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									March 2010
FLORIDA
STATEWIDE AVIATION
ECONOMIC IMPACT STUDY
March 2010


Prepared for:




Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office


Prepared by:




With assistance from:
Panther International, LLC and
Quest Corporation of America, Inc.




This report was prepared as an effort of the Continuing Florida Aviation System Planning Process under the
sponsorship of the Florida Department of Transportation. A full technical report containing information on data
collection, methodologies, and approaches for estimating statewide and airport specific economic impacts is available
at www.dot.state.fl.us/aviation/economicimpact.shtm. More information on the Florida’s Aviation Economic Impact
Study can be obtained from the Aviation Office by calling 850-414-4500.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                                              March 2010


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................1-1
OVERVIEW OF AVIATION’S ECONOMIC IMPACT IN FLORIDA .............................................1-1
TYPES OF AVIATION ECONOMIC IMPACT MEASURED ...........................................................1-2
APPROACH TO MEASURING AVIATION ECONOMIC IMPACT IN FLORIDA .....................1-3
AIRPORT ECONOMIC IMPACTS .......................................................................................................1-3
VISITOR ECONOMIC IMPACTS.........................................................................................................1-4
CONSTRUCTION ECONOMIC IMPACTS ........................................................................................1-4
AIR CARGO ECONOMIC IMPACTS..................................................................................................1-5
AVIATION EDUCATION ECONOMIC IMPACTS ..........................................................................1-6
MILITARY AVIATION ECONOMIC IMPACTS ...............................................................................1-6
AVIATION-RELATED BUSINESS ECONOMIC IMPACTS ............................................................1-7
FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION (FAA) ECONOMIC IMPACTS ...............................1-7
FLORIDA STATEWIDE ECONOMIC IMPACTS ..............................................................................1-8
FLORIDA BUSINESS BENEFITS FROM USING AVIATION..........................................................1-8
TOTAL ANNUAL ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF COMMERCIAL SERVICE AND GENERAL
AVIATION AIRPORTS IN FLORIDA .................................................................................................1-8
SUMMARY ..............................................................................................................................................1-9

CHAPTER 2: INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 3: SOCIOECONOMIC OVERVIEW OF FLORIDA

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................3-1
POPULATION.........................................................................................................................................3-1
GROSS STATE PRODUCT AND INDUSTRY MIX ...........................................................................3-7
EMPLOYMENT.......................................................................................................................................3-8
PER CAPITA PERSONAL INCOME .................................................................................................3-10
SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................................3-10

CHAPTER 4: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AIRPORTS

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................4-1
APPROACH TO ESTIMATING ECONOMIC IMPACTS FOR STUDY AIRPORTS.....................4-1
  The Economic Modeling Process for On-Airport Tenant/Business Impacts...............................4-1
  Data Requirements for the Economic Modeling Process for On-Airport Benefits.....................4-3
SURVEYS AND DATA COLLECTION METHODS..........................................................................4-3
  On-Airport Tenants and Businesses (Direct Impacts) ....................................................................4-3



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Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                                         March 2010

 Study Multipliers/Induced Impacts ..................................................................................................4-4
EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLL, AND OUTPUT IMPACTS FOR STUDY AIRPORTS......................4-6
 On-Airport Tenant Employment Impacts........................................................................................4-6
 On-Airport Tenant Payroll Impacts ..................................................................................................4-7
 On-Airport Tenant Output Impacts..................................................................................................4-7
SUMMARY FOR ON-AIRPORT TENANTS.......................................................................................4-7

CHAPTER 5: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF VISITORS

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................5-1
APPROACH TO ESTIMATING ECONOMIC IMPACTS FOR VISITORS.....................................5-1
  The Economic Modeling Process for Visitor Impacts.....................................................................5-2
  Data Requirements for the Economic Modeling Process for Visitors Arriving by Air..............5-3
  Commercial Service Visitors ..............................................................................................................5-3
  General Aviation Visitors ...................................................................................................................5-7
  Study Multipliers/Induced Impacts ................................................................................................5-10
VISITOR EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLL, AND OUTPUT IMPACTS...............................................5-10
  Visitor Employment Impacts ...........................................................................................................5-10
  Visitor Payroll Impacts......................................................................................................................5-11
  Visitor Output Impacts .....................................................................................................................5-12
SUMMARY FOR VISITOR IMPACTS ...............................................................................................5-13

CHAPTER 6: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AIRPORT CONSTRUCTION

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................6-1
APPROACH TO ESTIMATING ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AIRPORT CONSTRUCTION ......6-1
  The Economic Modeling Process for Airport Construction Impacts ...........................................6-1
  Data Requirements for the Economic Modeling Process for On-Airport Construction............6-2
SURVEYS AND DATA COLLECTION METHODS..........................................................................6-3
  Airport Construction (Direct Impacts) .............................................................................................6-3
  Study Multipliers/Induced Impacts ..................................................................................................6-4
CONSTRUCTION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLL, AND OUTPUT IMPACTS ............6-4
  Construction Employment Impacts ..................................................................................................6-4
  Construction Payroll Impacts ............................................................................................................6-5
  Construction Output Impacts ............................................................................................................6-6
SUMMARY FOR AIRPORT CONSTRUCTION IMPACTS ..............................................................6-6

CHAPTER 7: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AIR CARGO

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................7-1
AIR CARGO INDUSTRY OVERVIEW ................................................................................................7-1
FLORIDA AIR CARGO OVERVIEW...................................................................................................7-3


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Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                                                   March 2010

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF AIR CARGO METHODOLOGY ............................................................7-5
 Data Requirements and Collection....................................................................................................7-6
   Direct Impacts ...................................................................................................................................7-6
   Indirect Impacts ................................................................................................................................7-7
 Key Assumptions for Calculating Economic Impacts ....................................................................7-8
   On-Airport Related Assumptions ..................................................................................................7-8
   Off-Airport Related Assumptions..................................................................................................7-8
STUDY RESULTS....................................................................................................................................7-9
 Economic Impacts for On-Airport Air Cargo Activity...................................................................7-9
 Economic Impacts for Off-Airport Air Cargo Activity.................................................................7-14
 Total Economic Impacts for On- and Off-Airport Air Cargo Activity .......................................7-18
THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF FIRST-CLASS MAIL IN FLORIDA ............................................7-20
AIR CARGO SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................7-22

CHAPTER 8: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AVIATION EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................8-1
APPROACH TO ESTIMATING ECONOMIC IMPACTS FOR AVIATION EDUCATION ........8-2
  The Economic Modeling Process for Economic Impacts Related to Aviation Education .........8-2
  Data Requirements for the Economic Modeling Process for Aviation Education Economic
  Impacts ..................................................................................................................................................8-3
  Aviation-Related Schools (Direct Impacts) ......................................................................................8-4
  Student Spending (Indirect Impacts) ................................................................................................8-4
  Study Multipliers (Induced Impacts)................................................................................................8-4
AVIATION EDUCATION EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLL, AND OUTPUT IMPACTS ..................8-5
  Aviation Education Employment Impacts.......................................................................................8-5
  Aviation Education Payroll Impacts .................................................................................................8-6
  Aviation Education Output Impacts.................................................................................................8-6
SUMMARY FOR AVIATION-RELATED EDUCATION IMPACTS ...............................................8-7

CHAPTER 9: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AVIATION-RELATED BUSINESSES

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................9-1
APPROACH TO ESTIMATING ECONOMIC IMPACTS FOR AVIATION-RELATED
BUSINESSES ............................................................................................................................................9-1
  The Economic Modeling Process.......................................................................................................9-1
  Data Requirements for the Economic Modeling Process for Aviation-Related Businesses......9-2
AVIATION-RELATED BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLL, AND OUTPUT IMPACTS ....9-3
  Off-Airport Aviation-Related Business Economic Impacts ...........................................................9-4
SUMMARY OF ECONOMIC IMPACTS FOR AVIATION-RELATED BUSINESSES ..................9-4




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Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                                              March 2010

CHAPTER 10: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION
(FAA)

INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................10-1
APPROACH TO ESTIMATING FAA ECONOMIC IMPACTS .....................................................10-1
FAA EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLL, AND OUTPUT IMPACTS ......................................................10-2
  On-Airport FAA Economic Impacts ...............................................................................................10-2
  Off-Airport FAA Economic Impacts ...............................................................................................10-3
SUMMARY OF TOTAL STATEWIDE FAA ECONOMIC IMPACTS...........................................10-4

CHAPTER 11: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF MILITARY AVIATION

INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................11-1
BASE BACKGROUND INFORMATION ..........................................................................................11-2
  Eglin Air Force Base (AFB) ...............................................................................................................11-2
  Homestead Joint Air Reserve Base (JARB).....................................................................................11-3
  Hurlburt Field ....................................................................................................................................11-4
  MacDill Air Force Base (AFB) ..........................................................................................................11-4
  Naval Air Station Jacksonville (NAS) .............................................................................................11-5
  Naval Air Station Key West (NAS) .................................................................................................11-6
  Naval Air Station Pensacola (NAS).................................................................................................11-7
  Naval Air Station Whiting Field (NAS)..........................................................................................11-8
  Naval Station Mayport......................................................................................................................11-8
  Patrick Air Force Base (AFB)............................................................................................................11-9
  Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB).........................................................................................................11-10
APPROACH TO ESTIMATING ECONOMIC IMPACTS.............................................................11-10
  The Economic Modeling Process...................................................................................................11-11
  Data Collection.................................................................................................................................11-12
  Study Multipliers/Induced Impacts ..............................................................................................11-12
EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLL, AND OUTPUT IMPACTS FOR MILITARY AVIATION ..........11-13
  Military Aviation Employment Impacts ......................................................................................11-13
  Military Aviation Payroll Impacts.................................................................................................11-14
  Military Aviation Output Impacts ................................................................................................11-15
ECONOMIC IMPACT SUMMARY FOR MILITARY AVIATION ..............................................11-16

CHAPTER 12: TOTAL ECONOMIC IMPACTS FOR AIRPORT-SUPPORTED ACTIVITIES

INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................12-1
TOTAL EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLL, AND OUTPUT IMPACTS FOR AIRPORT-
SUPPORTED ACTIVITIES ..................................................................................................................12-1
  Total Airport-Supported Employment Impacts............................................................................12-2
  Total Airport-Supported Payroll Impacts ......................................................................................12-4


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Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                                                March 2010

 Total Airport-Supported Output Impacts......................................................................................12-7
SUMMARY FOR AIRPORT-SUPPORTED IMPACTS ....................................................................12-9

CHAPTER 13: SUMMARY OF OFF-AIRPORT ECONOMIC IMPACTS

INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................13-1
OFF-AIRPORT AIR CARGO (AIR MAIL) ECONOMIC IMPACTS..............................................13-1
OFF-AIRPORT AVIATION-RELATED EDUCATION ECONOMIC IMPACTS.........................13-2
OFF-AIRPORT AVIATION-RELATED BUSINESS ECONOMIC IMPACTS...............................13-3
OFF-AIRPORT FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION (FAA) ECONOMIC
IMPACTS ...............................................................................................................................................13-4
SUMMARY OF OFF-AIRPORT ECONOMIC IMPACTS................................................................13-5

CHAPTER 14: BENEFITS FOR FLORIDA BUSINESSES

INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................14-1
RETURN ON INVESTMENT FROM BUSINESS TRAVEL ............................................................14-1
FLORIDA’S INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY FROM BUSINESS USE OF AIR
TRANSPORTATION............................................................................................................................14-2
  Methodology for Estimating Business Use/Reliance on Aviation ..............................................14-3
  Business Use of Air Cargo in Florida..............................................................................................14-3
  Business Use of Commercial Aviation in Florida .........................................................................14-4
  Business Use of General Aviation in Florida .................................................................................14-4
  Impacts of Airports on Business Locations in Florida..................................................................14-5
  Increased Productivity for Businesses Using Aviation in Florida ..............................................14-5
SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................................14-6

CHAPTER 15: TOTAL ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AVIATION IN FLORIDA

INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................15-1
STATEWIDE ECONOMIC IMPACTS ...............................................................................................15-1
SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................................15-4

APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B
APPENDIX C
APPENDIX D
APPENDIX E
APPENDIX F
APPENDIX G




Table of Contents                                                                                                                                       v
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                                March 2010

LIST OF TABLES

CHAPTER 1: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Table 1-1: Annual Economic Impact of On-Airport Activities in Florida .......................................1-4
Table 1-2: Annual Economic Impact of Aviation Visitors in Florida...............................................1-4
Table 1-3: Annual Economic Impacts of Airport Construction Projects in Florida .......................1-5
Table 1-4: Annual Economic Impacts of Air Cargo Activity in Florida ..........................................1-5
Table 1-5: Annual Economic Impacts of Aviation-Related Education in Florida ..........................1-6
Table 1-6: Annual Economic Impacts of Military Aviation in Florida ............................................1-6
Table 1-7: Annual Economic Impacts of Aviation-Related Businesses in Florida .........................1-7
Table 1-8: Annual Economic Impacts of the FAA in Florida ............................................................1-7
Table 1-9: Summary of Statewide Economic Impacts........................................................................1-8
Table 1-10: Total Annual Economic Impacts of Airports in Florida ................................................1-9

CHAPTER 3: SOCIOECONOMIC OVERVIEW OF FLORIDA

Table 3-1: Florida Population Growth Forecasts, 2008-2020.............................................................3-3
Table 3-2: Florida Gross State Product by Industry for 2008 ............................................................3-8
Table 3-3: Florida Employment by Industry for 2008 ........................................................................3-9

CHAPTER 4: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AIRPORTS

Table 4-1: Florida IMPLAN Multipliers by Economy Sector............................................................4-5
Table 4-2: On-Airport Tenant and Business Economic Impacts.......................................................4-6

CHAPTER 5: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF VISITORS

Table 5-1: Enplanements and Percent Visitors at Florida’s Commercial Service Airports...........5-5
Table 5-2: General Aviation Visitor Tiers ............................................................................................5-8
Table 5-3: Florida Employment from Commercial Service Visitor Spending ..............................5-10
Table 5-4: Florida Employment from General Aviation Visitor Spending ...................................5-11
Table 5-5: Florida Annual Payroll from Commercial Service Visitor Spending ..........................5-11
Table 5-6: Florida Annual Payroll from General Aviation Visitor Spending ...............................5-12
Table 5-7: Florida Output from Commercial Service Visitor Spending ........................................5-12
Table 5-8: Florida Output from General Aviation Visitor Spending .............................................5-13
Table 5-9: Visitor Economic Impact Summary..................................................................................5-14




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Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                                March 2010

CHAPTER 6: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AIRPORT CONSTRUCTION

Table 6-1: Airport Construction Employment ....................................................................................6-5
Table 6-2: Airport Construction Payroll ..............................................................................................6-5
Table 6-3: Airport Construction Output ..............................................................................................6-6
Table 6-4: Airport Construction Impact Summary.............................................................................6-7

CHAPTER 7: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AIR CARGO

Table 7-1: Direct Economic Impact Related to On-Airport Air Cargo Activity ...........................7-11
Table 7-2: Distribution of Direct On-Airport Air Cargo Economic Impact ..................................7-12
Table 7-3: Total Economic Impact Related to On-Airport Air Cargo Activity .............................7-13
Table 7-4: Distribution of Total On-Airport Air Cargo Economic Impacts ..................................7-14
Table 7-5: Indirect Economic Impact Related to Off-Airport Air Cargo Activity........................7-15
Table 7-6: Distribution of Indirect Off-Airport Air Cargo Economic Impact ...............................7-16
Table 7-7: Total Economic Impact Related to Off-Airport Air Cargo Activity.............................7-17
Table 7-8: Distribution of Total Off-Airport Air Cargo Economic Impacts ..................................7-18
Table 7-9: Total Economic Impact Related to On- and Off-Airport Air Cargo Activity .............7-19
Table 7-10: Distribution of Total On- and Off-Airport Air Cargo Economic Impacts ................7-20
Table 7-11: USPS Employment in Florida by Occupation...............................................................7-21
Table 7-12: Indirect Off-Airport USPS Economic Impacts in Florida ............................................7-22
Table 7-13: Statewide Air Cargo Economic Impacts ........................................................................7-22

CHAPTER 8: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AVIATION EDUCATION

Table 8-1: Aviation-Related Education Employment ........................................................................8-5
Table 8-2: Aviation-Related Education Payroll...................................................................................8-6
Table 8-3: Aviation-Related Education Output ..................................................................................8-7
Table 8-4: Aviation-Related Education Impact Summary.................................................................8-8

CHAPTER 9: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AVIATION-RELATED BUSINESSES

Table 9-1: On- and Off-Airport Aviation-Related Business Economic Impacts.............................9-4

CHAPTER 10: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION
(FAA)

Table 10-1: Statewide Economic Impacts for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) .......10-3

CHAPTER 11: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF MILITARY AVIATION

Table 11-1: Eglin Air Force Base Direct Aviation Impacts ..............................................................11-2


Table of Contents                                                                                                                    vii
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                             March 2010

Table 11-2: Homestead Joint Air Reserve Base Direct Aviation Impacts ......................................11-3
Table 11-3: Hurlburt Field Direct Aviation Impacts ........................................................................11-4
Table 11-4: MacDill Air Force Base Direct Aviation Impacts..........................................................11-5
Table 11-5: Naval Air Station Jacksonville Direct Aviation Impacts .............................................11-6
Table 11-6: Naval Air Station Key West Direct Aviation Impacts .................................................11-6
Table 11-7: Naval Air Station Pensacola Direct Aviation Impacts.................................................11-7
Table 11-8: Naval Air Station Whiting Field Direct Aviation Impacts ..........................................11-8
Table 11-9: Naval Station Mayport Direct Aviation Impacts..........................................................11-9
Table 11-10: Patrick Air Force Base Direct Aviation Impacts .........................................................11-9
Table 11-11: Tyndall Air Force Base Direct Aviation Impacts ......................................................11-10
Table 11-12: Florida IMPLAN Military Multipliers .......................................................................11-13
Table 11-13: Florida Military Airfield Employment.......................................................................11-14
Table 11-14: Florida Military Airfield Payroll.................................................................................11-15
Table 11-15: Florida Military Airfield Output.................................................................................11-16
Table 11-16: Economic Impact Summary for Florida Military Airfields.....................................11-17

CHAPTER 12: TOTAL ECONOMIC IMPACTS FOR AIRPORT-SUPPORTED ACTIVITIES

Table 12-1: On- and Off-Airport Aviation Activity Employment..................................................12-2
Table 12-2: Employment from Commercial Service Visitor Spending..........................................12-3
Table 12-3: Employment from General Aviation Visitor Spending...............................................12-3
Table 12-4: Total Airport-Supported Employment ..........................................................................12-4
Table 12-5: On- and Off-Airport Aviation Activity Payroll ............................................................12-4
Table 12-6: Annual Payroll from Commercial Service Visitor Spending......................................12-5
Table 12-7: Annual Payroll from General Aviation Visitor Spending...........................................12-6
Table 12-8: Total Airport-Supported Payroll ....................................................................................12-6
Table 12-9: On- and Off-Airport Aviation Activity Output ............................................................12-7
Table 12-10: Output from Commercial Service Visitor Spending..................................................12-8
Table 12-11: Output from General Aviation Visitor Spending.......................................................12-8
Table 12-12: Total Airport-Supported Output ..................................................................................12-9
Table 12-13: Total Airport-Supported Economic Impacts.............................................................12-10
Table 12-14: Total Airport-Supported Economic Impacts Commercial Service and
             General Aviation Airports ..........................................................................................12-11

CHAPTER 13: SUMMARY OF OFF-AIRPORT ECONOMIC IMPACTS

Table 13-1: Off-Airport Air Cargo (Air Mail) Economic Impacts...................................................13-2
Table 13-2: Off-Airport Aviation-Related Education Economic Impacts......................................13-3
Table 13-3: Off-Airport Aviation-Related Business Economic Impacts ........................................13-4
Table 13-4: Off-Airport FAA Economic Impacts ..............................................................................13-5
Table 13-5: Summary of Total Off-Airport Economic Impacts.......................................................13-6



Table of Contents                                                                                                                viii
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                 March 2010

CHAPTER 14: BENEFITS FOR FLORIDA BUSINESSES

Table 14-1: Factors Influencing Business Location or Relocation ..................................................14-5

CHAPTER 15: TOTAL ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AVIATION IN FLORIDA

Table 15-1: Florida’s Total Economic Impact from Aviation ..........................................................15-2




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Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                                   March 2010

LIST OF EXHIBITS

CHAPTER 1: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Exhibit 1-1: Distribution of $114.7 Billion in Annual Economic Impact by Category ...................1-2

CHAPTER 2: INTRODUCTION

Exhibit 2-1: Florida Airports Included in Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study...............2-3
Exhibit 2-2: Florida Airports with Scheduled Air Cargo Service .....................................................2-5
Exhibit 2-3: Off-Airport Air Cargo Locations in Florida ...................................................................2-6
Exhibit 2-4: Aviation Education Locations ..........................................................................................2-7
Exhibit 2-5: Aviation-Related Businesses in Florida ..........................................................................2-8
Exhibit 2-6: FAA Facilities in Florida ...................................................................................................2-9
Exhibit 2-7: Florida Military Airfields ................................................................................................2-10

CHAPTER 3: SOCIOECONOMIC OVERVIEW OF FLORIDA

Exhibit 3-1: Florida Population Growth by County, 2000 to 2008 ...................................................3-2

CHAPTER 7: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AIR CARGO

Exhibit 7-1: Movement of Commodity from Shipper to Consignee ................................................7-5

CHAPTER 15: TOTAL ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AVIATION IN FLORIDA

Exhibit 15-1: Distribution of Florida’s Total Annual Economic Impact by Category .................15-3




Table of Contents                                                                                                                          x
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010


CHAPTER 1: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

INTRODUCTION

This report summarizes the significant economic benefit that Florida receives each year from
aviation. Economic benefits presented in this report were measured in a recent Florida
Department of Transportation (FDOT) Office of Aviation economic impact study.

OVERVIEW OF AVIATION’S ECONOMIC IMPACT IN FLORIDA

The FDOT study focused on measuring economic impacts associated with 19 commercial
service and 102 general aviation airports. In addition, the impacts of 11 military airfields were
estimated in the study. The study concluded that for all benefit categories measured, aviation
in Florida is responsible for an estimated $114.7 billion in annual economic activity or output.
More information on economic impacts associated with each benefit category is presented later
in this summary.

In addition to the $114.7 billion in annual economic impact that Florida realizes from aviation,
businesses throughout Florida that rely on the commercial airlines, air cargo, and general
aviation are able to increase their annual productivity by an estimated $94.5 billion. This
increased productivity is a result of the added efficiency businesses realize when they use
various types of air transportation.




Chapter 1: Executive Summary                                                                 1-1
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                        March 2010

                                          Exhibit 1-1
           Distribution of $114.7 Billion in Annual Economic Impact by Category
                        Federal Aviation
                         Administration
                         $618 million, 1%
                                                 Military
                                                 Aviation
          Aviation Businesses                  $10.8 billion,
             $5.3 billion, 5%                                                    Airports
                                                    9%
                                                                           $28.8 billion, 25%
        Aviation Education
          $573 million, 1%


                Air Cargo
             $6.6 billion, 6%


                           Construction
                          $2.9 billion, 2%
                                                                Visitors
  The FDOT study me asure d e conomic                       $59.2 billion, 51%
  impacts for a varie ty of aviation-
  re late d cate gorie s and de te rmine d
  that annual e conomic impacts from
  all cate gorie s e xce e d $114.7 billion.

 Source: Wilbur Smith Associates


TYPES OF AVIATION ECONOMIC IMPACT MEASURED

Economic benefits measured in the FDOT study focused on the following categories:

    •    Airports                                           •   Military Aviation
    •    Visitors                                           •   Aviation-Related Businesses
    •    Construction                                       •   Federal Aviation Administration
    •    Air Cargo                                              (FAA)
    •    Aviation Education

In most instances, economic impacts measured in this study take place on a commercial service
or general aviation airport or a military airfield, or in the case of visitor-related impacts, the
benefits are directly facilitated by travel supported by an airport. In some instances, aviation-
related economic benefits measured in this study take place off-airport. The FDOT study
distinguishes between on-airport and off-airport related economic impacts.



Chapter 1: Executive Summary                                                                           1-2
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

For all benefit categories included in the study, economic impacts are expressed using three
measures:

   •   Jobs
   •   Annual Payroll
   •   Annual Economic Activity or Output

APPROACH TO MEASURING AVIATION ECONOMIC IMPACT IN
FLORIDA

The approach for measuring aviation-related economic impacts in Florida followed a
methodology prescribed by the FAA. All aviation-related economic impacts that take place on
an airport were classified in the FDOT study as direct impacts. Within the direct impact category
are activities associated with on-airport tenants and businesses, airport construction, and
airport management and operations. Off-airport impacts, such as those that are associated with
visitor spending, were classified as indirect impacts.

Once all direct and indirect aviation-related economic impacts were calculated, an input-output
model was used to show how initial direct and indirect economic impacts continue to re-
circulate through Florida’s economy. These additional impacts are referred to as multiplier or
induced impacts. For the FDOT study, multipliers specific to Florida were used to estimate all
induced impacts. All economic impacts presented in this summary chapter total direct and
indirect impacts and also include induced impacts stemming from the multiplier effect.

AIRPORT ECONOMIC IMPACTS

Commercial service and general aviation airports in Florida are the backbone of the economic
impacts measured in the FDOT study. Economic impacts that take place on one of the study
airports fall into the direct impact category. On-airport related economic impacts presented in
this section are related to the activities of some on-airport tenants or businesses. Examples of
tenants/businesses included in this section include: airport management, fixed base operators
(FBOs), airlines, and various airport concessionaires. Other economic impacts that take place on
airports in the construction, air cargo, aviation education, aviation business, and FAA categories
are discussed in subsequent sections. Annual economic impacts for selected on-airport
tenants/businesses at all study airports are presented in Table 1-1.




Chapter 1: Executive Summary                                                                  1-3
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                  March 2010

                                    Table 1-1
              Annual Economic Impact of On-Airport Activities in Florida
                                                                          Annual Economic
                                   Employment        Annual Payroll          Activity
         Florida Airports                158,861        $7,752,561,600        $28,793,238,700
         Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers.


VISITOR ECONOMIC IMPACTS

Each year, millions of visitors arrive in Florida by air. While most visitors arrive on commercial
airlines, many also arrive on general aviation aircraft at both commercial service and general
aviation airports. Approximately 41.7 million visitors come to Florida each year on commercial
airlines, while 3.7 million arrive on general aviation aircraft. Visit Florida estimates that about
half of all visitors who come to Florida each year arrive by air. While in Florida, these visitors
have expenditures for lodging, food, retail, transportation, recreation, and entertainment. In
this study, spending by visitors arriving by air is equivalent to total annual visitor output;
visitor output is classified as an indirect impact. Visitor spending helps to support many jobs in
Florida and the annual payroll associated with these jobs. Total annual economic impact
associated with visitors arriving by air is presented in Table 1-2.

                                     Table 1-2
                 Annual Economic Impact of Aviation Visitors in Florida
                                                                          Annual Economic
                                    Employment        Annual Payroll         Activity
          Aviation Visitors               753,353       $19,315,252,400      $59,178,047,200
          Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers.


CONSTRUCTION ECONOMIC IMPACTS

Annually, a variety of both large and small improvement projects are undertaken at the
commercial service and general aviation airports in Florida. Investment/spending is needed to
support the development of new airport facilities, as well as to renovate and/or rehabilitate
existing facilities. Over the duration of each project, construction-related spending helps to
support additional jobs and the annual payroll associated with these jobs. For this study,
average investment for construction at all airports over a multi-period was considered to
estimate average annual economic impacts from on-airport construction projects; these
construction impacts are presented in Table 1-3.




Chapter 1: Executive Summary                                                                     1-4
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                              March 2010

                                    Table 1-3
         Annual Economic Impacts of Airport Construction Projects in Florida
                                                                                       Annual
                                                                                      Economic
                                        Employment         Annual Payroll              Activity
            Construction                        25,321          $1,041,077,200       $2,858,791,800
            Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers.


AIR CARGO ECONOMIC IMPACTS

Many businesses in Florida rely on air cargo. As the gateway to Latin America, Florida airports
handle significant volumes of air cargo. A total of 24 commercial service and general aviation
airports in Florida accommodate scheduled air cargo activity; other airports support the
movement of air cargo on an on-demand basis. Air cargo operators are important on-airport
tenants for several airports in Florida.

In addition, there are many other off-airport businesses in Florida dedicated to the sorting,
storing, and ground movement of air cargo. Off-airport air cargo-related businesses play an
important role in the economic impact of aviation in Florida. While these additional air cargo
impacts take place off-airport, their benefits were assigned to one of the 24 system airports
accommodating scheduled air cargo activity.

First Class mail originating in Florida or destined to the state moves by air. As a result, a
portion of the economic activity of the United State Postal Service (USPS) is supported by
aviation. The economic impact of this activity was estimated in this study. The economic
impact of all facets of air cargo activity in Florida is presented in Table 1-4.

                                     Table 1-4
                Annual Economic Impacts of Air Cargo Activity in Florida
                                                                                      Annual Economic
                                              Employment         Annual Payroll          Activity
      On-Airport                                       20,393       $754,243,500            $1,319,285,100
      Off-Airport*                                     21,480       $960,164,100            $2,571,083,700
      USPS Air Supported Operations                    27,383      $1,340,191,200           $2,706,443,400
      Total                                            69,256      $3,054,598,800           $6,596,812,200
      *Even though this impact is reported as being off-airport, for this study, these impacts were assigned
      to individual system airports.
      Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers.




