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					                                                      Annotated Bibliography   1




      Protective Factors and Foster Care: An Annotated Bibliography




                      Christine Rine, Assigned PhD Student
                              School of Social Work
                     State University of New York at Buffalo




Jere Wrightsman, Foster Care Unit Director
FA01 Foster Care
Award: 23672
Project: 1021316
Task: 2
                                                 Annotated Bibliography   2




                             Table of Contents

Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………...3

Reference List…………………………………………………………………………….4

Website Reference List…………………………………………………………………...8

Annotated Bibliography….…………………………………………………..………….10

Summary………………………………………………………………………………...29

Next Stages of Research Project..…………………………………………………….…30

Assets/ Protective Factors to be Assessed for Resource Book……….……….………...31

Appendix (articles)….…………………………………………………………………..36
                                                               Annotated Bibliography        3




                                           Abstract

        The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to provide foster care trainers and

related personnel with updated research concerning protective factors, foster care issues,

and the interaction of those constructs. While the annotated bibliography can stand alone

as a brief summary of relevant articles in these areas, it is our intention to use this

gathered information as a tool in the development of the forthcoming resource book titled

“Development of Protective Factors for Adolescents in Foster Care”. As research informs

practice, and practice drives research, it is imperative that current, empirical knowledge

be utilized in the creation of any practical manual on these topics.
                                                           Annotated Bibliography          4




                                     Reference List

Achenbach, T. M., Howell, C. T., McConaughy, S. H., & Stanger, C. (1998). Six-year

       predictors of problems in a national sample: IV. Young adult signs of disturbance.

       Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 718-727.


Bassuk, E. L., Buckner, J. C., Weinreb, L. F., Browne, A., Bassuk, S. S., Dawson, R.

       (1997). Homelessness in female-headed families: Childhood and adult risk and

       protective factors. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 241-248.


Berrick, J. D., Barth, R. P., & Needell, B. (1994). A comparison of kinship foster homes

       and foster family homes: Implications for kinship foster care as family

       preservation. Children and Youth Services Review, 16, 33-63.



Bumbarger, B. & Greenburg, M.T. (2002). Next steps in advancing research on positive

       youth development. Prevention and Treatment, 5(24) June.



California Institute for mental Health. (2002, March). Evidence – based practices in

       mental health services for foster youth. Sacramento, CA: Author.
                                                          Annotated Bibliography          5




Catalano, R.F., Berglund, M.L., Ryan, J.A., Lonczac, H.S. & Hawkins, J.D. (2002).

       Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on

       evaluations of positive youth development programs. Prevention and Treatment,

       5(24), June.


Developmental Research and Programs, Inc. (2000). Communities that care, Prevention

       strategies: A research guide to what works, Seattle, Washington: Author.



Fergusson, D.M. & Lynskey, M.T. (1996). Adolescent resiliency to family adversity.

       Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 281- 292.


Fraser, M.W. (1997). The Ecology of Childhood: A Multisystems Perspective. In M.W.

       Frazer (Ed.) Risk and Resilience in Childhood (pp.1-9). Washington, DC: NASW

       Press.



Fraser, M.W. & Galanski, M.J. (1997). Toward a Resilience- Based Model of Practice.

       In M.W. Frazer (Ed.) Risk and Resilience in Childhood (pp.265-276).

       Washington, DC: NASW Press.



Fraser, M.W., Richman, J.M., & Galinski, M.J. (1999). Risk, protection, and resilience:

       Toward a conceptual framework for social work practice. Social Work Research,

       23(3), 131- 143.
                                                             Annotated Bibliography         6


Kirby, L.D. & Frazer, M.W. (1997). Risk and Resilience in Childhood. In M.W. Frazer

       (Ed.) Risk and Resilience in Childhood (pp.10- 33). Washington, DC: NASW

       Press.



Kraemer, H.C., Stice, E., Kazdin, A., Offord, D. & Kupfer, D. (2001). How do risk

       factors work together? Mediators, moderators, and independent, overlapping, and

       proxy risk factors. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 848- 856.



Lerner, R. M. & Galambos, N. L. (1998). Adolescent development: Challenges and

       opportunities for research, programs, and policies. Annual Review of Psychology,

       49, 413-446.



Lopez, S.J. & McKnight, C.G. (2002). Moving in a positive direction: Toward increasing

       the utility of positive youth development efforts. Prevention and Treatment, 5(24)

       June.



Rak, C.F. & Patterson, L.E. (1996). Promoting resilience in at- risk children. Journal of

       Counseling & Development, 74, 368- 373.



Rutter, M. (1985). Resilience in the face of adversity: Protective factors and resistance to

       psychiatric disorder. British journal of Psychiatry, 147, 598- 611.
                                                            Annotated Bibliography           7


Rutter, M. (1987). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. American Journal

       of Orthopsychiatry, 57(3), 316- 331.



Thorpe, M.B. & Swart, G.T. (1992). Risk and protective factors affecting children in

       foster care: A pilot study of the role of siblings. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry,

       37, 616- 622.



Werner, E.E. (1989). High risk children in young adulthood: A longitudinal study from

       birth to 32 years. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59(1), 72- 81.
                                                           Annotated Bibliography      8




                                Website Reference List

Boston University Dept. of Psychology
http://web.bu.edu/PSYCH/faculty/charris/multi-causal.html

Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement (CAREI)
http://education.umn.edu/carei/

Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At-Risk (CRESPAR)
http://scov.csos.jhu.edu/crespar/CReSPaR.html

Child Protection Connection
http://www.utexas.edu/depts/sswork/psti/newsletter/index.html

Children's and Youth's Health (from the Institute for Health & Disability)
http://www.peds.umn.edu/Centers/ihd/CHIPage1.html

Children, Youth, and Families At-Risk (CYFAR)
http://www.reeusda.gov/new/4h/cyfar/cyfar.htm [Editor's Note (5-22-00): this url has
changed: http://www.reeusda.gov/4h/cyfar/cyfar.htm]

Devereux Foundation (See DECA Program.)
http://www.devereux.org/

ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education
http://ericeece.org/

Flinders University of South Australia & University of Adelaide
http://auseinet.flinders.edu.au/clearing/depression/Prev_D08.html

Healthy Kids Resilience Assessment (a project of WestEd)
http://www.wested.org/schrg/projects/chks_res.shtml

National Institute on Drug Abuse/National Institutes on Health (NIDA/NIH)
http://www.nida.nih.gov

