    17.2    NA    19.2    NA    15.6
        1996          24,650     32.4    NA    33.3    NA    36.9    NA    32.4
        1994          25,182     20.1    NA    21.1    NA    23.1    NA    17.4
        1992          24,371     42.8    NA    45.4    NA     NA     NA    36.6
        1990          24,831     20.4    NA    20.8    NA     NA     NA    20.2
        1988          25,569     36.2    NA    37.0    NA     NA     NA    35.0
        1986          26,425     21.9    NA    21.6    NA     NA     NA    25.1
        1984          27,976     40.8    NA    41.6    NA     NA     NA    40.6
        1982          28,823     24.8    NA    25.0    NA     NA     NA    25.5
        1980          28,138     39.9    NA    41.8    NA     NA     NA    30.1
        1978          27,678     23.5    NA    24.2    NA     NA     NA    20.1
        1976          26,953     42.2    NA    44.7    NA     NA     NA    27.9
        1974          25,719     23.8    NA    25.2    NA     NA     NA    16.1
        1972          24,612     49.6    NA    51.9    NA     NA     NA    34.7
        1970          13,027     30.4    NA    31.5    NA     NA     NA    22.4
        1968          11,602     50.4    NA    52.8    NA     NA     NA    38.9
        1966          10,751     31.1    NA    32.6    NA     NA     NA    21.9
        1964           9,919     50.9    NA    52.1    NA     NA     NA    44.2
Registered
      20042           27,808     51.5   54.1   52.5   58.5   59.1   60.7   53.1
        20043         27,808     51.5   54.1   52.6   58.5   59.1   60.6   53.2
        2002          27,377     38.2   43.0   39.2   43.8   44.2   45.4   39.6
        2000          26,712     45.4    NA    46.3    NA    51.7    NA    48.0
        1998          25,537     39.2    NA    36.4    NA    45.0    NA    63.5
        1996          24,650     48.8    NA    49.8    NA    54.3    NA    49.4
        1994          25,182     42.3    NA    43.9    NA    48.1    NA    42.0
        1992          24,371     52.5    NA    54.6    NA     NA     NA    49.2
        1990          24,831     39.9    NA    40.5    NA     NA     NA    40.2
        1988          25,569     48.2    NA    48.7    NA     NA     NA    49.8
        1986          26,425     42.0    NA    42.0    NA     NA     NA    46.1
        1984          27,976     51.3    NA    52.0    NA     NA     NA    53.7
        1982          28,823     42.4    NA    43.2    NA     NA     NA    41.8
        1980          28,138     49.2    NA    51.0    NA     NA     NA    41.3
        1978          27,678     40.5    NA    37.2    NA     NA     NA    37.2
        1976          26,953     51.3    NA    53.7    NA     NA     NA    38.8
        1974          25,719     41.3    NA    42.8    NA     NA     NA    33.6
        1972          24,612     58.9    NA    60.6    NA     NA     NA    47.7
        1970          13,027     40.9    NA    40.6    NA     NA     NA    33.0
        1968          11,602     56.0    NA    57.9    NA     NA     NA    46.4
        1966          10,751     44.1    NA    43.6    NA     NA     NA    34.5
        1964           9,919      NA     NA     NA     NA     NA     NA     NA
                25 to 44 years
Voted
        20042         82,133     52.2   60.1   54.0   61.5   61.6   63.5   54.0
        20043         82,133     52.2   60.1   54.0   61.5   61.5   63.4   54.0
        2002          82,228     34.1   38.9   35.3   39.5   39.7   41.0   36.1
        2000          81,780     49.8    NA    51.2    NA    56.3    NA    52.1
        1998          82,993     34.8    NA    35.8    NA    39.1    NA    36.4
        1996          83,393     49.2    NA    50.8    NA    55.1    NA    47.8
        1994          83,006     39.4    NA    41.5    NA    44.6    NA    33.3
        1992          81,319     58.3    NA    60.6    NA     NA     NA    52.1
        1990          80,541     40.7    NA    42.1    NA     NA     NA    37.8
        1988          77,863     54.0    NA    55.9    NA     NA     NA    48.0
        1986          74,927     41.4    NA    42.2    NA     NA     NA    41.2
        1984          71,023     58.4    NA    60.0    NA     NA     NA    40.6
        1982          66,881     45.4    NA    46.5    NA     NA     NA    43.5
        1980          61,285     58.7    NA    60.3    NA     NA     NA    51.9
        1978          57,536     43.1    NA    44.4    NA     NA     NA    36.7
        1976          54,302     58.7    NA    60.6    NA     NA     NA    49.6
        1974          51,663     42.2    NA    47.6    NA     NA     NA    36.4
        1972          49,173     62.7    NA    64.0    NA     NA     NA    61.4
        1970          47,056     51.9    NA    53.0    NA     NA     NA    44.1
        1968          46,103     66.6    NA    67.7    NA     NA     NA    60.3
        1966          45,061     53.1    NA    54.4    NA     NA     NA    43.9
        1964          45,296     69.0    NA    70.1    NA     NA     NA    61.5
Registered
      20042           82,133     60.1   69.3   62.0   70.6   70.2   72.4   62.2