Chapter 1: Executive Summary                                                                                   1-5
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                         March 2010

AVIATION EDUCATION ECONOMIC IMPACTS

Florida is a world leader in providing aviation-related education; this includes the training of
pilots, mechanics, flight attendants, air traffic controllers, those in aviation management, and
other aspects of the aviation industry. Some aviation-related schools are located on airports in
Florida, while others are located off-airport. Economic impacts related to aviation-related
schools are associated with: spending associated with the schools to support operations,
maintenance, and development; employment at all levels and the payroll associated with this
employment; and spending by domestic and international students who are non-residents. On
and off-airport economic impacts related to aviation-related schools are presented in Table 1-5

                                     Table 1-5
          Annual Economic Impacts of Aviation-Related Education in Florida
                                                                            Annual Economic
                                     Employment       Annual Payroll           Activity
           On-Airport                         6,385      $174,182,500             $521,460,300
           Off-Airport                          592       $27,012,900              $51,727,700
           Total                              6,977      $201,195,400             $573,188,000
           Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers.


MILITARY AVIATION ECONOMIC IMPACTS

As a result of its strategic location and excellent weather and topography, the military has many
active airfields in Florida. In fact, many of the state’s commercial and general aviation airports
were once airfields that the military used to train pilots during WW I and WW II. Similar to the
civilian airports included in this study, there are 11 military airfields in Florida that provide
significant aviation-related economic impact. Economic impacts for military airfields in Florida
are presented in Table 1-6.

                                    Table 1-6
                Annual Economic Impacts of Military Aviation in Florida
                                                                                 Annual
                                                                                Economic
                                      Employment        Annual Payroll           Activity
            Military Aviation               116,860        $5,855,976,400      $10,797,219,600
            Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers.




Chapter 1: Executive Summary                                                                            1-6
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                 March 2010

AVIATION-RELATED BUSINESSES ECONOMIC IMPACTS

Throughout Florida, there are many businesses in Florida that are engaged in the production or
the manufacture of aircraft or various aircraft components. Some of these aviation-related
businesses are located on-airport, while others are located off-airport. These businesses help to
supply aircraft and aircraft components to the nation and the world. The economic impacts of
aviation-related businesses, both on- and off-airport, are presented in Table 1-7.

                                    Table 1-7
         Annual Economic Impacts of Aviation-Related Businesses in Florida
                                                                       Annual Economic
                                   Employment       Annual Payroll        Activity
           On-Airport                      13,336      $471,613,400         $1,522,317,800
           Off-Airport                     22,650      $783,651,400         $3,798,974,600
           Total                           35,986     $1,255,264,800        $5,321,292,400
           Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers.


FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION (FAA) ECONOMIC IMPACTS

The FAA is the federal agency charged with developing, monitoring, and prescribing safety
guidelines for our nation’s public airports and airways. Because of the number of active
commercial and general aviation airports, along with Florida’s complex airspace system, the
FAA is very active in Florida. In fact, the FAA has more activity in Florida that is off-airport
than is located at system airports. Economic impacts for the FAA in Florida are presented in
Table 1-8.

                                      Table 1-8
                     Annual Economic Impacts of the FAA in Florida
                                                                       Annual Economic
                                   Employment       Annual Payroll        Activity
           On-Airport                       1,503       $110,759,900         $194,813,600
           Off-Airport                      3,042       $207,455,700         $422,970,100
           Total                            4,545       $318,215,600         $617,783,700
           Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers.




Chapter 1: Executive Summary                                                                    1-7
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                March 2010

FLORIDA STATEWIDE ECONOMIC IMPACTS

Table 1-9 summarizes the economic impact in each aviation category discussed here.

                                         Table 1-9
                           Summary of Statewide Economic Impacts
                                                                               Annual Economic
                                       Employment          Annual Payroll         Activity
 Airports                                      158,861        $7,752,561,600       $28,793,238,700
 Visitors Arriving by Air                      753,353       $19,315,252,400       $59,178,047,200
 Construction at Airports                       25,321        $1,041,077,200        $2,858,791,800
 Air Cargo                                      69,256        $3,054,598,800        $6,596,812,200
 Aviation Education                              6,977          $201,195,400          $573,188,000
 Military Aviation                             116,860        $5,855,976,400       $10,797,219,600
 Aviation-Related Businesses                    35,986        $1,255,264,800        $5,321,292,400
 Federal Aviation Administration                 4,545          $318,215,600         $617,783,700
 Total                                       1,171,159       $38,794,142,200      $114,736,373,600
 Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers.


FLORIDA BUSINESS BENEFITS FROM USING AVIATION

Many non-aviation businesses in Florida rely on and benefit from their use of various aspects of
the aviation industry. In particular, businesses in the manufacturing, wholesale, distribution,
finance, insurance, real estate, and professional service sectors rely on commercial aviation, air
cargo, and general aviation to support their business activities. A survey completed as part of
the FDOT study shows that as many as 920,600 jobs in these sectors in Florida may benefit on a
regular basis from aviation. The annual payroll associated with these jobs is estimated at $38.6
billion. The annual productivity of businesses in Florida that use aviation is increased by an
estimated $94.5 billion.

TOTAL ANNUAL ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF COMMERCIAL SERVICE
AND GENERAL AVIATION AIRPORTS IN FLORIDA

Preceding sections of this summary have documented the significant economic impact that
aviation has in Florida. When all on-airport activities, tenants, and visitors are considered,
commercial service and general aviation airports in Florida are responsible for nearly $97.0
billion in annual economic activity or output. This economic activity helps to support over one
million jobs that have an annual payroll estimated at $30.6 billion. The total annual economic
impact for all commercial service and general aviation airports in Florida is presented in Table
1-10.



Chapter 1: Executive Summary                                                                         1-8
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                    March 2010

                                     Table 1-10
                  Total Annual Economic Impacts of Airports in Florida
                                                                                Annual Economic
                                      Employment         Annual Payroll            Activity
     Commercial Service Airports             946,382       $28,824,193,200       $90,987,044,900
     General Aviation Airports                54,250           $1,755,661,400     $5,971,993,300
     Total                                 1,000,632       $30,579,854,600       $96,959,038,200
     Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers.


SUMMARY

The FDOT economic impact study concluded that aviation-related activities in Florida support
nearly 1.2 million jobs and that these jobs have an annual payroll of $38.8 billion. The annual
economic impact of aviation-related activities in Florida is estimated at $114.7 billion. When
this economic impact is considered along with the $94.5 billion in increased productivity that
non-aviation businesses realize from their use of aviation, it is clear that aviation and the
airports and airfields in Florida that support aviation-related activities have a significant
positive impact on Florida’s economy.




Chapter 1: Executive Summary                                                                       1-9
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010


CHAPTER 2: INTRODUCTION
Air transportation is a key contributor to Florida’s economy. Airports and aviation help to both
support and stimulate economic activity throughout the state. The Florida Department of
Transportation’s (FDOT) Aviation Office completed this study for 2008 conditions to document
the value of aviation in Florida. The statewide economic impact study shows how aviation
serves as an economic engine and discusses other benefits that air transportation supports.

Many of the economic benefits identified in this study are associated with commercial service
and general aviation airports and military airfields located throughout Florida. Beyond the
boundaries of the airports and military airfields are other aviation-related activities in Florida
that must be considered to fully understand the total economic impact that aviation has on
Florida’s economy. This study identifies the economic benefits of these off-airport aviation-
related activities. Throughout Florida, there are hundreds of businesses whose efficiency is
improved and whose productivity is increased through their use of aviation. Estimates of
increased productivity for private sector businesses are provided in this report.

Specific aviation groups and benefits of air transportation considered in this report include:

Airports - Commercial service and general aviation airports are themselves centers of
employment and generators of significant economic activity. Airports purchase goods and
services and undertake capital improvement projects, broadening the impact they have on both
statewide and local economies. Airports serving Florida support a variety of benefits discussed
in this study.

One of the primary generators of economic impact associated with study airports are on-
airports tenants or businesses that are located on the airports. For this analysis, the economic
impacts of many different types of on-airport tenants/businesses were measured as part of the
airport-related economic impacts. Included were activities associated with: aerial applicators,
air ambulance operators, air taxi and air charter operators, air traffic control (when privately
provided), aircraft sales, airlines, airport management, concessionaires, corporate flight
departments, fixed base operators, local and state government, military units, rental car and
ground transportation providers, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), and others.

The airports also support visitor, construction, air cargo, aviation education, aviation business,
and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) impacts that are measured and discussed in
separate sections of this report.

The state of Florida has a comprehensive network of 128 public-use airports to serve the needs
of its citizens, businesses, and visitors. In 2008, this system of airports was comprised of 19
commercial service and 109 general aviation airports. In the past, the Charlotte County Airport
and the St. Augustine Airport were classified by both FDOT and the FAA as general aviation



Chapter 2: Introduction                                                                          2-1
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                     March 2010

airports, even though each had limited scheduled airline activity. The St. Augustine and the
Charlotte County airports have been re-classified as commercial service by FDOT and the FAA;
however, both airports are listed as general aviation airports in this report.

It should be noted that seven privately-owned, public-use general aviation airports did not
participate in this study. These airports include Airport Manatee, Massey Ranch Airpark, Mid
Florida Air Service Airport, Pilot Country Airport, River Ranch Resort Airport, South Lakeland
Airport, and Tallahassee Commercial Airport. Also, the new Northwest Florida Beaches
International Airport currently under construction in Bay County is included in the study from
the standpoint of its construction impacts during 2008 only1. Therefore, 19 commercial service
airports, 102 general aviation airports, and the new Northwest Florida Beaches International
Airport, for a total of 122 airports, are included in this study. Exhibit 2-1 shows the location of
each of these airports.




1 The new Northwest Florida Beaches International Airport is located in Northwest Bay County, Florida,
north of County Highway 388 approximately five miles west of State Highway 77. The Panama City-Bay
County Airport and Industrial District (Airport Authority) has set a target opening date of May 23, 2010.
The airport is the first international airport built in the United States since the events of September 11,
2001. It is being built on 1,300 acres of a 4,000-acre site. The airport will have a primary runway 10,000
feet in length. It will also have a 120,000 square-foot terminal with seven gates. The total cost of the
project is approximately $330 million.


Chapter 2: Introduction                                                                                2-2
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

                                       Exhibit 2-1
        Florida Airports Included in Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study




Source: Wilbur Smith Associates


Visitors – Millions of visitors arrive in Florida each year via both commercial airline flights and
general aviation aircraft. Approximately 41.7 million visitors arrive each year on commercial
airlines, and 3.7 million visitors arrive on general aviation aircraft. Once in the state, these
visitors spend money for lodging, food, entertainment, retail sales, and other items. Visitor
spending helps to support notable volumes of additional economic activity in the state. While
most visitor-related spending takes place off-airport, the airports are essential for bringing
almost 45 million visitors to the state each year.

The commercial service airports shown in Exhibit 2-1 were responsible for bringing visitors on
scheduled airlines to Florida in 2008, the base year for this study. In addition, both St.




Chapter 2: Introduction                                                                        2-3
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010

Augustine and the Charlotte County Airport had scheduled airline service in 2008; the
economic impact associated with these commercial service visitors was measured in this study.

All study airports, including the commercial service airports, accommodate arrivals by visiting
general aviation aircraft. Hence, all system airports help to bring general aviation visitors to
Florida.

Construction - Each year, many airports undertake capital improvement projects, such as
runway rehabilitation, ramp overlays, hangar development, or building improvements. In
addition, on-airport businesses and others undertake capital improvement projects. While
these projects are underway, they employ persons in jobs such as construction, architecture,
engineering, and consulting. Capital improvement projects at Florida’s airports provide
substantial economic benefits to the state’s economy. Grants from FDOT and the FAA are
important contributors to airport-related capital improvement projects. This study provides
estimates of average annual economic impacts that result from capital improvement projects at
study airports.

Air Cargo - There are 24 airports in Florida which accommodate air cargo activity on a
scheduled basis. These airports range in size from general aviation airports to major
international commercial service airports. These airports support a wide range of on-airport air
cargo activity on an annual basis. On-airport air cargo activity at airports in Florida includes
cargo carried by passenger airlines, integrated cargo carriers such as FedEx Express, all cargo
carriers such as AmeriJet, bank check haulers, and air freight forwarders. Exhibit 2-2 shows the
location of commercial service and general aviation airports in Florida that support scheduled
air cargo activity.

While many air cargo activities take place on airports, a significant amount of the air cargo
industry’s processes and activities take place off-airport, sometimes several miles from an
airport. The majority of the airports in Florida with scheduled air cargo flights also support air
cargo activity that takes place off-airport; consequently, off-airport air cargo impacts estimated
in this study were assigned to these system airports. Off-airport air cargo activity includes
integrated express carriers ground operations, air freight forwarding trucking operations,
customs brokers arranging and scheduling air cargo shipments, perishable importers, and cargo
airlines with facilities located off-airport. Exhibit 2-3 shows off-airport air cargo locations. On-
airport and off-airport air cargo activity supports jobs, payroll, and annual economic output
which are measured in this study.

In addition to on- and off-airport air cargo impacts, Florida also realizes additional economic
impacts associated with the air transport of U.S. mail. First-Class mail that is destined to
Florida or that originates in Florida is transported via air. As a result, a portion of all United
States Postal Service (USPS) employment in Florida is associated with and supported by air
transportation. Off-airport economic impacts associated with that portion of USPS activity in
Florida that is support by air transportation is estimated in this study.


Chapter 2: Introduction                                                                         2-4
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                  March 2010

                                          Exhibit 2-2
                      Florida Airports with Scheduled Air Cargo Service




  Source: Wilbur Smith Associates




Chapter 2: Introduction                                                          2-5
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                      March 2010

                                          Exhibit 2-3
                          Off-Airport Air Cargo Locations in Florida




     Source: AFIF, FRED, FCB&FA, 2008 Quick Caller Forwarders Directory, DHL, UPS, and FedEx Express


Aviation Education – Florida is a world leader in providing many types of aviation-related
education. Schools in Florida train students to become pilots, air traffic controllers, mechanics,
flight attendants, and airport managers. Many aviation-related schools in Florida are located on
an airport; and these schools are actually airport tenants. There are at least 110 aviation-related
schools located on airports in Florida. In addition, there are approximately 20 other aviation-
related educational institutions located off-airport. Exhibit 2-4 shows the location of on- and
off-airport aviation-related schools whose economic impacts were estimated in this study.

Aviation-related schools generate economic impact as they spend money for their operation,
maintenance, and development. In addition all schools have employees engaged in various
teaching, administration, and maintenance positions; these jobs have associated annual payroll


Chapter 2: Introduction                                                                                2-6
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

which is tied to aviation. Many of Florida’s aviation educational programs attract students
from beyond the state, and often from international locations. While attending an aviation-
related school, non-local students have spending for housing, food, transportation, and
entertainment. Student spending helps to generate additional aviation-related economic impact
in this category. This study provides estimates for both on- and off-airport economic impact
associated with aviation-related schools.

                                            Exhibit 2-4
                                   Aviation Education Locations




     Source: Federal Aviation Administration and Wilbur Smith Associates


Aviation-Related Businesses – Florida has attracted many businesses that are engaged in the
development, production, and manufacturing of aircraft, aviation support systems, aircraft
components, and other aviation-related products. In some instances, these aviation-related
businesses are located on-airport; and in other instances, they are located off-airport. Aviation-


Chapter 2: Introduction                                                                       2-7
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                         March 2010

related businesses throughout Florida account for notable employment, payroll, and annual
economic activity. Estimates of the economic impact associated with both on- and off-airport
aviation-related businesses were developed in this study. Exhibit 2-5 shows the location of
aviation-related businesses throughout Florida that were considered in this study.

                                         Exhibit 2-5
                            Aviation-Related Businesses in Florida




     Source: FRED and Wilbur Smith Associates


Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) – The FAA is part of the United States Department of
Transportation (USDOT). The FAA is the federal agency charged with overseeing and
developing the nation’s public airports and airways. Nationally, the agency has about 44,000
employees. The FAA is responsible for all facets of civil aviation, and also for managing the
airways used by both civilian and military aircraft. The FAA provides regulatory guidance for
all facets of commercial and general aviation. They are responsible for overseeing federal


Chapter 2: Introduction                                                                   2-8
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                           March 2010

funding for projects at public airports, issuing environmental approvals for development,
licensing and testing of pilots, engineering approval for airport improvement projects, and air
traffic management. The FAA also oversees commercial space transport in the U.S. In addition,
the agency has many research and development functions.

Florida’s active civilian and military aviation environment increases FAA’s presence in the
state. FAA has both on- and off-airport operations throughout Florida. Exhibit 2-6 shows on-
and off-airport locations for the FAA in Florida. Economic impacts associated with both on-
and off-airport FAA activities in Florida were estimated in this study.

                                           Exhibit 2-6
                                      FAA Facilities in Florida




     Source: Federal Aviation Administration




Chapter 2: Introduction                                                                    2-9
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010

Military Airfields – Military activity in Florida has long been a major source of economic
impact. Florida’s geography, year-round good weather, and open ocean airspace, have made
the state attractive for numerous military aviation activities. This study estimates the economic
impacts of the 11 major military airfields in Florida. These military airfields include five Air
Force Bases (AFB), four Naval Air Stations (NAS), and two other facilities. The locations for
these 11 military airfields included in this economic analysis are shown on Exhibit 2-7.

There are only six civilian airports in Florida that have on-airport Guard or Reserve units. The
economic impact for these military units is measured in this study in association with on-airport
economic impacts, since these military units are considered to be on-airport tenants.

                                         Exhibit 2-7
                                  Florida Military Airfields




Source: Wilbur Smith Associates




Chapter 2: Introduction                                                                     2-10
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010

Aviation Benefits for the Florida Business Community – Many private sector employers rely
directly on aviation to increase their productivity and efficiency. In some instances, these
businesses have selected to do business at their current location because of the location’s
proximity to a commercial service or general aviation airport. These employers rely on
commercial service and general aviation airports to support their business travel needs. Many
private sector businesses rely on air cargo shipments as part of their supply chain management,
to ship their products, and to receive goods and materials. This study discusses these important
benefits businesses in the state derive from air transportation. In addition, estimates of
increased productivity that some businesses in Florida realize from their use of aviation and air
transportation are provided.

The remainder of this report is devoted to identifying the economic impacts for the aviation
groups and aviation benefits discussed above. The report is presented in the following
chapters:

   •   Socioeconomic Overview of Florida
   •   Economic Impacts of Airports
   •   Economic Impacts of Visitors
   •   Economic Impacts of Airport Construction
   •   Economic Impacts of Air Cargo
   •   Economic Impacts of Aviation Education
   •   Economic Impacts of Aviation-Related Businesses
   •   Economic Impacts of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
   •   Economic Impacts of Military Aviation
   •   Total Economic Impacts for Airport-Supported Activities
   •   Summary of Off-Airport Economic Impacts
   •   Benefits for Florida Businesses
   •   Total Economic Impacts of Aviation in Florida




Chapter 2: Introduction                                                                     2-11
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010


CHAPTER 3: SOCIOECONOMIC OVERVIEW OF FLORIDA
INTRODUCTION

The magnitude of the economic impact of Florida’s airports is linked to the demand that is
generated within the state for aviation services. While some amount of air traffic is tied to the
state’s tourism activities, much of the growth in aviation activity in Florida is driven by its
residents and businesses. As population, employment, and income levels rise in the state, so
too does demand for airline travel, air cargo shipments, and other aviation-related activities.
This chapter inventories Florida’s general socio-economic and demographic characteristics. It is
worth noting that information presented in this chapter of the report does not per say determine
aviation-related economic impacts presented later in this report. Information presented in this
chapter does, however, help to highlight Florida’s strong demand for aviation and aviation-
related service. This demand is what fuels economic impacts measured in this study.

POPULATION

In 1990, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, the population of Florida consisted of 12,937,926
persons. By 2000, the population had grown to 15,982,378, representing a compound annual
growth rate (CAGR) of approximately 2.1 percent. Through 2008, a CAGR of 1.7 percent took
population to 18,328,340, making Florida the fourth highest populated state in the nation. By
comparison, the U.S. population grew at only a 1.0 percent CAGR during the 2000 to 2008
period. Florida is one of only seven states to have a population of greater than 10 million
people each year since 2000. The state ranks third in the U.S. in total population growth since
2000.

Between 2000 and 2008, only two of the 67 counties in Florida experienced a loss in population.
Of the remaining counties, 32 experienced a CAGR greater than or equal to the statewide rate of
1.7 percent. With a CAGR of 7.9 percent annually, Flagler County experienced the most rapid
growth over the period. St. John’s, Osceola, Pasco, Lake, St. Lucie, and Sumter Counties also
experienced relatively rapid annual growth in population with greater than or equal to 4.0
percent each since 2000. Exhibit 3-1 graphically depicts the population CAGR for each Florida
county from 2000 to 2008.




Chapter 3: Socioeconomic Overview of Florida                                                 3-1
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                       March 2010


                                                              Exhibit 3-1
                                           Florida Population Growth by County, 2000 to 2008




         Source: Wilbur Smith Associates


Chapter 3: Socioeconomic Overview of Florida                                                          3-2
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
          Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
          Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                   March 2010

          Future population projections by the Florida Legislature Office of Economic and Demographic
          Research’s February 2009 Demographic Estimating Conference indicate that many of the
          population trends from 2000 to 2008 will continue. Florida’s population as a whole is expected
          to grow to 21,417,500 by 2020. This represents a total increase of 16.9 percent and a CAGR of 1.3
          percent.

          At the county level, all of the 67 counties are expected to gain population. Twenty-six counties
          are expected to experience a CAGR greater than or equal to the 2000-2008 statewide rate of 1.7
          percent. Sumter County is expected to have the fastest growing population, followed by
          Flagler, Osceola, and St. Johns Counties. Miami-Dade County is expected to reach a population
          of 2,654,000 by 2020, remaining the most populous county in the state. Table 3-1 presents
          population growth forecasts for Florida by county from 2008 to 2020 and shows the study
          airports, both commercial and general aviation, in each county.

                                                   Table 3-1
                                Florida Population Growth Forecasts, 2008-2020

                                                                                       2008-2020               Population
Area                Airports                                   2008         2020        Change       CAGR      Change %
Florida                                                      18,328,340   21,417,500     3,089,160     1.3%         16.9%
                    Flying Ten Airport, Gainesville
                    Regional Airport, Oak Tree Landing
Alachua County      Airport                                    241,364      286,100        44,736      1.4%         18.5%
Baker County                                                    26,164       29,900         3,736      1.1%         14.3%
                    Panama City-Bay County International
Bay County          Airport                                    163,946      191,800        27,854      1.3%         17.0%
Bradford County                                                 29,012       31,700         2,688      0.7%          9.3%
                    Arthur Dunn Air Park, Melbourne
                    International Airport, Merritt Island
                    Airport, Space Coast Regional Airport,
Brevard County      Valkaria Airport                           536,521      625,200        88,679      1.3%         16.5%
                    Downtown Fort Lauderdale Heliport,
                    Ft Lauderdale Executive Airport, Ft
                    Lauderdale/Hollywood International
                    Airport, North Perry Airport,
Broward County      Pompano Beach Airpark                     1,751,234    1,835,000       83,766      0.4%          4.8%
Calhoun County      Calhoun County Airport                      13,617       15,200         1,583      0.9%         11.6%
                    Charlotte County Airport, Shell Creek
Charlotte County    Airpark                                    150,060      192,200        42,140      2.1%         28.1%
                    Crystal River Airport, Inverness
Citrus County       Airport                                    141,416      168,700        27,284      1.5%         19.3%




          Chapter 3: Socioeconomic Overview of Florida                                                        3-3
          Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
       Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
       Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010

                                            Table 3-1
                       Florida Population Growth Forecasts, 2008-2020, cont.
                                                                                 2008-2020           Population
Area               Airports                                 2008       2020       Change     CAGR    Change %
Clay County        Keystone Airpark                        184,727    229,200       44,473    1.8%          24.1%
                   Everglades Airpark, Immokalee
                   Regional Airport, Marco Island
Collier County     Airport, Naples Municipal Airport       315,258    400,700       85,442    2.0%          27.1%
Columbia County    Lake City Municipal Airport              69,092     76,700        7,608    0.9%          11.0%
DeSoto County      Arcadia Municipal Airport                33,991     38,400        4,409    1.0%          13.0%
Dixie County       Cross City Airport                       14,957     18,400        3,443    1.7%          23.0%
                   Cecil Field, Craig Municipal Airport,
                   Herlong Airport, Jacksonville
Duval County       International Airport                   850,962   1,041,000     190,038    1.7%          22.3%
                   Coastal Airport, Ferguson Airport,
Escambia County    Pensacola Regional Airport              302,939    336,600       33,661    0.9%          11.1%
Flagler County     Flagler County Airport                   91,247    137,500       46,253    3.5%          50.7%
                   Apalachicola Regional Airport,
                   Carrabelle-Thompson Airport, St
Franklin County    George Island Airport                    11,202     13,700        2,498    1.7%          22.3%
Gadsden County     Quincy Municipal Airport                 47,560     57,000        9,440    1.5%          19.8%
Gilchrist County                                            17,191     20,600        3,409    1.5%          19.8%
Glades County                                               11,175     12,600        1,425    1.0%          12.8%
Gulf County        Costin Airport                           15,667     17,900        2,233    1.1%          14.3%
Hamilton County                                             14,348     15,600        1,252    0.7%          8.7%
Hardee County      Wauchula Municipal Airport               28,888     29,500         612     0.2%          2.1%
                   Airglades Airport, La Belle Municipal
Hendry County      Airport                                  39,453     49,200        9,747    1.9%          24.7%
Hernando County    Hernando County Airport                 171,689    207,300       35,611    1.6%          20.7%
                   Avon Park Executive Airport, Sebring
Highlands County   Regional Airport                        100,011    116,300       16,289    1.3%          16.3%




       Chapter 3: Socioeconomic Overview of Florida                                                   3-4
       Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
       Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
       Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                 March 2010

                                            Table 3-1
                       Florida Population Growth Forecasts, 2008-2020, cont.
                                                                                       2008-
                                                                                       2020             Population
Area                  Airports                                  2008        2020      Change    CAGR    Change %
                      Peter O Knight Airport, Plant City
                      Airport, Tampa Executive Airport,
Hillsborough County   Tampa International Airport             1,180,784   1,392,500   211,716    1.4%         17.9%
Holmes County         Tri-County Airport                        19,328      21,400      2,072    0.9%         10.7%
                      New Hibiscus Airpark, Sebastian
                      Municipal Airport, Vero Beach
Indian River County   Municipal Airport                        132,315     169,300     36,985    2.1%         28.0%
Jackson County        Marianna Municipal Airport                49,656      60,200     10,544    1.6%         21.2%
Jefferson County                                                14,547      15,800      1,253    0.7%         8.6%
Lafayette County                                                 8,013      10,600      2,587    2.4%         32.3%
                      Leesburg International Airport, Mid
                      Florida Air Service Airport, Umatilla
Lake County           Municipal Airport                        307,243     368,500     61,257    1.5%         19.9%
                      Page Field, Southwest Florida
Lee County            International Airport                    593,136     789,600    196,464    2.4%         33.1%
                      Tallahassee Commercial Airport,
Leon County           Tallahassee Regional Airport             264,063     301,500     37,437    1.1%         14.2%
                      George T Lewis Airport, Williston
Levy County           Municipal Airport                         39,460      48,800      9,340    1.8%         23.7%
Liberty County                                                   7,957      10,200      2,243    2.1%         28.2%
Madison County                                                  18,895      22,200      3,305    1.4%         17.5%
Manatee County        Airport Manatee                          315,766     367,400     51,634    1.3%         16.4%
                      Dunnellon/Marion County & Park
                      of Commerce Airport, Ocala
Marion County         International-Jim Taylor Field           329,628     398,800     69,172    1.6%         21.0%
Martin County         Indiantown Airport, Witham Field         138,660     157,100     18,440    1.0%         13.3%
                      Dade-Collier Training and
                      Transition Airport, Homestead
                      General Aviation Airport, Kendall-
                      Tamiami Executive Airport, Miami
                      International Airport, Miami SPB,
Miami-Dade County     Opa-Locka Executive Airport             2,398,245   2,654,000   255,755    0.8%         10.7%




       Chapter 3: Socioeconomic Overview of Florida                                                     3-5
       Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
       Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
       Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                   March 2010

                                              Table 3-1
                         Florida Population Growth Forecasts, 2008-2020, cont.
                                                                                         2008-
                                                                                         2020             Population
Area              Airports                                        2008        2020      Change    CAGR    Change %
                  Key West International Airport, The
Monroe County     Florida Keys Marathon Airport                   72,243      72,300        57     0.0%         0.1%
                  Fernandina Beach Municipal Airport,
Nassau County     Hilliard Airpark                                69,835      94,300     24,465    2.5%         35.0%
                  Bob Sikes Airport, Destin-Ft Walton Beach
                  Airport, Northwest Florida Regional
Okaloosa County   Airport / Eglin AFB                            179,693     219,600     39,907    1.7%         22.2%
Okeechobee
                  Okeechobee County Airport
County                                                            40,359      44,500      4,141    0.8%         10.3%
                  Bob White Field, Executive Airport,
                  Orlando Apopka Airport, Orlando
Orange County     International Airport                         1,072,801   1,324,500   251,699    1.8%         23.5%
Osceola County    Kissimmee Gateway Airport                      263,676     380,100    116,424    3.1%         44.2%
                  Belle Glade State Municipal Airport, Boca
                  Raton Airport, North Palm Beach County
                  General Aviation Airport, Palm Beach
                  County Glades Airport, Palm Beach
Palm Beach        County Park Airport, Palm Beach
County            International Airport                         1,265,293   1,420,400   155,107    1.0%         12.3%
                  Pilot Country Airport, Tampa North Aero
Pasco County      Park, Zephyrhills Municipal Airport            471,028     519,100     48,072    0.8%         10.2%
                  Albert Whitted Airport, Clearwater Air
                  Park, St Petersburg-Clearwater
Pinellas County   International Airport                          910,260     937,100     26,840    0.2%         2.9%
                  Bartow Municipal Airport, Chalet Suzanne
                  Air Strip, Jack Browns SPB, Lake Wales
                  Municipal Airport, Lakeland Linder
                  Regional Airport, River Ranch Resort
                  Airport, South Lakeland Airport, Winter
Polk County       Haven's Gilbert Airport                        580,594     679,600     99,006    1.3%         17.1%
Putnam County     Palatka Municipal-Lt. Kay Larkin Field          73,459      78,400      4,941    0.5%         6.7%
Santa Rosa
                  Ft Walton Beach Airport, Peter Prince Field
County                                                           150,053     172,900     22,847    1.2%         15.2%




       Chapter 3: Socioeconomic Overview of Florida                                                       3-6
       Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
       Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
       Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                           March 2010

                                                 Table 3-1
                            Florida Population Growth Forecasts, 2008-2020, cont.
                                                                                              2008-
                                                                                              2020                 Population
Area                    Airports                                          2008      2020     Change      CAGR      Change %
                        Buchan Airport, Sarasota/Bradenton
                        International Airport, Venice Municipal
Sarasota County         Airport                                         372,057   458,900      86,843      1.8%          23.3%
Seminole County         Orlando Sanford International Airport           410,854   474,200      63,346      1.2%          15.4%
St. Johns County        St Augustine Airport                            181,540   260,000      78,460      3.0%          43.2%
St. Lucie County        St Lucie County International Airport           265,108   354,300      89,192      2.4%          33.6%
Sumter County                                                            74,721   139,400      64,679      5.3%          86.6%
Suwannee County         Suwannee County Airport                          39,802     52,400     12,598      2.3%          31.7%
Taylor County           Perry-Foley Airport                              21,546     26,500       4,954     1.7%          23.0%
Union County                                                             15,141     17,900       2,759     1.4%          18.2%
                        Bob Lee Flight Strip, Daytona Beach
                        International Airport, Deland Municipal-
                        Sidney H Taylor Field, Massey Ranch
                        Airpark, New Smyrna Beach Municipal
                        Airport, Ormond Beach Municipal
Volusia County          Airport, Pierson Municipal Airport              498,036   565,600      67,564      1.1%          13.6%
Wakulla County          Wakulla County Airport                           31,089     40,600       9,511     2.2%          30.6%
Walton County           Defuniak Springs Airport                         53,837     73,400     19,563      2.6%          36.3%
Washington County                                                        23,928     29,600       5,672     1.8%          23.7%
Source: U.S. Census Bureau and Florida Legislature – Office of Economic and Demographic Research’s February 2009
Demographic Estimating Conference


       GROSS STATE PRODUCT AND INDUSTRY MIX

       Florida’s Gross State Product (the state equivalent of Gross Domestic Product, or GDP) in 2008
       was more than $744.1 billion, ranking fourth in the United States. This was an increase of 5.9
       percent annually from $471.3 billion in 2000. By comparison, the national Gross Domestic
       Product grew only 4.8 percent annually during the same period. Historically, the dominant
       sector of Florida’s economy has been real estate, rental, and leasing. Government, healthcare
       and social assistance, and retail trade are other leading industries making up a significant
       portion of the Gross State Product in Florida, as shown in Table 3-2.