National Network for Family Resiliency
http://www.nnfr.org/

National Parent Information Network (NPIN)
http://npin.org
                                                        Annotated Bibliography   9


North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL)
http://www.ncrel.org

Project Resilience
http://www.projectresilience.com

Research Practice v5 n1
http://carei.coled.umn.edu/Rpractice/Spring97/

Resiliency in Action
http://www.resiliency.com/

San Mateo County Office of Education
http://www.smcoe.k12.ca.us/

University of Indiana
http://www.drugs.indiana.edu/publications/iprc/newsline/winter91.html

University of Pennsylvania, Office of University Relations
http://www.upenn.edu/pennnews/features/1994/021794/Spencer.html

University of Wyoming Cooperative Extension Service
http://www.uwyo.edu/ag/ces/dream.htm
                                                            Annotated Bibliography        10




                                Annotated Bibliography


CITATION: Achenbach, T. M., Howell, C. T., McConaughy, S. H., & Stanger, C.
     (1998). Six-year predictors of problems in a national sample: IV. Young adult
     signs of disturbance. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent
     Psychiatry, 37, 718-727.

      Purpose: Specific aims of this research include the identification of:

          1. Predictive paths for signs of disturbance.

          2. Percentage of variance in each sign and the total disturbance score.

          3. Robust predictors of poor outcomes.

          4. Accuracy of predicting which individuals would manifest signs of
             disturbance from information collected six years earlier.

          5. Concurrent relations between signs and syndromes as outcome measures.

      Methods: Identification of adolescent predictors of young adult signs of
       disturbance was done through case- control analyses that used family variables,
       cross- informant information, competencies, stressful experiences, and previous
       signs of disturbance as predictors of behaviors.

      Variables: The behaviors that were examined include: dropping out of school,
       unwed pregnancy, drug use, drinking, receiving mental health services, suicidal
       behavior, and being fired from jobs.

      Subjects: Participants consisted of 366 males and 377 females, ages ranged from
       19 to 22 at the time of the second round of data collection. Ethnicity was 75%
       non- Hispanic white, 15% African American, and 11% other.

      Results: Signs of disturbance are more likely to be multidetermined than to result
       from a single antecedent. The highest predictive accuracy was 90% for females
       with who have been fired from their jobs as well as those manifesting suicidal
       ideations or gestures. Delinquent behaviors and poor school functioning were the
       most successful at predicting outcomes.

      Implications: When planning programs and services, professional need to know
       what risk and protective factors lead to particular outcomes for adolescents. To
       target interventions, testing models for more accurate predictions is necessary.
                                                           Annotated Bibliography        11


CITATION: Bassuk, E. L., Buckner, J. C., Weinreb, L. F., Browne, A., Bassuk, S. S.,
     Dawson, R. et al. (1997). Homelessness in female-headed families: Childhood
     and adult risk and protective factors. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 241-
     248.

      Purpose: Specific aims of this study include:

          1. Identification of risk and protective factors for homelessness among
             female headed single households.

          2. Provide a multivariate analysis of these identifiers.

          3. Identify individual- level risk factors.

          4. Address limitations of earlier research.

      Methods: This study used an unmatched case- control design to recruit a sample
       of sheltered homeless families and a comparison group of low income housed
       families.

      Variables: The vulnerability of homelessness for female headed families was
       assessed. Childhood and adult risk factors were both included.

      Subjects: The participants were comprised of 220 homeless families and 216 low
       income housed families. The sample was representative to other American cities,
       yet there was a larger number of Hispanic than African American participants.

      Results: It was found that foster care placement during childhood is a risk factor
       for homelessness. Further, events or conditions that compromise the economic
       and social resources of low- income mothers are associated with greater risk of
       becoming homeless.

      Implications: Further research using multivariate analysis on a prospective cohort
       study would provide more information.


CITATION: Berrick, J. D., Barth, R. P., & Needell, B. (1994). A comparison of kinship
     foster homes and foster family homes: Implications for kinship foster care as
     family preservation. Children and Youth Services Review, 16, 33-63

      Purpose: Specific aims of this study include:

       1. Examination kinship foster care.

       2. Review of the types of services received by youth in traditional and kinship
          care.
                                                        Annotated Bibliography         12


    3. Discussion of how youth with particular problems may benefit from different
       types of foster care services.

    4. The suggestion that policy and practice considerations need to be further
       developed in this area.

   Methods: The researchers used surveys to assess the sampled youth on several
    variables. The measurement instruments included an assessment of: physical
    health, mental health, behavior problems, and quality of foster care services.

   Variables: The study examined a variety of variables including: number of adults
    in the home, ethnicity of youth and care giver, education, employment, housing
    status, number of times family moved, and other demographic information.

   Subjects: The youth in this sample are drawn from the University of California at
    Berkley Foster Care Database (UCB-FCD), which contains information on all
    children in foster care in California from 1988 to 1994. This consists of 88,000
    children placed in various types of foster care programs. For this study, a sample
    of 4,234 youth was selected.

   Results: Conclusions based on this review focus on the need for future research to
    better assess the long term effects of these variables on the youth in care. One of
    the most substantial differences between kinship and non- kinship foster care
    families is household income. The income of kinship care providers was over
    10,000 less than the income of traditional foster care homes. Overall, kinship
    foster parents are older, less well off financially, and have more health problems
    than traditional foster care parents. The advantage is that youth in kinship care
    experience more stability in placement and keep family ties intact.

   Implications: Further research was indicated as needed to better understand the
    factors that impact these results. Improving financial equity among kinship care
    and non- kinship foster parents may be beneficial to the adolescents in care.



CITATION: Bumbarger, B. & Greenburg, M.T. (2002). Next steps in advancing
research on positive youth development. Prevention and Treatment, 5(24) June.

   Purpose: Specific aims of this study include:

    1. Examination of youth development strategies in the United States.

    2. Review of Catalano, Berglund, Ryan, Lonczac, & Hawkins article titled:
    Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on
    evaluations of positive youth development programs.

    3. Discussion of implications for measurement and methodology in the field of
    youth development programs.
                                                            Annotated Bibliography         13


       4. The suggestion of the importance and timeliness of this article.

      Implications: Reviews and further discusses possible implications of this research
       article. Addresses the timeliness and usefulness of looking at the youth
       development approach in an attempt to tailor programming and initiate policy
       paradigm shifts in this field. Provides a way to test the usefulness of this approach
       through which the Positive Youth Development (PYD) can be further examined.

