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					PROTOTYPE LESSON PLANS IN ENGLISH, THIRD YEAR                             DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

QUARTER         3:       QUALITY, NOT QUANTITY
Week            2:       Impact

I.    OBJECTIVES

      A. Listening/Speaking
         1. Listen to determine the worth of ideas
         2. Share ideas in a round table discussion

      B. Reading
         1. Note the new data provided as the text unfolds and use them as basis for
            modifying, expanding, or affirming hypothesis made
         2. Take down notes from a reading text using diagrams

      C. Vocabulary
         1. Get the meanings of words from context
         2. Arrange words from the least to the greatest in intensity

      D. Writing
         1. Discuss the characteristics of a good short story
         2. Use vivid verbs in writing an interesting short story

      E. Grammar
         1. Transform statements into questions
         2. Use the right question patterns in seeking information

      F. Literature
         1. Analyze and explain how the setting contributes to the overall theme of the
            selection
         2. Point out and express appreciation for the author’s choice of specific details

II.   SUBJECT MATTER

        Texts: 1. “You Can Build A Better World” by Rodolfo M. Aluyen
                2. “The Global Rich and the Global Poor: Seeking the Middle Path” by
                   Chandra Muzaffar, adapted from “The Theosophical Digest,”
                   4th Quarter 2001
                3. “Old Man at the Bridge” by Ernest Hemingway, English Arts III,
                   pp. 282-284, p. 292



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                4. Other References:
                   a. Grammar: Question Transformation,
                      English III. SEDP Series,
                      pp. 38-40
                   b. Fun with Grammar, pp. 114-115, 124-125
                   c. True/False Preview
                   d. (Using vivid verbs)
                      “Painless Writing” by
                      Jeffrey Strausser, pp.37-42

III. PROCEDURE

     Day 1

     A. Previewing
           Write on the board intolerance, discrimination and prejudice which were
         assigned to the class.
        1. Do these words have similar meanings? If not, in what ways are they different?
        2. Give a word and with a partner think of an example to illustrate its meaning.

     B. Tasks

          Task 1
             Listen to the text. Take note of examples of intolerance, discrimination and
          prejudice.

          Task 2
          1. [Take this up with the class.]
             Recall the bases of evaluating the relevance and validity of ideas.
             a. Your personal observation or experience
             b. Personal interviews with knowledgeable persons or authoritative sources
             c. Current publications and other reference materials.
          2. Do you agree that . . . [Ask the student to explain his/her answer.]
             a. “One reason fights are started is that one person cannot let another be
                different.”
             b. “We do not carry much of the prejudice and discrimination of yesteryears.”
             c. “Today we have become tolerant of others.”


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     C. Closure
           Round Table Discussion (by groups)
           Guidelines in Conducting a Successful Round Table Discussion
        1. The leader of the group should:
            a. explain the topic to be discussed.
            b. give every member a time limit within which to express his or her views
            c. summarize the ideas presented.

          2.    The members should:
                a. listen to the speakers attentively
                b. think about what is being said

          3.    Each one should be prepared with ideas for discussion. Ideas should be
                based on observation, experience, or authoritative sources.

                Share ideas on:
                      How tolerance and open-mindedness can be instrumental in building a
                   better world.

     D. Assignment
        1. What does solidarity mean?
        2. Give evidences of the wide gap between the rich and the poor.
        3. How can we narrow the gap?

                Listening Passage:

                     Whenever arguments turn into fisticuffs, the people involved
                invariably get hurt. One reason fights are started is that one
                person cannot let another be different. For example, if you follow
                beliefs and practices foreign to your classmates, you often get
                teased about them. Or, if you dress differently, others very often
                make fun of you. In extreme cases, you may be forced to defend
                your beliefs and practices with body and soul.

                     The direction taken by individuals or groups who cannot let
                others be different can be pursued by nations. What would
                happen if one nation refused to respect the culture of another, or
                thought its culture superior to the other and sought to undermine,
                if not destroy the latter? Fortunately, people — and the nations
                they constitute — do not carry much of the prejudice and
                discrimination of yesteryear. It can be rightly said that today




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                  we have become tolerant of others whether they come from
                  different creeds. Thus, Christian Filipinos, Muslim Filipinos,
                  Chinese Filipinos and our often-ignored cultural minorities have
                  come to learn each other’s ways and habits and understand
                  each other better. We can now live under the same roof as
                  brothers — or can we?