       Chapter 3: Socioeconomic Overview of Florida                                                                3-7
       Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                March 2010

                                          Table 3-2
                      Florida Gross State Product by Industry for 2008

                                                    Gross State Product     Percent of Total
      Industry                                         (in millions)       Gross State Product
      Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting                 $6,156                 0.8%
      Mining                                                      $1,411                 0.2%
      Utilities                                                  $14,612                 2.0%
      Construction                                               $41,929                 5.6%
      Durable Goods Manufacturing                                $24,118                 3.2%
      Non-durable Goods Manufacturing                            $11,602                 1.6%
      Wholesale Trade                                            $46,618                 6.3%
      Retail Trade                                               $55,829                 7.5%
      Transportation and Warehousing                             $20,769                 2.8%
      Information                                                $30,497                 4.1%
      Finance and Insurance                                      $47,431                 6.4%
      Real Estate, Rental, and Leasing                          $133,952                18.0%
      Professional and Technical Services                        $50,744                 6.8%
      Management of Companies                                    $10,809                 1.5%
      Administrative and Waste Services                          $31,499                 4.2%
      Educational Services                                        $5,877                 0.8%
      Health Care and Social Assistance                          $57,648                 7.7%
      Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation                        $13,188                 1.8%
      Accommodation and Food Services                            $29,133                 3.9%
      Other Services                                             $19,701                 2.6%
      Government                                                 $90,599                12.2%
      Total Gross State Product                                 $744,122               100.0%
      Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis


EMPLOYMENT

According to data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the civilian non-farm workforce in
Florida totaled 7,763,800 workers in 2008. This was an increase of 1.2 percent annually from the
7,069,500 workers identified in 2000. Of these workers, 1,581,300, or 20.4 percent of the
workforce, were employed in occupations of trade, transportation, and utilities. Another
1,148,000 workers, or 14.8 percent of the workforce, were employed in professional and
business services. Government; education and health services; and leisure and hospitality jobs
also make up significant portions of the Florida work force, accounting for 14.5 percent, 13.5
percent, and 12.1 percent of jobs, respectively.




Chapter 3: Socioeconomic Overview of Florida                                                     3-8
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                         March 2010

Florida’s positive employment growth since 2000 can be attributed in part to its increasingly
diversified economy. Growth in several industry sectors has kept the state’s economy moving
forward. These sectors include education and health services, leisure and hospitality, trade,
transportation and utilities, and professional and business services. Nearly 570,000 of the
694,300 total jobs gained in the state since 2000 were in one of these sectors. The education and
health services sector witnessed an increase of 25 percent in the number of jobs since 2000, the
largest increase among all sectors. Florida’s reputation as a globally-renowned travel
destination contributed to the generation of 114,000 new jobs in the leisure and hospitality
sector.

Economic growth abroad, favorable exchange rates, and new free trade agreements have
resulted in significant growth in the state’s exports to foreign countries and a subsequent
increase in the number of workers employed in the trade, transportation, and utilities sector. It
is estimated that international trade supports nearly 900,000 jobs in Florida1. Meanwhile, high-
tech; knowledge-based industries such as biotechnology; aviation and aerospace;
photonics/optics and simulation; and digital media have been expanding in the state.
Employment in the professional and business services sector grew by more than 176,000 since
2000, an increase of over 18 percent. With less reliance on any one industry for its prosperity, in
addition to its investment in education, research, and development, Florida is well-positioned
for future economic expansion. Table 3-3 presents employment in Florida categorized by
industry for 2008.

                                              Table 3-3
                                Florida Employment by Industry for 2008
                                                                                     Percent of Total
                              Industry                         Employment             Employment
           Mining and Logging                                              6,400                 0.1%
           Construction                                                  513,000                 6.6%
           Manufacturing                                                 372,900                 4.8%
           Trade, Transportation, and Utilities                        1,581,300                20.4%
           Information                                                   155,600                 2.0%
           Financial Activities                                          527,000                 6.8%
           Professional and Business Services                          1,148,000                14.8%
           Education and Health Services                               1,047,500                13.5%
           Leisure and Hospitality                                       942,700                12.1%
           Other Services                                                341,300                 4.4%
           Government                                                  1,128,100                14.5%
           Total Employment                                            7,763,800               100.0%
           Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics




1   Beyond the Headlines: Florida’s Economy in Perspective, Enterprise Florida, August 2008

Chapter 3: Socioeconomic Overview of Florida                                                            3-9
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010


PER CAPITA PERSONAL INCOME

Personal income can be used as an indication of how much people will spend on the
consumption of goods, including the use of air travel. It can be assumed that the greater the
amount of income, the greater the purchasing power one has. Per capita personal income for
the State of Florida was $29,079 in 2000 and grew to $39,267 by 2008. The change represents a
3.8 percent CAGR. By comparison, per capita personal income for the nation as a whole grew
from $30,318 to $40,208 in the same period, for a 3.6 percent CAGR. This ranks Florida on par
with the national average, placing it 22nd in terms of per capita income and 24th in terms of per
capita income CAGR. As shown, Florida’s per capital personal income is growing at rate above
the national average. The state’s per capital personal income level is influenced by the large
number of retirees that live in the state.

SUMMARY

Between 2000 and 2008, the state’s population grew at a faster CAGR than the U.S. CAGR; its
Gross State Product grew at a faster CAGR than the U.S. Gross Domestic Product CAGR;
employment grew at approximately 1.2 percent per year; and Florida’s per capita income ranks
on par with the national average. Growth measures such as these help to explain Florida’s
significant demand for aviation and air travel. This demand helps to support the economic
impacts discussed in this report. Further, projections of socio-economic and demographic
growth for the state indicate that annual economic impacts captured in this report will continue
in subsequent years.




Chapter 3: Socioeconomic Overview of Florida                                                3-10
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010


CHAPTER 4: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AIRPORTS

INTRODUCTION

Florida’s system of airports has a significant positive impact on the state’s economy. As
explained in Chapter 2, a total of 122 public-use airports in Florida are included in this study.
This chapter quantifies on-airport economic impacts for these airports. The economic impacts
of many different types of on-airport tenants/businesses were considered. Included were
activities associated with: aerial applicators, air ambulance operators, air taxi and air charter
operators, air traffic control (when privately provided), aircraft sales, airlines, airport
management, concessionaires, corporate flight departments, fixed base operators, local and
state government, military units, rental car and ground transportation providers, the
Transportation Security Administration (TSA), and others. On-airport impacts specifically
related to construction projects, air cargo activity, aviation-related schools, aviation-related
businesses, and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) are discussed separately in
subsequent chapters of this report.

APPROACH TO ESTIMATING ECONOMIC IMPACTS FOR STUDY
AIRPORTS

Economic impacts for airports in this study are quantified in terms of employment, payroll, and
output. Output represents total economic activity or spending. It represents the total value of
aviation-related activities supported by the airports included in this study. This chapter
presents the economic impact of the airports in terms of selected on-airport tenants and
businesses.

The Economic Modeling Process for On-Airport Tenant/Business Impacts

The economic benefits produced by the Florida airport system were determined by using actual
survey data and data from an input-output model that estimates purchases and sales between
the various sectors of the economy. The model incorporated multipliers and data tables specific
to Florida and produced impact estimates for three separate components of the economy, as
follows:

   •   Employment – Employment is based on full-time equivalent positions. For example,
       two part-time employees were assumed to equal one full-time employee.
   •   Payroll – Payroll is the annual salary, wages, and benefits paid to employees.
   •   Output (Spending) – Output for an on-airport tenant is commonly assumed to be the
       sum of average annual capital expenditures and annual gross sales. Output can be
       defined as the total economic activity associated with a particular entity. For tenants
       that do not have gross sales (government organizations) or have difficulty in
       determining gross sales associated with a particular airport (e.g. airlines), this


Chapter 4: Economic Impacts of Airports                                                      4-1
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                             March 2010

        assumption must be modified. To estimate the economic impact of these entities, output
        is derived from the sum of average annual capital expenditures, operating expenses, and
        payroll. It should be noted that output is also referred to as economic activity.

It is important to note that payroll and output cannot be combined because elements of
economic benefit related to payroll are also contained in the output estimate. Each of the three
impact components (employment, payroll, and output) stands alone as a measure of an
airport’s or the airport system’s total economic impact.

All economic impacts or benefits from the 122 airports considered in this study were calculated
using an input-output model. The input-output model considers two impact categories to
assess the economic benefits associated with on-airport activities. These categories are:

    •   Direct Impacts: Direct impacts are the benefits associated with businesses located at the
        airport which are directly related to the provision of aviation services. Direct impacts
        include the employment, payroll, and spending of businesses such as fixed-base
        operators (FBOs), concessionaires, airlines, Part 135 operators1, on-airport government
        entities, and others.

    •   Induced Impacts: Induced impacts are the benefits resulting from the recirculation of
        direct impacts within the economy. This recirculation is typically referred to as the
        multiplier effect. For example, as airport employees spend their salary for housing,
        food, and services, those expenditures circulate through the economy, resulting in
        increased spending, payroll, and employment throughout Florida.

Because induced impacts are not as easily quantified as direct impacts, a reliable method for
estimating induced impacts must be applied. For this study, the Impact Analysis for Planning
(IMPLAN) model was used to measure the multiplier effect and determine induced impacts.
This model is considered a standard method for evaluating the economic benefits of public
facilities and has been used nationwide to approximate the economic impacts associated with
airports and airport systems. The model contains a detailed database of economic multipliers
used to estimate induced impacts associated with the direct on-airport spending that occurs in
association with each airport.

The sum of the benefits of these two categories (direct and induced) yields the total impact
attributable to an airport or a system of airports.




1
 A Part 135 operator is an air taxi or air charter company that operates passenger or cargo aircraft on an on-demand
basis.


Chapter 4: Economic Impacts of Airports                                                                         4-2
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

Data Requirements for the Economic Modeling Process for On-Airport Benefits

Data collection efforts were undertaken to gather information related to economic activity at
airports considered in this study. These data were inputs to the modeling process to identify
total economic impact. This portion of the economic impact analysis considers impacts related
to selected on-airport tenants and businesses. All on-airport tenants and businesses, with the
exception of those related to construction, air cargo, aviation-related schools, aviation-related
businesses, and the FAA, are addressed in this section.

It should be noted that seven of the largest commercial service airports in the state, on their own
initiative, completed economic impact studies within the past several years. Due to the
relatively recent completion dates of these studies, data from these studies, in addition to other
sources, were used to estimate the economic impacts of these airports. The commercial service
airports with existing economic impact studies include the following:

   •   Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport
   •   Melbourne International Airport
   •   Miami International Airport
   •   Orlando International Airport
   •   Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport
   •   St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport
   •   Tampa International Airport

Most of the data collection methods described in the following section do not apply to these
airports. Instead, the methodology used to update the economic impacts for these airports,
based on their existing economic impact studies, is detailed in Appendix A. The updated
economic impacts for the seven commercial service airports and other data pertaining to them
are included, however, in tables presented throughout this report.


SURVEYS AND DATA COLLECTION METHODS

Direct impacts for on-airport tenants and businesses were identified primarily through survey
efforts. Airport managers were surveyed to gather data related to on-airport activities. The
methods used to collect information are discussed in the following sections.

On-Airport Tenants and Businesses (Direct Impacts)

Airport sponsors/managers were contacted to provide names, mailing addresses, and telephone
numbers for each on-airport tenant. All airport tenants and businesses having employees on
Florida airports during 2008 were contacted to collect information regarding their economic
activity. A survey was provided to each tenant and follow-up calls were made to ensure
responses and to verify information on returned surveys. In many instances, on-site visits were



Chapter 4: Economic Impacts of Airports                                                        4-3
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010

actually made to collect information from on-airport businesses throughout Florida. Airport
tenants at each airport were grouped into 23 categories to aid in analysis.

The survey sent to each airport tenant, including airport sponsors/managers, requested the
following information:

   •   Type of aviation activity conducted by the business/tenant
   •   Number of full-time and part-time employees
   •   Estimated total annual wages and benefits paid to employees in 2008
   •   Estimated total capital improvement expenditures for each year, 2005 through 2008
   •   Estimated total operating expenses (excluding payroll and capital improvements
       previously identified) in 2008
   •   Estimated total gross sales (where applicable) by the business on the airport in 2008

A high response rate was desired for the airport tenant/business survey. Several rounds of
follow-up telephone calls were made to non-responding entities and to airport managers to
obtain the greatest response rate possible for on-airport employment.             For airport
tenants/businesses who did not supply complete information on payroll and output, estimates
were developed using ratios of payroll per employee and output per employee for the study’s
23 business categories. These ratios were developed from survey data obtained from those
tenants and businesses who did respond to the survey. For business categories that had limited
data, supplemental information was used from other recent economic impact studies conducted
in other states; information from services such as Manta and Dun & Bradstreet was also used to
supplement survey data.

Study Multipliers/Induced Impacts

Employment, payroll, and output impacts derived from on-airport businesses and tenants and
on-airport activities are part of each airport’s direct economic impacts. As these impacts enter
the economy, they circulate among other sectors, creating successive waves of additional
spending. This phenomenon is referred to as the multiplier effect, also known as induced
impacts.

Multiplier effects arise from various interdependencies within an economic system. For
example, the operation of an airport requires inputs in the form of supplies, equipment, and
maintenance. These inputs generate a boost in sales for those firms or businesses providing
these services and products. Moreover, the goods and services themselves require inputs for
their production. The process continues as a large number of impacts re-circulate through the
economy. The total requirement for goods and services is the multiple of the initial needs of the
airports considered in this analysis; hence it is referred to using the term “multiplier.”

Multipliers for estimating induced impacts were derived from the IMPLAN model. The
multipliers used in this analysis were developed specifically to measure economic impacts in


Chapter 4: Economic Impacts of Airports                                                      4-4
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                March 2010

Florida. Individual multipliers for each sector of the economy being modeled were used. The
multipliers for the sectors of the economy used in this analysis are depicted in Table 4-1. In
some cases these multipliers were used in this chapter, in other instances, multipliers shown in
this table are used in subsequent chapters.

                                            Table 4-1
                            Florida IMPLAN Multipliers by Economy Sector
                                                                     Employment          Payroll          Output
 Economy Sector                                                       Multiplier        Multiplier       Multiplier
 Government                                                                      1.65           1.31             1.80
 Construction CIP       1                                                        1.84           1.72             1.90
 Concessions        2                                                            1.38           1.65             1.80
 Aviation   3                                                                    2.41           1.96             1.71
 Air Cargo      4                                                                1.95           1.59             1.81
 Commercial Service Visitor Expenditures5                                        1.66           1.86             1.82
 General Aviation Visitor Expenditures5                                          1.60           1.83             1.81
 Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers
 Notes: 1. Construction multipliers are the weighted average of the Construct Other New Nonresidential Structures,
 Maintenance & Repair of Nonresidential Structures, and Architectural-Engineering Services multipliers.
 2. Concessions multipliers are the weighted average of the Food Services and Drinking Places, Miscellaneous
 Retail Stores, and Business Support Services multipliers.
 3. Aviation multipliers are the weighted average of the Transport by Air, Aircraft Engine and Engine Parts
 Manufacturing, Other Aircraft Parts and Auxiliary Equipment Manufacturing, and Aircraft Manufacturing
 multipliers.
 4. Air cargo multipliers are the weighted average of the Transport by Air, Transport by Truck, Couriers and
 Messengers, and Warehousing and Storage multipliers.
 5. Visitor expenditures multipliers are the weighted average of the Food Services and Drinking Places, Hotels and
 Motels - Including Casino Hotels, Automotive Equipment Rental and Leasing, and Miscellaneous Retail Store
 multipliers. Weightings were different for commercial service and general aviation visitor multipliers to reflect the
 difference in their spending habits.


The multipliers presented in Table 4-1 were used to estimate induced impacts for on-airport
businesses and tenants. For example, $100 in direct expenditures (output) in the aviation sector
supports a total output impact equivalent to $171. In this example, induced impacts would be
$71 ($171 minus $100).

The methodology discussed in the sections above was applied to each of the study airports (not
including, in most cases, the seven commercial service airports with existing economic impact
studies). By following this methodology, estimates of total employment, annual payroll, and
annual output/spending were developed.




Chapter 4: Economic Impacts of Airports                                                                            4-5
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                  March 2010

EMPLOYMENT,              PAYROLL,          AND       OUTPUT         IMPACTS        FOR      STUDY
AIRPORTS

The airports in this study are significant generators of economic activity. The airports help to
support jobs, payroll, and output for Florida’s economy. The following sections present
economic impacts associated with employment, annual payroll, and total annual output as
measured by this analysis. The impact for on-airport tenants and businesses for all of Florida’s
122 airports included in this study is shown in each section. The impacts shown include
impacts associated with all categories of on-airport tenants and businesses except for those
previously noted which are discussed in subsequent sections of this report.

On-Airport Tenant Employment Impacts

The findings of this analysis indicate that airports are an important source of jobs. Table 4-2
identifies the total number of jobs supported by on-airport tenants and businesses at the
airports in this study.

                                        Table 4-2
                     On-Airport Tenant and Business Economic Impacts

                                                                  Induced
                                            Direct Impacts        Impacts         Total Impacts
     Employment
     Commercial Service Airports                       71,358           73,304           144,662
     General Aviation Airports                          6,981            7,218            14,199
     Total Employment                                  78,339           80,522           158,861
     Payroll
     Commercial Service Airports               $3,143,991,500    $4,061,756,800    $7,205,748,300
     General Aviation Airports                   $334,406,300     $212,407,000      $546,813,300
     Total Payroll                             $3,478,397,800    $4,274,163,800    $7,752,561,600
     Output
     Commercial Service Airports              $15,053,908,500   $11,470,789,900   $26,524,698,400
     General Aviation Airports                 $1,305,644,300     $962,896,000     $2,268,540,300
     Total Output                             $16,359,552,800   $12,433,685,900   $28,793,238,700
     Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


In total, there are 78,339 direct jobs supported by the activities of on-airport tenants and
businesses in Florida. It is important to note that this employment estimate does not include
jobs associated with non-aviation businesses which, for various reasons, are located on an
airport. For instance, some airports have on-site industrial parks with businesses that are not


Chapter 4: Economic Impacts of Airports                                                             4-6
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

related to aviation in any way. Employment associated with these businesses is not included in
the employment estimates shown in Table 4-2.

As a result of on-airport tenant and business activity, additional induced employment is
created. Induced impacts associated with on-airport tenants and businesses add 80,522
additional jobs. When direct and induced employment is considered, Florida’s on-airport
tenants and businesses contributed 158,861 jobs to Florida’s employment base. Of this total,
144,662 jobs are associated with the commercial service airports and 14,199 jobs are associated
with the general aviation airports.

On-Airport Tenant Payroll Impacts

Table 4-2 identifies annual payroll benefits associated with on-airport tenants and businesses for
all study airports.

This study shows that direct annual payroll impacts are nearly $3.5 billion. This direct payroll
impact ripples throughout the Florida economy, creating induced payroll impacts that are
measured through the use of the IMPLAN model. The induced annual payroll impact related
to on-airport tenants and businesses at the study airports is nearly $4.3 billion. Total payroll
impacts associated with on-airport tenants and businesses, which include direct and induced
annual payroll, are nearly $7.8 billion annually.

On-Airport Tenant Output Impacts

Table 4-2 identifies direct, induced, and total annual output associated with on-airport tenants
and businesses for all study airports. As tenants and businesses spend money, the expenditures
ripple through Florida’s economy. Total direct annual output associated with on-airport
tenants and businesses is estimated at nearly $16.4 billion. Induced annual output is estimated
at more than $12.4 billion. When direct and induced output impacts are combined, the total
annual output attributed to on-airport tenants and businesses is nearly $28.8 billion.

SUMMARY FOR ON-AIRPORT TENANTS

As shown in this chapter, the 122 airports considered in this study are major catalysts for
Florida’s economy. In terms of on-airport tenants and businesses considered in this chapter, the
study airports account for the following total economic impacts:

     •   Jobs – 158,861
     •   Annual Payroll – $7,752,561,600
     •   Annual Output - $28,793,238,700




Chapter 4: Economic Impacts of Airports                                                       4-7
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010


CHAPTER 5: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF VISITORS

INTRODUCTION

Millions of visitors arrive in Florida each year via both commercial airline flights and general
aviation aircraft. Approximately 41.7 million visitors arrive each year on commercial airlines,
and 3.7 million visitors arrive on general aviation aircraft. Once in the state, these visitors
spend money for lodging, food, entertainment, retail sales, and other items. Visitor spending
helps to support notable volumes of additional economic activity in the state. While most
visitor-related spending takes place off-airport, the airports are essential for bringing almost 45
million visitors to the state each year.

The commercial service airports, previously shown on Exhibit 2-1, were responsible for
bringing visitors on scheduled airlines (commercial service visitors) to Florida in 2008, the base
year for this study. In addition, both the St. Augustine and the Charlotte County airports had
scheduled airline service in 2008. The economic impact associated with these commercial
service visitors was measured in this study.

All study airports, including the commercial service airports, accommodate arrivals by visiting
general aviation aircraft. Hence, all system airports shown on Exhibit 2-1 help to bring general
aviation visitors to Florida.

It should be noted that spending by Florida residents departing from their local commercial
service and general aviation airports also helps to support substantial benefits for Florida’s
economy. Residents spend money for parking, food and beverage, taxis/limousines, and
miscellaneous retail purchases at their departure airport. The economic impacts associated with
these expenditures were included with the economic impacts of on-airport tenants and
businesses presented in Chapter 4.

APPROACH TO ESTIMATING ECONOMIC IMPACTS FOR VISITORS

Economic impacts associated with visitors, who arrive in Florida via a commercial airline or a
general aviation plane, are driven by the spending these visitors have once they arrive in the
state. As with the previously discussed on-airport impacts, total economic impacts related to
visitors are quantified in terms of employment, payroll, and output. For this portion of the
economic impact analysis, output represents total visitor spending. This chapter presents the
economic impact of visitors who arrive in Florida on commercial airlines and general aviation
aircraft.




Chapter 5: Economic Impacts of Visitors                                                        5-1
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                            March 2010

The Economic Modeling Process for Visitor Impacts

Annually, flights to commercial service and general aviation airports in Florida bring about 45
million visitors to the state. The economic impacts produced by the spending of these visitors
to Florida were determined using actual survey data and data from an input-output model with
multipliers and data tables specific to Florida. Impact estimates for three separate components
of the economy were developed, as follows:

   •   Employment – Employment is based on full-time equivalent positions. For example,
       two part-time employees were assumed to equal one full-time employee.
   •   Payroll – Payroll is the annual salary, wages, and benefits paid to employees.
   •   Output (Spending) – For visitor-related economic impacts, annual activity or output is
       equivalent to total annual spending by all visitors arriving in Florida by air.

The sum of the benefits of these three categories yields the total impacts attributable to an
airport or the system of airports.

It is important to note that payroll and output cannot be combined because elements of
economic benefit related to payroll are also contained in the output estimate. Each of the three
impact components (employment, payroll, and output) stands alone as a measure of visitor-
related economic impact.

Visitor-related economic impacts were calculated using an input-output model. The input-
output model considers two impact categories to assess the economic impacts associated with
commercial service and general aviation visitors. These categories are:

   •   Indirect Impacts: Indirect impacts occur as a result of air travel (both scheduled
       commercial and general aviation), but generally take place off-airport. These impacts
       are attributed to the expenditures of visitors who arrive in Florida by air. Visitor
       expenditures support employment and payroll in service-related industries such as
       lodging, food and beverage, retail, and entertainment. Visitor spending for aviation-
       related goods and services (such as aviation fuel purchases) is not accounted for in
       visitor spending; instead, it is included in the appropriate tenant’s gross sales and is
       included in the on-airport impact section of this report.

   •   Induced Impacts: Induced impacts are the benefits resulting from the re-circulation of
       indirect impacts within the economy. This re-circulation is typically referred to as the
       multiplier effect. For example, as employees whose jobs are supported by visitor
       spending spend their salary for housing, food, and services, those expenditures circulate
       through the economy, resulting in increased spending, payroll, and employment
       throughout Florida.




Chapter 5: Economic Impacts of Visitors                                                     5-2
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                March 2010

Because induced impacts are not as easily quantified as indirect impacts, a reliable method for
estimating induced impacts must be applied. For this study, the Impact Analysis for Planning
(IMPLAN) model was used to measure the multiplier effect and determine induced impacts.
This model is considered a standard method for evaluating the economic benefits of public
facilities, and has been used nationwide to approximate the economic impacts associated with
airports and airport systems. The model contains a detailed database of economic multipliers
used to estimate the induced impacts associated with indirect visitor spending that occurs in
association with the airports.

Data Requirements for the Economic Modeling Process for Visitor Arriving by Air

Data collection efforts were undertaken to gather information related to visitor spending. These
data were inputs to the modeling process to identify total economic impact associated with
visitor spending. The following groups were considered to obtain data to estimate indirect
impacts related to air visitors to Florida:

 •   Commercial Service Visitors: This group consists of estimated non-local passengers
     (visitors) arriving via commercial airlines. Average visitor spending for this group was
     estimated from passenger surveys conducted for this analysis at a number of Florida’s
     commercial service airports.

 •   General Aviation Visitors: Impacts from general aviation visitors are produced by non-
     local passengers arriving via private or business aircraft. General aviation visitors are
     associated with that portion of each airport’s itinerant general aviation operations that are
     transient (or visiting) in nature. Itinerant operations are those that leave the airport’s local
     airspace. Some itinerant operations at an airport are attributable to residents of the
     airport’s market area who fly their planes to more distant locations. The remaining
     itinerant operations are attributed to visitors. Itinerant operations performed by visitors
     are considered transient operations. Impacts for this group were identified from survey
     data from airports across Florida.