      Variables: It is felt that through the efforts of Catalano, Berglund, Ryan,
       Lonczac, & Hawkins, a vague concept of PYD has been developed into a
       scientifically measurable set of characteristics that will move the field towards
       operationalizing and promoting the concepts involved. Policy implications are
       discussed and further research is suggested.

      Subjects: The youth discussed in this review as well as the original article by
       Catalano, Berglund, Ryan, Lonczac, & Hawkins are described as being at risk of
       problems that have been previously identified as common to adolescents in foster
       care. The implications to this specific project are mirrored in this review.

      Results: Conclusions based on this review focus on the need for future research.
       Additionally, the PYD approach calls for a shift in the way service providers and
       policy makers view youth. This approach demands a proactive and positive
       mindset at a time when programming is often based on addressing already
       existing problems. The authors suggest that this may be one of the largest barriers
       to the efficacy of the PYD approach. For this reason, researchers and service
       providers need to be mindful of the reluctance that they may be facing.



CITATION: California Institute for Mental Health. (2002, March). Evidence – based
     practices in mental health services for foster youth. Sacramento, CA: Author.

          Purpose: Specific aims of this study include:

       1. Examination and promotion of mental health assessments and services for
       foster children throughout California.

       2. Review of evidence- based practices for treatment and programming for foster
       children.

       3. Discussion of interventions that have proven to be effective for youth with
       particular mental health diagnoses.

       4. The suggestion of the continued evaluation of practice methods used with this
       population.

          Methods: The methods used to examine the large body of literature and
           subsequent interventions for foster care youth was done through review of
                                                          Annotated Bibliography        14


        current findings. This review looked at what models are currently used, the
        empirical evidence they are founded upon, and a critical examination of their
        current effectiveness.

       Variables: Effectiveness was determined through data collected on the foster
        care population within California. Tables were used to summarize target
        diagnosis or disorder, treatment, and research status of treatment.

       Subjects: The youth in this study consist of all foster care youth in the state of
        California in 2000. For the purposes of this study, foster care was
        operationalized as any youth that does not live in their parent‟s home.

       Results: Conclusions based on this study strongly suggests that improvements
        in the quality and effectiveness of services to foster children will most likely
        result from providing treatment informed by evidence rather than traditional,
        popular or familiar practices. The current evidence overwhelmingly speaks to
        the need to recognize foster children as a specialized population with unique
        and distinctive problems and needs.

       Implications: Further research was indicated as needed to better understand
        these factors. Additionally, the California Institute for Mental Health asserts
        that research into mental health practice is one of the most valuable resources
        available to those who plan and implement child and family services.


CITATION: Catalano, R.F., Berglund, M.L., Ryan, J.A., Lonczac, H.S. & Hawkins,
J.D. (2002). Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on
evaluations of positive youth development programs. Prevention and Treatment,
5(24), June.

   Purpose: Specific aims of this study include:

    1. Examination of youth development strategies in the United States.

    2. Review of the Positive Youth Development (PYD) approach to date.

    3. Discussion of origins of this approach as well as defining, evaluating, and
    providing empirical evidence.

    4. The suggestion that this approach can be measured for efficacy and applied to
    program development.

    Methods: Empirical evidence was drawn from the evaluation of many youth
    development programs in a number of social domains. These domains were
    identified as: community, family, and school. These areas were looked at both
    separately and in unison in terms of current program settings. Results were
    discussed across these domains.
                                                            Annotated Bibliography           15


      Variables: Evaluations were assessed through providing program descriptions,
       interventions, and long term results. Variables assed included: recognition of
       positive behavior, bonding, identity, self determination, resiliency, belief in the
       future, spirituality, prosocial involvement, age, gender, program characteristics,
       and self efficacy. Experimental and quasi- experimental research designs were
       employed in this study.

      Subjects: The youth served by these programs varied in age and background. The
       unit of analysis was however the program itself. Programs were identified and
       organized according to the setting of the service provided. These service
       environments include: community, family, and school, as well as combinations of
       these settings. Seventy- seven programs were evaluated in all.

      Results: Conclusions based on this review focus on the need for future research.
       Additionally, this study showed that there are at least three ways that positive
       youth development programs have successfully engaged the family: through
       parental skills training, involving parents in program implementation, and
       involving parents in program design and development. It was also found that
       many of these programs share the common themes of: strengthening social,
       emotional, cognitive, and behavioral competence in children. The authors also
       discussed implications and limitations for additional research in this area.


CITATION: Developmental Research and Programs, Inc. (2000). Communities that
     care, Prevention strategies: A research guide to what works, Seattle, Washington:
     Author.

      Purpose: Specific aims of this research guide include:

       1. Examination of programs based on a risk and protective factor model of
          intervention.

       2. Review of programs organized by setting: family, school, and community.

       3. Discussion of how these programs operate, who they serve, and their research
          basis.

       4. This research and program guide offered suggestions on prevention based on
          research.

      Summary: This guide offered a well organized overview of different prevention
       programs that operate across the country. Each entry gave the intended target age
       group, the specific risk factors addressed, the protective factors to be enhanced,
       and a summary of the program itself. This guide can easily be used to model
       different types of programming to address the needs of particular youth with
       specific problems. Each section described the setting for the programs that
       followed by offering an explanation for the necessity of framing programs in that
                                                            Annotated Bibliography        16


       environment. Appendix A provided risk and protective factor charts that can be
       used to help identify strategies that can be incorporated into program planning.
       The risk and protective factor chart shows the strategies by risk factor addressed
       within each setting. This is done to easily identify the specific program strategies
       that attempt to address a particular risk factor and its corresponding set of
       protective factors to be strengthened. The development cross reference chart
       shows the strategies by developmental stage addressed. It can be used to identify
       all of the strategies that target young people at a given developmental stage.

      Definitions: Each of the environmental settings is defined in terms of their
       function in addressing risk factors and protective strategies. The family focus
       discusses how family can be viewed as a buffer against the risks for problem
       behaviors; it is asserted that healthy beliefs and standards are learned in the
       family. This can be drawn upon as a source for healthy child development. The
       school setting deals with the opportunities it brings to offer youth the ability to
       interact with a larger group of adults and peers. This setting is seen as vital as it
       becomes a significant force in the child‟s world. The community environment
       section is separated into two parts: community based youth programs and
       community focus. The first is described as a place providing opportunities for
       young people to be involved and perceived as assets, building skills for successful
       involvement, and recognition for their contributions. The second community area
       is defined as a context in which in which families raise their children, this takes
       on a more broad definition than the former which focuses on the youth as an
       individual.