        20043         82,133     60.1   69.3   62.1   70.6   70.1   72.3   62.2
        2002          82,228     55.4   63.1   57.4   64.3   63.8   65.9   55.8
        2000          81,780     59.6    NA    61.2    NA    66.8    NA    62.0
        1998          82,993     57.7    NA    59.4    NA    64.3    NA    59.5
        1996          83,393     61.9    NA    63.6    NA    68.5    NA    61.4
        1994          83,006     57.9    NA    59.9    NA    64.0    NA    55.4
        1992          81,319     64.8    NA    66.8    NA     NA     NA    62.0
        1990          80,541     58.4    NA    59.9    NA     NA     NA    57.2
        1988          77,863     63.0    NA    64.4    NA     NA     NA    62.1
        1986          74,927     61.1    NA    61.9    NA     NA     NA    64.0
        1984          71,023     66.6    NA    68.0    NA     NA     NA    53.7
        1982          66,881     61.5    NA    62.9    NA     NA     NA    59.4
        1980          61,285     65.6    NA    67.0    NA     NA     NA    59.5
        1978          57,536     60.2    NA    61.5    NA     NA     NA    56.9
        1976          54,302     65.5    NA    67.0    NA     NA     NA    59.5
        1974          51,663     59.9    NA    65.0    NA     NA     NA    58.3
        1972          49,173     71.3    NA    72.1    NA     NA     NA    68.7
        1970          47,056     65.0    NA    65.9    NA     NA     NA    60.9
        1968          46,103     72.4    NA    73.3    NA     NA     NA    68.7
        1966          45,061     67.6    NA    68.7    NA     NA     NA    61.9
        1964          45,296      NA     NA     NA     NA     NA     NA     NA
                45 to 64 years
Voted
        20042         71,014     66.6   70.4   68.6   72.0   72.0   73.2   62.6
        20043         71,014     66.6   70.4   68.6   71.9   72.0   73.1   62.5
        2002          66,924     53.1   56.1   65.1   57.3   57.5   58.5   50.0
        2000          61,352     64.1    NA    65.6    NA    68.4    NA    62.9
        1998          57,436     53.6    NA    54.7    NA    57.0    NA    52.7
        1996          53,721     64.4    NA    61.7    NA    68.6    NA    66.1
        1994          50,934     56.7    NA    58.4    NA    60.6    NA    51.6
        1992          49,147     70.0    NA    71.8    NA     NA     NA    64.9
        1990          46,871     55.8    NA    57.4    NA     NA     NA    49.4
        1988          45,862     67.9    NA    69.2    NA     NA     NA    64.8
        1986          44,825     58.7    NA    59.7    NA     NA     NA    56.6
        1984          44,307     69.8    NA    69.8    NA     NA     NA    66.2
        1982          44,180     62.2    NA    63.8    NA     NA     NA    54.3
        1980          43,569     69.3    NA    70.7    NA     NA     NA    61.2
        1978          43,431     58.5    NA    59.9    NA     NA     NA    48.4
        1976          43,293     68.7    NA    69.9    NA     NA     NA    62.3
        1974          42,961     56.9    NA    58.3    NA     NA     NA    45.9
        1972         42,344         70.8    NA    71.9    NA     NA     NA    61.9
        1970         41,477         64.2    NA    65.4    NA     NA     NA    53.3
        1968         40,362         74.9    NA    76.1    NA     NA     NA    64.5
        1966         39,171         64.5    NA    66.2    NA     NA     NA    48.4
        1964         38,121         75.9    NA    77.2    NA     NA     NA    64.1
Registered
      20042          71,014         72.7   76.9   74.6   78.3   78.1   79.3   69.6
        20043        71,014         72.7   76.9   74.6   78.2   78.0   79.3   69.5
        2002         66,924         69.4   73.4   71.3   74.6   74.2   75.5   66.9
        2000         61,352         71.2    NA    72.7    NA    75.5    NA    70.9
        1998         57,436         71.1    NA    72.6    NA    75.3    NA    69.5
        1996         53,721         73.5    NA    71.1    NA    77.8    NA    75.1
        1994         50,934         71.7    NA    73.3    NA    75.8    NA    69.8
        1992         49,147         75.3    NA    76.9    NA     NA     NA    72.4
        1990         46,871         71.4    NA    72.9    NA     NA     NA    68.9
        1988         45,862         75.5    NA    76.7    NA     NA     NA    74.6
        1986         44,825         74.8    NA    75.8    NA     NA     NA    74.5
        1984         44,307         76.6    NA    76.6    NA     NA     NA    73.7
        1982         44,180         75.6    NA    77.1    NA     NA     NA    69.8
        1980         43,569         75.8    NA    77.0    NA     NA     NA    69.4
        1978         43,431         74.3    NA    75.2    NA     NA     NA    69.3
        1976         43,293         75.5    NA    76.4    NA     NA     NA    70.6
        1974         42,961         73.6    NA    74.6    NA     NA     NA    67.2
        1972         42,344         79.7    NA    80.5    NA     NA     NA    74.2
        1970         41,477         77.5    NA    78.3    NA     NA     NA    71.2
        1968         40,362         81.1    NA    82.1    NA     NA     NA    72.1