Appendix A to this report provides information on how visitor impacts for seven of the
commercial service airports that had their own economic impact studies were estimated.

Commercial Service Visitors

Airline flights to and from Florida’s commercial service airports provide access for millions of
business- and pleasure-related visitors. For this study, visitor impacts related to 19 commercial
service airports were measured. In addition, commercial airline visitor-related impacts were
also measured for the Charlotte County and the St. Augustine airports. These airports were
classified by the FAA and FDOT as general aviation airports in the past, even though each had
limited scheduled airline activity; both airports have been re-classified as commercial service by



Chapter 5: Economic Impacts of Visitors                                                          5-3
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                March 2010

the FAA and FDOT. As a result, commercial service visitor impacts were measured for a total
of 21 airports. Visitors using commercial service airports as a gateway to the state contribute to
the economy through their expenditures for food, lodging, entertainment, transportation, retail
sales, and other goods and services. Numerous service industries also benefit from the
multiplier or spin-off effects stemming from visitor spending.

The spending patterns of commercial service visitors to Florida were estimated based on the
results of departing passenger surveys conducted at 11 commercial service airports over two-
day periods each between March and May 20091. These airports included the following:

    •   Daytona Beach International Airport
    •   Gainesville Regional Airport
    •   Jacksonville International Airport
    •   Key West International Airport
    •   Northwest Florida Regional Airport/Eglin AFB
    •   Orlando Sanford International Airport
    •   Palm Beach International Airport
    •   Panama City-Bay County International Airport
    •   Pensacola Regional Airport
    •   Southwest Florida International Airport
    •   Tallahassee Regional Airport

During passenger surveys, departing passengers were interviewed prior to boarding and asked
several questions. These passengers were first asked to indicate whether they were a resident of
the area, a connecting passenger, or a visitor. Those passengers who indicated that they were
visitors were asked several questions to determine the following:

    •   The purpose of their trip to the area (business, personal/vacation, military, or other)
    •   Duration of their stay
    •   Total expenditures during their stay in each of the following categories: lodging, food
        and beverage, ground transportation, retail, entertainment/recreation, and other
    •   The total number of people that accounted for the expenditure estimates they identified

For each airport with commercial service, the following methodology was used to estimate
commercial service visitor impacts.

Enplanement data for 2008 for each of the commercial service airports was obtained from the
FAA. The percentage of visiting passengers was estimated for each airport using U.S.
Department of Transportation (DOT) origin and destination data from 2008. This information



1It was originally anticipated that passenger surveys would be conducted at twelve commercial service
airports. Naples Municipal Airport, however, lost commercial service in December 2008.


Chapter 5: Economic Impacts of Visitors                                                          5-4
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
    Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
    Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                           March 2010

    for each airport is shown in Table 5-1. Visiting passengers ranged from 44 percent at
    Gainesville Regional Airport to 81 percent at Key West International Airport.

                                        Table 5-1
     Enplanements and Percent Visitors at Florida’s Commercial Service Airports – 2008
                                                                                                             Percent
Associated City                 Airport Name                                             Enplanements        Visitors
Commercial Service Airports
Daytona Beach                   Daytona Beach International Airport                              282,784          62%
Fort Lauderdale                 Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport                11,020,091          61%
Fort Myers                      Southwest Florida International Airport                        3,770,681          69%
Gainesville                     Gainesville Regional Airport                                     136,623          44%
Jacksonville                    Jacksonville International Airport                             2,965,973          53%
Key West                        Key West International Airport                                   231,339          81%
Melbourne                       Melbourne International Airport                                  145,117          48%
Miami                           Miami International Airport1                                  17,000,000          48%
Naples                          Naples Municipal Airport                                           3,316          70%
Orlando                         Orlando International Airport                                 17,288,480          73%
Orlando                         Orlando Sanford International Airport                            927,188          67%
Panama City                     Panama City-Bay County International Airport                     161,236          62%
Pensacola                       Pensacola Regional Airport                                       771,917          54%
Sarasota                        Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport                         753,126          63%
St. Petersburg/Clearwater       St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport                  363,725          61%
Tallahassee                     Tallahassee Regional Airport                                     399,094          46%
Tampa                           Tampa International Airport                                    8,871,917          58%
Valparaiso                      Northwest Florida Regional Airport/Eglin AFB                     373,808          61%
West Palm Beach                 Palm Beach International Airport                               3,232,009          61%
Punta Gorda                     Charlotte County Airport2                                          53,073         71%
St. Augustine             St. Augustine Airport         2                                         19,573          70%
Commercial Service Airports Total                                                             68,771,070
1Data is from the Martin Associates 2008 economic impact study for Miami International Airport
2The FAA and FDOT classified the airport as a general aviation airport in the past, even though the airport had limited
scheduled airline activity. The FAA and FDOT have re-classified the airport as commercial service.
Source: FAA and U.S. DOT


    Average expenditures per trip for visitors were based on survey data gathered from airline
    passengers traveling to Florida. These estimates were applied to the number of annual visitors
    for each airport to determine total annual economic activity (or output) generated by spending
    from commercial airline visitors using each airport.

    The following example demonstrates the calculations used to estimate commercial service
    visitor impacts for output (spending), employment, and payroll:



    Chapter 5: Economic Impacts of Visitors                                                                       5-5
    Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010

   •   Jacksonville International Airport reported 2,965,973 enplanements during 2008. U.S.
       DOT data indicate that 53 percent of these enplanements were visitors, or 1,581,750
       visitors traveling through Jacksonville International Airport.

           o   2,965,973 enplanements x 53 percent visitors = 1,581,750 visitors

   •   Survey data from Jacksonville International Airport provided an estimate of average
       spending ($460 per visitor per trip). This average is used to calculate annual visitor
       spending (or output) of approximately $727.6 million.

           o   1,581,750 visitors x $460 per visitor per trip = $727.6 million annual output

   •   In order to estimate employment associated with commercial service visitor spending,
       Florida specific employment ratios per $1 million of visitor output (spending) were
       developed using the IMPLAN model. It was estimated that approximately 13.3 persons
       are employed in Florida as result of every $1 million in commercial service visitor
       spending. In other words, every time visitors spend a total of $1 million, this spending
       supports 13.3 jobs. This calculation results in an estimated 9,700 visitor-related jobs
       associated with the spending of visitors arriving via Jacksonville International Airport
       on commercial airlines.

           o   $727.6 million x 13.3 ÷ $1,000,000 = 9,700 jobs

   •   In order to estimate payroll impacts associated with employment supported by
       commercial service visitor spending, average state wages for appropriate industry
       sectors were applied to the estimated number of employees supported by commercial
       airline visitor spending. Most visitor expenditures take place in the hotel/motel,
       food/beverage, entertainment, retail, and transportation sectors. Based on data obtained
       from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, an average payroll of $23,100 per employee in
       Florida was assumed for these job categories.

           o   9,700.0 jobs x $23,100 = $224.1 million annual payroll

The same calculation was used for each airport with commercial service, using average
spending numbers per visitor trip appropriate for each airport. The visitor impact data (output,
employment, and payroll) for each airport with commercial service airport is shown in Table B-
1, B-2, and B-3 in Appendix B. These tables show indirect, induced, and total output,
employment, and payroll for visitors arriving on commercial airlines.




Chapter 5: Economic Impacts of Visitors                                                        5-6
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

General Aviation Visitors

General aviation refers to all segments of aircraft activity that are not related to the commercial
airlines or the military. Visitors to Florida use general aviation aircraft to enjoy both
recreational opportunities available in Florida as well as to conduct business.

The economic activity produced by general aviation visitors at the commercial service and
general aviation airports in Florida was determined by surveying transient pilots and
passengers using Florida airports. Surveys were provided to FBO managers throughout the
state system of airports. Surveys were distributed by the FBOs to arriving transient pilots and
passengers who were visitors to Florida. The survey requested the following information:

   •   The airport where the survey was received
   •   The number of travelers in the aircraft
   •   The purpose of the trip
   •   The length of stay in the airport area
   •   The estimated expenditures during the trip
   •   The total number of people that accounted for the expenditures

This transient pilot survey effort, which lasted approximately three months, was used to
estimate the average number of general aviation visitors per aircraft and average expenditures
per visitor per trip. Based on survey data, the average general aviation visitor in Florida spent
approximately $260 per trip on expenses, other than aircraft-related expenses. Economic impact
related to visitor expenditures for aircraft-related expenses were captured in association with
on-airport tenant impacts. Survey data also indicated that the average general aviation aircraft
transported 2.5 persons per.

It is recognized, however, that not all airports attract the same types of visitors. For example,
visitors arriving in Orlando or Fort Lauderdale have a wider variety of options for lodging and
entertainment than do visitors arriving in Live Oak or Cross City. As a result, a tiered approach
to estimating general aviation visitor spending was applied to Florida’s airports. These tiers
allow for differentiation among average spending levels for each community/airport.

To determine the general aviation visitor spending level that was appropriate for each airport,
Florida retail sales per capita data were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau. It was reasoned
that the amount of retail sales per capita for each county in Florida was a relative indicator of
each airport’s appropriate tier for visitor spending. Information received from this study’s
transient pilot and passenger surveys was used to develop a range of spending per trip for
visitors arriving in Florida in general aviation aircraft. During the process, it was determined
that it was appropriate to establish six different tiers for general aviation visitor spending.

Once the tiers were established, the transient pilot surveys received were used not only to
develop estimates of average visitor spending per trip but also to establish average length of


Chapter 5: Economic Impacts of Visitors                                                        5-7
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                              March 2010

stay and average persons per aircraft estimates for the respective tiers. Table 5-2 presents
information on assumptions for average spending per visitor trip for airports in each tier. A
breakdown of airports by tier is presented in Appendix B in Table B-4. The assignment of
commercial service and general aviation airports to each tier was an important step in
estimating annual spending associated with general aviation visitors.

                                             Table 5-2
                                    General Aviation Visitor Tiers
                                        Tier 1     Tier 2      Tier 3      Tier 4      Tier 5         Tier 6
      Avg. Expenditure Per Trip           $560        $360        $230        $110          $70            $0
      Avg. Persons/Aircraft                 4.0         4.0         3.6         3.1         2.2           NA
      Number of Airports*                    22          20          22          30          23                4
      * Excludes the new Northwest Florida Beaches International Airport that is under construction
      Source: Wilbur Smith Associates


The number of itinerant operations at each Florida airport was gathered from the FAA’s 2008
Terminal Area Forecast (TAF). For airports not included in the TAF, the number of itinerant
operations was collected from each airport’s FAA 5010 Form. By definition, true transient
operations are business or pleasure flights conducted by aircraft not based locally. Transient
operations are equated with that portion of each airport’s general aviation activity that brings in
visitors. Itinerant operations, on the other hand, are defined as non-training flights or aircraft
that enter or leave an airport’s airspace. The proportion of itinerant operations that were true
transient at each airport was estimated through interviews with FBO and airport managers.

Using this data as inputs noted in this section, estimates of general aviation spending were
made for each airport as illustrated in the following example, using Space Coast Regional
Airport:

  •    The number of itinerant general aviation aircraft operations was obtained from the FAA’s
       2008 TAF. According to the TAF, there were 64,257 itinerant aircraft operations
       (including arrivals and departures) at Space Coast Regional Airport in 2008.

             o   64,257 itinerant aircraft operations ÷ 2 = 32,129 itinerant arrivals

  •    The number of itinerant arrivals performed by true transients is required to calculate
       visitor impacts. Approximately 40 percent of itinerant arrivals at Space Coast Regional
       are true transients or visiting aircraft. These true transient flights are equated with either
       business or pleasure visitors.

             o   32,129 itinerant arrivals x 40 percent = 12,851 true transient arrivals




Chapter 5: Economic Impacts of Visitors                                                                            5-8
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                  March 2010

  •       Data regarding the average number of aircraft occupants from the airport “tier” process
          was then applied to the estimate of true transient arrivals to determine annual general
          aviation visitors. Space Coast Regional is classified as a Tier Two airport. The average
          aircraft occupancy for airports in Tier Two is 4.0 persons per aircraft (see Table 5-2). For
          Space Coast Regional, the 12,851 true transient arrivals yields the following number of
          annual general aviation visitors:

              o   12,851 arrivals x 4.0 persons/aircraft = 51,406 annual general aviation visitors

      •    To calculate the impact these visitors have on the economy, it was necessary to estimate
           average expenditures per visitor, per trip. For Space Coast Regional, the average
           expenditure per visitor per trip is $360 (see Table 5-2). The typical visitor expenditure
           was then applied to the estimated number of annual general aviation visitors to produce
           general aviation visitor spending (output).        This final general aviation visitor
           expenditure figure equates to visitor output.

              o   51,406 annual general aviation visitors x $360/visitor/trip = $18,506,000 annual
                  spending (output) by general aviation visitors using Space Coast Regional
                  Airport

  •       To determine payroll and employment impacts resulting from visitor spending (or
          output), multiplier ratios based on $1 million of output were used. Ratios developed by
          the input-output model indicate that for every $1 million of general aviation visitor
          output (spending), approximately 15.2 full-time positions in other industries are
          supported. Most of these jobs are in the service and retail sectors. Visitors arriving on
          general aviation aircraft at Space Coast Regional Airport support approximately 281 full-
          time positions.

              o   $18,506,000 x 15.2 jobs ÷ $1,000,000 = 280.8 jobs

  •       The average annual statewide salary for service/retail industries ($23,100) was then
          applied to the estimate of employment to calculate the payroll impact associated with
          general aviation visitor-supported employment. In this example, general aviation visitor-
          related payroll associated with the 281 full-time positions is estimated to total
          approximately $6,486,500 on an annual basis.

              o   280.8 jobs x $23,100 = $6,486,500

The same approach was used for each commercial service and general aviation airport, using
the tier assignment for each airport and corresponding data from Table B-5 in Appendix B.
Table B-5 summarizes estimated 2008 general aviation operations for the Florida airport system.
Estimates of total output (spending), employment, and payroll associated with general aviation
visitors using each system airport are presented in Tables B-6, B-7, and B-8.


Chapter 5: Economic Impacts of Visitors                                                              5-9
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010

Study Multipliers/Induced Impacts

Employment, payroll, and output impacts derived from on-airport activities and visitors
comprise each airport’s direct and indirect economic impacts. As these impacts enter the
economy, they circulate among other sectors, creating successive waves of additional spending.
This phenomenon is referred to as the multiplier effect, also known as induced impacts.
Multipliers used in this study have been previously discussed in Chapter 4, Table 4-1.


VISITOR EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLL, AND OUTPUT IMPACTS

The following sections discuss economic impacts associated with employment, annual payroll,
and total annual economic activity (output) as measured by this analysis. Impacts presented are
those calculated for visitors arriving in Florida on commercial airlines and general aviation
aircraft.

Visitor Employment Impacts

The findings of this analysis indicate that visitors are an important source of jobs. Visitors
arriving via commercial airlines spend money, thereby supporting employment throughout
Florida. Table 5-3 identifies the number of employees in Florida whose jobs are supported by
the spending of visitors arriving on commercial airlines via Florida’s commercial service
airports. Most of the jobs are concentrated in the hotel/motel, restaurant, recreational and
entertainment, and retail sectors.

                                     Table 5-3
            Florida Employment from Commercial Service Visitor Spending

                                                            Indirect     Induced        Total
                                                          Employment    Employment    Employment
 Commercial Service Visitor Employment                        422,575       292,263       714,838
 Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


There are 422,575 indirect jobs supported by commercial service visitor spending. Induced
impacts result in 292,263 additional jobs supported by the spending of commercial service
visitors. When indirect and induced visitor-related employment impacts are combined, 714,838
jobs are supported by spending from visitors to Florida who arrive via the commercial airlines.

Similar to visitors using commercial airline service, intra-state and inter-state visitors using
general aviation aircraft typically spend money while visiting, thereby helping to support
additional employment. Table 5-4 identifies the number of Florida jobs supported by spending
from visitors using general aviation aircraft to travel.




Chapter 5: Economic Impacts of Visitors                                                       5-10
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
 Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
 Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                       March 2010

                                       Table 5-4
                Florida Employment from General Aviation Visitor Spending
                                                                     Indirect     Induced         Total
                                                                   Employment    Employment     Employment
Commercial Service Airport General Aviation Visitor
Employment                                                              11,804          7,198        19,002
General Aviation Airport General Aviation Visitor
Employment                                                              12,234          7,279        19,513
Total General Aviation Visitor Employment                               24,038         14,477        38,515
Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


 As a result of general aviation visitor expenditures in Florida, there are 24,038 indirect jobs
 supported in Florida. Induced impacts result in an additional 14,477 jobs. When indirect and
 induced general aviation visitor-related employment impacts are combined, 38,515 jobs are
 supported by the spending of visitors using general aviation aircraft in Florida.

 Visitor Payroll Impacts

 Payroll impacts relate to the previously identified employment benefits associated with
 commercial service visitors and general aviation visitors. Table 5-5 identifies the annual payroll
 impact attributed to employees whose jobs are supported by spending from commercial service
 visitors using the study airports.

                                        Table 5-5
            Florida Annual Payroll from Commercial Service Visitor Spending

                                                Indirect Payroll     Induced Payroll     Total Payroll
   Commercial Service Airport Visitor
   Payroll                                      $9,475,471,500        $8,821,939,400   $18,297,410,900
   Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


 Indirect payroll consists of wages and benefits paid to employees working at restaurants,
 hotels/motels, retail businesses, and other service industries that are used by commercial service
 visitors. Indirect annual payroll attributable to spending by commercial service visitors is
 estimated at nearly $9.5 billion.

 As employees in the service industries spend their payroll, the money continues to circulate in
 Florida, generating additional employment and subsequent payroll. Annual induced payroll
 impacts associated with commercial service visitor-supported employment are estimated at
 more than $8.8 billion. When indirect and induced annual payroll impacts stemming from
 commercial service visitor spending in Florida are combined, a total annual payroll impact of
 nearly $18.3 billion is produced.



 Chapter 5: Economic Impacts of Visitors                                                                 5-11
 Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                          March 2010

Table 5-6 identifies the payroll impacts attributed to jobs supported by spending from visitors
to Florida using general aviation aircraft.

                                       Table 5-6
             Florida Annual Payroll from General Aviation Visitor Spending
                                                   Indirect
                                                   Payroll             Induced Payroll        Total Payroll
 Commercial Service Airport Payroll                $272,617,200            $227,262,200          $499,879,400
 General Aviation Airport Payroll                  $282,478,900            $235,483,200          $517,962,100
 Total General Aviation Visitor Payroll            $555,096,100            $462,745,400        $1,017,841,500
 Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


Indirect annual payroll attributable to employees whose jobs are supported by spending from
general aviation visitors is estimated at nearly $555.1 million. As employees in the visitor-
related industries spend their payroll, this spending continues to circulate, generating
additional employment and subsequent payroll. The induced annual payroll impact associated
with general aviation visitor spending is estimated at approximately $462.7 million. When
indirect and induced payroll impacts stemming from general aviation visitor spending are
combined, a total payroll impact of more than $1.0 billion is produced.

Visitor Output Impacts

Output related to commercial service and general aviation visitors is defined as the total
spending that takes place during their visits. Annual economic output or spending from
visitors to Florida is discussed in this section.

Table 5-7 identifies total annual output attributed to commercial visitor spending.

                                       Table 5-7
                Florida Output from Commercial Service Visitor Spending
                                                            Indirect          Induced
                                                            Output             Output           Total Output
Commercial Service Airports Visitor Output               $31,009,066,200    $25,294,672,100     $56,303,738,300
Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


Indirect output from commercial service visitor spending is estimated at more than $31.0
billion. The spending continues to circulate resulting in induced impacts. Induced annual
impacts related to commercial service visitor output are estimated at nearly $25.3 billion. In
total, combined annual output or visitor spending is more than $56.3 billion.

Table 5-8 identifies spending (output) attributed to general aviation visitors. Indirect annual
output is comparable to all general aviation visitor spending in Florida. Total indirect annual


Chapter 5: Economic Impacts of Visitors                                                                   5-12
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                      March 2010

output from general aviation visitor spending is estimated at nearly $1.6 billion. Induced
impacts related to general aviation visitor output are estimated at nearly $1.3 billion each year.
The total annual output or spending associated with visitors arriving via general aviation is
nearly $2.9 billion.

                                        Table 5-8
                  Florida Output from General Aviation Visitor Spending
                                                  Indirect Output        Induced Output     Total Output
 Commercial Service Airport Output                        $777,693,600       $633,805,300   $1,411,498,900
 General Aviation Airport Output                          $805,964,500       $656,845,500   $1,462,810,000
 Total General Aviation Visitor Output               $1,583,658,100        $1,290,650,800   $2,874,308,900
 Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


SUMMARY FOR VISITOR IMPACTS

Table 5-9 summarizes employment, payroll, and spending (output) attributed to commercial
and general aviation visitors. Indirect impacts shown in this table were calculated using the
surveys, assumptions, and methodology described in this section, while induced impacts were
estimated using study multipliers. As shown in Table 5-9, total employment supported by all
visitor spending is estimated at 753,353; total annual payroll associated with these jobs is
estimated at $19.3 billion. Total annual output (spending) from all commercial and general
aviation visitors who arrive in Florida by air is estimated at nearly $59.2 billion.




Chapter 5: Economic Impacts of Visitors                                                                5-13
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                March 2010

                                          Table 5-9
                              Visitor Economic Impact Summary

                                          Indirect Impacts     Induced Impacts     Total Impacts
 Employment
 Commercial Service Visitor Impacts                  422,575            292,263            714,838
 General Aviation Visitor Impacts                     24,038             14,477             38,515
 Total Visitor Employment                            446,613            306,740            753,353
 Payroll
 Commercial Service Visitor Impacts           $9,475,471,500      $8,821,939,400    $18,297,410,900
 General Aviation Visitor Impacts               $555,096,100       $462,745,400      $1,017,841,500
 Total Payroll                               $10,030,567,600      $9,284,684,800    $19,315,252,400
 Output
 Commercial Service Visitor Impacts          $31,009,066,200     $25,294,672,100    $56,303,738,300
 General Aviation Visitor Impacts             $1,583,658,100      $1,290,650,800     $2,874,308,900
 Total Output                                $32,592,724,300     $26,585,322,900    $59,178,047,200
 Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers




Chapter 5: Economic Impacts of Visitors                                                            5-14
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                            March 2010


CHAPTER 6: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AIRPORT
CONSTRUCTION

INTRODUCTION

Each year, nearly all airports undertake capital improvement projects, such as runway
rehabilitations, ramp overlays, hangar development, or building improvements. In addition,
on-airport businesses and other agencies undertake capital improvement projects. While these
projects are underway, they employ persons in jobs such as construction, architecture,
engineering, and consulting. Capital improvement projects at Florida’s airports provide
economic benefits to the state’s economy. Grants from FDOT and the FAA are important
contributors to airport-related capital improvement projects. The economic impact associated
with construction at study airports was measured in this study.

APPROACH TO ESTIMATING ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AIRPORT
CONSTRUCTION

As previously discussed in this report, the total economic impact in this study is quantified in
terms of employment, payroll, and output. Output represents total economic activity or
spending. It represents the total value of aviation-related activities supported by the airports
included in this study. This chapter presents the economic impact of the airports in terms of
construction activity.

The Economic Modeling Process for Airport Construction Impacts

The economic impacts produced by airport construction activity were determined by using
actual survey data and data from an input-output model that estimates purchases and sales
between the various sectors of the economy. The model incorporated multipliers and data
tables specific to Florida and required impact estimates for three separate components of the
economy, as follows:

   •   Employment – Employment is based on full-time equivalent positions. For example,
       two part-time employees were assumed to equal one full-time employee.
   •   Payroll – Payroll is the annual salary, wages, and benefits paid to employees.
   •   Output (Spending) – For airport construction-related economic impacts, output is
       equivalent to the average annual expenditures for capital improvement projects.

It is important to note that payroll and output cannot be combined because elements of
economic benefit related to payroll are also contained in the output estimate. Each of the three
impact components (employment, payroll, and output) stands alone as a measure of an
airport’s or the airport system’s total economic impact.



Chapter 6: Economic Impacts of Airport Construction                                         6-1
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010

Airport construction-related impacts were calculated using an input-output model. The input-
output model considers two impact categories to assess the economic benefits associated with
capital improvement projects. These categories are:

   •   Direct Impacts: Direct impacts are the benefits associated with construction activity that
       occurs on-airport. Direct impacts include the employment, payroll, and spending for
       businesses such as construction, architecture, engineering, and consulting firms
       involved in project design and construction.

   •   Induced Impacts: Induced impacts are the benefits resulting from the recirculation of
       direct impacts within the economy. This recirculation is typically referred to as the
       multiplier effect. For example, as construction employees spend their salary for
       housing, food, and services, those expenditures circulate through the economy, resulting
       in increased spending, payroll, and employment throughout Florida.

Because induced impacts are not as easily quantified as direct impacts, a reliable method of
estimating the induced impacts must be applied. For this study, the Impact Analysis for
Planning (IMPLAN) model was used to measure the multiplier effect and determine induced
impacts. This model is considered a standard method for evaluating the economic benefits of
public facilities, and has been used nationwide to approximate the economic impacts associated
with airports and airport systems. The model contains a detailed database of economic
multipliers used to estimate the induced impacts.

Data Requirements for the Economic Modeling Process for On-Airport Construction

As previously explained, nearly all airports undertake capital improvement projects every year.
Examples of these projects include parking facility improvements and taxiway rehabilitations.
In addition, on-airport businesses and government agencies undertake capital improvement
projects. These projects employ persons in jobs such as construction, architecture, engineering,
and consulting.

Data collection efforts were undertaken to gather information related to construction activity at
airports considered in this study. These data, obtained through survey efforts, were inputs to
the modeling process to identify total economic impact associated with capital improvement
projects at study airports.

Appendix A to this report provides information on how airport construction-related impacts for
seven of the commercial service airports that had their own economic impact studies were
estimated.




Chapter 6: Economic Impacts of Airport Construction                                          6-2
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

SURVEYS AND DATA COLLECTION METHODS

Direct impacts regarding airport construction activity were identified primarily through survey
efforts. Airport managers and on-airport tenants and businesses were contacted to gather data
related to capital improvement projects. The methods used to collect information are discussed
in the following sections.

Airport Construction (Direct Impacts)

As explained in Chapter 4, airport sponsors/managers and all airport tenants and businesses
having employees on Florida airports during 2008 were contacted to collect information for this
study. As part of this survey effort, information regarding annual capital improvement project
expenditures for 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008 was collected.

For airport tenants/businesses who did not supply complete information on capital
improvement project expenditures, estimates were developed using ratios of capital
improvement project expenditures per employee for businesses category groupings used in this
analysis. These ratios were developed from survey data obtained from those tenants and
businesses who did respond to the survey. For business categories that had limited data,
supplemental information was used from other recent economic impact studies conducted in
other states.

The following methodology was used to estimate direct construction impacts:

   •   Capital improvement project data for 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008 was used to determine
       average annual capital improvement expenditures. This approach was taken to avoid
       showing peaks or troughs in construction spending.

   •   The IMPLAN input-output model indicates that every $1 million spent annually on
       construction supports 9.0 “construction-related” jobs in Florida. These jobs include
       construction workers, equipment operators, foremen, engineers, and managers.

   •   Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics was used to determine average pay for
       construction-related workers in Florida, and this average salary was applied to each
       construction-related employee to determine payroll associated with capital
       improvement project activity.

For this particular statewide economic impact study, there was a unique situation as it relates to
construction impacts, and this situation needed special consideration as it relates to study
methodology. Bay County is in the process of developing a new commercial service airport. In
May 2010, The Northwest Florida Beaches International Airport is expected to open. This is the
first new commercial airport built in Florida since Southwest Florida International Airport was



Chapter 6: Economic Impacts of Airport Construction                                           6-3
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

developed as a replacement for Page Field. Feasibility analysis and planning for this new
commercial airport actually started in the 1998-1999 timeframe.

Economic impacts captured in the FDOT study represent a “snap-shot” in time. Economic
impacts in FDOT’s statewide economic impact study are for calendar year 2008. Planning and
development costs for The Northwest Florida Beaches International Airport span more than 10
years. Total published cost estimates for the new commercial airport range from $318 to $330
million.

In order to factor in construction-related economic impacts from the new commercial service
airport, it was necessary to establish an estimated annual construction cost during 2008.
Information on annual construction costs from the airport authority for the new airport was
reviewed to make this determination. This information indicated that $62 million in annual
construction costs for the new commercial service airport was an appropriate estimate. This
annualized construction cost was factored in to the construction-related economic impacts
presented in this chapter.

Study Multipliers/Induced Impacts

Employment, payroll, and output impacts associated with construction activity is part of each
study airport’s direct economic impact. As these direct construction-related impacts enter the
economy, they circulate among other sectors, creating successive waves of additional spending.
This phenomenon is referred to as the multiplier effect, also known as induced impacts.
Multipliers used in this study have been previously discussed in Chapter 4. The multipliers for
capital improvement project impacts were shown in Table 4-1.


CONSTRUCTION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLL, AND OUTPUT
IMPACTS

The following sections discuss economic impacts associated with employment, annual payroll,
and total annual economic activity (output) as measured by this analysis. Impacts presented are
those calculated for airport construction-related activity. Total construction-related impacts are
presented for commercial service and general aviation airports. Airport construction impact
data (employment, payroll, and output) for each study airport is presented in Tables C-1, C-2,
and C-3 in Appendix C to this report.