      Structure: This recourse guide is structured by setting and further into type of risk
       addresses, it is overall, it is a well organized guide which has made it easy to
       locate pertinent information.



CITATION: Fergusson, D.M. & Lynskey, M.T. (1996). Adolescent resiliency to family
     adversity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 281- 292.


      Purpose: Specific aims of this study include:

       5. Examination of factors related to adolescent resiliency.

       6. Definition of resilient youth.

       7. Discussion of factors that protect against the effects of disadvantage.

       8. The suggestion that when risk factors are compounded effects are more
          predictable.

      Methods: Children were determined to be at high risk through the use of an index
       of family adversity. This index included 39 measures that were successful in
                                                             Annotated Bibliography        17


       indicating a wide range of behaviors associated with risk. A multivariate model
       was fitted to the data to identify resiliency factors that had significance associated
       with resiliency.

      Variables: Contrasts were made between groups of teens that were identified as
       resilient and those who were considered nonresilient. This was measured by the
       general index of family adversity.

      Subjects: The data on the youth was collected during a longitudinal study of a
       birth cohort of 1265 children born in 1977. The participants were studied at birth,
       four months, one year and annual intervals up to 16 years of age.

      Results: This study found that resilient adolescents were distinguished from their
       peers by having higher intelligence, being less prone to attention deficit
       behaviors, and displaying higher self esteem. Externally, they enjoyed school but
       no other external factors were significant. These groups differed on parental
       relationships and family environment,

      Implications: Conclusions based on this review focus on the need for future
       research specifically on how the combination of risk factors interact together to
       impact adolescent behavior.



CITATION: Frazer, M.W. (1997). The Ecology of Childhood: A Multisystems
     Perspective. In M.W. Frazer (Ed.) Risk and Resilience in Childhood (pp.1-9).
     Washington, DC: NASW Press.

      Purpose: Specific aims of this chapter include:

          1. An overview of the 20th century history of factors that effect children. This
          provided a context in which to view main concepts of resilience and risk
          factors.

          2. An explanation for the usefulness of an Ecological Theory as a lens
          through which to look at the risk and resilience of youth.

          3. The provision of working definitions of key concepts.

          4. An overview of a Multisystems Perspective and Ecological Theory.

          5. A theoretical set up and introduction to the rest of the book.

      Summary: This chapter is theoretical in nature and seeks to give one a framework
       from which to examine risk and protective factors. Specifically, it offers
       Ecological and Systems Perspectives as useful and familiar ways to look at these
       issues. The Ecological Perspective is said to contain an inclusive characteristic
                                                            Annotated Bibliography        18


       that is compatible with a risk and resilience perspective as it focuses on the
       individual in the context of environment. This environment is inclusive of the
       relationships one has with parents, peers, schools, neighborhoods, and the
       community as a whole. The Systems Perspective urges one to look at all possible
       factors and how they work in tandem, this idea is made more manageable and
       practice oriented by using a Multisystems approach which advocates for the
       simplification of this layering of various systems and limits focus to three system
       domains.

      Definitions: A risk factor is defined as any influence that increases the possibility
       of onset or digression to a more serious state, or the maintenance of a problem
       condition. A protective factor is defined as internal and external forces that help
       children resist risk. Resilience is said to arise from strengths that are incumbent in
       the environments of high risk children.

      Structure of the chapter: The last section of this chapter introduces topics in the
       remainder of the book and gives the reader an understanding of the outline used in
       these sections.


CITATION: Frazer, M.W. & Galanski, M.J. (1997). Toward a Resilience- Based Model
     of Practice. In M.W. Frazer (Ed.) Risk and Resilience in Childhood (pp.265-276).
     Washington, DC: NASW Press.

      Purpose: Specific aims of this chapter include:

          1. Acknowledgment of the limitations of Ecological and Systems perspectives
          as theories while advocating their usefulness as reminders and points of
          reference.

          2. Explaining the usefulness in a resilience perspective as a point of reference
          for practice.

          3. The basis of the resilience perspective.

          4. How to use resilience perspective and how it can be applied to specific
          practice situations.

          5. How this perspective can be used to improve understanding of human
          behavior.

      Summary: This chapter seeks to promote a resilience perspective by explaining
       how it works with other models. Further, it provides strategies for practice
       applications. The two essential elements of the risk and resilience perspective are:
       1. This model consists of a growing body of knowledge about individual and
       environmental markers that appear to underlie many childhood social and health
                                                              Annotated Bibliography        19


       problems. These markers can be thought of as elements of a common or cross
       cutting model for risk and protective factors.
       2. This perspective recognizes that some risk factors contribute uniquely to
       particular problems and that some protective factors provide safeguards against
       these problems.
       Implications for the usefulness of this approach are examined on a micro and
       macro level.

      Definitions: Keystone risks are defined as those conditions and social processes
       that are thought to be predominant in etiologic chains.

      Structure of the chapter: This chapter provided theoretical background for the
       resilience perspective as well as guidelines for practical applications. The
       implications this model suggests are far reaching and include work with families,
       individuals, groups, and communities.


CITATION: Fraser, M.W., Richman, J.M., & Galinski, M.J. (1999). Risk, protection,
     and resilience: Toward a conceptual framework for social work practice. Social
     Work Research, 23(3), 131- 143.


      Purpose: Specific aims of this study include:

       1. Examination of terminology and definitions used to discuss risk factors,
       protective factors, and resilience.

       2. Review of current literature on this topic area with particular focus on
       application to Social Work practice.

       3. Comparative discussion of how these terms have been operationalized
       throughout research.

       4. Implications for Social Work practice are reviewed and areas for future
       research are suggested.

      Risk: The concept of „risk factors‟ has been used in many different ways in many
       different fields of study. A clarification and explanation is offered in this article to
       shed light on how this can be properly framed within the context of Social Work.
       Risk factors are seen as markers or correlates and often considered causes of
       behaviors, attitudes, and conditions. Nonspecific risk factors have also been
       identified at different ecological levels including: individual, familial, and extra
       familial. While some researchers have identified specific risks, others posit that
       their cumulative impact is greater and is the bigger problem. Other sections look
       at assessing risk, how risk is developed, and how it can be viewed in context.
       Additionally, the authors use empirical studies to illustrate the importance in
       differences among gender, race, and ethnic groups. Lastly, the risk process is
                                                            Annotated Bibliography          20


       characterized as one that is passive, reactive, reflexive, and has opportunity
       effects.