        Day 2

        A. Recapitulation
              What is a usual reason for fighting?
              How can we build a better world?

        B. Tasks

             Task 1
                  Describe what you see in these pictures? (Pictures should show
             differences between rich and poor).

             Task 2
                 Go over the selection. Figure out the meaning of each of the words below
             with your seatmate.
             1. Transgress as used in the third paragraph means
                 a. to be determined by
                 b. to be affected by
                 c. to go beyond the limits set by
                 d. to sin
             2. Disparity as used in the fourth paragraph means
                 a. misunderstanding
                 b. great difference
                 c. difficulties
                 d. important issues
             3. Chaos, which is also in the fourth paragraph means
                 a. complete disorder
                 b. complete order
                 c. agreement
                 d. differences
             4. Exploitation means
                 a. using to the fullest
                 b. using for one’s own selfish ends
                 c. cheating
                 d. getting all the profit


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             5.   Oppression means
                  a. abusive treatment
                  b. cruel treatment
                  c. deceitful treatment
                  d. dishonest treatment
             6.   Opulence means
                  a. great profit
                  b. great wealth
                  c. great difficulty
                  d. great success
             7.   Upheaval as used in the second paragraph means
                  a. violent change
                  b. uplifting of part of the earth’s crust
                  c. improvement
                  d. problem

             Task 3
                Read the statements and answer with true or false.
             1. One serious threat to mankind is differences in socio-economic status of
                men.
             2. Humans have been well-guided by spiritual-moral principles in their
                economic undertakings.
             3. Globalization is helpful in improving socio-economic conditions of people
                around the world.
             4. Solidarity can be achieved despite great differences in socio-economic
                status of men.

                                            The Global Rich and the Global Poor:
                                                  Seeking the Middle Path
                                                       Chandra Muzaffar

                              It is the gap between the rich and the poor, which
                         endangers the future of humankind.

                               In the past, this gap caused great social upheavals.
                         There were times when it started peasant uprisings. There
                         were points in history when it triggered political revolutions.

                                The divide between rich and poor has become more
                         threatening. As globalization creates a borderless world, the
                         existence of the rich and poor acquires a global dimension. The
                         possibilities for their conditions transgress domestic forces. For
                         example the wealth of the global rich is sustained to a certain
                         degree, by global enterprises and markets, in the same way that
                         the poverty of the poor is caused to some extent by international
                         trade systems and the course of foreign investments.

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                                Since the disparities between rich and the poor contribute
                         to social instability, within nations, it is easy to think that it would
                         lead to economic and political chaos. Such idea is strengthened
                         by the seriousness of poverty in the world, much more by the
                         widening gap between rich and poor.

                                Today, “1.3 billion people live on incomes of less than
                         one dollar a day, 515 million people in South Asia live in
                         absolute poverty; 220 million in sub-Sahara Africa; 110 million in
                         Latin America and the Caribbean.”

                                A more serious threat is the chasm between rich and the
                         poor, which was widened in recent years. In 1960, 20% of the
                         people who live in the richest countries had 30 times the income
                         of the poorest 20% by 1995 82 times as much income.”

                                The persistence of poverty despite the knowledge and
                         techniques that we have to eliminate it, could be explained by
                         several factors. One is the misallocation of resources.

                                 “South Asia, for instance, spent 15 million on the military
                         in 1995, more than what it would cost annually to achieve basic
                         health and nutrition for all worldwide. Sub-Sahara Africa spent
                         8 billion, about the same as the estimated annual cost of
                         achieving universal access to safe water and sanitation in all
                         developing countries. And East Asia spent 51 billion, nine times
                         the annual amount needed to ensure basic education for all.”

                                Wrong priorities could be traced to vested interests. The
                         benefits obtained by a few from military expenditure or some
                         other prestige project or big business push aside the welfare of
                         the poor. The state of the poor is even worsened by corruption
                         in governments.