        1966         39,171         78.9    NA    80.2    NA     NA     NA    67.8
        1964         38,121          NA     NA     NA     NA     NA     NA     NA
                65 years and over
Voted
        20042        34,738         68.9   71.0   70.5   72.2   72.2   73.1   64.1
        20043        34,738         68.9   71.0   70.5   72.2   72.2   73.1   64.1
        2002         33,892         61.0   62.7   62.7   64.0   64.0   64.8   54.8
        2000         32,764         67.6    NA    68.8    NA    70.0    NA    64.7
        1998         32,263         59.5    NA    60.5    NA    61.7    NA    56.2
        1996         31,888         67.0    NA    68.1    NA    69.2    NA    63.7
        1994         31,144         61.3    NA    62.8    NA    63.9    NA    51.6
        1992         30,846         70.1    NA    71.5    NA     NA     NA    64.1
        1990         29,874         60.3    NA    61.7    NA     NA     NA    51.3
        1988         28,804         68.8    NA    69.8    NA     NA     NA    63.5
        1986         27,712         60.9    NA    61.9    NA     NA     NA    53.3
        1984         26,658         67.7    NA    68.7    NA     NA     NA    61.5
        1982         25,598         59.9    NA    61.1    NA     NA     NA    50.8
        1980         24,094         65.1    NA    66.0    NA     NA     NA    59.4
        1978         23,001         55.9    NA    57.2    NA     NA     NA    45.6
        1976         22,001         62.2    NA    63.2    NA     NA     NA    54.3
        1974         20,955         51.4    NA    52.8    NA     NA     NA    38.5
        1972         20,074         63.5    NA    64.8    NA     NA     NA    50.6
        1970         19,141         57.0    NA    58.6    NA     NA     NA    39.3
        1968         18,468         65.8    NA    67.4    NA     NA     NA    49.9
        1966         17,817         56.1    NA    57.9    NA     NA     NA    35.3
        1964         17,269         66.3    NA    68.1    NA     NA     NA    45.3
Registered
      20042          34,738         76.9   79.2   78.4   80.4   80.0   81.0   73.7
        20043        34,738         76.9   79.2   78.4   80.4   80.0   81.0   73.6
          2002        33,892          75.8                       78.0           77.3          79.0          78.7          79.7           73.5
          2000        32,764          76.1                         NA           77.3           NA           78.6            NA           74.3
          1998        32,263          75.4                         NA           76.4           NA           77.6            NA           73.6
          1996        31,888          77.0                         NA           78.1           NA           79.3            NA           75.2
          1994        31,144          76.3                         NA           77.5           NA           78.7            NA           72.4
          1992        30,846          78.0                         NA           79.1           NA            NA             NA           74.2
          1990        29,874          76.5                         NA           77.7           NA            NA             NA           71.2
          1988        28,804          78.4                         NA           75.9           NA            NA             NA           79.2
          1986        27,712          76.9                         NA           77.9           NA            NA             NA           71.4
          1984        26,658          76.9                         NA           77.7           NA            NA             NA           73.0
          1982        25,598          75.2                         NA           76.3           NA            NA             NA           68.4
          1980        24,094          74.6                         NA           75.4           NA            NA             NA           70.1
          1978        23,001          72.8                         NA           73.7           NA            NA             NA           67.6
          1976        22,001          71.4                         NA           72.5           NA            NA             NA           64.5
          1974        20,955          70.2                         NA           71.2           NA            NA             NA           62.9
          1972        20,074          75.6                         NA           76.5           NA            NA             NA           67.9
          1970        19,141          73.7                         NA           75.0           NA            NA             NA           61.5
          1968        18,468          75.6                         NA           77.1           NA            NA             NA           62.7
          1966        17,817          73.5                         NA           75.5           NA            NA             NA           56.2
          1964        17,269           NA                          NA            NA            NA            NA             NA            NA