      Protection and Protective Factors: Protective factors are most often used to refer
       to qualities that predict future outcomes through their ability to moderate,
       mediate, or compensate for risk. These are not merely the opposites of risk, but
       should be thought of as separate constructs that effect risk or problem states. In
       the literature five clusters of protective factors have emerged; they include:
       characteristic of temperament, skills and values, family support and structure,
       broader network of support, and the larger opportunity structure. The roles that
       protection can take on include: compensatory- having a direct effect on a
       problem, buffering- the degree to which they moderate risk, and cumulative-
       acting as both a suppressor and buffer to risk.

      Resilience: This construct is most often viewed as successful functioning in the
       context of high risk. It connotes unpredicted or markedly successful adaptation to
       negative life events, trauma, stress, and other forms of risk. This is seen as a
       particularly difficult concept to measure and is wrought with methodological
       difficulty.

      Conclusion: Conclusions based on this review assert that as research and practice
       become more closely conjoined through evidence based and other practice
       models, the conceptual framework presented by the risk and resilience perspective
       has the potential to be an organizing force for the theoretical bases and practice
       principles informing Social Work intervention.


CITATION: Kirby, L.D. & Frazer, M.W. (1997). Risk and Resilience in Childhood. In
     M.W. Frazer (Ed.) Risk and Resilience in Childhood (pp.10- 33). Washington,
     DC: NASW Press.

      Purpose: Specific aims of this chapter include:

          1. Explanation of the concepts involved in the risk and resilience perspective.

          2. Description of how risk factors work in context of environment.

          3. Description of how risk factors work in context of the individual as a trait.

          4. Description of the risk process, chain probabilities, and effects of stress.

          5. History and explanation of the interactions between risk and protective
          factors.

      Summary: This chapter is descriptive in nature and reviews historical and
       theoretical concepts in the area of risk and protective factors. This chapter starts
       with an overview of key concepts and how they work together in this framework,
                                                           Annotated Bibliography         21


       among these topics are: risk traits, contextual effects, stress, chain probabilities
       and resilience. The authors then refine these broader concepts to indicate the
       process by which they interact. An important point was made to differentiate
       between invulnerability and resilience: the former as being unaffected by a risk
       factor, and the latter as the presence of risk factors in combination with positive
       forces that contribute to positive outcomes. Cultural and developmental
       differences of risk and resilience were demonstrated as a reminder to look at these
       concepts in their context. The authors then continue to examine these
       relationships through different models including: interactive, systems, and a
       model for common risk and protective factors. These common factors were
       separated as being parts of different systems including: broad environmental
       conditions, family, school and neighborhood conditions, and individual
       psychosocial and biological characteristics.

      Definitions: A risk trait is defined as an individual‟s predisposition toward
       developing a specific problem condition. Contextual effects are defined as
       environmental conditions that have both direct and indirect effects on overall risk.

      Structure of the chapter: This section was designed to clarify and expand on the
       basic concepts presented in the first chapter as well as to provide the viewpoint by
       which risk and resilience is examined.


CITATION: Kraemer, H.C., Stice, E., Kazdin, A., Offord, D. & Kupfer, D. (2001). How
     do risk factors work together? Mediators, moderators, and independent,
     overlapping, and proxy risk factors. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 848-
     856.

      Purpose: Specific aims of this study include:

       1. Examination of methodological basis for investigating how risk factors work in
       tandem.

       2. Review of current empirical approaches based on literature across disciplines.

       3. Discussion of how two specific risk factors have been identified as working
       together to influence an outcome.

       4. The suggestion that organization of risk factors can contribute to successful
       preventative interventions.

       Methods: Approaches for the study of risk factors from the fields of psychology,
       epidemiology, clinical trials, and other sciences were collected and synthesized in
       an attempt to organize and make better use of this approach.

      Variables: In this study the use of terminology is assessed through an analysis of
       previous empirical and theoretical literature. Five different and clinically
                                                            Annotated Bibliography        22


       important ways in which two risk factors may work together to influence an
       outcome have been defined as: mediating, moderating, independent, overlapping,
       and proxy risk factors.

      Subjects: The concepts themselves are treated as subjects within the context of
       this article. The terms that are explored include: risk- the probability of an
       outcome, correlate- a measure associated with outcome, risk factor- a correlate
       shown to precede the outcome, causal risk factor- a risk factor that when changed
       is shown to change the outcome, and confounder- a variable that can cause or
       prevent an outcome. The authors also find that many researchers use different
       terms to name the similar concepts, a review and clarification of this is also
       presented.

      Results: Conclusions based on this review focus on the need for future research.
       Specifically, the authors felt that this study would start to bridge gaps between
       theory, the basic and clinical sciences, and clinical and policy applications for the
       risk factor perspective. Additionally, an understanding of how risk factors work
       together is seen as crucial in this field.


CITATION: Lerner, R. M. & Galambos, N. L. (1998). Adolescent development:
     Challenges and opportunities for research, programs, and policies. Annual Review
     of Psychology, 49, 413-446.

      Purpose: Specific aims of this study include:

       9. Examination the process of adolescent development in regard to challenges,
          development of programs and policies, and opportunities for future research.

       10. Review challenges during adolescence.

       11. Discussion of risk and protective factors during adolescence.

       12. The suggestion of types of policies and programs based on the factors
           outlined.

      Methods: This article is not empirical, yet it provided a prospective from which to
       view protective factors and suggested different types of future empirical research
       on his topic.

      Variables: Implications of several variables were discussed from empirical
       studies, these include: drug and alcohol use, sex, pregnancy, parenting, school
       problems in regard to diversity, delinquency, crime, violence, and poverty.

      Subjects: The youth discussed came from several different studies and were all
       termed as adolescent.
                                                           Annotated Bibliography        23


   Results: Conclusions based on this review focus on the need for future research.
    Many youth are able to successfully meet the challenges of adolescence, yet, for
    those who can not; it is the role of educators, social scientists, caregivers, parents,
    and public policy makers to create conditions in which they can succeed.

   Implications: Further research was indicated as needed to better understand these
    factors.