                                More than these factors, responsible for the plight of the
                         unfortunate is that in present society, the wealthy have gained
                         admiration and respect. It is increasingly evident that greed has
                         become acceptable, which brings the idea that men have
                         viewed economic endeavor as separate from moral
                         considerations.

                               A spiritual-moral framework that would guide economic
                         undertakings is necessary in moving towards the eradication of



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                       poverty. Five spiritual-moral principles must direct all economic
                       decisions and acts.

                            One, man must live according to the religious belief that life is
                       transient. It is the life after death that is eternal. In preparation for this,
                       he must not be attracted to worldly possessions. A Hindu religious text
                       compares the increase of wealth to the increasing mirage of water,
                       which can never satisfy thirst, for true happiness, can never be found
                       in wealth.

                             Two, religious instructions convey that the purpose of life is
                       service to God. The fulfillment of this is in the performance of good
                       deeds, the practice of noble values, and the upholding of truth and
                       justice.

                            The exploitation and oppression of the weak for the extravagance
                       and opulence of some, contradicts the ideal justice.

                            Three, human beings have been endowed by God with dignity as
                       he is made by God’s image. He has been entrusted with power and
                       authority over the earth. He must prove deserving of God’s trust by
                       preserving his dignity. If he accepts an economy that sacrifices the
                       poor for the sake of the rich, he is not giving due value to God’s gifts.

                            Four, justice is of utmost importance in religion.          The
                       extravagance of a few which causes the deprivation of basic needs for
                       many, harms human dignity and contradicts social justice. Justice is
                       the outcome of devotion and reverence to God.

                             Five, men must work to attain solidarity. This is a religious ideal,
                       which extends beyond the human family. It is the interdependence of
                       all that exists. It refers to the bond within humans and the link between
                       the human being and nature. Unless a solution that would lessen the
                       social disparities between rich and poor is reached, solidarity cannot
                       fully be attained. The five spiritual-moral imperatives reveal that the
                       religious view of justice and human dignity is concerned not only with
                       economic and social change. It leads men to live according to God’s
                       will.

                             The idea of a justly balanced middle community will help man live
                       a life that God wants him to live. The lifestyle in the middle path would




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                 be characterized by balance, avoiding both extreme denial of the
                 usual pleasures in life and over-indulgence of desires.

                         Men must understand that allowing a great number of people to
                 suffer in poverty is not only immoral but also dehumanizing. When as
                 witnesses to the misery of the poor, we fail to help them, we are being
                 unfaithful to our humanity.      Likewise, the lifestyle of the elite
                 dehumanizes the elite themselves. For to be human is to be caring
                 and compassionate. When we ignore the elite’s obsession with their
                 wealth at the expense of the rest of humankind, we are not being true
                 to our moral values as human beings. We are guilty of sacrificing our
                 humanity out of self-interest.

                                                  Adapted from the “The Theosophical Digest”
                                                  4th Quarter 2002



            Task 4
                 Share with the class short explanations proving or disproving your answers
            to the true or false pre-reading exercise.
            1.   Scan the selection for the causes of global poverty.         Write them on the
                 boxes.




                                                         Global Poverty




            2.   Fill each oval with a spiritual-moral principle that must direct economic
                 decisions and acts.



                                          Economic
                                          Undertakings




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            Task 5
               Class Discussion
               (Answers to comprehension activities 1 and 2 will be discussed)

            1. How does globalization make the gap between rich and poor more
               threatening?
            2. How could the disparities between rich and poor lead to chaos?
            3. How would you explain the concept of the middle path?

        C. Closure
               Complete the statement: It is possible to attain solidarity in our world
           through...

        D. Assignment
             Write your reflection on the lesson we had.

        Day 3

        A. Recapitulation and sharing on assigned task
           1. Ask 2-3 students to read their reflections to the class.
           2. Tell the rest of the class to ask each reader a yes-no question.

        B. Tasks

            Task 1
               Write on the board some of the questions for the students to observe certain
            patterns.

            1. Take note of the position of the verbs be, do and the auxiliary have in a yes-
               no question.
            2. What responses/answers are elicited by the question words: Who, What,
               When, Where and How?