Construction Employment Impacts

The findings of this analysis indicate that airport construction activity is an important source of
employment. Table 6-1 identifies the total number of jobs supported by construction activity at
the airports included in this study.




Chapter 6: Economic Impacts of Airport Construction                                            6-4
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
  Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
  Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                           March 2010

                                               Table 6-1
                                   Airport Construction Employment

                                                                   Direct             Induced          Total
                                                                 Employment          Employment      Employment
  Commercial Service Airports Construction Employment                       11,193          10,203         21,396
  General Aviation Airports Construction Employment                          2,127           1,798          3,925
  Total Construction Employment                                             13,320          12,001         25,321
  Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


  In total, on an average annual basis there are 13,320 direct jobs supported by construction
  activity at the study airports. As a result of construction activity on the airports, additional
  induced employment is created. Induced impacts associated with construction activity add
  12,001 jobs to the economy. When direct and induced employment is considered, construction
  activity on Florida’s airports contributed 25,321 jobs to the state’s employment base. Of this
  total, 21,396 jobs are associated with the commercial service airports and 3,925 jobs are
  associated with the general aviation airports.

  Construction Payroll Impacts

  Table 6-2 identifies annual payroll benefits associated with construction activity at each of the
  study airports.

                                                Table 6-2
                                       Airport Construction Payroll

                                                           Direct Payroll      Induced Payroll       Total Payroll
Commercial Service Airports Construction Payroll             $439,898,100            $469,854,400       $909,752,500
General Aviation Airports Construction Payroll                $76,468,000             $54,856,700       $131,324,700
Total Construction Payroll                                   $516,366,100            $524,711,100     $1,041,077,200
Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


  This study shows that direct annual construction payroll impacts are nearly $516.4 million. This
  direct payroll impact ripples throughout the Florida economy, creating induced payroll impacts
  that can be measured through the use of the IMPLAN model. The induced annual payroll
  impact related to construction activity at the study airports is more than $524.7 million. Total
  payroll impacts associated with construction activity, which include direct and induced annual
  payroll, are more than $1.0 billion annually. Of this total, approximately $909.8 million is
  associated with the commercial service airports and approximately $131.3 million is associated
  with the general aviation airports.




  Chapter 6: Economic Impacts of Airport Construction                                                         6-5
  Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
  Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
  Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                    March 2010

  Construction Output Impacts

  Table 6-3 identifies direct, induced, and total annual output associated with construction
  activity at the study airports. As expenditures are made on airport capital improvement
  projects, the expenditures ripple through Florida’s economy. Total direct annual output
  associated with construction activity is estimated at more than $1.5 billion. Induced annual
  output is estimated at nearly $1.4 billion. When direct and induced impacts are combined, the
  total annual output attributed to airport construction is nearly $2.9 billion. Of this total,
  approximately $2.4 billion is associated with commercial service airports and approximately
  $455.0 million is associated with general aviation airports.

                                                Table 6-3
                                       Airport Construction Output

                                                         Direct Output     Induced Output     Total Output
Commercial Service Airports Construction Output           $1,268,228,800     $1,135,515,200    $2,403,744,000
General Aviation Airports Construction Output               $240,085,900       $214,961,900     $455,047,800
Total Construction Output                                 $1,508,314,700     $1,350,477,100    $2,858,791,800
Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


  SUMMARY FOR AIRPORT CONSTRUCTION IMPACTS

  Table 6-4 summarizes the employment, payroll, and output impacts associated with airport
  construction activity. Direct impacts shown in this table were calculated using the surveys,
  assumptions, and methodology described in this chapter, while induced impacts were
  estimated using IMPLAN multipliers. As shown in Table 6-4, total employment supported by
  airport construction activity is estimated at 25,321; total annual payroll associated with these
  jobs is estimated at more than $1.0 billion. Total annual output from all airport construction
  activity is estimated at nearly $2.9 billion.




  Chapter 6: Economic Impacts of Airport Construction                                                 6-6
  Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                    March 2010

                                          Table 6-4
                            Airport Construction Impact Summary
                                        Direct Impacts         Induced Impacts     Total Impacts
      Employment
      Commercial Service Airports                  11,193                10,203             21,396
      General Aviation Airports                     2,127                 1,798              3,925
      Total Employment                             13,320                12,001             25,321
      Payroll
      Commercial Service Airports            $439,898,100          $469,854,400       $909,752,500
      General Aviation Airports               $76,468,000           $54,856,700       $131,324,700
      Total Payroll                          $516,366,100          $524,711,100     $1,041,077,200
      Output
      Commercial Service Airports          $1,268,228,800         $1,135,515,200    $2,403,744,000
      General Aviation Airports             $240,085,900           $214,961,900      $455,047,800
      Total Output                         $1,508,314,700         $1,350,477,100    $2,858,791,800
      Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers




Chapter 6: Economic Impacts of Airport Construction                                                  6-7
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010


CHAPTER 7: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AIR CARGO

INTRODUCTION

The FAA acknowledges the regional economic importance of airports by providing detailed
guidance on estimating the economic impact of airports1. Since the FAA methodology was
developed, the air cargo industry, particularly the integrated express industry, has evolved into
a major component of the aviation industry. While many air cargo industry activities take place
on-airport, a significant amount of the industry’s activities take place off-airport.

There are 24 airports in Florida with scheduled air cargo and/or passenger flights carrying air
cargo. These airports support a wide range of air cargo activity on an annual basis. Air cargo
activity at airports in Florida includes cargo carried by passenger airlines, integrated cargo
carriers such as FedEx Express, all-cargo carriers. The majority of these 24 airports support air
cargo activity that takes place both on- and off-airport. Off-airport air cargo activities include
integrated express carriers ground operations, air freight forwarding trucking operations,
customs brokers. The location of study airports that support scheduled air cargo activity and
the location of off-airport air cargo nodes of activity associated with these airports were both
mapped previously in Chapter 2.

AIR CARGO INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

Products that benefit from increased speed of distribution or better stock availability provided
by air cargo shipping include those that are high value, relatively light weight, and time critical.
Examples of these types of materials/goods include:

    •   Aerospace - Equipment & Parts
    •   Automotive - Equipment & Parts
    •   Energy Development Materials
    •   Computers and Computer Components
    •   Medical Diagnostic Equipment and Specimens
    •   Medical/Surgical Devices and Equipment
    •   Pharmaceuticals
    •   Medical Tissue and Organs
    •   Textiles - Garments
    •   Consumer Electronics
    •   Perishables - Flowers, Fruit, Vegetables, and Seafood
    •   Economically Perishable Materials - Printed Material
    •   Telecommunications Equipment - Cell Phones, Blackberries, etc.


1Estimating the Regional Economic Significance of Airports, Butler and Kiernan, FAA, 1992 and
Measuring the Regional Economic Significance of Airports, FAA 1986


Chapter 7: Economic Impacts of Air Cargo                                                        7-1
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                     March 2010

The air cargo industry is comprised of many components which contribute to the movement or
connectivity of goods. These components include the more apparent air transport component
as well as the less apparent ground transport components which are typically located off-
airport. Types of businesses/operators in the air cargo industry, located on airports, are
discussed in the following paragraphs.

All-Cargo Carriers - Carriers in the all-cargo category operate airport-to-airport, providing air
cargo and freight services for their customers. All-cargo carriers do not offer passenger service.
All-cargo carriers offer scheduled cargo service to major markets throughout the world using
wide-body and/or containerized cargo aircraft.         Miami International Airport frequently
accommodates cargo carriers specializing in the transport of perishable goods.

Integrated Express Operators - Integrated express operators move the customer’s goods
door-to-door. Integrated express operators provide shipment collection, transport via air/truck,
and delivery. Integrated express operators include FedEx Express2, UPS, and DHL. Express
companies typically provide next day and deferred, time-definite delivery of documents and
small packages (two to 70 pounds); however, integrated express operators are increasingly
transporting “heavy” freight (over 70 pounds). Integrated express operators use hub-and-spoke
systems, similar to passenger airlines. Major integrated express hubs are located in Memphis,
Louisville, and Cincinnati.

Passenger Airlines - Air cargo services provided by passenger airlines vary in scope and size
from airline to airline, based on differences in aircraft operating fleets. A regional airline, with a
fleet of turboprop and regional jets, cannot typically accommodate bulky cargo. Passenger
airlines operating wide-body aircraft have containerized lower decks, and they are capable of
handling large air cargo shipments.

Bank Check and Medical Transport Cargo Operators - There are several air cargo
operators specializing in transport of banking materials for the Federal Reserve and medical
supplies for hospitals. The cargo operators in this category commonly utilize single-engine and
small twin-engine piston aircraft. These cargo carriers operate at both general aviation and
commercial service airports.

Road Feeder Service/Freight Forwarders - Road feeder service (RFS) is a service offered by a
scheduled cargo operator to move goods to and from the aircraft and/or terminal by truck road
service. This type of air cargo service allows a carrier to provide services to a city to which it
does not fly aircraft. This type of air cargo service is typically allocated an airline flight number,

2 FedEx has several product types that utilize the FedEx brand name in some form. FedEx Express is the
integrated express arm of the company, providing the “overnight service” synonymous with the brand.
FedEx Freight is a trucking division which specializes in freight weighing over 150 pounds and offers
fast-cycle logistics with regional next- and second-day service, including accelerated service in 3 days or
more.


Chapter 7: Economic Impacts of Air Cargo                                                               7-2
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                March 2010

although an aircraft may not be involved in the air cargo transport. A freight forwarder accepts
small packages from shippers and consolidates them into container loads. This activity can take
place on- or off-airport.


FLORIDA AIR CARGO OVERVIEW

There are 24 airports in Florida which accommodate on-airport air cargo activity on a scheduled
basis; the location of these airports was presented in Chapter 2. These airports range in size
from general aviation airports to major international commercial service airports. There are two
types of cargo facilities located on Florida’s airports; these include facilities that function as a:

   •   Local Market Station for an integrated express operator, such as FedEx Express, and;

   •   International Gateways for many of the cargo operators (including passenger airlines)
       at Miami International Airport.

There are no integrated express air cargo hubs with large scale package sort facilities located in
Florida. Miami International Airport does, however, function as a passenger transfer hub for
American Airlines.

Local Market Air Cargo Station - The criteria for a local market station, or direct air cargo
service (origin and destination [O&D] service) to an airport’s surrounding market area,
generally coincides with population centers where there is a concentration of industry,
commerce, and transportation infrastructure. The local market station is the simplest and most
common type of air cargo facility. These facilities represent the “spoke” in a hub-and-spoke air
carrier network.

International Air Cargo Gateway - An international air cargo gateway functions as a
consolidation, distribution, and processing point for international air cargo. Much of the cargo
moving through a gateway airport does not originate and is not destined for the gateway
airport’s surrounding market area. Airports in the U.S. that are considered international
gateway airports include Miami International, JFK International, Los Angeles International, and
Chicago O’Hare International. Orlando International Airport functions as a gateway to a lesser
degree; this airport accommodates international passenger flights to 22 international
destinations.

It is important to point out that many air cargo-related businesses can operate either on- or off-
airport since these businesses are involved in the ground transportation of air cargo, as well as
sorting and delivery of the cargo. Off-airport air cargo business types include:

   •   Integrated express carriers (FedEx Express, UPS)
   •   Air Freight Forwarders (Kuehne & Nagel, Schenkers)



Chapter 7: Economic Impacts of Air Cargo                                                         7-3
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                March 2010

   •    All-Cargo Carriers (Freighters)
   •    Trucking Companies (Yellow, Roadway)
   •    Third party logistics suppliers (Maersk Logistics, Averitt Express)
   •    Regulatory Agencies (TSA, Customs, USDA)

When a package is shipped overnight on FedEx Express, it is supported by at least five
departments as follows (many of which are located off-airport):

   1.   Domestic Ground Operations picks up and delivers the package
   2.   Airport Operations loads and unloads the plane
   3.   Flight Operations fly the aircraft
   4.   Sort Operations sorts packages at national and regional hubs
   5.   IT Operations tracks the movement of packages

Many UPS delivery drivers derive their daily workload from cargo arriving and departing the
airport, yet these workers may not set foot on the airport as part of their duties. FedEx often
locates sort stations off-airport, closer to their customer base. In addition, local shippers utilize
air cargo in their supply chain management, thus creating air cargo dependent jobs within their
organization.

Exhibit 7-1 indicates that air transport only accounts for 30 percent of all the time air cargo is in
transit, the remaining 70 percent of the total transit time takes place off-airport and away from
aircraft. Most airport economic impact studies exclude off-airport impacts generated within the
air cargo industry. This economic impact study includes both on- and off-airport air cargo
economic impacts.




Chapter 7: Economic Impacts of Air Cargo                                                         7-4
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010

                                          Exhibit 7-1




To provide context for the economic impacts related to air cargo activity that take place off-
airport, Appendix D discusses the ground transport (off-airport) processes for the integrated
express industry. The off-airport processes for freight forwarders with air cargo services,
customs brokers, and perishables importers are also discussed. For this study, the economic
impacts of these off-airport air cargo businesses were estimated; these off-airport air cargo
impacts were, however, assigned to the airport that the operators support.

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF AIR CARGO METHODOLOGY

The methodology used to measure air cargo economic impacts is based on proven economic
theory and follows the protocols for an input-output model as presented in more detail in
Chapter 4. This is the most frequently used methodology for measuring airport economic
impacts. Base data for calculating the economic impacts for air cargo were obtained from the
airport business/tenant survey effort discussed in Chapter 4. The model for air cargo builds
upon the traditional FAA methodology for measuring economic impact, but targets air cargo-
specific activity, both on- and off-airport.

As explained in Chapter 4, seven commercial service airports in Florida, on their own initiative,
completed economic impact studies since 2000. Appendix E presents the methodology for
incorporating the air cargo impacts from these existing economic impact studies into this FDOT
study.



Chapter 7: Economic Impacts of Air Cargo                                                     7-5
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

Data Requirements and Collection

This section identifies the data requirements and data collection methods for both the direct/on-
airport and indirect/off-airport impacts related to air cargo.

Direct Impacts

Airport sponsors/managers were contacted to provide names, mailing addresses, and telephone
numbers for each on-airport air cargo-related tenant. All on-airport air cargo-related
tenants/businesses having employees on Florida airports were contacted to collect information
regarding their economic activity.

If air cargo tenants located at the airports did not respond to the survey, follow-up telephone
calls were made to collect data. In addition, during the field visits, air cargo tenants were
called on and asked to supply appropriate information related to this study. The goal was to
measure current employment, annual payroll, and total annual economic activity (output) for
on-airport air cargo-related tenants. Passenger airline impacts, related specifically to air cargo,
were also gathered as part of this process.

The survey sent to each airport tenant, including airport sponsors/managers, requested the
following information:

   •   Type of aviation activity conducted by the business/tenant
   •   Number of full-time and part-time employees in 2008
   •   Estimated total annual wages and benefits paid to employees in 2008
   •   Estimated total capital improvement expenditures for each year, 2005 through 2008
   •   Estimated total operating expenses (excluding payroll and capital improvements)
   •   Estimated total gross sales (where applicable) by the business on the airport in 2008

Air cargo-related tenants were categorized based on the type of activity they are engaged in.
These activities include:

   •   Freight Forwarder
   •   Customs Broker
   •   Trucking Company
   •   Air Freight/Cargo Carrier
   •   Integrated Express Cargo Carrier
   •   Passenger Airline
   •   Postal Contractor
   •   U.S. Postal Service
   •   Government (Customs, Security, etc.)




Chapter 7: Economic Impacts of Air Cargo                                                       7-6
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010

Indirect Impacts

Many air cargo tenants located at the airports have stations and affiliates located off-airport
who rely on the airport for air lift requirements. Integrated express carriers, such as FedEx
Express, often have stations, which act as consolidation points, located off-airport. From these
stations, the integrated express operator trucks their cargo to an airport where it is loaded onto
an aircraft. Additional off-airport cargo-related businesses include air freight forwarders,
customs brokers, perishable importers, trucking companies, and the U.S. Postal Service. Data
related to off-airport cargo businesses were gathered with the goal of measuring current
employment, annual payroll, and total annual economic activity (output) for off-airport air
cargo-related entities.

A wide variety of data sources were utilized to determine the indirect economic impact of air
cargo activity in Florida that takes place off-airport. Data were gathered via mailed business
surveys, industry executive interviews, field observations, online databases, and aerial
photography. This section identifies key indirect data for off-airport air cargo operators.

Off-airport integrated express stations – There are over 80 integrated express stations located off-
airport throughout Florida. Although these stations are off-airport, they rely on aircraft for the
transport of express parcels and packages. A list of staffed integrated express stations was
developed by accessing each integrator’s web page3. Data for these facilities were gathered via
interviews with integrator staff and through station facility analysis. Employment and output
ratios were developed based on facility type and square-footage. These ratios were applied
when actual employment and output data were not available.

Air freight forwarders – There are over 300 freight forwarder businesses with air cargo services
located off-airport in Florida. Data related to these businesses were gathered from surveys and
interviews of the staff at the Florida Customs Broker and Freight Forwarders Association
(FCBFA). FCBFA also provided a list of air freight forwarders and customs brokers in Florida.
When data were unavailable for these businesses, Dun and Bradstreet employment and sales
data were utilized.

Customs brokers – There are over 200 customs brokers located off-airport in Florida. Data related
to these businesses were gathered from surveys and interviews of the staff at the FCBFA. When
data were unavailable for these businesses, Dun and Bradstreet employment and sales data
were utilized.

Perishable importers – Perishable importers were sent a survey to ascertain their use of air cargo
in their day-to-day operations. Surveys gathered information on employment, annual payroll,
and operating expenses. Information regarding which airports are utilized to support their

3Only FedEx Express, DHL and UPS staffed facilities were included. Facilities such as FedEx, Kinkos,
and The UPS Store were not included in this analysis.


Chapter 7: Economic Impacts of Air Cargo                                                        7-7
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                     March 2010

operations was also gathered. The lists for perishable importers were provided by the
Association of Floral Importers of Florida (AFIF) and Florida Research and Economic Database
(FRED). There are approximately 260 perishables importers in Florida. When data were
unavailable for these businesses, Dun and Bradstreet employment and sales data were utilized.

Key Assumptions for Calculating Economic Impacts

The sections below discuss on- and off-airport related assumptions that were made for this air
cargo economic impact analysis.

On-Airport Related Assumptions

Two key assumptions were made in this analysis related to on-airport government
expenditures and airline activity, as they both relate to air cargo. These assumptions were
necessary to account for missing or incomplete data. These two key assumptions follow:

      •   When data were not available, it was assumed that one percent of airport sponsor and
          other government agency expenditures and employment on airports are related to air
          cargo activity at the airport. Government agencies include USDA, U.S. Customs, TSA,
          FAA, and airport management. This assumption was based on estimated air cargo
          aircraft operational splits which show that approximately one percent of all aircraft
          operations at the 24 airports in Florida that have air cargo activity are related to air cargo
          aircraft. This assumption was supported by actual budget estimates from the
          Hillsborough County Aviation Authority.

      •   Based on passenger airline interviews and the findings from the most recent economic
          impact study conducted for Miami International Airport by Martin Associates, it is
          assumed that five percent of airline employment, payroll, and annual output for all
          commercial airports with air cargo activity is related to supporting this activity4. The
          core air cargo employment areas for the commercial airlines relate to baggage handlers
          and ramp workers whose labor is divided between freight and passenger baggage
          handling.

Off-Airport Related Assumptions

Assumptions were also made related to off-airport cargo activity to account for missing or
unavailable proprietary data. These assumptions were discussed with air cargo carriers and
integrated express executives to ensure their validity. Important assumptions used in this
analysis follow:




4   This assumption does not apply to AirTran since they do not transport mail or freight.


Chapter 7: Economic Impacts of Air Cargo                                                            7-8
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

   •   UPS Centers are sort and distribution facilities which accommodate packages and
       parcels transported by interstate truck and aircraft. These centers were analyzed in this
       study. UPS indicated that 13.5 percent of total domestic volumes of cargo in the U.S.
       carried by UPS are transported on aircraft. This ratio was utilized to estimate the level
       of employment at UPS Centers that is related to air cargo transport. For example, if a
       UPS Center, located off-airport, has 100 employees, 13.5 employees at this center are
       considered air cargo-related employees.

   •   FedEx Express facilities in Florida were the only FedEx brand considered in this
       analysis. FedEx Ground, FedEx Freight, FedEx Custom Critical, and FedEx National
       LTL do not utilize air transport in their operations and are not included. All FedEx
       Express employees and operations are air-transport dependent.

   •   Only off-airport air cargo activity that actually takes place in Florida was considered in
       this analysis. For example, UPS related employment and output in Brunswick, Georgia
       was not included in the analysis, even though express packages arrive in this Georgia
       market via Jacksonville International Airport.

   •   Integrated express cargo destined for markets in Florida, that is transported via airports
       in Mobile, Alabama or Albany, Georgia, is included in this analysis. For example, UPS
       employment and output related to off-airport air cargo in Tallahassee is included in the
       analysis even though this cargo is transported to and from UPS aircraft in Albany,
       Georgia.

   •   Airport markets without integrated express flights on their airport are assumed to be
       served by the nearest airport with integrated express flights. For example, Melbourne
       International Airport does not have UPS, DHL or FedEx Express aircraft operations. It
       was assumed that the Melbourne market is served by these carriers via Orlando
       International Airport, which is 62 miles away.


STUDY RESULTS

The sections below present on- and off-airport air cargo-related economic impacts estimated
using the methodology and assumptions explained above. The combined impact of all of
Florida’s 24 airports with on- and off-airport air cargo activity is shown in each section. More
discussion of these impacts and descriptions of air cargo activity at each airport are provided in
Appendix F.

Economic Impacts for On-Airport Air Cargo Activity

Airports in Florida support a wide range of air cargo activity on an annual basis. The air cargo
findings in this study indicate that 8,450 full-time equivalent employees work in the air cargo



Chapter 7: Economic Impacts of Air Cargo                                                      7-9
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010

sector or in government agencies that support air cargo at the 24 airports in Florida. These
employees earn nearly $385.0 million in annual wages. On-airport air cargo activity generates
$769.8 million in annual economic output. These benefits do not include the multiplier impacts,
nor do the impacts include air cargo businesses located off-airport. Table 7-1 identifies these
direct air cargo benefits for airports in Florida with scheduled air cargo service, and Table 7-2
shows how these on-airport direct air cargo impacts are distributed between commercial service
and general aviation airports.




Chapter 7: Economic Impacts of Air Cargo                                                    7-10
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
      Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
      Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                    March 2010

                                               Table 7-1
                     Direct Economic Impact Related to On-Airport Air Cargo Activity

Associated City               Airport Name                               Employment     Payroll         Output
Commercial Service Airports
Daytona Beach                 Daytona Beach International Airport                 5       $200,400         $614,000
                              Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International
Fort Lauderdale               Airport                                           861     $41,960,100    $109,181,100
Fort Myers                    Southwest Florida International Airport           154      $6,904,500     $15,258,100
Gainesville                   Gainesville Regional Airport                       16       $774,700       $1,999,300
Jacksonville                  Jacksonville International Airport                240     $10,701,600     $23,753,900
Key West                      Key West International Airport                     17       $814,400       $2,177,300
Melbourne                     Melbourne International Airport                    38      $1,768,100      $4,826,200
Miami                         Miami International Airport                      5,633   $255,663,200    $424,332,000
Orlando                       Orlando International Airport                     753     $32,038,900     $91,764,900
Orlando                       Orlando Sanford International Airport              31      $2,158,200      $6,176,800
                              Panama City-Bay County International
Panama City                   Airport                                            10       $510,000       $1,297,500
Pensacola                     Pensacola Regional Airport                         14       $612,900       $1,745,700
Sarasota                      Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport            8       $362,900         $975,100
                              St. Petersburg-Clearwater International
St. Petersburg/Clearwater     Airport                                            44      $2,224,400      $5,371,700
Tallahassee                   Tallahassee Regional Airport                       57      $2,821,000      $7,196,500
Tampa                         Tampa International Airport                       341     $14,373,800     $42,806,900
                              Northwest Florida Regional Airport/Eglin
Valparaiso                    AFB                                                 5       $186,700         $607,400
West Palm Beach               Palm Beach International Airport                  152      $7,294,800     $19,621,300
Commercial Service Airports Total                                              8,379   $381,370,600    $759,705,700
General Aviation Airports
Fort Lauderdale               Fort Lauderdale Executive Airport                  20      $1,002,800      $3,300,000
Fort Myers                    Page Field                                          2       $102,300         $263,600
Jacksonville                  Craig Municipal Airport                             5       $259,700         $652,800
Marathon                      The Florida Keys Marathon Airport                   9       $442,600       $1,121,800
Punta Gorda                   Charlotte County Airport                           33      $1,655,100      $4,461,300
Vero Beach                    Vero Beach Municipal Airport                        2       $119,500         $294,900
General Aviation Airports Total                                                  71      $3,582,000     $10,094,400
All Airports Total                                                             8,450   $384,952,600    $769,800,100
Source: Wilbur Smith Associates




      Chapter 7: Economic Impacts of Air Cargo                                                          7-11
      Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

                                        Table 7-2
              Distribution of Direct On-Airport Air Cargo Economic Impact
                                      Direct
                                    Employment        Direct Payroll         Direct Output
  Commercial Service Airports              8,379           $381,370,600             $759,705,700
  General Aviation Airports                   71             $3,582,000              $10,094,400
  Total Impacts                            8,450           $384,952,600             $769,800,100
  Source: Wilbur Smith Associates


Total annual economic impacts for airports in Florida are related to a wide array of on-airport
activities, tenants, and businesses. Miami International Airport’s annual output related to air
cargo is more than $424.3 million with 5,633 jobs on the airport in the air cargo sector. Miami is
followed by Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport with 861 air cargo-related
positions and nearly $109.2 million in total annual output. Orlando International Airport ranks
third with 753 full-time equivalent positions at the airport supported by air cargo activities.
Seven of the 24 airports with scheduled air cargo activity have fewer than 10 jobs related to air
cargo activity.

When combining the direct economic impacts along with multiplier or induced impacts, air
cargo activity creates a substantial overall benefit on an annual basis. The entire air cargo
economic impact, including multiplier impacts, indicates that 20,393 full-time equivalent
employees derive their employment from the air cargo sector or from government agencies that
support air cargo at 24 airports in Florida. These employees earn more than $754.2 million in
annual wages. Total economic impact related to on-airport air cargo activity generates more
than $1.3 billion in annual economic output. Table 7-3 identifies direct, induced, and total on-
airport air cargo-related benefits for 24 airports in Florida. Table 7-4 shows the distribution of
these on-airport economic impacts between commercial service and general aviation airports.




Chapter 7: Economic Impacts of Air Cargo                                                     7-12
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
        Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
        Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                       March 2010

                                               Table 7-3
                     Total Economic Impact Related to On-Airport Air Cargo Activity

Associated City                   Airport Name                                Employment     Payroll         Output
Commercial Service Airports
Daytona Beach                     Daytona Beach International Airport                 11       $392,600         $1,052,300
                                  Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International
Fort Lauderdale                   Airport                                           2,078    $82,213,100     $187,114,800
Fort Myers                        Southwest Florida International Airport            371     $13,528,100       $26,149,400
Gainesville                       Gainesville Regional Airport                        38      $1,517,900        $3,426,400
Jacksonville                      Jacksonville International Airport                 579     $20,967,800       $40,709,500
Key West                          Key West International Airport                      41      $1,595,700        $3,731,500
Melbourne                         Melbourne International Airport                     92      $3,464,300        $8,271,200
Miami                             Miami International Airport                      13,599   $500,924,800     $727,221,000
Orlando                           Orlando International Airport                     1,817    $62,774,300     $157,266,900
Orlando                           Orlando Sanford International Airport               76      $4,228,600       $10,585,800
                                  Panama City-Bay County International
Panama City                       Airport                                             25       $999,300         $2,223,700
Pensacola                         Pensacola Regional Airport                          33      $1,200,900        $2,991,800
                                  Sarasota/Bradenton International
Sarasota                          Airport                                             20       $711,000         $1,671,100
                                  St. Petersburg - Clearwater International
St. Petersburg/Clearwater         Airport                                            105      $4,358,300        $9,206,000
Tallahassee                       Tallahassee Regional Airport                       137      $5,527,200       $12,333,400
Tampa                             Tampa International Airport                        823     $28,162,800       $73,362,500
                                  Northwest Florida Regional Airport/Eglin
Valparaiso                        AFB                                                 11       $365,800         $1,041,000
West Palm Beach                   Palm Beach International Airport                   367     $14,292,800       $33,627,000
Commercial Service Airports Total                                                  20,223   $747,225,300    $1,301,985,300
General Aviation Airports
Fort Lauderdale                   Fort Lauderdale Executive Airport                   47      $1,964,800        $5,655,500
Fort Myers                        Page Field                                           4       $200,400          $451,800
Jacksonville                      Craig Municipal Airport                             12       $508,800        $ 1,118,800
Marathon                          The Florida Keys Marathon Airport                   21       $867,200         $1,922,500
Punta Gorda                       Charlotte County Airport                            80      $3,242,900        $7,645,800
Vero Beach                        Vero Beach Municipal Airport                         6       $234,100          $505,400
General Aviation Airports Total                                                      170      $7,018,200       $17,299,800
All Airports Total                                                                 20,393   $754,243,500    $1,319,285,100
Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers




        Chapter 7: Economic Impacts of Air Cargo                                                             7-13
        Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                    March 2010

                                       Table 7-4
             Distribution of Total On-Airport Air Cargo Economic Impacts
                                            Total
                                          Employment            Total Payroll     Total Output
       Commercial Service Airports                20,223           $747,225,300    $1,301,985,300
       General Aviation Airports                     170             $7,018,200       $17,299,800
       Total Impacts                              20,393           $754,243,500    $1,319,285,100
       Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


Economic Impacts for Off-Airport Air Cargo Activity

Airports in Florida also support numerous off-airport (indirect) air cargo businesses on an
annual basis. As a result, the airports are responsible for the economic impacts associated with
these off-airport air cargo activities. The findings from this analysis indicate that 12,555 full-
time equivalent employees work in the air cargo sector off-airport in Florida. These employees
earn approximately $567.4 million in annual wages. Off-airport air cargo activity generates
more than $1.4 billion in annual economic output. These benefits do not include the multiplier
or induced impacts, nor do they include impacts related to air cargo businesses located on-
airport (see Table 7-2 and Table 7-4). Table 7-5 identifies indirect or off-airport air cargo
benefits related to airports in Florida with scheduled air cargo service; Table 7-6 shows how
these economic impacts are distributed between commercial service and general aviation
airports.