CITATION: Lopez, S.J. & McKnight, C.G. (2002). Moving in a positive direction:
Toward increasing the utility of positive youth development efforts. Prevention and
Treatment, 5(24) June.


   Purpose: Specific aims of this study include:

    1. Examination of the use of the term Positive Youth Development (PYD).

    2. Review of the theoretical underpinnings of this movement.

    3. Discussion of common factors associated with the change sought through this
    method.

    4. The suggestion of specific types of interventions that could benefit from PYD.

   Implications: The purpose of this article is to explore the questions that
    stakeholders have about the use of the youth development model. In an attempt to
    answer some of these questions, the authors offer a definition of PYD, explore
    issues related to theoretical background, process, and outcomes for attaining
    adolescent growth in this model.

   Definitions: The term “Positive Youth Development” has been described as an
    ongoing and inevitable process that refers to the youth not the institutions or
    programs that serve them. The authors go on to discuss a new definition of this
    term which is described as an ongoing process in which all youth are engaged and
    invested. Youth interact with their environment and positive agents (e.g., youth
    and adults that support healthy development, institutions that create climates
    conductive for growth, programs that foster change) to meet their basic needs and
    cultivate assets. Through the youths‟ initiative, momentum builds and youth who
    are capable of meeting basic needs challenge themselves to attain other goals;
    youth use assets to build additional psychological resources that facilitate growth.
    Ideally, PYD generates physical and psychological competencies that serve to
    facilitate the transition into an adulthood characterized by striving for continued
    growth.

   Theory: The theory used to ground this approach seems to be in its focus on the
    process by which agents help youth meet their needs and develop assets.
                                                         Annotated Bibliography       24


    Development is viewed as part of the ongoing process in which youth negotiate
    and respond to not only institutions but family, peers, and the community. It is not
    wholly reliant on the application of programs or intervention.

   Results: Conclusions based on this review focus on the need for future research.
    The authors also critique the applicability of Catalano, Berglund, Ryan, Lonczac,
    & Hawkins‟ work as they do not discuss the theoretical underpinnings of the PYD
    approach.



CITATION: Rak, C.F. & Patterson, L.E. (1996). Promoting resilience in at- risk
children. Journal of Counseling & Development, 74, 368- 373.


   Purpose: Specific aims of this study include:

    1. Examination of effective methods of intervention for youth at risk.

    2. Review of current views of education and social service policy makers in
      regard to effective use of interventions.

    3. Discussion of current research which suggests that particular protective factors
      buffer youth from negative consequences.

    4. The suggestion of the use of an assessment technique that can identify
      strategies to promote a salutogenesis prospective.

   Methods: This theoretical article explores the possible early onset causes of a
    youth to become at- risk in conjunction with protective factors that may contribute
    to positive outcomes. The phenomenon of resiliency is explored historically
    through the discussion of previous research.

   Variables: The variables that are reviewed are taken from past literature on the
    topic. Included are working definitions of resiliency and protective factors as
    operationalized in previous research efforts. The concept of salutogenesis is
    defined as health oriented model of describing strengths of at- risk children. This
    construct literally means the origins of health, which is asserted to be a foundation
    for building elements for better lives among the population of at- risk youth.

   Subjects: The population of youth at- risk is described as those having an array of
    interpersonal, family, and environmental disadvantages. The authors examine
    personal, family and environmental characteristics of resilient children and
    contrast them with at- risk youth.

   Results: Conclusions based on this review focus on the need for future research.
    Additionally, contrary conclusions were made about the thrust of current literature
    which focuses on poverty, family discord, violence, abuse, and illness. These
                                                            Annotated Bibliography         25


       authors counter that these factors do not have to be seen as bleak and do not
       necessarily contribute to children becoming at- risk. Instead, protective factors
       such as temperament of children, unexpected sources of support, and self esteem
       may be sources of strength that lead to successes in life. This article uses a
       strength based perspective to maximize the use of protective factors for youth.
       The conclusion specifically targets counselors and implores them to enhance these
       resources in attempts to maximize an adolescent‟s chances at success.

      Implications: Further research was indicated as needed to better understand these
       factors and how they play out over time.



CITATION: Rutter, M. (1985). Resilience in the face of adversity: Protective factors
     and resistance to psychiatric disorder. British journal of Psychiatry, 147, 598-
     611.

      Purpose: Specific aims of this study include:

       1. Historical examination of relevant concepts and approaches to research
       involving resilience.

       2. Review of three phases of emphasis in the study of resilience.

       3. Discussion of general conclusions that can be reached based on the research to
       date.

       4. The suggestion that the focus of future research should be in the mechanisms
       that foster resilience.

      Phases: The first major phase in the study of resilience involved the
       demonstration that bad experiences did serve to produce or precipitate psychiatric
       disturbances. This was largely based on the work of Bowlby. The second phase in
       the study of resilience was marked by researcher‟s attempts to provide a better
       conceptualization of the different types of life experiences. The third phase is seen
       as the universal observation that even with the most severe stressors and the most
       glaring adversities; it is unusual for more than half of children to succumb,
       possibly demonstrating resilience.

      Concepts: The definitions of the familiar concepts of resilience are reviewed. The
       terms that are of particular interest in this article involve the constructs of the
       „interactive process‟, „multiple social adversities‟, „mechanisms‟, „timing‟, and
       „meaning‟. It is thought that these have an important effect on resilience.

      Results: Conclusions based on this review focus on the need for future research.
       Of the empirical evidence available at the time of this article, it was felt that
       explanations for resilience would probably include: the patterning of stresses,
                                                            Annotated Bibliography         26


       individual differences caused by both constitutional and experiential factors,
       compensating factors outside of the home, the development of self- esteem, the
       scope and range of available opportunities, an appropriate degree of structure and
       control, the availability of personal bonds and intimate relationships, and the
       acquisition of coping skills. Subsequent research has found that this list of
       contributing factors has been empirically confirmed.



CITATION: Rutter, M. (1987). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms.
     American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57(3), 316- 331.

      Purpose: Specific aims of this study include:

       1. Examination of mechanisms that can protect against the psychological risks
       associated with adversity.

       2. Review of how these mechanisms work in relation to the processes of the
       reduction of risk impact, reduction of negative chain reactions, self esteem, and
       opening of opportunity.