                   Write examples of sentences that can be transformed to yes-no questions.
                Guide the class in changing them to questions and then forming
                generalization.



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                         Generalization:

                                  We can transform any statement into a yes-no
                             question by moving the verb be auxiliary in the verb
                             phrase to a position before the subject.
                                  When have is an auxiliary, it simply reverses position
                             with the subject to form a question.
                                  When have is a verb, a question can be formed either
                             by inverting have and the subject, or by using the do-
                             transformation.
                                  When we wish to apply the question-transformation to
                             a sentence that does not contain an auxiliary, we must
                             supply the auxiliary. This is done by inserting a form of do
                             (do, does, did) in the sentence.


           Task 2
           A. Complete the question transformation with the right form of do.
                      1. Nations try to overcome religious differences and political divisions?
                         ___ nations try to overcome religious differences and political
                         divisions?
                      2. __________ differences in ideology erupted into violent conflict, fifty
                         years ago?
                      3. The world continues its quests for peace.
                         _______the world continue its quest for peace?
                      4. People want to settle differences
                         ______people want to settle differences?


                      5. Globalization presents new challenges.
                         ________globalization present new challenges?


           B.    Transform each of the following statements into yes-no questions.
                 1.   Differences in socio-economic status pose new concerns.
                 2.   Religion encourages the strengthening of spiritual-moral values.




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                 3.   People began to realize the value of communication.
                 4.   Nations participated in world movements.
                 5.   Every nation needs to respect and be respected.
                 6.   Some words have different meanings to different regions in a country.
                 7.   Some incidents of death have horrible phenomena to many but to some
                      religious sects, these were sacred offerings.



           C.    Substitute a question word for each underlined part of the sentence. Then
                 transform each statement below into a WH-question.

                 1.   Democracy is the ideology of most countries.
                 2.   World War II broke out due to differences in ideology.
                 3.   Violent conflicts can be avoided through communication for mutual
                      understanding.
                 4.   The Second World War ended in Asia.
                 5.   The explosion of two atomic bombs ended war.
                 6.   In 1945, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
                      Organization (UNESCO) was adopted by the United Nations System.

      C. Closure

           1.    Arrange students in pairs and give one student Worksheet A and the other
                 Worksheet B. They should work separately to write appropriate question to
                 each answer. The questions must correspond to the underlined word. For
                 example, given the answer Kathy worked yesterday, the correct question is
                 When did Kathy work? Such questions as Where did Kathy work? Or
                 Kathy work? would not be acceptable.


           2.    The partners exchange papers and check each other’s questions. They also
                 help each other rewrite any questions not worded correctly.




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Worksheet A


    Write a question for each of the answers. Use a question word that corresponds to the
underlined parts of the sentence.


Example: When did Kathy work?                   Kathy worked yesterday.


1. ____________________                         John watched T.V..


2. ____________________                         Mary studied in the library.


3. ____________________                         She was talking to Debbie.


4. ____________________                         The movie began at 7:30.


5. ____________________                         Ali went to the dentist because he had a cavity.


6. ____________________                         My watch costs 5350.00.


7. ____________________                         I bought three bags of ice.


8. ____________________                         They missed the party because they had a flat tire.


9. ____________________                         I am going to the zoo today.


10. ____________________                        Akiko saw a movie last night.




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Worksheet B


      Write a question for each of the answers. Use a question word that corresponds to
the underlined parts of the sentences.


        Example: When did Kathy work?                 Kathy worked yesterday.




    1. ____________________                           Jeremy played basketball.


    2. ____________________                           Jose rode his bike to school.


    3. ____________________                           I was writing a letter to my mother.


    4. ____________________                           Class begins at 8:00.


    5. ____________________                           Ken stayed home last night because he
                                                      didn’t have enough money for the movie.


    6. ____________________                           Kenji has three sisters.


    7. ____________________                           I spent 5300.00 on gifts for my family.


    8. ____________________                           My parents were angry because they didn’t
                                                      leave any gas in the can.


    9. ____________________                           Mohammed is going to visit me next week.


    10. ____________________                          Yuko bought a new coat at the mall.