Footnotes:
Note: Prior to 1972, data are for people 21 to 24 years of age with the exception of those aged 18 to 24 in Georgia and Kentucky, 19 to 24 in Alaska, and 20 t
Note: Registration data were not collected in the 1964 Current Population Survey.
Note: NA Not available.
Note: Because of changes in the Current Population Survey race categories beginning in 2003, 2004 data on race are not directly comparable with data from
1
 Prior to 2004, this category was 'Asian and Pacific Islanders,' therefore rates are not comparable with prior years.
2
    2004a shows the single-race population.
3
    2004b shows the race alone or in-combination population.


Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, November 2004 and earlier reports
Internet Release date: May 26, 2005
Black                     Asian1               Hispanic (of any race)       Total Population
     Citizen        Total        Citizen        Total        Citizen
    population    population    population    population    population    Male        Female


           60.0          29.8          44.1          28.0          47.2      56.3          60.1
           59.9          30.7          44.6          28.0          47.2      56.3          60.1
           42.3          19.4          31.2          18.9          30.4      41.4          43.0
           56.8          25.4          43.4          27.5          45.1      53.1          56.2
           41.8          19.3          32.4          20.0          32.8      41.4          42.4
           53.0          25.7          45.0          26.8          44.0      52.8          55.5
           38.9          21.8          39.4          20.2          34.0      44.7          45.3
           59.2          27.3          53.9          28.9          51.6      60.2          62.3
           42.4          20.3          40.0          21.0          36.0      44.6          45.4
           55.0           NA            NA           28.8          48.0      56.4          58.3
           45.5           NA            NA           24.2          38.0      45.8          46.1
           60.6           NA            NA           32.7          50.0      59.0          60.8
           45.5           NA            NA           25.3          38.5      48.7          48.4
           53.9           NA            NA           29.9          46.1      59.1          59.4
           39.5           NA            NA           23.5          35.7      46.6          45.3
            NA            NA            NA           31.8           NA       59.6          58.8
            NA            NA            NA           22.9           NA       46.2          43.4
            NA            NA            NA           37.5           NA       64.1          62.0
            NA            NA            NA            NA            NA       56.8          52.7
            NA            NA            NA            NA            NA       69.8          66.0
            NA            NA            NA            NA            NA       58.2          53.0
            NA            NA            NA            NA            NA       71.9          67.0