Chapter 7: Economic Impacts of Air Cargo                                                            7-14
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
           Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
           Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

                                                Table 7-5
                     Indirect Economic Impact Related to Off-Airport Air Cargo Activity
Associated City               Airport Name                               Employment    Payroll          Output
Commercial Service Airports
Daytona Beach                 Daytona Beach International Airport                 0              $0                $0
                              Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International
Fort Lauderdale               Airport                                           446     $22,028,000      $66,962,400
Fort Myers                    Southwest Florida International Airport           174      $8,685,000      $23,820,300
Gainesville                   Gainesville Regional Airport                       38      $1,875,800       $5,193,500
Jacksonville                  Jacksonville International Airport                319     $13,915,400      $38,688,100
Key West                      Key West International Airport                      3       $165,400            $459,800
Melbourne                     Melbourne International Airport                     0              $0                $0
Miami                         Miami International Airport                      9,053   $389,532,500     $938,537,100
Orlando                       Orlando International Airport                    1,073    $56,431,400     $161,216,000
Orlando                       Orlando Sanford International Airport               0              $0                $0
                              Panama City-Bay County International
Panama City                   Airport                                            34      $1,693,900       $4,655,100
Pensacola                     Pensacola Regional Airport                         54      $2,690,200       $7,359,800
Sarasota                      Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport            0              $0                $0
                              St. Petersburg-Clearwater International
St. Petersburg/Clearwater     Airport                                           121      $6,044,500      $16,805,200
Tallahassee                   Tallahassee Regional Airport                      104      $5,181,200      $14,122,300
Tampa                         Tampa International Airport                       706     $36,621,000      $97,247,400
                              Northwest Florida Regional Airport/Eglin
Valparaiso                    AFB                                                 0              $0                $0
West Palm Beach               Palm Beach International Airport                  403     $21,166,000      $57,622,900
Commercial Service Airports Total                                             12,528   $566,030,300    $1,432,689,900
General Aviation Airports
Fort Lauderdale               Fort Lauderdale Executive Airport                   9       $485,000        $1,231,700
Fort Myers                    Page Field                                          0              $0                $0
Jacksonville                  Craig Municipal Airport                             0              $0                $0
Marathon                      The Florida Keys Marathon Airport                   3       $165,400            $459,800
Punta Gorda                   Charlotte County Airport                            0              $0                $0
Vero Beach                    Vero Beach Municipal Airport                       15       $748,000        $2,079,500
General Aviation Airports Total                                                  27      $1,398,400       $3,771,000
All Airports Total                                                            12,555   $567,428,700    $1,436,460,900
Source: Wilbur Smith Associates




           Chapter 7: Economic Impacts of Air Cargo                                                    7-15
           Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

                                        Table 7-6
            Distribution of Indirect Off-Airport Air Cargo Economic Impact
                                         Indirect
                                       Employment     Indirect Payroll    Indirect Output
     Commercial Service Airports             12,528       $566,030,300         $1,432,689,900
     General Aviation Airports                   27         $1,398,400             $3,771,000
     Total Impacts                           12,555       $567,428,700         $1,436,460,900
     Source: Wilbur Smith Associates


Indirect economic impact related to Miami International Airport provides an annual output of
more than $938.5 million with 9,053 full-time equivalent jobs off-airport in the air cargo sector.
Miami is followed by Orlando International Airport with 1,073 indirect air cargo related jobs
and over $161.2 million in total annual output. Tampa International Airport ranks third in
indirect annual economic output related to off-airport air cargo with 706 full-time jobs in the
airport’s market area related to air cargo. Eight of the 24 airports with scheduled air cargo
activity do not have any measurable economic impacts related to indirect off-airport air cargo
activity. The market areas for these eight airports are served by indirect air cargo activity at
other Florida airports.

When combining indirect economic impacts with induced impacts created by the multipliers,
off-airport air cargo businesses have a substantial overall economic impact on an annual basis.
The entire off-airport air cargo economic impact, including induced impacts, indicate that
21,480 full-time equivalent employees derive their employment from the air cargo sector or
from government agencies that support air cargo. These employees earn approximately $960.2
million in annual wages. Total economic impact related to on-airport air cargo activity
generates nearly $2.6 billion in annual economic output. Table 7-7 identifies these benefits for
study airports, and Table 7-8 shows how these benefits are distributed between commercial
service and general aviation airports.




Chapter 7: Economic Impacts of Air Cargo                                                        7-16
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
           Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
           Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

                                                Table 7-7
                      Total Economic Impact Related to Off-Airport Air Cargo Activity

Associated City               Airport Name                               Employment    Payroll          Output
Commercial Service Airports
Daytona Beach                 Daytona Beach International Airport                 0              $0                $0
                              Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International
Fort Lauderdale               Airport                                           763     $37,274,300     $119,854,300
Fort Myers                    Southwest Florida International Airport           298     $14,696,200      $42,635,300
Gainesville                   Gainesville Regional Airport                       64      $3,174,100       $9,295,700
Jacksonville                  Jacksonville International Airport                546      $3,546,700      $69,246,800
Key West                      Key West International Airport                      6       $279,900            $823,000
Melbourne                     Melbourne International Airport                     0              $0                $0
Miami                         Miami International Airport                     15,489   $659,140,100    $1,679,863,200
Orlando                       Orlando International Airport                    1,835    $95,489,300     $288,556,300
Orlando                       Orlando Sanford International Airport               0              $0                $0
                              Panama City-Bay County International
Panama City                   Airport                                            58      $2,866,300       $8,332,000
Pensacola                     Pensacola Regional Airport                         92      $4,552,200      $13,173,100
                              Sarasota/Bradenton International
Sarasota                      Airport                                             0              $0                $0
                              St. Petersburg-Clearwater International
St. Petersburg/Clearwater     Airport                                           207     $10,228,100      $30,079,200
Tallahassee                   Tallahassee Regional Airport                      178      $8,767,300      $25,277,100
Tampa                         Tampa International Airport                      1,208    $61,967,500     $174,060,600
                              Northwest Florida Regional Airport/Eglin
Valparaiso                    AFB                                                 0              $0                $0
West Palm Beach               Palm Beach International Airport                  689     $35,815,600     $103,137,700
Commercial Service Airports Total                                             21,433   $957,797,600    $2,564,334,300
General Aviation Airports
Fort Lauderdale               Fort Lauderdale Executive Airport                  15       $820,900        $2,204,400
Fort Myers                    Page Field                                          0              $0                $0
Jacksonville                  Craig Municipal Airport                             0              $0                $0
Marathon                      The Florida Keys Marathon Airport                   6       $279,900            $823,000
Punta Gorda                   Charlotte County Airport                            0              $0                $0
Vero Beach                    Vero Beach Municipal Airport                       26      $1,265,700       $3,722,000
General Aviation Airports Total                                                  47      $2,366,500       $6,749,400
All Airports Total                                                            21,480   $960,164,100    $2,571,083,700
Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN Multipliers




           Chapter 7: Economic Impacts of Air Cargo                                                    7-17
           Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                 March 2010

                                       Table 7-8
             Distribution of Total Off-Airport Air Cargo Economic Impacts
                                       Total
                                     Employment              Total Payroll      Total Output
   Commercial Service Airports               21,433              $957,797,600       $2,564,334,300
   General Aviation Airports                     47                $2,366,500           $6,749,400
   Total Impacts                             21,480              $960,164,100       $2,571,083,700
   Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers.


Total Economic Impacts for On- and Off-Airport Air Cargo Activity

When combining total on- and off-airport air cargo economic impacts, air cargo activity in
Florida that can be assigned to a specific system airport supports a significant overall economic
impact on an annual basis. The total air cargo economic impact, including the impact
supported by on- and off-airport air cargo businesses and the multiplier effect, indicates that
41,873 full-time equivalent employees derive their employment from the air cargo sector or
from government agencies that support airport-related air cargo activities. These employees
earn more than $1.7 billion in annual wages. Total economic impact related to on- and off-
airport air cargo activity supports nearly $3.9 billion in annual economic output. Table 7-9
identifies on- and off-airport air cargo benefits for all applicable study airports, and Table 7-10
shows how these benefits are distributed between commercial service and general aviation
airports.




Chapter 7: Economic Impacts of Air Cargo                                                         7-18
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
           Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
           Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                   March 2010

                                                 Table 7-9
                  Total Economic Impact Related to On- and Off-Airport Air Cargo Activity

Associated City               Airport Name                                   Employment     Payroll          Output
Commercial Service Airports
Daytona Beach                 Daytona Beach International Airport                    11         $392,600       $1,052,300
                              Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International
Fort Lauderdale               Airport                                              2,841    $119,487,400     $306,969,100
Fort Myers                    Southwest Florida International Airport               669      $28,224,300      $68,784,700
Gainesville                   Gainesville Regional Airport                          102       $4,692,000      $12,722,100
Jacksonville                  Jacksonville International Airport                   1,125     $44,514,500     $109,956,300
Key West                      Key West International Airport                         47       $1,875,600       $4,554,500
Melbourne                     Melbourne International Airport                        92       $3,464,300       $8,271,200
Miami                         Miami International Airport                         29,088   $1,160,064,900   $2,407,084,200
Orlando                       Orlando International Airport                        3,652    $158,263,600     $445,823,200
Orlando                       Orlando Sanford International Airport                  76       $4,228,600      $10,585,800
                              Panama City-Bay County International
Panama City                   Airport                                                83       $3,865,600      $10,555,700
Pensacola                     Pensacola Regional Airport                            125       $5,753,100      $16,164,900
Sarasota                      Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport               20         $711,000       $1,671,100
                              St. Petersburg-Clearwater International
St. Petersburg/Clearwater     Airport                                               312      $14,586,400      $39,285,200
Tallahassee                   Tallahassee Regional Airport                          315      $14,294,500      $37,610,500
Tampa                         Tampa International Airport                          2,031     $90,130,300     $247,423,100


Valparaiso                    Northwest Florida Regional Airport/Eglin AFB           11         $365,800       $1,041,000
West Palm Beach               Palm Beach International Airport                     1,056     $50,108,400     $136,764,700
Commercial Service Airports Total                                                 41,656   $1,705,022,900   $3,866,319,600
General Aviation Airports
Fort Lauderdale               Fort Lauderdale Executive Airport                      62       $2,785,700       $7,859,900
Fort Myers                    Page Field                                              4         $200,400           $451,800
Jacksonville                  Craig Municipal Airport                                12         $508,800       $1,118,800
Marathon                      The Florida Keys Marathon Airport                      27       $1,147,100       $2,745,500
Punta Gorda                   Charlotte County Airport                               80       $3,242,900       $7,645,800
Vero Beach                    Vero Beach Municipal Airport                           32       $1,499,800       $4,227,400
General Aviation Airports Total                                                     217       $9,384,700      $24,049,200
All Airports Total                                                                41,873   $1,714,407,600   $3,890,368,800
Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers




           Chapter 7: Economic Impacts of Air Cargo                                                         7-19
           Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                      March 2010

                                       Table 7-10
         Distribution of Total On- and Off-Airport Air Cargo Economic Impacts
                                        Total
                                      Employment             Total Payroll          Total Output
    Commercial Service Airports              41,656             $1,705,022,900           $3,866,319,600
    General Aviation Airports                   217                 $9,384,700              $24,049,200
    Total Impacts                            41,873             $1,714,407,600           $3,890,368,800
    Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF FIRST-CLASS MAIL IN FLORIDA

Everyday, First-Class Mail arrives in Florida on integrated express carriers, UPS and FedEx
Express aircraft, as well as on passenger airlines. First-Class Mail5 in the U.S. includes
postcards, letters, large envelopes (flats), and small packages, providing each piece weighs 13
ounces or less. Delivery is given priority over Second-Class (newspapers and magazines),
Third-Class (bulk advertisements), and Fourth-Class Mail (books and media packages). First-
Class Mail prices are based on both the shape and weight of the item being mailed. Pieces over
13 ounces can be sent as Priority Mail. Only First-Class Mail is transported in aircraft; other
classes of mail are transported on trucks.

Every postal worker in Florida, on a daily basis, processes or delivers mail that will be or has
been transported on aircraft. USPS management estimates 35 percent of all mail pieces
delivered to residences and businesses is First-Class Mail that has arrived on aircraft in Florida.
USPS statistics indicate that approximately 20 percent of all mail weight carried in the U.S. by
the USPS is First-Class Mail.

When First-Class Mail arrives at a Florida airport, it is sorted into assigned three-digit zip code
areas by staff in warehouses on the airport. Soon afterward, the USPS picks up the mail (via
contracted trucks), and trucks it to an off-airport mail processing plant. The mail is sorted there
by zip code and station and is then trucked to these stations for distribution to a final
destination. Clerks and mail carriers sort, distribute, and collect the First-Class Mail along with
Priority Mail6 and packages.

The annual budget for the USPS in 2008 totaled $76.0 billion. In the U.S., there were over
765,000 USPS workers7 that same year. These employees earn $54.6 billion annually. Annual
transportation costs for the USPS came to $6.96 billion in 2008 and comprised 11 percent of their
annual budget. If it were a private sector company, the U.S. Postal Service would rank 26th in


5 Formerly referred to as Air Mail.
6 Priority Mail is transported on trucks and not on aircraft. Priority mail includes letters greater than 13
ounces, parcels, and packages.
7 Includes contract workers.




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Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

the 2008 Fortune 500. First-Class Mail, Advertising Mail, and Shipping Services would each
make the list as top individual businesses in the country, ranking 61st, 119th, and 310th,
respectively.

According to Florida Research and Economic Data (FRED), there are over 41,500 USPS
employees in Florida. These workers comprise a wide range of occupations, but the majority
are mail carriers and sorters/processors (See Table 7-11).

                                      Table 7-11
                         USPS Employment in Florida by Occupation
                                                                            Number of
                                Occupation Title                            Employees
     Postal Service Mail Carriers                                                   20,068
     Postal Service Mail Sorters and Processors                                     10,793
     Postal Service Clerks                                                            4,457
     Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping                               922
     First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Non-Retail Sale                                 813
     Maintenance and Repair Workers, General                                            563
     Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technicians                                  484
     First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Transportation                                  458
     Postmasters and Mail Superintendents                                               421
     Truck Drivers, Heavy and Tractor-Trailer                                           376
     Production, Planning, and Expediting Clerks                                        322
     First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Office and Admin                                312
     Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics                                       221
     First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Mechanics                                       181
     Business Operations Specialists, All Other                                         143
     Stock Clerks and Order Fillers                                                     141
     Office Clerks, General                                                             134
     Heating, Air Conditioning Mechanics                                                127
     Compliance Officers, Except Agriculture, Construct                                 111
     Shipping, Receiving, and Traffic Clerks                                            108
     Computer Operators                                                                  94
     Human Resources, Training, and Labor Relations                                      83
     Secretaries, Except Legal, Medical, and Executive                                   63
     Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers                                  61
     Information and Record Clerks, All Other                                            57
     Total                                                                          41,513
     Source: Florida Research and Economic Data


USPS management estimates that 35 percent of all mail arriving in Florida arrives on passenger
and air cargo aircraft. By assuming 35 percent of the USPS workforce employment in Florida is
attributed to First-Class Mail, it is estimated that over 14,500 postal employees are supported by
First-Class Mail activity in Florida (See Table 7-12). These employees earn an estimated $972.5
million annually. Annual output attributed to First-Class Mail activity of the USPS in Florida is


Chapter 7: Economic Impacts of Air Cargo                                                      7-21
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                       March 2010

estimated at over $1.4 billion. Total impacts shown in Table 7-12 include both indirect and
induced impacts created by the multiplier effect.

                                            Table 7-12
                                    Indirect Off-Airport USPS
                                   Economic Impacts in Florida
                                          Indirect Impacts           Total Impacts
                  Employment                            14,530                     27,383
                  Payroll                         $972,448,300             $1,340,191,200
                  Output                        $1,443,292,500             $2,706,443,400
                  Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


AIR CARGO SUMMARY

This chapter presented the air cargo-related economic impacts for 24 airports in Florida with
scheduled air cargo and/or passenger flights that carry air cargo. These airports support a wide
range of air cargo activity on an annual basis. These airports support air cargo economic
impacts that take place both on- and off-airport. As this chapter has shown, on- and off-airport
air cargo activity in Florida provides substantial economic benefits to the state’s economy.
Table 7-13 summarizes these impacts.

                                           Table 7-13
                             Statewide Air Cargo Economic Impacts
                                    Direct and Indirect
                                         Impacts              Induced Impacts           Total Impacts
  Employment
  On-Airport (Direct)                               8,450                   11,943                 20,393
  Off-Airport (Indirect)                           12,555                    8,925                 21,480
  Off-Airport USPS (Indirect)                      14,530                   12,853                 27,383
  Total Employment                                 35,535                   33,721                 69,256
  Payroll
  On-Airport (Direct)                       $384,952,600            $369,290,900             $754,243,500
  Off-Airport (Indirect)                    $567,428,700            $392,735,400             $960,164,100
  Off-Airport USPS (Indirect)                $972,448,300            $367,742,900           $1,340,191,200
  Total Payroll                            $1,924,829,600          $1,129,769,200           $3,054,598,800
  Output
  On-Airport (Direct)                       $769,800,100            $549,485,000            $1,319,285,100
  Off-Airport (Indirect)                   $1,436,460,900          $1,134,622,800           $2,571,083,700
  Off-Airport USPS (Indirect)              $1,443,292,500          $1,263,150,900           $2,706,443,400
  Total Output                             $3,649,553,500          $2,947,258,700           $6,596,812,200
  Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN Multipliers



Chapter 7: Economic Impacts of Air Cargo                                                                7-22
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010

As shown in Table 7-13, when total on-airport (direct), total off-airport (indirect), and total off-
airport USPS (indirect) impacts are considered, statewide air cargo activity in Florida accounts
for the following economic impacts:

   •   Jobs – 69,256
   •   Annual Payroll - $3,054,598,800
   •   Annual Economic Activity (Output) - $6,596,812,200




Chapter 7: Economic Impacts of Air Cargo                                                       7-23
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                 March 2010


CHAPTER 8: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AVIATION
EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION

Florida is a world leader in providing many types of aviation-related education. Schools in
Florida train students to become pilots, air traffic controllers, mechanics, flight attendants, and
airport managers. Florida particularly appeals to students seeking this type of education due to
the state’s favorable weather, the diversity of the state’s population, the availability of
numerous training providers at airports around the state, and international accessibility
through several commercial airports. Florida boasts the highest number of flight instructors of
any state in the United States and the second highest number of FAA certified pilots, from
private license to commercial. It has also been estimated that one-fifth of the world’s pilots
have earned their pilot’s license in Florida1.

Many aviation-related schools in Florida are located on an airport; and these schools are
actually airport tenants. There are at least 110 aviation-related schools located on airports in
Florida. In addition, there are approximately 20 other aviation-related educational institutions
located off-airport. The locations for on- and off-airport aviation-related schools considered in
this study were previously depicted in Exhibit 2-4.

Aviation-related schools generate economic impact as they spend money for their operation,
maintenance, and development. In addition, all aviation-related schools have employees
engaged in various teaching, administration, and maintenance positions; these jobs have
associated annual payroll which is tied to aviation. Many of Florida’s aviation educational
programs attract students from beyond the state, and often from international locations. While
attending an aviation-related educational institution in Florida, non-local students have
spending for housing, food, transportation, and entertainment. Student spending helps to
generate additional aviation-related economic impact in Florida.

For this FDOT study, impacts were measured related to output (spending), employment, and
payroll for each aviation-related school. In addition, economic impacts from student spending
(output), and the employment and payroll student spending supports were estimated.
Economic impacts related to aviation schools are direct impacts and economic impacts related
to student spending are indirect impacts. Total economic impacts for aviation-related schools in
Florida include direct and indirect impacts noted here, in addition to induced impacts that stem
from the multiplier effect.




1   “Florida Looks Beyond Its Shores to Stay Above Water,” CAT Magazine, February 2009


Chapter 8: Economic Impacts of Aviation Education                                               8-1
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010

APPROACH TO ESTIMATING ECONOMIC IMPACTS FOR AVIATION
EDUCATION

As with other economic impacts previously discussed in this report, total economic impacts
associated with aviation-related education are quantified in terms of employment, payroll, and
output. This chapter presents the economic impact for on- and off-airport aviation-related
schools. On-airport aviation-related schools are airport tenants, and the economic impacts of
these schools are additive to the on-airport economic impacts presented in Chapter 4 of this
report. Off-airport aviation-related schools are not airport tenants; therefore, the economic
impacts of these schools are not tied to a specific airport.

The Economic Modeling Process for Economic Impacts Related to Aviation Education

There are at least 110 aviation-related educational facilities located on both commercial service
and general aviation airports in Florida. In addition, there are approximately 20 other aviation-
related educational institutions located off-airport. These world renown facilities attract
students not only from across the U.S., but also from around the world. The economic impacts
associated with spending by aviation-related educational facilities and spending by non-local
students attending these schools were determined by using actual survey data and data from an
input-output model with multipliers and data tables specific to Florida. Impact estimates for
three separate components of the economy were developed, as follows:

   •   Employment – Employment is based on full-time equivalent positions. For example,
       two part-time employees were assumed to equal one full-time employee.
   •   Payroll – Payroll is the annual salary, wages, and benefits paid to employees.
   •   Output (Spending) – Output associated with aviation-related schools is equivalent to
       annual expenditures to support the school’s operation, maintenance, and development.
       For non-local students attending aviation-related schools, output is equivalent to annual
       student spending for housing, food, transportation, and entertainment.

It is important to note that payroll and output cannot be combined because elements of
economic benefit related to payroll are also contained in the output estimate. Each of the three
impact components (employment, payroll, and output) stands alone as a measure of aviation-
related education’s total economic impact.

Aviation-related educational impacts were calculated using an input-output model. The input-
output model considers three impact categories to assess the economic benefits associated with
aviation-related education. These categories are:

   •   Direct Impacts: Direct impacts are the benefits associated with on- and off-airport
       schools that provide aviation-related education. Direct impacts include employment,




Chapter 8: Economic Impacts of Aviation Education                                            8-2
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                           March 2010

       payroll, and spending of facilities such as flight schools, aviation management schools,
       and technical/vocational schools with aviation curricula.

   •   Indirect Impacts: Indirect impacts are attributed to living expenditures for non-local
       students who attend on- and off-airport aviation-related schools in Florida.
       Expenditures by these students support employment and payroll in service-related
       industries such as housing, food and beverage, retail, and entertainment.

   •   Induced Impacts: Induced impacts are the benefits resulting from the re-circulation of
       direct and indirect impacts within the economy. This recirculation is typically referred
       to as the multiplier effect. For example, as employees at on- and off-airport aviation-
       related schools spend their salary for housing, food, and services, those expenditures
       circulate through the economy, resulting in increased (induced) spending, payroll, and
       employment throughout Florida.

Because induced impacts are not as easily quantified as direct and indirect impacts, a reliable
method of estimating the induced impacts must be applied. For this analysis, the Impact
Analysis for Planning (IMPLAN) model was used to measure the multiplier effect and
determine induced impacts.

Data Requirements for the Economic Modeling Process for Aviation Education
Economic Impacts

Data collection efforts were undertaken to gather information related to on- and off-airport
aviation-related schools and living expenditures by non-local students attending these schools.
These data were inputs to the modeling process to identify the total economic impact associated
with aviation-related education. The following groups were considered to obtain data to
estimate direct and indirect impacts:

   •   Aviation-Related Schools: This group includes on- and off-airport aviation-related
       educational providers. Surveys were conducted to gather information on annual
       operating expenses, employment, and payroll from these schools.

   •   Student Spending: This group consists of non-local students attending Florida’s on- and
       off-airport aviation-related schools. Annual student spending for this group was
       estimated from surveys conducted for this study.

Direct and indirect impacts regarding aviation-related education were identified primarily
through survey efforts. Aviation-related schools were contacted to gather data related to their
operations, employment, and student enrollment. The methods used to collect information are
discussed in the following sections.




Chapter 8: Economic Impacts of Aviation Education                                           8-3
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010

Aviation-Related Schools (Direct Impacts)

As explained in Chapter 4, all airport tenants and businesses having employees on Florida
airports during 2008 were contacted via surveys, visits, or phone calls to collect information for
this study. Since on-airport aviation-related schools are airport tenants, these schools were
surveyed as part of this effort. The following information was collected to estimate direct
impacts for each on-airport aviation-related school:

   •   Number of full-time and part-time employees
   •   Estimated total annual wages and benefits paid to employees in 2008
   •   Estimated total capital improvement expenditures for 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008
   •   Estimated total operating expenses (excluding payroll and capital improvements
       previously identified) in 2008
   •   Estimated total gross sales (where applicable) by the school in 2008

Similar data were also collected for each off-airport school during a supplemental survey effort.
Several rounds of follow-up telephone calls were made to non-responding schools to obtain the
greatest response rate possible. For schools that did not supply complete information on inputs
for the modeling process, estimates were developed using various ratios per employee or
student. These ratios were developed from survey data obtained from those schools that did
respond to the survey or from other economic impact studies for colleges and universities.

Student Spending (Indirect Impacts)

Surveys conducted for this study collected information on student enrollment at aviation-
related schools. Also collected was information on the portion of each school’s enrollment that
is non-local or international in nature. Estimates of annual student spending, in addition to
school tuition, was also obtained via study surveys. Spending associated with students who
come to Florida to attend an aviation-related school is similar to visitor spending (discussed in
Chapter 5). As with the analysis of visitor-related economic impacts, student spending in this
analysis is reflective of student-related output. Students attending aviation-related schools in
Florida have expenditures for housing, transportation, entertainment, food, and retail. These
expenditures help to support jobs and the payroll associated with these jobs.

It should be noted that for both on- and off-airport aviation-related educational facilities, survey
information showed that in some instances, all enrollment at an aviation-school is local in
nature. As a result, some schools have no associated student spending impacts.

Study Multipliers (Induced Impacts)

Employment, payroll, and output impacts associated with aviation-related schools and student
spending comprise direct and indirect economic impact. As these direct and indirect impacts
enter the economy, they circulate among other sectors, creating successive waves of additional


Chapter 8: Economic Impacts of Aviation Education                                               8-4
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010

spending. This phenomenon is referred to as the multiplier effect, classified in this study as
induced impacts. Multipliers used in this study have been previously discussed in other
chapter of this report.

AVIATION EDUCATION EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLL, AND OUTPUT
IMPACTS

The following sections discuss economic impacts associated with employment, annual payroll,
and total annual economic activity (output) as measured by this analysis. Impacts presented are
those calculated for on- and off-airport aviation-related schools and non-local students
attending these schools.

Aviation Education Employment Impacts

The findings of this analysis indicate that aviation-related education is an important source of
jobs. Table 8-1 identifies the total number of jobs supported by aviation-related education in
Florida.
                                         Table 8-1
                          Aviation-Related Education Employment
                                                           Direct and
                                                            Indirect     Induced        Total
                                                          Employment    Employment    Employment
 On-Airport Schools
 Schools (Direct)                                               2,140         3,026         5,166
 Student Spending (Indirect)                                      764           455         1,219
 Total On-Airport Employment                                    2,904         3,481         6,385
 Off-Airport Schools
 Schools (Direct)                                                 315          160           475
 Student Spending (Indirect)                                       77           40           117
 Total Off-Airport Employment                                     392          200           592
 Total Aviation Education Employment                            3,296         3,681         6,977
 Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


There are 3,296 direct and indirect jobs supported by aviation-related education; this
employment relates to both the schools themselves and to employment that is supported by
student spending at both on- and off-airport schools. Induced impacts result in 3,681 additional
jobs supported by on- and off-airport aviation-related schools and non-local students. When
direct, indirect, and induced employment is considered, aviation-related education (schools and
students) help to support 6,977 jobs in Florida. Of this total, 6,385 jobs are associated with on-
airport schools and student-related spending, and 592 jobs are associated with off-airport
aviation-related schools.




Chapter 8: Economic Impacts of Aviation Education                                              8-5
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

Aviation Education Payroll Impacts

Table 8-2 identifies annual payroll benefits associated with aviation-related education in
Florida.