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       D. Assignment
          1. Look up the meaning of the following words
             a. a pontoon bridge
             b. explore the bridgehead
             c. because of the artillery
          2. What happens to civilians during the war?
          3. What are the bad effects of war?

       Day 4

       A. Recapitulation
            Ask yes-no questions or WH-questions about “Old Man at the Bridge”.

       B. Tasks

            Task 1
            1. What is described in the first paragraph of the story?
            2. What words/phrases tell you that the setting is an on-going war?
            3. Describe the old man. What was he worrying about?
            4. What is the purpose of the storyteller when he mentioned the old man’s
               smile? Contrast the smile with the description of the old man.
            5. Was the old man really worried about his animals or was he worried about
               something else? Explain your answer.
            6. What do you think will happen to the old man? Cite evidences in the story to
               support your answer.
            7. Who do you think is the storyteller? Why did the author relate the story from
               the “I” point of view?

                                                Old Man at the Bridge
                                                   Ernest Hemingway


                    An old man with steel-rimmed spectacles and very dusty clothes sat
                by the side of the road. There was a pontoon bridge across the river and
                carts staggered up to the steep bank from the bridge with soldiers
                helping push against the spokes of the wheels. The trucks ground up
                and away heading out of it all the peasants plodded along the ankle
                deep dust. But the old man sat there without moving. He was too tired to
                go any farther.

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                    It was my business to cross the bridge, explore the bridgehead
                beyond and find out to what points the enemy had advanced. I did this
                and returned over the bridge. There were not so many carts now and
                very few people on foot, but the old man was still there.

                     “Where do you come from?,” I asked him.

                     “From San Carlos, “ he said, and smiled.

                    That was his native town so it gave him pleasure to mention it,
                and he smiled.

                     “I was taking care of animals,” he explained.

                     “Yes,” he said, not quite understanding.

                     “Yes,” he said, “I stayed, you see, taking care of animals. I was
                the last one to leave the town of San Carlos.”

                    He did not look at the shepherd not he a herdsman and I looked
                at his dusty clothes and his gray dusty face and his steel-rimmed
                spectacles and said. “What animals were they?”

                    “Various animals,” he said, and shook his head. “I had to leave
                them.”

                    I was watching the bridge and the African-looking country of the
                Ebro Delta and wondering how long now it would be before we would
                see the enemy, and listening all the while for the first noises that
                would signal that ever mysterious event called contact, and the old
                man still sat there.

                     “What animals were they?” I asked.

                    “There were three animals altogether,” he explained. “There were
                two goats and a cat and then there were four pairs of pigeons.”

                     “And you had to leave them?” I asked.




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                     “Yes. Because of the artillery. The captain told me to go because
                of the artillery.”

                    “And you have no family?” I asked, watching the far end of the
                bridge where a few last cars were hurrying down to the slope of the
                bank.

                    “No,” he said, “only the animals I stated. The cat, of course, will
                be all right. A cat can look out for itself, but I cannot think what will
                become of the other.”

                     “What politics have you?” I asked.

                     “I am without politics,” he said. “I am seventy-six years old. I have
                come twelve kilometers and I think I can go farther.”
                     “This is not a good place to stop,” I said. “If you can make it, there
                are trucks up the road where it forks for Tortosa.”

                    “I will wait a while,” he said, “and then I will go. Where do trucks
                go?”

                     “Towards Barcelona,” I told him.

                   “I know no one in that direction,” he said, “but thank you very
                much. Thank you again, very much.”

                    He looked at me very blankly and tiredly, then said, having to
                share his worry with someone, “The cat will be alright, I am sure.
                There is no need to unquiet about the cat. But the others , now what
                you think about the others?”

                     “Why, they’ll probably come through it all right.”

                     “You think so?”

                    “Why not?” I said watching the far blank where now there were no
                carts.



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                    “But what will they do under the artillery when I was told to leave
                 because of the artillery?”

                     “Did you leave the dove cage unlocked?” I asked.

                     “Yes.”

                     “Then they’ll fly.”

                    “Yes, certainly they’ll fly. But the others, it’s better not to think
                 about the others,” he said.

                    “If you are rested I would go,” I urged. “Get up and try to walk
                 now.”

                     “Thank you,” he said and got to his feet, swayed from side to side
                 and then sat down backwards in the dust.