           68.7          34.9          51.8          34.3          57.9      64.0          67.6
           68.6          36.1          52.5          34.3          57.9      64.0          67.6
           62.4          30.7          49.2          32.6          52.5      58.9          62.8
           67.5          30.7          52.4          34.9          57.4      62.2          65.6
           63.6          29.1          48.9          33.7          55.2      60.6          63.5
           66.4          32.6          57.2          35.7          58.6      64.4          67.3
           61.3          28.7          51.9          31.3          52.9      61.2          63.7
           70.0          31.2          61.6          35.0          62.5      66.9          69.3
           63.5          28.4          56.0          32.3          55.2      61.2          63.1
           68.8           NA            NA           35.5          59.1      65.2          67.8
           67.3           NA            NA           35.9          56.4      63.4          65.0
           72.0           NA            NA           40.1          61.4      67.3          69.3
           62.6           NA            NA           35.3          53.7      63.7          64.4
           64.1           NA            NA           36.4          56.0      66.6          67.1
           60.6           NA            NA           32.9          50.1      62.6          62.5
            NA            NA            NA           37.8           NA       67.1          66.4
            NA            NA            NA           34.9           NA       62.8          61.7
            NA            NA            NA           44.4           NA       73.1          71.6
            NA            NA            NA            NA            NA       69.6          66.8
            NA            NA            NA            NA            NA       76.0          72.8
            NA            NA            NA            NA            NA       72.2          68.6
            NA            NA            NA            NA            NA           NA            NA



           47.0          23.4          34.2          20.4          33.0      38.8          44.9
47.0   24.5   34.5   20.4   33.0   38.8   44.9
20.6   10.0   15.9    8.1   13.3   15.7   18.6
 NA    15.9    NA    15.4    NA    30.0   34.6
 NA     9.7    NA     9.0    NA    15.7   17.6
 NA    19.2    NA    15.1    NA    29.8   35.0
 NA    10.6    NA    10.1    NA    18.6   21.5
 NA     NA     NA    17.6    NA    40.5   45.1
 NA     NA     NA     8.7    NA    19.8   21.0
 NA     NA     NA    16.8    NA    34.1   38.2
 NA     NA     NA    11.6    NA    21.2   22.5
 NA     NA     NA    21.9    NA    38.7   42.8
 NA     NA     NA    14.2    NA    25.1   25.7
 NA     NA     NA    15.9    NA    38.5   41.2
 NA     NA     NA    11.5    NA    23.2   23.9
 NA     NA     NA    21.8    NA    40.9   43.4
 NA     NA     NA    13.3    NA    24.6   23.1
 NA     NA     NA    30.9    NA    48.8   50.4
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    30.6   30.0
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    50.3   50.6
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    32.3   30.3
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    51.5   50.5


56.7   29.2   42.6   27.6   44.6   48.2   54.9
56.8   31.1   43.8   27.6   44.6   48.2   54.9
41.2   21.7   34.5   20.8   34.3   34.9   41.6
 NA    22.2    NA    23.2    NA    42.3   48.5
 NA    17.7    NA    22.2    NA    36.4   42.0
 NA    29.5    NA    27.6    NA    46.5   51.0
 NA    18.3    NA    20.0    NA    40.9   43.7
 NA     NA     NA    24.9    NA    50.5   54.4
 NA     NA     NA    19.3    NA    39.5   40.2
 NA     NA     NA    25.3    NA    45.5   50.8
 NA     NA     NA    22.0    NA    41.0   43.0
 NA     NA     NA    29.8    NA    49.6   53.0
 NA     NA     NA    24.3    NA    42.4   42.5
 NA     NA     NA    22.5    NA    48.0   50.4
 NA     NA     NA    20.5    NA    39.5   41.5
 NA     NA     NA    29.0    NA    50.8   51.9
 NA     NA     NA    23.1    NA    41.8   40.8
 NA     NA     NA    38.9    NA    58.3   59.4
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    41.2   40.6
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    56.1   55.9
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    44.4   43.8
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA     NA     NA