       3. Discussion of how these mechanisms can contribute to resilience.

       4. The suggestion that future research focus should be on the protective process.

       Methods: Protective mechanisms are discussed in relation to how they can guard
       against psychological risks associated with adversity as part of a process.

      Variables: These mechanisms are reviewed in terms of how they may be
       impacted by the variables of sex, temperament, parent- child relationships, marital
       support, planning, school experiences, and life turning points.

      Results: Conclusions based on this review focus on the need for future research.
       Results show that in some situations girls may experience more protection than
       boys by virtue of their gender; they are seen to be exposed to less risk factors than
       boys. In terms of temperament, the youth with adverse features were more often
       the target of parental hostility which is seen as a risk factor. Parent- child
       relationships may be seen as protective factors as this rapport can foster self
       esteem. Marital support as defined as a close confiding relationship is seen as a
       protective factor against many problems, risk to depression was discussed in this
       context. Planning was seen as protective against teenage pregnancy and
       relationships with deviant men. School experiences either academic or
       nonacademic were seen as a reinforcer of self esteem as well. Life turning points
       is protective in opening opportunities for career and family. Overall, these
       mediating mechanisms appear to contribute to resilience. An area for future study
       has been suggested to focus on the mechanisms operating at key turning points in
       people‟s lives when a risk trajectory may be redirected onto a more adaptive path.
                                                           Annotated Bibliography        27



CITATION: Thorpe, M.B. & Swart, G.T. (1992). Risk and protective factors affecting
    children in foster care: A pilot study of the role of siblings. Canadian Journal of
    Psychiatry, 37, 616- 622.

    Purpose: Specific aims of this study include:

     1. Examination of siblings as a protective factor for youth at risk.

     2. Review of 115 siblings taken into care simultaneously at the Children‟s Aid
       Society

     3. Discussion of risk and protective factors of youth in foster care with a focus on
       sibling involvement as a positive impacting variable.

     4. The suggestion that sibling involvement may help in controlling the impact of
       risk factors, yet, hinder symptom management.

    Methods: A retrospective chart review of cases from the Children‟s Aid Society
     was done to assess risk and protective factors. A check list of 18 symptoms was
     used to assess the participants across 32 specific risk and protective factor fields.

    Variables: The18 symptom checklist included, but was not limited to: emotional
     problems, hyperactivity, eating disorders, nightmares, enuresis, encopresis,
     criminal behavior, substance abuse, verbal and physical aggression, sexual acting
     out, self- mutilation, fears/ phobias, and other problems described as “neurotic”.

    Subjects: The youth consisted of all closed cases of children who were placed in
     foster care with their siblings on the same day. Those who were excluded were
     families with siblings who had different fathers and youth who had been placed
     due to particular behavior problems found to be specific to the child instead of the
     family as a whole.

    Results: Conclusions based on this review focus on the need for future research.
     Specifically, this study found that siblings who were separated fared better in
     terms of symptomatology and school functioning. It was posited that despite
     popular policies and beliefs of the benefits of keeping sibling together, it may be
     in their best interests to separate them in foster care placement. Of the 32
     protective factors examined, they proved to be beneficial only when the youth
     were living at home with birth parents.

    Implications: Further research was indicated as needed to better understand these
     factors. Specifically, a prospective study using standardized rating scales of
     symptoms, school performance, and social functioning was suggested as a next
     step to better understanding and generalizing these findings.
                                                            Annotated Bibliography        28



CITATION: Werner, E.E. (1989). High risk children in young adulthood: A longitudinal
study from birth to 32 years. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59(1), 72- 81.

      Purpose: Specific aims of this study include:

       1. Examination of the development courses of high- risk and resilient children in a
       follow- up study of members of a 1955 birth cohort.

       2. Review of how the relative impact of risk and protective factors has changed at
       various life phases.

       3. Discussion of how these risk factors differ among males and females in this
       study.

       4. The suggestion that certain protective factors seem to have a more general
       effect on adaptation than do specific risk factors.

       Methods: From 1985- 1986, 80% of the surviving respondents of the sample
       obtained in the 1955 birth cohort were located for the purposes of this follow- up
       study. The majority of this sample is identified as having been „problem children‟.
       The instruments administered to this group included: a checklist of stressful life
       events, Rotter‟s Locust of Control scale, the EAST Temperament Survey for
       Adults, and a structured interview.

      Variables: The variables included in this study are: stressful life events,
       identification as resilient, marriage, education and vocation, sources of worry,
       sources of support, and children.

      Subjects: The individuals for this follow- up study were comprised of 80% of
       those sampled in the original birth cohort of 1955.

      Results: Conclusions based on this review focus on the need for future research.
       Additionally, three types of protective factors have emerged from this analysis of
       developmental life courses of high risk children from infancy to adulthood. These
       include: dispositional attitudes of the individual, affect ional ties, and external
       support systems. Implications for clinical practice indicate a shift from a client
       vulnerability focus to one of resilience through decreasing exposure to risk. An
       implication for future research was identified as investigating how the chain of
       direct and indirect linkages between protective factors is established over time so
       as to foster escape from adversity for vulnerable children.
                                                              Annotated Bibliography          29


                                         Summary


       The first five months of this project has focused on the review of relevant

literature in the area of protective factors and foster care youth. This process has brought

about some general conclusions that can be drawn upon to guide the next portion of this

project. To summarize these findings and their potential impact on this project, we would

like to review some of the major themes revealed in the literature.

       First, it is necessary to recognize the different ways the terms risk, resilience, and

protective factor are treated in the literature. They are defined and viewed very differently

among authors. Overall, it is important to keep in mind that these constructs can be used

to describe three different concepts: 1. a characteristic of a person. 2. a process. And 3.

an outcome. When reading this literature it is imperative to keep these possibilities in

mind and be able to ascertain how they are framing their concepts. For further

clarification of terminology please refer to Fraser, M.W., Richman, J.M., & Galinski,

M.J. (1999).

       Second, it has become evident that what may be a protective factor for one

adolescent may be a risk factor for another. The proper use of the protective and risk

factor prospective hinges on a good fit for the individual. Although this sounds as though

this would make the practicality of this approach difficult, it is not, this should only serve

as a reminder to those who do direct work with adolescents to be mindful of individual

differences. The broader categories of protective factors appear to hold constant across

literature and populations.