                                            Table 8-2
                                Aviation-Related Education Payroll
                                                         Direct and
                                                          Indirect      Induced
                                                          Payroll        Payroll      Total Payroll
On-Airport Schools
Schools (Direct)                                          $72,376,900   $69,432,200     $141,809,100
Student Spending (Indirect)                               $17,655,300   $14,718,100      $32,373,400
Total On-Airport Aviation Education                       $90,032,200   $84,150,300     $174,182,500
Off-Airport Schools
Schools (Direct)                                          $12,330,600   $11,829,000      $24,159,600
Student Spending (Indirect)                                $1,788,800    $1,064,500       $2,853,300
Total Off-Airport Aviation Education                      $14,119,400   $12,893,500      $27,012,900
Total Aviation-Related Education Payroll                 $104,151,600   $97,043,800     $201,195,400
Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


This study shows that direct and indirect annual aviation-related educational payroll impacts
are nearly $104.2 million. These payroll impacts are associated with all levels of staff at
aviation-related schools and the payroll earned by employees whose jobs are supported by
student spending. These direct and indirect payroll impacts ripple throughout the Florida
economy, creating induced payroll impacts that can be measured through the use of the
IMPLAN model. The induced annual payroll impact supported by aviation-related schools and
non-local students is more than $97.0 million. Total payroll impacts associated with aviation-
related education, which include direct, indirect, and induced annual payroll, are nearly $201.2
million annually. Of this total, approximately $174.2 million is associated with on-airport
schools and approximately $27.0 million is associated with off-airport schools.

Aviation Education Output Impacts

Table 8-3 identifies direct, indirect, induced, and total annual output associated with aviation-
related education. As expenditures are made by schools and non-local students, the
expenditures ripple through Florida’s economy. Total direct and indirect annual output
associated with aviation-related education is estimated at more than $331.3 million. Induced
annual output is estimated at nearly $241.9 million. When direct, indirect, and induced output
impacts are combined, the total annual output attributed to aviation-related education is nearly
$573.2 million. Of this total, approximately $521.5 million is associated with on-airport schools
and approximately $51.7 million is associated with off-airport schools.


Chapter 8: Economic Impacts of Aviation Education                                               8-6
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010

                                            Table 8-3
                                Aviation-Related Education Output
                                                         Direct and
                                                          Indirect      Induced
                                                          Output         Output        Total Output
On-Airport Schools
Schools (Direct)                                         $250,894,800   $179,089,200    $429,984,000
Student Spending (Indirect)                               $50,400,600    $41,075,700     $91,476,300
Total On-Airport Aviation Education                      $301,295,400   $220,164,900    $521,460,300
Off-Airport Schools
Schools (Direct)                                          $27,170,700    $19,394,500      $46,565,200
Student Spending (Indirect)                                $2,844,300     $2,318,200       $5,162,500
Total Off-Airport Aviation Education                      $30,015,000    $21,712,700      $51,727,700
Total Aviation-Related Education Output                  $331,310,400   $241,877,600     $573,188,000
Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


SUMMARY FOR AVIATION-RELATED EDUCATION IMPACTS

Table 8-4 summarizes the employment, payroll, and output impacts associated with aviation-
related education. Direct and indirect impacts shown in this table were calculated using the
surveys, assumptions, and methodology described in this chapter, while induced impacts were
estimated using IMPLAN multipliers. As shown in Table 8-4, total employment in Florida
supported by aviation-related education is estimated at 6,977; total annual payroll associated
with these jobs is estimated at nearly $201.2 million. Total annual output from all aviation-
related education is estimated at nearly $573.2 million. Of the total annual output for aviation-
related education in Florida, about nine percent of the total is associated with schools and
students that are off-airport. Aviation-related schools account for 83 percent of the total
estimated annual output, while students and their spending account for the remaining 17
percent.




Chapter 8: Economic Impacts of Aviation Education                                               8-7
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010

                                         Table 8-4
                        Aviation-Related Education Impact Summary
                                   Direct and
                                    Indirect            Induced          Total
                                    Impacts             Impacts         Impacts
              Employment
              On-Airport                    2,904               3,481          6,385
              Off-Airport                     392                 200            592
              Total                         3,296               3,681          6,977
              Payroll
              On-Airport             $90,032,200          $84,150,300   $174,182,500
              Off-Airport            $14,119,400          $12,893,500    $27,012,900
              Total                 $104,151,600          $97,043,800   $201,195,400
              Output
              On-Airport            $301,295,400         $220,164,900   $521,460,300
              Off-Airport            $30,015,000          $21,712,700    $51,727,700
              Total                 $331,310,400         $241,877,600   $573,188,000
              Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers




Chapter 8: Economic Impacts of Aviation Education                                             8-8
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                           March 2010


CHAPTER 9: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AVIATION-
RELATED BUSINESSES

INTRODUCTION

Florida has attracted many businesses that are engaged in the development, production, and
manufacturing of aircraft, aviation support systems, aircraft components, and other aviation or
aircraft-related products. In some instances, these aviation-related businesses are located on-
airport; and in other instances, they are located off-airport. Aviation-related businesses
throughout Florida account for notable employment, payroll, and annual economic activity.
Estimates of the economic impact associated with both on- and off-airport aviation-related
businesses were developed in this study. The locations for on- and off-airport aviation-related
businesses throughout Florida were mapped in Chapter 2 of this report.


APPROACH TO ESTIMATING ECONOMIC IMPACTS FOR AVIATION-
RELATED BUSINESSES

As with other economic impacts previously discussed in this report, total economic impacts
associated with aviation-related businesses are quantified in terms of employment, payroll, and
output. This chapter presents the economic impact of on- and off-airport aviation-related
businesses. On-airport aviation-related businesses are airport tenants; off-airport aviation-
related businesses are not airport tenants.

The Economic Modeling Process

There are at least 250 aviation-related businesses located on both commercial service and
general aviation airports in Florida. In addition, there are approximately 125 other aviation-
related businesses located off-airport. For the most part, aviation-related businesses are
engaged in manufacturing aircraft, aircraft engines, or aircraft parts. Examples of on-airport
aviation-related businesses whose impacts were measured as part of the study include Piper
and Northrop Grumman. Examples of off-airport aviation-related businesses include L-3
Crestview Aerospace and AAR Landing Gear SVC.

Economic impacts associated with aviation-related businesses were determined by using actual
survey data and data from an input-output model with multipliers and data tables specific to
Florida. Impact estimates for three separate components of the economy were developed, as
follows:

   •   Employment – Employment is based on full-time equivalent positions. For example,
       two part-time employees were assumed to equal one full-time employee.
   •   Payroll – Payroll is the annual salary, wages, and benefits paid to employees.



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   •   Output (Spending) – Output associated with aviation-related businesses is equivalent to
       annual expenditures for goods and services, supplies, and other services needed to
       support the manufacturing process.

It is important to note that payroll and output cannot be combined because elements of
economic benefit related to payroll are also contained in the output estimate. Each of the three
impact components (employment, payroll, and output) stands alone as a measure of the total
economic impact for aviation-related businesses in Florida.

Economic impacts for aviation-related businesses were calculated using an input-output model.
The input-output model considers two impact categories to assess the economic benefits
associated with aviation-related businesses. These categories are:

   •   Direct Impacts: Direct impacts are the benefits associated with on- and off-airport
       aviation-related businesses. Direct impacts include employment, payroll, and spending
       tied to businesses that are engaged in aviation-related manufacturing.

   •   Induced Impacts: Induced impacts are the benefits resulting from the re-circulation of
       direct and indirect impacts within the economy. This re-circulation is typically referred
       to as the multiplier effect. For example, as employees at on- and off-airport aviation-
       related businesses spend their salary for housing, food, and services, those expenditures
       circulate through the economy, resulting in increased (induced) spending, payroll, and
       employment throughout Florida.

Because induced impacts are not as easily quantified as direct and indirect impacts, a reliable
method of estimating the induced impacts must be applied. For this analysis, the Impact
Analysis for Planning (IMPLAN) model was used to measure the multiplier effect and
determine induced impacts. More information on the modeling process and actual multipliers
used in this study are presented in Chapter 4.

Data Requirements for the Economic Modeling Process for Aviation-Related
Businesses

Data collection efforts were undertaken to gather information related to on- and off-airport
aviation-related businesses. This information served as an input to the modeling process to
identify total economic impact associated with aviation-related businesses. Direct impacts
regarding aviation-related businesses were identified primarily through survey efforts.
Aviation-related businesses, both on- and off-airport, were contacted to gather data related to
their employment, payroll, and annual spending.

As explained in Chapter 4, all airport tenants having employees on Florida airports during 2008
were contacted via surveys, visits, or phone calls to collect information for this study. Since on-
airport aviation-related businesses are airport tenants, they were surveyed as part of this effort.


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The following information was collected to estimate direct impacts for each on-airport aviation-
related business:

   •   Number of full-time and part-time employees
   •   Estimated total annual wages and benefits paid to employees in 2008
   •   Estimated total capital improvement expenditures for 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008
   •   Estimated total operating expenses (excluding payroll and capital improvements
       previously identified) in 2008
   •   Estimated total gross sales (where applicable) in 2008

Similar data were also collected from each off-airport aviation-related business during a
supplemental survey effort. Several rounds of follow-up telephone calls were made to non-
responding businesses to obtain the greatest response rate possible. For businesses who did not
supply complete information on inputs for the modeling process, estimates were developed
using various ratios per employee. These ratios were developed from survey data obtained
from those businesses who did respond to the survey. In addition, information from secondary
data sources such as the Florida Research and Economic Database (FRED), Manta, and Dun and
Bradstreet were used to obtain supplemental information on employment, payroll, and sales for
aviation-related businesses in Florida.

AVIATION-RELATED               BUSINESS         EMPLOYMENT,             PAYROLL,         AND
OUTPUT IMPACTS

On-Airport Aviation-Related Business Economic Impacts

According to information compiled for this study, there are at least 250 aviation-related
businesses located at commercial service and general aviation airports throughout Florida.
Table 9-1 presents the on- and off-airport economic impacts associated with aviation-related
businesses in Florida. As shown in Table 9-1, total annual economic impacts associated with
aviation-related businesses on airports in Florida are as follows:

   •   Jobs – 13,336
   •   Annual Payroll - $471,613,400
   •   Annual Economic Activity (Output) - $1,522,317,800




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                                      Table 9-1
           On- and Off-Airport Aviation-Related Business Economic Impacts
                                        Direct              Induced                   Total
                                       Impacts              Impacts                  Impacts
       Employment
       On-Airport                              5,557                    7,779                  13,336
       Off-Airport                             9,417                   13,233                  22,650
       Total                                  14,974                   21,012                  35,986
       Payroll
       On-Airport                      $241,314,600              $230,298,800         $471,613,400
       Off-Airport                     $400,606,800              $383,044,600         $783,651,400
       Total                           $641,921,400              $613,343,400        $1,255,264,800
       Output
       On-Airport                      $886,621,600              $635,696,200        $1,522,317,800
       Off-Airport                    $2,214,956,100            $1,584,018,500       $3,798,974,600
       Total                          $3,101,577,700            $2,219,714,700       $5,321,292,400
       Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN Multipliers


Off-Airport Aviation-Related Business Economic Impacts

In addition to aviation-related manufacturing businesses located on commercial service and
general aviation airports in Florida, there are at least another 125 other aviation-related
businesses located throughout the state. These aviation-related businesses are primarily
engaged in manufacturing that supports the civilian aviation industry.

These off-airport businesses were surveyed as part of this study. The results of these surveys
were used to estimate economic impacts for these businesses. The economic impacts for off-
airport aviation-related businesses are in addition to those for on-airport businesses. Total
statewide economic impacts for off-airport aviation-related businesses are as follows:

   •   Jobs – 22,650
   •   Annual Payroll - $783,651,400
   •   Annual Economic Activity (Output) - $3,798,974,600

SUMMARY OF                 ECONOMIC              IMPACTS             FOR         AVIATION-RELATED
BUSINESSES

Given Florida’s prominence as one of the leading aviation states in the country, it is not
surprising that there are many aviation-related manufacturers located around the state.
Altogether, this study identified at least 375 businesses in Florida engaged in the provision of
aviation or aircraft-related products or parts. As shown in Table 9-1, total economic impacts for
aviation-related businesses in Florida, both on- and off-airport, are as follows:




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   •   Jobs – 35,986
   •   Annual Payroll - $1,255,264,800
   •   Annual Economic Activity (Output) - $5,321,292,400

Approximately 60 percent of the economic impacts stemming from aviation-related businesses
in Florida take place off-airport.




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CHAPTER 10: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF THE FEDERAL
AVIATION ADMINISTRATION (FAA)

INTRODUCTION

With locations throughout the U.S., the FAA is the federal agency charged with overseeing the
nation’s airports, aircraft, pilots, airways, and aviation activity. Some of the responsibilities of
the FAA related to airports in Florida include safety, engineering, environmental review,
planning, and funding. Both on- and off-airport, the FAA has many locations in Florida from
which they monitor aircraft approaches and departures, as well as traffic traversing the national
airways system. With many active commercial service and general aviation airports and the
state’s geography, Florida has a very busy and complex airspace system that requires extensive
coordination and monitoring. With Florida’s busy military airfields, the state’s airspace system
and interaction between military and civilian aircraft is even more complex, and the FAA in
Florida is responsible for coordinating civilian and military airspace and air routes.

APPROACH TO ESTIMATING FAA ECONOMIC IMPACTS

Total economic impacts for the FAA are quantified in terms of employment, payroll, and
output. Output represents total economic activity or spending; and in the case of government
agencies, such as the FAA, payroll is included in total output. This chapter presents the
economic impact of FAA installations throughout Florida. Commercial service and some
general aviation airports in Florida host FAA as a tenant. In Florida, FAA reports 24
installations on-airports. In addition, the FAA reports 126 locations in Florida that are off-
airport. Chapter 2 of this report provided a map of both on- and off-airport FAA locations in
Florida.

The economic benefits produced by the FAA in Florida were determined by using actual survey
data, data provided by FAA headquarters, and data from an input-output model that estimates
purchases and sales between the various sectors of the economy. Economic impacts for the
FAA were estimated in three categories:

   •   Employment – Employment is based on full-time equivalent positions. For example,
       two part-time employees were assumed to equal one full-time employee.
   •   Payroll – Payroll is the annual salary, wages, and benefits paid to employees.
   •   Output (Spending) – For businesses that do not have gross sales (government
       organizations such as the FAA) output is derived from the sum of average annual
       capital expenditures, operating expenses, and payroll.

It is important to note that payroll and output cannot be combined because elements of
economic benefit related to payroll are also contained in the output estimate. Each of the three



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impact components (employment, payroll, and output) stands alone as a measure of total
economic impact for the FAA.

Total economic impacts for the FAA were estimated using an input-output model. The input-
output model considers two impact categories to assess the economic benefits associated with
the FAA; these categories are:

   •   Direct Impacts: Direct impacts are associated with FAA installations in Florida, both on
       and off airports. Direct impacts include the employment, payroll, and spending of the
       FAA.

   •   Induced Impacts: Induced impacts are the benefits resulting from the recirculation of
       direct impacts within the economy. This re-circulation is typically referred to as the
       multiplier effect.

Because induced impacts are not as easy to calculate as direct impacts, a reliable method for
estimating induced impacts must be applied. For this study, the Impact Analysis for Planning
(IMPLAN) model was used to measure the multiplier effect and determine induced impacts.
The sum of direct and induced impacts yields the total impacts.

From the airport tenant/business survey effort discussed in Chapter 4, information concerning
on-airport FAA installations was gathered and analyzed. In addition, information was obtained
from FAA headquarters in Washington, D.C. on both on- and off-airport activities,
employment, and payroll throughout Florida. By analyzing survey results and information
supplied by the FAA, economic impacts for FAA activities in Florida were estimated.

FAA EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLL, AND OUTPUT IMPACTS

On-Airport FAA Economic Impacts

Most commercial service and some general aviation airports in Florida have on-site FAA
employment. In many instances, FAA on-airport employment is related to the staffing of air
traffic control towers, but there are other types of FAA activities accommodated on-airport in
Florida. Aside from air traffic control (ATC) tower on-airport employment, most other on-
airport FAA employees are attached to system support centers (SSC) of some type. In either
case, when FAA has on-airport operations, they are considered an airport tenant.

Table 10-1 presents both on- and off-airport economic impacts for the FAA in Florida.




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                                      Table 10-1
       Statewide Economic Impacts for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
                                        Direct                    Induced            Total
                                       Impacts                    Impacts           Impacts
    Employment
    On-Airport                                     851                        652             1,503
    Off-Airport                                  1,712                      1,330             3,042
    Total                                        2,563                      1,982             4,545
    Payroll
    On-Airport                            $86,305,200                $24,454,700     $110,759,900
    Off-Airport                          $161,651,600                $45,804,100     $207,455,700
    Total                                $247,956,800                $70,258,800     $318,215,600
    Output
    On-Airport                           $109,052,500                $85,761,100     $194,813,600
    Off-Airport                          $236,769,700               $186,200,400     $422,970,100
    Total                                $345,822,200               $271,961,500     $617,783,700
    Source: Wilbur Smith Associates, FAA and IMPLAN multipliers


Survey data, as well as information obtained directly from the FAA, shows the following total
on-airport economic impacts for the FAA in Florida:

   •    Jobs – 1,503
   •    Annual Payroll - $110,759,900
   •    Annual Economic Activity (Output) - $194,813,600

Off-Airport FAA Economic Impacts

Information provided by FAA headquarters in Washington D.C. shows 126 FAA off-airport
employment centers throughout Florida. Employment and payroll for these off-airport FAA
installations were obtained directly from FAA headquarters in support of this economic impact
study. The responsibilities and the functions of off-airport FAA locations in Florida are wide
and varied. Some of the more notable off-airport FAA functions that are responsible for
supporting higher levels of FAA employment in Florida are discussed below.

Many of FAA’s off-airport locations in Florida are system support centers (SSC) that are field
offices supporting various functions of the FAA. There are also several flight standards district
offices (FSDO) in the state. FSDOs have many responsibilities and functions. These include
activities such as accident investigation, safety alerts, and airfield inspections and approvals.
Staff from these FAA locations is also involved in the airworthiness certification process,
registration of aircraft and pilots, and mechanic certifications.

To support planning, engineering, environmental, funding, and other responsibilities related to
commercial service and general aviation airports in Florida, the FAA maintains an airports
district office (ADO) in Orlando.


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In addition, there are a number of FAA installations that support airspace, radar control, and
airways monitoring. These FAA facilities include terminal radar approach control (TRACON)
and air route traffic control centers (ARTCC); there are more than 10 of these types of FAA
facilities in Florida.     FAA staff assigned to a TRACON monitor airspace and
approach/departures in the terminal area around busy airports in Florida. FAA staff assigned
to an ARTCC monitor enroute airspace at higher altitudes.

The off-airport FAA economic impacts calculated in this study are in addition to those
estimated for the on-airport economic impacts noted previously. Table 10-1 shows the
following off-airport economic impacts for the FAA:

   •   Jobs - 3,042
   •   Annual Payroll - $207,455,700
   •   Annual Economic Activity (Output) - $422,970,100

SUMMARY OF TOTAL STATEWIDE FAA ECONOMIC IMPACTS

As reflected in Table 10-1, combined, on- and off-airport FAA activities in Florida have a
notable positive impact on the state’s economy. These economic impacts are as follows:

   •   Jobs – 4,545
   •   Annual Payroll - $318,215,600
   •   Annual Economic Activity (Output) - $617,783,700

While on-airport FAA activities make substantial contributions to the economic impacts of
individual airports in Florida, almost 70 percent of the total statewide economic impact related
to the FAA takes place off-airport.




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CHAPTER 11: ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF MILITARY
AVIATION

INTRODUCTION

Military aviation in Florida has long been a major source of economic activity. Florida’s
geography and climate, strategic location, year-round good weather, and open ocean airspace,
have made the state attractive for numerous military airfields.

This chapter quantifies the economic impacts for 11 military airfields in Florida1. Economic
impacts presented in this chapter are based on the collection and evaluation of existing studies,
reports, and information for the airfields. These 11 military airfields include five Air Force
Bases (AFB), four Naval Air Stations (NAS), and two other facilities as follows:

    •   Eglin Air Force Base
    •   Hurlburt Field
    •   Homestead Joint Air Reserve Base
    •   MacDill Air Force Base
    •   Patrick Air Force Base
    •   Tyndall Air Force Base
    •   Naval Air Station Whiting Field
    •   Naval Air Station Jacksonville
    •   Naval Station Mayport
    •   Naval Air Station Key West
    •   Naval Air Station Pensacola

The locations for these 11 military installations were previously mapped in Chapter 2 of this
report.

This analysis was aimed at measuring the statewide impact of military facilities that are
aviation-related or that have a strong aviation component. The underlying objective of the
analysis was to quantify the economic impacts of Florida’s military airfields using a
methodology consistent with the methodology used to quantify the economic impacts for other
aviation groups considered in this statewide study. This allows all economic impacts in the
study to be summed, which provides a picture of the total economic benefit that Florida
receives from aviation. To do so required the following:




1Naval Support Activity Panama City, which houses the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City
Division and the Navy Experimental Diving Unit, is not included in the study. Aviation activity at the
base is minimal.


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   •   Total employment, payroll, and expenditures for the 11 military airfields.
   •   Calendar year 2008 data to be comparable with other data collected for the statewide
       study.
   •   Military airfield impacts exclusive of non-aviation-related military impacts; not every
       job is aviation-related at the 11 military installations included in this analysis (e.g., the
       Naval School Explosive Ordnance Disposal at Eglin AFB).

BASE BACKGROUND INFORMATION

To provide context for the economic impacts quantified in this chapter, it is helpful to first
provide background information on the 11 military airfields included in this study. An
overview of each airfield is provided in this section.

Eglin Air Force Base (AFB)

Eglin AFB, located in Okaloosa County, Florida, adjacent to the City of Valparaiso, supports the
largest single base mobility in the United States Air Force (USAF). Founded in 1933, Eglin is
headquarters to the Air Armament Center (AAC). The host wing at Eglin is the 96th Air Base
Wing (96 ABW), the mission of which is to support the AAC with traditional military services,
along with needed municipal services. This includes engineering, personnel, communications,
medical, security, and many other services.

Eglin AFB has two runways, 01/19 and 12/30, which are 10,012 and 12,005 feet long,
respectively. Including the airfield and testing grounds, the base’s total size is over 385,000
acres. All jobs and activity are attributed to aviation; and as shown in Table 11-1, total base
employment is nearly 13,400. Eglin AFB is projected to gain 2,140 military personnel and 78
civilian personnel during 2010 as a result of the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) process.
Eglin will be home to the Integrated Training Center for the new F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. As a
result, impacts shown below are expected to increase.

                                           Table 11-1
                                     Eglin Air Force Base
                                    Direct Aviation Impacts
                     Personnel                                       Spending
          Military                   7,928                Payroll               $633,365,000
          Civilian                   5,435                Expenditures          $388,966,000
          Direct Employment         13,363
          Source: Okaloosa County Economic Development Council


Eglin AFB grew from its start as a small bombing and gunnery range in the 1930s to a major site
for training and testing during WWII. Following acquisition of Choctawhatchee National
Forest, the Air Corps Proving Ground was activated in 1941, making Eglin the site for gunnery


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training for Army Air Force fighter pilots. Due to its role during WWII, Eglin continued to
maintain a major role in research, development, and testing during both the Korean War and
the conflict in Southeast Asia. The latter conflict emphasized use of conventional weapons, and
responsibilities at Eglin grew. The Air Corps Proving Ground, after several changes and re-
designations, eventually became the AAC in 1998, responsible for the development, testing, and
deployment of all air-delivered weapons of the USAF. The AAC also evaluates U.S. and allied
air armament, navigation/guidance systems, and command and control systems. In addition to
being the USAF’s most dynamic and crucial establishment, Eglin has also served as a refugee
resettlement center to process over 10,000 refugees from Vietnam during 1975 and Cuba in 1980.
Eglin is unique in that it is a joint-use facility. The base hosts Northwest Florida Regional
Airport, a commercial service airport serving this part of Florida.

Homestead Joint Air Reserve Base (JARB)

Homestead Joint Air Reserve Base (JARB) is located in Miami-Dade County, Florida, adjacent to
the City of Homestead. Homestead JARB is home to the 482nd Fighter Wing, which maintains
and operates the base. The mission of the 482nd Fighter Wing is to train and equip Air Force
Reservists to respond to tasking from higher headquarters during times of both war and peace.
The ranks for the reservists include specialists in civil engineering, communications, medical,
logistics, aircraft maintenance, missions support, aerial transportation, and a security forces
squadron.

All activity and jobs are attributed to aviation, and as shown in Table 11-2, total base
employment is approximately 900 personnel.         Homestead JARB covers an area of
approximately 2,940 acres and has one runway, Runway 05/23, with a length of 11,200 feet.

                                        Table 11-2
                              Homestead Joint Air Reserve Base
                                 Direct Aviation Impacts
                       Personnel                                        Spending
            Military                     573                  Payroll          $ 42,655,000
            Civilian                     325                  Expenditures     $33,226,000
            Direct Employment            898
            Source: Homestead JARB Office of Public Affairs


In 1942, a public airstrip in south Dade County was turned over to the government to be used
as a maintenance stopover point for aircraft being ferried to the Caribbean and North Africa
during WWII, thereby establishing Homestead Army Air Field. During the war, the base also
took on pilot training responsibilities. Following devastating hurricane damage in 1945,
Homestead Army Air Field was shut down.




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Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                  March 2010

In 1955, after the base had been cleaned up and rebuilt, it was re-established as Homestead Air
Force Base, which had over 6,000 permanently assigned personnel by 1960. During the Cuban
Missile Crisis in 1962, the need for Homestead increased to unprecedented levels, swelling the
population to a tent city of more than 10,000 Army soldiers. In 1992, hurricane damage once
again devastated the base, but this time rebuilding began almost immediately, with initial
Department of Defense expenses topping $100 million in new construction. In 1994, the base
was officially re-designated as the Homestead Air Reserve Base.

Hurlburt Field

Hurlburt Field is located in Okaloosa County, Florida, directly east of the City of Mary Esther;
the field is part of the greater Eglin AFB reservation. Hurlburt houses the 1st Special Operations
Wing (1 SOW) and is headquarters to the Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC).
Hurlburt Field is nearly 6,700 acres in total size with one runway (18/36, 9,600 feet long) and one
helipad.

All activity and jobs are attributed to aviation; and as shown in Table 11-3, total base
employment exceeds 9,500 personnel. As part of the BRAC process, Hurlburt Field is projected
to be reduced by 48 military and 6 civilian personnel by 2011.

                                           Table 11-3
                                        Hurlburt Field
                                    Direct Aviation Impacts
                       Personnel                                    Spending
             Military                 8,206              Payroll          $ 490,512,000
             Civilian                 1,316              Expenditures     $166,333,000
             Direct Employment        9,522
             Source: Okaloosa County Economic Development Council


In the 1940s, Hurlburt Field was built on the sprawling Eglin AFB. Originally designated as
Eglin Auxiliary Field No. 9, before being separated administratively in 1955, when the base was
re-opened after falling into disrepair. Special operations at Hurlburt were dedicated to the war
in Southeast Asia due to the war’s expanding scope and also due to the “flexible response”
policy of the Kennedy Administration. In 1991, Hurlburt Field played a significant role in
Operation Desert Storm.

MacDill Air Force Base (AFB)

MacDill AFB is located within the city limits of Tampa, Florida, at the tip of the Interbay
Peninsula. The base is home to the Air Mobility Command’s (AMC) 6th Air Mobility Wing (6
AMW). The mission of the AMC is to provide global air mobility and to provide a crucial role




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in humanitarian support at home and worldwide. AMC Airmen provide airlift and aerial
refueling for all of America’s armed forces.

MacDill AFB encompasses an area of approximately 5,000 acres on the Interbay Peninsula and
has one runway, Runway 05/23, with a length of 8,000 feet. All activity and jobs are attributed
to aviation; and as shown in Table 11-4, total base employment is nearly 6,000 personnel.

                                            Table 11-4
                                     MacDill Air Force Base
                                     Direct Aviation Impacts
                       Personnel                                       Spending
            Military                    4,239               Payroll              $366,226,000
            Civilian                    1,712               Expenditures         $466,107,000
            Direct Employment           5,951
            Source: MacDill AFB Office of Public Affairs; Department of Defense (DOD)
            Atlas/Data Abstract for US and Selected Areas


MacDill AFB has its origins on Interbay Peninsula during the Spanish-American War in 1898.
During WWII, the base’s mission switched from B-17 training to B-26 training and back;
transitioned to B-29 training through 1953; and continued to transition to newer tanker and
bomber aircraft. In 1960, plans to close MacDill surfaced, but the Cuban Missile Crisis
emphasized the base’s importance due to its strategic location. Between 1979 and 1993,
approximately half of all F-16 pilots received their training at MacDill. During Operation
Desert Shield and Desert Storm, many pilots were placed into accelerated training programs at
MacDill. In 1995, due to its strategic position and flightline capabilities, MacDill received its
major KC-135 refueling mission, which expanded in 1997 with the addition of EC-135 and CT-
43 aircraft.

Naval Air Station Jacksonville (NAS)

NAS Jacksonville is a major naval base located four miles south of downtown Jacksonville,
Florida, on the St. Johns River. The base is home to the Navy’s largest aviation squadron, Patrol
Squadron Thirty (VP-30), and many other operational squadrons. NAS Jacksonville also
supports flight training and an aviation maintenance training facility.