59.3   23.9   40.2   23.0   45.2   49.0   44.9
59.1   25.4   41.4   23.0   45.2   49.0   44.9
39.4   14.0   25.9   15.3   27.6   32.7   35.4
 NA    22.2    NA    23.2    NA    47.3   52.3
 NA    12.9    NA    16.1    NA    33.5   36.1
 NA    22.8    NA    22.9    NA    46.8   51.5
 NA    17.4    NA    17.5    NA    38.6   40.2
 NA     NA     NA    26.4    NA    55.8   60.6
 NA     NA     NA    19.7    NA    39.1   42.2
 NA     NA     NA    27.1    NA    51.8   56.1
 NA     NA     NA    21.7    NA    40.3   42.4
 NA     NA     NA    31.1    NA    56.3   60.5
 NA     NA     NA    22.2    NA    44.5   46.2
 NA     NA     NA    30.4    NA    57.1   60.1
 NA     NA     NA    22.4    NA    42.5   43.6
 NA     NA     NA    33.2    NA    57.9   59.5
 NA     NA     NA    24.2    NA    42.0   42.4
 NA     NA     NA    39.5    NA    62.5   62.9
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    52.3   51.5
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    67.2   66.1
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    54.1   52.1
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    70.0   68.0


68.2   28.9   48.7   28.8   56.7   57.6   62.5
68.2   30.7   50.1   28.8   56.7   57.6   62.5
60.9   25.6   47.3   28.9   52.0   52.8   57.9
 NA    26.7    NA    31.1    NA    57.3   61.8
 NA    23.2    NA    29.8    NA    55.5   59.9
 NA    28.5    NA    31.8    NA    59.6   64.1
 NA    24.4    NA    28.4    NA    55.9   59.7
 NA     NA     NA    32.0    NA    62.6   67.0
 NA     NA     NA    30.4    NA    56.4   60.3
 NA     NA     NA    33.2    NA    60.6   65.4
 NA     NA     NA    34.5    NA    59.4   62.8
 NA     NA     NA    38.4    NA    64.5   68.6
 NA     NA     NA    30.8    NA    60.3   62.6
 NA     NA     NA    36.0    NA    64.3   66.8
 NA     NA     NA    32.7    NA    59.5   60.9
 NA     NA     NA    38.4    NA    64.8   66.1
 NA     NA     NA    37.2    NA    42.4   60.8
 NA     NA     NA    46.0    NA    71.2   71.4
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    65.3   64.8
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    73.0   71.9
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    68.1   67.3
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA     NA     NA



65.3   38.3   51.1   38.5   56.2   65.3   67.9
65.3   38.8   51.4   38.5   56.2   65.3   67.9
52.4   29.7   41.6   28.7   40.9   52.6   53.5
 NA    32.0    NA    38.3    NA    62.7   65.3
 NA    29.8    NA    30.7    NA    53.5   53.6
 NA    32.1    NA    38.3    NA    63.7   65.1
 NA    31.5    NA    29.9    NA    56.8   56.6
 NA     NA     NA    40.4    NA    69.8   70.2
 NA     NA     NA    28.7    NA    55.9   55.7
 NA     NA     NA    39.2    NA    68.1   67.7
 NA     NA     NA    38.3    NA    58.9   58.5
 NA     NA     NA    44.2    NA    69.8   69.8
 NA     NA     NA    39.9    NA    62.9   61.6
 NA     NA     NA    42.7    NA    69.8   68.9
 NA     NA     NA    38.5    NA    59.8   57.4
 NA     NA     NA    40.3    NA    69.7   67.9
 NA     NA     NA    34.2    NA    59.1   55.0
 NA     NA     NA    43.5    NA    72.2   69.6
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    66.3   62.3
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    76.6   73.3
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    66.9   62.2
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    78.5   73.5