       Third, the concepts of “developmental assets” and “youth development” appear to

be closely tied to the application of protective factors within programs. This discovery
                                                               Annotated Bibliography       30


has been helpful in locating literature on this topic area as well as providing information

on programs and their efficacy. For the most part, the concepts identified as “protective”

are the same as those identified as a “developmental asset” or a component of “youth

development”. The only part that seems to differ is where these terms are being used,

academic literature seems to prefer “protective factor” while policy and program

literature prefers “developmental asset”, “ youth development” is used least across

literature of any type. Now that we have summarized and clarified our findings from the

first part of this project, we will turn to describing the plans for the second part.

                             Next Stages of Research Project

        As stated above, the concept of developmental assets have proved helpful in

understanding the practical applications of protective factors for youth, for this reason it

seems appropriate to let these ideas guide the development of the “Resource Guide”

which is the second piece in this work. Specifically, it is our intention to collect

information and possibly survey those who serve foster care youth. This will be done

through a combination of methods which may include: interviews of community service

providers, foster care personnel, and foster care parents, interviews with service

providers, and existing data sources. The methods for attaining data will be specified as

this portion of the project is further developed. Similarly, the geographic scope of this

assessment will be decided by the magnitude of service providers in our immediate area.

As this project has lead us into unknown areas we feel that it is important to let the

findings guide or future efforts, attempting to make information fit into a predetermined

formula will only hinder our work.
                                                             Annotated Bibliography          31


       Although it is uncertain where the second part of this research will take us, it is

possible that a proposed third part could be to conduct a needs assessment for foster

parents in the community. This would give us the opportunity to ascertain how the

existing community services match the needs of those that they are attempting to serve.

             Assets/ Protective Factors to be Assessed for Resource Book

       From the information collected on this topic to date, we have developed some

types of protective factors and assets that appear to be accepted as areas for further

development. These will be used as a basis for organizing and collecting information for

our “Resource Book”.



                           Assets/ Protective Factors

Asset or Protective            Asset or Factor Name               Definition
Factor Type
                          EXTERNAL ASSETS or FACTORS
Support                     Family support            Family life provides high
                                                      levels of love and support.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                            Positive family           Young person and her or his
                            communication             parent(s) communicate
                                                      positively, and young
                                                      person is willing to seek
                                                      advice and counsel from
                                                      parent(s).
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                            Other adult relationships Young person receives
                                                      support from three or more
                                                      nonparent adults.
How is this asset addressed
                                                       Annotated Bibliography     32


with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Caring neighborhood          Young person experiences
                                                           caring neighbors.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Caring school climate        School provides a caring,
                                                           encouraging environment.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Parent involvement in        Parent(s) are actively
                              schooling                    involved in helping young
                                                           person succeed in school.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
Empowerment                   Community values youth       Young person perceives
                                                           that adults in the
                                                           community value youth.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Youth as resources           Young people are given
                                                           useful roles in the
                                                           community.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Service to others            Young person serves in the
                                                           community one hour or
                                                           more per week.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Safety                       Young person feels safe at
                                                           home, at school, and in the
                                                           neighborhood.
                                                        Annotated Bibliography     33


How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
Boundaries and                Family boundaries             Family has clear rules and
Expectations                                                consequences, and monitors
                                                            the young person's
                                                            whereabouts.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              School boundaries             School provides clear rules
                                                            and consequences.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Neighborhood boundaries       Neighbors take
                                                            responsibility for
                                                            monitoring young people's
                                                            behavior.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Adult role models             Parent(s) and other adults
                                                            model positive, responsible
                                                            behavior.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Positive peer influence       Young person's best friends
                                                            model responsible behavior.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              High expectations             Both parent(s) and teachers
                                                            encourage the young person
                                                            to do well.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                                                    Annotated Bibliography      34


Constructive Use              Creative activities       Young person spends three
of Time                                                 or more hours per week in
                                                        lessons or practice in music,
                                                        theater, or other arts.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Youth programs            Young person spends three
                                                        or more hours per week in
                                                        sports, clubs, or
                                                        organizations at school
                                                        and/or in community
                                                        organizations.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Religious community       Young person spends one
                                                        hour or more per week in
                                                        activities in a religious
                                                        institution
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Time at home              Young person is out with
                                                        friends "with nothing
                                                        special to do" two or fewer
                                                        nights per week.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                           INTERNAL ASSETS or FACTORS
Commitment to Learning Achievement motivation       Young person is motivated
                                                    to do well in school.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              School engagement     Young person is actively
                                                    engaged in learning.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
                                                            Annotated Bibliography       35


provided by your agency?
                              Homework                          Young person reports doing
                                                                at least one hour of
                                                                homework every school
                                                                day.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Bonding to school                 Young person cares about
                                                                her or his school.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Reading for pleasure              Young person reads for
                                                                pleasure three or more
                                                                hours per week.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
Positive Values               Caring                            Young person places high
                                                                value on helping other
                                                                people.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Equality and social justice       Young person places high
                                                                value on promoting equality
                                                                and reducing hunger and
                                                                poverty.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Integrity                         Young person acts on
                                                                convictions and stands up
                                                                for her or his beliefs.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Honesty                           Young person "tells the
                                                                truth even when it is not
                                                         Annotated Bibliography     36


                                                             easy."
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Responsibility                 Young person accepts and
                                                             takes personal
                                                             responsibility.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Restraint                      Young person believes it is
                                                             important not to be sexually
                                                             active or to use alcohol or
                                                             other drugs.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
Social Competencies           Planning and decision          Young person knows how
                              making                         to plan ahead and make
                                                             choices.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Interpersonal competence       Young person has empathy,
                                                             sensitivity, and friendship
                                                             skills.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Cultural competence            Young person has
                                                             knowledge of and comfort
                                                             with people of different
                                                             cultural/racial/ethnic
                                                             backgrounds.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Resistance skills              Young person can resist
                                                             negative peer pressure and
                                                             dangerous situations.
                                                          Annotated Bibliography      37


How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Peaceful conflict resolution    Young person seeks to
                                                              resolve conflict
                                                              nonviolently.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
Positive Identity             Personal power                  Young person feels he or
                                                              she has control over "things
                                                              that happen to me."
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Self-esteem                     Young person reports
                                                              having a high self-esteem.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?
                              Sense of purpose                Young person reports that
                                                              "my life has a purpose."
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?

                              Positive view of personal       Young person is optimistic
                              future                          about her or his personal
                                                              future.
How is this asset addressed
with foster care youth
through the services
provided by your agency?

				
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posted:1/17/2012
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