                      “I was taking care of animals,” he said dully but no longer to me.
                 “I was only taking care of animals.”

                      There was nothing to do about him. It was Easter Sunday and the
                 Fascist was advancing toward the Ebro. It was gray overcast day with
                 a low ceiling so their planes were not up. The fact that cats know how
                 to look after themselves was all the good luck that the old man would
                 ever have.



       C. Closure
              Write a brief response to this question:
              Do you agree that “War is never justified?” Explain your answer.

       D. Assignment
          1. Find out the characteristics of a good short story.
            2.    What are possible topics for a good short story?




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           [Take this up before giving the assignment.]
                 How do you go about writing a short story? Do the following:
                 a.   Write down one paragraph summary of your intended story. Include
                      setting and characters in your summary.
                 b.   List down the series of events that you expect to have. Each event
                      should be higher in suspense than the one preceding it. Place the event
                      of highest suspense almost at the end of the story.
                 c.   Start the story with one of the following:
                      1) an action
                      2) a quotation
                      3) a question
                      4) a description of time, places, or character
                      5) an exclamation
                 d.   Use picture-making words to tell about the people, places, and events.
                 e.   End the story soon after the highest point of interest is reached.
                 f.   Choose a title that arouses curiosity and gives an idea of what the story
                      is about.
                      1) Find out the characteristics of a good short story.
                      2) What are possible topics for a good short story?
                      3) Attempt to write a short story on a topic of your choice.


        Day 5


        A. Recapitulation
             1. What makes the “Old Man at the Bridge” a good short story?
             2. After eliciting responses from the students, take up the characteristics of a
                good short story.


                     The story you have read is a fiction. Yet, it seems very real. This is one
                characteristic of a good short story.


                      A good short story is well organized. It is interesting from the start to
                finish.


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                   This interest is sustained by the following:
                1. It begins with a catchy and interesting statement or with dramatic action.
                2. It gives vivid picture of people, places, and things through the use of
                   picturesque language.
                3. It uses lively conversation.
                4. Its events move swiftly toward a high point of interest.
                5. It has a brief conclusion.

        B. Tasks

             Task 1
                Ask the class to re-read the first paragraph of the short story.
             1. Look for words which show the tiredness of the refugee.
             2. Which word shows the greatest degrees of tiredness? the least degree?
             3. What other words can you use to describe “tiredness”?

             Task 2
               Compare the two paragraphs and point out the differences in the verbs used.


                              CLAIRE                           CLAIRE


                  Claire walked down the                 Claire swaggered down
               crowded school hallway on              the     crowded       school
               this first day of school. She          hallway on this first day of
               looked quickly on her left,            school. She glanced to her
               and then right. Then she               left and right. Then she
               walked out and joined the              rushed out and merged
               throng of students. Was                into the throng of students.
               anyone       watching     her?         Was anyone admiring
               Although she wanted to look            her? Although she longed
               around, she kept looking               to notice admiring glances,
               straight ahead. However, it            she stared straight ahead.
               seemed that none of her                However, they ignored her
               classmates looked at her as            as they raced to their
               they quickly walked to their           classes.
               classes.


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             Task 3
               Arrange the following words in their order of intensity from lowest to greatest.
             Explain your arrangement.

                  1. roar                       2. rude           3. dry
                       shout                      wild                barren
                       bellow                     impolite            parched

                  4. hungry                     5. enormous        6. peculiar
                      starved                      huge               strange
                     famished                      big                weird

                  7. to honor                   8. risk           9. ceremonial
                     to esteem                     peril             ritual
                     to respect                    hazard            imposing

                  10. to smile                  11. kind          12. to state
                       to guffaw                   generous           to expound
                       to laugh                    charitable         to declare


                Task 4
                1. Go over the short story and look at the verbs you used. See if you can
                   replace some of the verbs with vivid ones.
                2. Show your work to your classmates and ask comments/ suggestions.

        C. Closure
                  Get a partner and ask him/her to evaluate your work according to the
            pointers for writing a good story.

        D. Assignment
           1. Rewrite your short story. Submit together with the drafts.
           2. Give your own definition of quality.




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