72.6   43.4   57.9   44.4   64.8   71.6   73.8
72.6   43.9   58.1   44.4   64.8   71.6   73.8
70.1   41.1   57.5   43.6   62.1   68.4   70.3
 NA    38.1    NA    45.1    NA    69.8   72.6
 NA    40.4    NA    44.3    NA    70.4   71.8
 NA    40.0    NA    45.2    NA    72.6   74.4
 NA    37.9    NA    42.4    NA    70.9   72.5
 NA     NA     NA    45.9    NA    74.9   75.7
 NA     NA     NA    41.3    NA    71.2   71.6
 NA     NA     NA    45.6    NA    75.7   75.3
 NA     NA     NA    49.3    NA    74.5   75.1
 NA     NA     NA    51.8    NA    76.6   76.6
 NA     NA     NA    50.5    NA    75.8   75.5
 NA     NA     NA    50.6    NA    76.3   75.3
 NA     NA     NA    46.6    NA    75.0   73.7
 NA     NA     NA    46.4    NA    76.1   74.9
 NA     NA     NA    46.3    NA    74.7   72.7
 NA     NA     NA    50.3    NA    80.4   79.1
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    78.9   76.3
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    82.4   79.8
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    80.9   77.1
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA     NA     NA



65.9   38.2   47.7   45.9   57.0   71.9   66.7
64.9   38.4   47.9   45.9   57.0   71.9   66.7
56.5   29.0   38.8   41.5   49.2   65.4   57.7
 NA    37.9    NA    50.0    NA    71.4   64.8
 NA    35.4    NA    41.9    NA    64.6   55.8
 NA    34.3    NA    47.6    NA    70.9   64.1
 NA    33.8    NA    37.6    NA    66.5   57.6
 NA     NA     NA    39.7    NA    74.5   67.0
 NA     NA     NA    40.5    NA    66.0   56.3
 NA     NA     NA    45.6    NA    73.3   65.6
 NA     NA     NA    36.5    NA    66.8   56.7
 NA     NA     NA    40.5    NA    71.9   64.8
 NA     NA     NA    29.5    NA    65.3   56.2
 NA     NA     NA    36.8    NA    70.4   61.3
 NA     NA     NA    24.9    NA    62.6   51.3
 NA     NA     NA    29.9    NA    68.3   58.0
 NA     NA     NA    28.1    NA    58.7   46.2
 NA     NA     NA    26.7    NA    70.7   58.4
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    65.4   50.8
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    73.1   73.3
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    64.2   49.8
 NA     NA     NA     NA     NA    73.7   60.4


75.8   43.5   54.4   55.0   68.3   78.5   75.6
74.6   44.0   54.8   55.0   68.3   78.5   75.6
                         75.7          37.2       49.8   54.8   64.9   77.3   74.7
                          NA           42.8        NA    56.7    NA    78.8   74.2
                          NA           44.1        NA    56.5    NA    78.5   73.2
                          NA           39.2        NA    54.2    NA    79.7   75.0
                          NA           40.7        NA    50.2    NA    79.2   74.3
                          NA             NA        NA    47.9    NA    81.1   75.7
                          NA             NA        NA    53.2    NA    79.7   74.2
                          NA             NA        NA    51.0    NA    81.6   76.1
                          NA             NA        NA    47.0    NA    80.6   74.3
                          NA             NA        NA    46.7    NA    80.2   74.7
                          NA             NA        NA    40.6    NA    78.9   72.6
                          NA             NA        NA    44.1    NA    78.8   71.6
                          NA             NA        NA    33.5    NA    77.6   69.5
                          NA             NA        NA    36.5    NA    76.6   67.8
                          NA             NA        NA    37.8    NA    75.8   66.2
                          NA             NA        NA    34.7    NA    81.9   71.1
                          NA             NA        NA     NA     NA    79.8   69.2
                          NA             NA        NA     NA     NA    81.7   71.1
                          NA             NA        NA     NA     NA    79.9   69.2
                          NA             NA        NA     NA     NA     NA     NA



ky, 19 to 24 in Alaska, and 20 to 24 in Hawaii.



ctly comparable with data from earlier years.
Four Measures of Voter Turnout, Presidential Elections, 1952-2008
ANES = American National Election Survey; VC = Votes Cast; RV = Reported Voting
        VAP = Voting Age Population; VEP = Voting-Eligible Population
                                                                                           80

                             ANES

                                                                                           70
                             RV/VAP
                                                                            VC /VEP
                                                                                           60


                         VC/VAP
                                                                                           50



                                                                                           40
52    56    60    64    68     72     76   80   84   88    92    96    00     04      08

				
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