While total base employment exceeds 22,000 personnel, aviation-related employment is nearly
7,300 personnel, as shown in Table 11-5. NAS Jacksonville is projected to gain 575 military
personnel by 2010 as a result of the BRAC process. To accommodate the realignment, new
hangar construction totaling $245 million is underway/near completion. There are two runways
at NAS Jacksonville. Runway 10/28 is 8,002 feet long and 14/32 is 5,980 feet long. In total, the
base occupies 3,896 acres.




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                                            Table 11-5
                                   Naval Air Station Jacksonville
                                     Direct Aviation Impacts
                         Personnel                                          Spending
             Military                      3,763                Payroll*           $422,400,000
             Civilian                      3,500                Expenditures*      $268,731,000
             Direct Employment*            7,263
             * Includes impacts associated with aviation activity only
             Source: NAS Jacksonville Office of Public Affairs fact sheet


Set on the site of the former Camp Johnston, NAS Jacksonville was officially commissioned in
1940. During WWI, the base had continuing increases in activity and construction, including
the development of three operating runways over 6,000 feet each in length and the construction
of over 700 buildings. By the end of the decade, NAS Jacksonville was the center of all air
striking on the East Coast, with more based aircraft than any military base from Nova Scotia to
the Caribbean. An air traffic control center was added in the mid-1950s; and by this time, the
base had begun to have a tremendous impact on the economy of the Jacksonville area. In 1973,
the base took on a new antisubmarine mission.

Naval Air Station Key West (NAS)

NAS Key West is located east of the City of Key West, Florida, primarily on Boca Chica Key,
and is the southernmost air station in the United States. The mission of NAS Key West is to
support operational and readiness requirements for the Department of Defense (DOD), the
Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the Air National Guard (ANG). The base is the
Navy’s primary East Coast transient pilot training facility for tactical aviation squadrons, and it
hosts squadrons from around the country in order to fulfill this responsibility.

All activity and jobs are attributed to aviation; and as shown in Table 11-6, total base
employment is nearly 3,000 personnel. NAS Key West has three operational runways: 03/21 at
7,002 feet, 07/25 at 10,001 feet, and 13/31 at 7,001 feet. The base encompasses over 5,800 acres in
the Lower Keys, mostly on Boca Chica, but also on Key West itself.

                                             Table 11-6
                                     Naval Air Station Key West
                                      Direct Aviation Impacts
                        Personnel                                           Spending
             Military                     1,661                Payroll                 $78,300,000
             Civilian                     1,312                Expenditures            $35,100,000
             Direct Employment            2,973
             Source: NAS Key West website fact sheet; UWF Defense Industry Economic
             Impact Analysis



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Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                          March 2010

Naval presence in the Lower Keys dates back to 1823 when the base was established to combat
piracy. The base was expanded during both the Mexican-American and Spanish-American
wars, and again during World War I, when seaplanes, submarines, and blimps were added. In
1918, the first class of naval seaplane students arrived, beginning the base’s tradition as a major
training site for naval aviation. After the war, the base was decommissioned and remained
inactive until 1939. In 1940, the seaplane base was designated as a Naval Air Station. In 1943,
German submarines torpedoed 49 allied ships off the coast of Florida, many within sight of Key
West. During the Cuban Missile Crisis, NAS Key West supported the blockade of Cuba with
operational flights. The base continues as a training facility to this day.

Naval Air Station Pensacola (NAS)

NAS Pensacola, “The Cradle of Naval Aviation”, is located in Warrington, Florida, southwest of
Pensacola. It is the starting point of flight training for every Naval Aviator, Naval Flight
Officer, and Enlisted Aircrewman. The base is also the headquarters to the United States Navy
Flight Demonstration Squadron (the Blue Angels), the Naval Aviation Schools Command, and
the Naval Air and Operational Medical Institute (NAOMI).

The base consists of three operating runways: 01/19 at 7,137 feet, 07L/25R at 8,002 feet, and
07R/25L at 8,001 feet. While total base employment exceeds 13,700 personnel, aviation-related
employment is estimated at 9,600, as shown in Table 11-7. Employment at the base is projected
to be reduced by 302 military and 1,180 civilian personnel by 2016 as a result of the BRAC
process. Not all jobs to be relocated, however, are aviation-related.

                                             Table 11-7
                                     Naval Air Station Pensacola
                                      Direct Aviation Impacts
                         Personnel                                        Spending
             Military                      9,160                Payroll*           $597,608,400
             Civilian                        438                Expenditures*      $355,126,000
             Direct Employment*            9,598
             * Includes impacts associated with aviation activity only
             Source: UWF Gulf Regional Airspace Strategic Initiative (GRASI); Base website


In 1826, Warrington Navy Yard was constructed on the site where the NAS currently sits.
During the Civil War, the base was largely destroyed, but re-built and much remains on the
original base site to this day. During WWI, aviation grew at the base, including seaplanes,
balloons, and dirigibles. In the years leading up to WWII, the NAS grew in activity once again.
The Korean War forced the base to revise its course to adapt to jet technology. NAS Pensacola
became the headquarters of the Chief of Naval Education and Training (CNET) in 1971,
replaced by the Naval Education and Training Command (NETC) in 2003.




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Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                       March 2010

Naval Air Station Whiting Field (NAS)

NAS Whiting Field is located in Milton, Florida, in Santa Rosa County. The base is one of the
Navy’s two primary pilot training facilities. The base actually consists of two separate airfields:
North Whiting Field (for primary flight training) and South Whiting Field (for advanced
helicopter training).

All activity and jobs are attributed to aviation; and as shown in Table 11-8, total base
employment is nearly 1,700 personnel. NAS Whiting Field also provides training for the
Marines, Coast Guard, and Air Force. Whiting Field North has four runways: 05/23 at 6,002
feet, 09/27 at 6,000 feet, 14/32 at 6,002 feet, and 18/36 at 6,000 feet. Whiting Field South has two
runways, 05/23 at 5,997 feet and 14/32 at 6,001 feet, in addition to 12 helipads.

                                           Table 11-8
                                 Naval Air Station Whiting Field
                                    Direct Aviation Impacts
                        Personnel                                        Spending
             Military                   1,395               Payroll             $429,675,000
             Civilian                     294               Expenditures         $55,600,000
             Direct Employment          1,689
             Source: UWF Gulf Regional Airspace Strategic Initiative (GRASI)


Naval Auxiliary Air Station Whiting Field was commissioned in 1943 and was used to train
aviators throughout WWII. It continued this role long after the war. In 1965, Whiting Field
underwent major overhauls, and an estimated $10 million was spent on construction. The field
was subsequently re-designated as a NAS. Flight training continued to expand; helicopter
training began at Whiting in 1973. In 1980, a new simulator building was completed.

Naval Station Mayport

Naval Station Mayport is located in northern Duval County, Florida. It is unique in being both
a busy military airfield and seaport. It has the third largest naval fleet concentration in the
United States. The base provides support to the naval fleet and sailors and serves units of the
Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, and Coast Guard, totaling over 70 tenant commands on-site.

While total base employment is nearly 12,700 personnel, aviation-related employment is
approximately 1,300 personnel, as shown in Table 11-9. Naval Station Mayport has one 8,001-
foot long runway, Runway 05/23, as well as a major ship harbor capable of accommodating 34
ships, including aircraft carriers. NS Mayport covers a total area over 3,400 acres in size.




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Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                          March 2010

                                             Table 11-9
                                      Naval Station Mayport
                                      Direct Aviation Impacts
                       Personnel                                         Spending
            Military                     1,225                Payroll*              $38,749,100
            Civilian                       113                Expenditures*         $49,506,000
            Direct Employment*           1,338
            * Includes impacts associated with aviation activity only
            Source: UWF Defense Industry Economic Impact Analysis; Base website


Naval Station Mayport was originally commissioned in 1942 as a Naval Section Base and in
1944 as a Naval Auxiliary Air Station. During WWII, the base provided support in the form of
personnel and logistics, but was de-commissioned following the war. The base was re-activated
in 1948, and throughout the 1950s continued to grow to accommodate new forms of aircraft and
ships.

Patrick Air Force Base (AFB)

Patrick AFB is located in Brevard County, Florida on the coast between Satellite Beach and
Cocoa Beach. The base is home to the 45th Space Wing, the mission of which is to assure access
to the high frontier, support global operations, and to oversee all unmanned rocket launches at
nearby Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). These rockets include satellites for the
military, NSA, NASA, and various other agencies. Patrick AFB is also headquarters to the 920th
Rescue Wing, the only rescue wing in the Air Force Reserve.

The base has two runways, 02/20 at 9,032 feet and 11/29 at 4,000 feet. All activity and jobs are
attributed to aviation; and as shown in Table 11-10, total base employment is 10,400.

                                             Table 11-10
                                       Patrick Air Force Base
                                      Direct Aviation Impacts
                       Personnel                                         Spending
            Military                    2,903                 Payroll             $256,357,100
            Civilian                    7,497                 Expenditures        $593,690,400
            Direct Employment          10,400
            Source: Patrick AFB Economic Impact Analysis


The facility opened in 1940 as Naval Air Station Banana River, supporting seaplane patrol
operations during WWII and continuing under the Navy until being deactivated in 1947. The
base was transferred to the Air Force in 1948, becoming Patrick AFB in 1950. Patrick AFB, along
with CCAFS, was a major focus during the Space Race, particularly in the 1960s during the
Apollo manned space program. By the mid-1970s, many of these activities had ceased; but in


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Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                    March 2010

1979, the Air Force’s rocket programs returned to Patrick Air Force Space Command as the Air
Force Systems Command. These programs transferred to the 45th Space Wing in 1991 after the
Space Command was deactivated.

Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB)

Tyndall AFB is located in the Florida Panhandle, 12 miles east of Panama City. The host wing
and operating unit is the 325th Fighter Wing, a unit of the Air Education and Training
Command. The primary mission of the 325th is to provide air dominance training for F-15C
Eagle and F-22 Raptor pilots, maintenance personnel, and air battle managers to support the
combat Air Force. The 325th is comprised of operations, medical, maintenance, and mission
support groups, and the base hosts over 30 other tenant groups.

Tyndall AFB has two operating runways, 13L/31R, with a length of 10,004 feet and 13R/31L, at
9,135 feet. All activity and jobs are attributed to aviation; and as shown in Table 11-11, total
base employment exceeds 7,700.

                                           Table 11-11
                                     Tyndall Air Force Base
                                     Direct Aviation Impacts
                       Personnel                                      Spending
             Military                  5,094                Payroll          $300,147,100
             Civilian                  2,612                Expenditures     $236,858,200
             Direct Employment         7,706
             Source: Tyndall AFB Economic Impact Analysis


Flexible Gunnery School No. 9 was founded at the base’s current site in 1940, named Tyndall
Field in 1941. Thousands of students passed through Tyndall’s gates during WWII, both U.S.
and allied. The base officially came under the control of the newly created Air Force in 1947.
Throughout the Cold War, Tyndall continued as a training facility, upgrading for the needs of
new aircraft. During the Cuban Missile Crisis, the base acted as a stopover and refueling point
for Air Defense Command aircraft deployed to Florida. The base was reorganized in 1991 in
response to DOD efforts to streamline defense management. In 2002, Tyndall became the first
home for the Air Force’s newest aircraft, the F-22 Raptor.

APPROACH TO ESTIMATING ECONOMIC IMPACTS

As with airport impacts discussed in Chapter 4, the total economic impact of each military
airfield in this analysis was quantified in terms of employment, payroll, and output. Output
represents total economic activity or spending. It represents the total value of aviation-related
activities supported by the military airfields included in this analysis; for government entities,




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Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010

output is the sum of spending and payroll. The methodology used to estimate the economic
impacts for the military airfields is described in this section.

The Economic Modeling Process

The economic benefits produced by Florida’s military airfields were identified by using various
primary and secondary data sources and data from an input-output model that estimates
purchases and sales between various sectors of the economy. The model incorporates
multipliers and data tables specific to Florida and requires impact estimates for four separate
components of the economy as follows:

   •   Employment – Employment is divided into military and civilian categories and is based
       on full-time equivalent positions. For example, two part-time employees were assumed
       to equal one full-time job, and three part-time reservists are equal to one full-time job.
   •   Payroll – Payroll is the annual salary, wages, and benefits paid to all aviation-related
       employees, both military and civilian.
   •   Expenditures – Expenditures include general operating costs associated with each base,
       such as construction costs, service contracts, materials, equipment, supplies, and
       procurement.
   •   Output (Spending) – Output is the sum of total annual payroll and expenditures per
       base.

All economic impacts or benefits from the 11 military airfields included in this study were
calculated using an input-output model. The input-output model considers two impact
categories to assess the economic benefits associated with each military airfield. These
categories are:

   •   Direct Impacts: Direct impacts are the benefits associated with the day-to-day operation
       of each military airfield. Direct impacts include the employment, payroll, expenditures,
       and output of each military airfield.

   •   Induced Impacts: Induced impacts are the benefits resulting from the re-circulation of
       direct impacts within the economy, or the multiplier effect. (See Chapter 4 for a
       discussion of the multiplier effect).

Because induced impacts are not as easily quantified as direct impacts, a reliable method of
estimating the induced impacts must be applied. For this analysis, the Impact Analysis for
Planning (IMPLAN) model was used to measure the multiplier effect and determine induced
impacts. The sum of the benefits of these two categories yields the total impacts attributable to
each military airfield or the system of 11 military airfields included in this FDOT economic
impact analysis.




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Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                 March 2010

Data Collection

Data regarding economic activity (employment, payroll, and spending) for the military airfields
were collected from a variety of sources. The bulk of the primary data was acquired from the
public affairs offices for each respective military airfield, as well as local economic development
councils. Data were obtained either by phone, through base websites and fact sheets, or
through existing base-specific economic impact studies.

Where primary sources of data were lacking, information regarding a military airfield was
collected through secondary sources such as the Department of Defense (DOD) Atlas/Data Abstract
for the United States and Selected Areas, the Gulf Regional Airspace Strategic Initiative (GRASI), and
the Florida Defense Industry Economic Impact Analysis. The latter two studies were conducted by
the University of West Florida (UWF). The GRASI study provides a synopsis of the current
impact of the military on the GRASI regional economy, as well as a comparison of this baseline
to the projected impact of the military on the economy through 2016. Included in these
estimates are impact projections of future base changes as a function of the BRAC process. The
GRASI study focuses on impacts of the military within the GRASI region, which is the seven
county region of the Florida Panhandle. Therefore, this study was a viable data source for that
region only.

The objective of the UWF defense industry analysis was to outline the economic impact of
defense spending within Florida, which consists of procurement spending and personnel costs
associated with all military bases. These two UWF studies were utilized extensively as
resources for base background information for this report.

Study Multipliers/Induced Impacts

Employment, payroll, expenditure, and output impacts derived from aviation-related activities
comprise each military airfield’s direct economic impact. As these impacts enter the economy,
they circulate among other sectors, creating successive waves of additional spending. This
phenomenon is referred to as the multiplier effect (see Chapter 4), also known as induced
impacts.

Multipliers for estimating induced impacts for military aviation were derived from the
IMPLAN model. The multipliers used in this analysis were developed specifically to measure
economic impacts in Florida.




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Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                         March 2010

                                          Table 11-12
                              Florida IMPLAN Military Multipliers
                                                      Employment          Payroll           Output
      Economy Sector                                   Multiplier        Multiplier*       Multiplier
      Federal Civilian                                          1.77              N/A             1.79
      Federal Military                                          1.59              N/A             1.54
      * No payroll multipliers were used; instead, average payroll per employee per county was
      applied to induced employment
      Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


The multipliers presented in Table 11-12 were used to estimate induced military impacts for
this analysis. For example, $100 in direct expenditures (output) in the federal military sector
supports a total output impact equivalent to $154. In this example, induced impacts would be
$54 ($154 minus $100). It should be noted that no payroll multipliers were used in the analysis.
Instead, an average payroll per employee for the county in which each military airfield is
located was applied to each facility’s induced employment estimate.

The methodology discussed in this section was applied to each of the military airfields included
in this study. By following this methodology, estimates of total employment, annual payroll,
and annual output/spending associated with each facility were developed.


EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLL, AND OUTPUT IMPACTS FOR MILITARY
AVIATION

The military airfields in this study are vital in protecting U.S. national security. The facilities
themselves are also significant generators of economic activity, supporting jobs, payroll, and
output for Florida’s economy. This section discusses economic impacts associated with
employment, annual payroll, and annual economic activity (output) as measured by this
analysis.

Military Aviation Employment Impacts

The findings of this analysis indicate that military aviation in Florida is an important source of
jobs. Employment, as defined in this analysis, is based on estimates where part-time jobs are
treated as half of a full-time job. Reservist positions are treated as one-third of a full time job.
On-base activity reliant on aviation is considered aviation-related. Spending for operating
expenses and construction projects also contributes to on-base employment.

Table 11-13 identifies the total number of jobs supported by aviation-related activity at the 11
military airfields in Florida. In total, there are over 70,700 direct jobs supported by aviation-
related activity at these facilities. As shown in Table 11-13, direct employment, supported by




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Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                       March 2010

aviation-related activity, ranges from nearly 900 jobs at Homestead JARB to nearly 13,400 jobs at
Eglin AFB.

                                          Table 11-13
                             Florida Military Airfield Employment
                                          Direct          Induced              Total
              Military Airfield         Employment       Employment          Employment
              Eglin AFB                         13,363              8,866             22,229
              Homestead JARB                       898                589              1,487
              Hurlburt Field                     9,522              5,861             15,383
              MacDill AFB                        5,951              3,822              9,773
              NAS Jacksonville                   7,263              4,917             12,180
              NAS Key West                       2,973              1,991              4,964
              NAS Pensacola                      9,598              5,749             15,347
              NAS Whiting Field                  1,689              1,050              2,739
              NS Mayport                         1,338                811              2,149
              Patrick AFB                       10,400              7,484             17,884
              Tyndall AFB                        7,706              5,019             12,725
              Total                             70,701            46,159             116,860
              Source: Wilbur Smith Associates, IMPLAN multipliers, and primary and
              secondary military base data sources


As a result of on-base activity, additional induced employment is created. Induced
employment impacts associated with the day-to-day operation of Florida’s military airfields
add nearly 46,200 jobs to the economy. When direct and induced employment is considered,
the military airfields contributed approximately 116,900 jobs to Florida’s employment base.

Military Aviation Payroll Impacts

Employment linked to the military airfields included in this study results in a significant annual
payroll benefit in Florida. Payroll impacts relate to the previously identified (Table 11-13)
employment benefits associated with military aviation activities.

Table 11-14 identifies annual payroll benefits associated with aviation-related activity at the
military airfields.




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Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                     March 2010

                                           Table 11-14
                                 Florida Military Airfield Payroll

        Military Airfield            Direct Payroll     Induced Payroll         Total Payroll
        Eglin AFB                       $633,365,000          $484,653,400         $1,118,018,400
        Homestead JARB                   $42,655,000           $25,602,000            $68,257,000
        Hurlburt Field                  $490,512,000          $320,357,600           $810,869,600
        MacDill AFB                     $366,226,000          $192,941,800           $559,167,800
        NAS Jacksonville                $422,400,000          $241,771,100           $664,171,100
        NAS Key West                     $78,300,000          $109,609,100           $187,909,100
        NAS Pensacola                   $597,608,400          $240,126,600           $837,735,000
        NAS Whiting Field               $429,675,000           $53,500,800           $483,175,800
        NS Mayport                       $38,749,100           $39,863,800            $78,612,900
        Patrick AFB                     $256,357,100          $321,696,300           $578,053,400
        Tyndall AFB                     $300,147,100          $169,859,200          $470,006,300
        Total                          $3,655,994,700       $2,199,981,700         $5,855,976,400
        Source: Wilbur Smith Associates, IMPLAN multipliers, and primary and secondary
        military base data sources


This analysis shows direct annual payroll impacts are nearly $3.7 billion and range from more
than $38.7 million at NS Mayport to nearly $633.4 million at Eglin AFB. This direct payroll
impact ripples throughout the Florida economy, creating induced payroll impacts that are
estimated by applying average payroll per employee for the county in which each military
airfield is located to each facility’s induced employment estimate shown in Table 11-13.

The induced annual payroll impact related to aviation-related activity at the military airfields is
nearly $2.2 billion. Total payroll impacts supported by the facilities, which include direct and
induced annual payroll, are nearly $5.9 billion annually.

Military Aviation Output Impacts

Output or economic activity for government entities, such as the military, is defined as the sum
of payroll and expenditures. Annual economic output from military airfields benefiting
Florida’s economy is discussed below.

Annual expenditures at Florida’s military airfields serve as an input to the input-output model
used in this analysis. Expenditures are identified as operating costs and capital improvement
costs associated with each military airfield. These costs can consist of construction projects;
operations and maintenance; services contracts; and procurement of materials, equipment, and
supplies. Military airfield expenditures have a significant impact on the state’s and local
economies, as most services are provided by private businesses. For a military airfield where




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Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                     March 2010

no expenditure data were available, a statewide ratio of average annual expenditures per
employee was calculated and then applied to that facility.

Total annual expenditures for the 11 military airfields in Florida are in excess of $2.6 billion and
range from more than $33.2 million at Homestead JARB to nearly $593.7 million at Patrick AFB.
When annual expenditures are combined with direct payroll, direct output associated with on-
base activity is identified. The Florida-specific IMPLAN multipliers were applied to the direct
output to estimate induced and total output impacts.

Table 11-15 identifies direct, induced, and total annual output for all on-base activities. As the
military units located at each military airfield spend money, these expenditures ripple through
Florida’s economy. For example, if a military airfield were to rehabilitate one of its runways,
money would be spent on construction materials, labor, and other services.

                                              Table 11-15
                                    Florida Military Airfield Output
       Military Airfield              Direct Output      Induced Output           Total Output
       Eglin AFB                        $1,022,331,000         $803,981,500         $1,826,312,500
       Homestead JARB                     $75,881,000           $59,674,300           $135,555,300
       Hurlburt Field                    $656,845,000          $516,556,000         $1,173,401,000
       MacDill AFB                       $832,333,000          $654,563,300         $1,486,896,300
       NAS Jacksonville                  $691,131,000          $456,783,300         $1,147,914,300
       NAS Key West                      $113,400,000           $74,948,500           $188,348,500
       NAS Pensacola                     $952,734,400          $629,682,700         $1,582,417,100
       NAS Whiting Field                 $485,275,000          $320,728,700           $806,003,700
       NS Mayport                         $88,255,100           $58,329,700          $146,584,800
       Patrick AFB                       $850,047,600          $561,814,800         $1,411,862,400
       Tyndall AFB                       $537,005,300          $354,918,400           $891,923,700
       Total                            $6,305,238,400       $4,491,981,200        $10,797,219,600
       Source: Wilbur Smith Associates, IMPLAN multipliers, and primary and secondary
       military base data sources


Total direct annual output from aviation-related activity at the military airfields is estimated at
more than $6.3 billion and ranges from nearly $75.9 million at Homestead JARB to more than
$1.0 billion at Eglin AFB. Induced annual output is estimated at nearly $4.5 billion. When
direct and induced impacts are combined, the total annual output for the military airfields is
nearly $10.8 billion.

ECONOMIC IMPACT SUMMARY FOR MILITARY AVIATION

This chapter quantified the economic impact of Florida’s 11 military airfields, including five Air
Force Bases, four Naval Air Stations, and two other facilities. As shown in this chapter, the


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Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                        March 2010

economic impacts supported by these airfields are significant. In 2008, the annual economic
output for the 11 military airfields was estimated at nearly $10.8 billion. This estimate includes
induced impacts measured using study multipliers.

Table 11-16 provides a summary of economic impacts for the 11 military airfields. As shown,
military aviation helps to support a total of nearly 116,900 jobs that have an annual payroll of
nearly $5.9 billion. The military airfields in Florida account for nearly $10.8 billion in total
annual economic activity or output.

                                    Table 11-16
                 Economic Impact Summary for Florida Military Airfields
                                   Direct Impacts        Induced Impacts           Total Impacts
       Employment                             70,701                  46,159                 116,860
       Payroll                        $3,655,994,700          $2,199,981,700          $5,855,976,400
       Output                         $6,305,238,400          $4,491,981,200         $10,797,219,600
       Source: Wilbur Smith Associates, IMPLAN multipliers, and primary and secondary military base
       data sources


Key findings of this chapter are as follows:

   •   Nearly 116,900 jobs are related to the military airfields; these employees represent 1.5
       percent of all jobs in Florida in 2008.
   •   The 116,900 jobs tied to the military airfields have an estimated annual payroll of nearly
       $5.9 billion.
   •   The total economic impact of the 11 military airfields, $10.8 billion, comprised 1.5
       percent of Florida’s 2008 estimated gross state product of $744.1 billion.




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Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010


CHAPTER 12: TOTAL ECONOMIC IMPACTS FOR
AIRPORT-SUPPORTED ACTIVITIES

INTRODUCTION

The previous chapters of this report quantified the economic impacts of on- and off-airport
aviation activities in Florida. Specific aviation groups considered in this study are as follows:

   •   On-airport tenants/businesses
   •   Visitors arriving in Florida via commercial airlines and general aviation aircraft
   •   On-airport construction projects
   •   On- and off-airport activities related to air cargo
   •   On- and off-airport aviation-related schools
   •   On- and off-airport aviation-related businesses
   •   On- and off-airport Federal Aviation Administration activity
   •   Military airfields
   •   Aviation benefits for off-airport non-aviation businesses in Florida

This chapter aggregates all economic impacts that are supported by the airports. This includes
all economic impacts that take place on an airport, visitor impacts, and off-airport air cargo
impacts associated with one of the study airports. All aviation categories considered in this
study, except for military airfields and off-airport non-aviation business benefits, have some
component of their economic impact that is tied to Florida’s commercial service and general
aviation airports. This chapter provides a summary of the economic impacts that Florida’s
commercial service and general aviation airports support.

TOTAL EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLL,                           AND      OUTPUT         IMPACTS         FOR
AIRPORT-SUPPORTED ACTIVITIES

Airport-supported activities are significant generators of economic activity in Florida. These
activities help to support jobs, payroll, and output for Florida’s economy. The following
sections summarize total economic impacts associated with airport-supported activities. This
summary provides a roll-up for tenants/businesses, construction, air cargo, aviation-related
schools, aviation-related businesses, and FAA economic impacts documented in prior chapters
of this report that take place on-airport. In addition, visitor-related impacts and off-airport air
cargo economic impacts supported by study airports are included in this roll-up. Total impacts
are presented in terms of employment, annual payroll, and annual economic activity (output).
Total airport-supported economic impacts for all individual study airports are contained in
Appendix G.




Chapter 12: Total Economic Impacts for Airport-Supported Activities                           12-1
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
 Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
 Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                  March 2010

 Total Airport-Supported Employment Impacts

 The findings of this study indicate that airport-supported activities in Florida are an important
 source of jobs. Employment, as defined in this study, is based on estimates where part-time
 jobs are treated as half of a full-time job. Total employment impacts are presented for all on-
 airport aviation tenants/activities, all visitors, and off-airport air cargo activities, not including
 the USPS. On-airport aviation tenants/activities include on-airport businesses and government
 agencies, construction at airports, air cargo, aviation-related schools, aviation-related
 businesses, and the FAA.

 Table 12-1 identifies the total number of jobs supported by study airports. These jobs comprise
 those people who are engaged in the provision of aviation-related services on an airport, and in
 the case of off-airport air cargo activities, those people who are engaged in the provision of air
 cargo-related services associated with an airport. Table 12-1 does not include visitor-related
 employment.

                                          Table 12-1
                      On- and Off-Airport Aviation Activity Employment
                                                             Direct and
                                                              Indirect       Induced         Total
                                                            Employment      Employment     Employment
Commercial Service Airports Employment                            106,027        106,956        212,983
General Aviation Airports Employment                               15,949         18,347          34,296
Total On- and Off-Airport Aviation Activity Employment            121,976        125,303        247,279
Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


 In total, there are 121,976 direct and indirect jobs supported by the operation of Florida’s
 airports. It is important to note that this employment estimate does not include jobs associated
 with non-aviation businesses which, for various reasons, are located on an airport.

 As a result of on-airport aviation tenants/activities and off-airport airport supported air cargo
 activities, additional induced employment is created. Induced impacts associated with the day-
 to-day operation of Florida’s airports add 125,303 jobs. When direct, indirect, and induced
 employment is considered, Florida’s on-airport aviation tenants/activities and off-airport air
 cargo activities contribute 247,279 jobs to Florida’s employment base. Of this total, 212,983 jobs
 are associated with the commercial service airports, and 34,296 jobs are associated with the
 general aviation airports.

 Visitors arriving via commercial airlines spend money, thereby supporting additional
 employment. Table 12-2 identifies the number of employees in Florida whose jobs are
 supported by the spending of visitors arriving on commercial airlines. Study airports are
 essential for bringing these visitors to Florida.


 Chapter 12: Total Economic Impacts for Airport-Supported Activities                              12-2
 Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                 March 2010

                                     Table 12-2
                  Employment from Commercial Service Visitor Spending

                                                             Indirect     Induced        Total
                                                           Employment    Employment    Employment
 Commercial Service Visitor Employment                         422,575       292,263       714,838
 Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


As discussed in Chapter 5, it is possible to calculate visitor spending, and subsequently, the
number of jobs supported by visitors. Indirect jobs supported by visitor spending are attributed
to a variety of sectors; however, most of the jobs are concentrated in the hotel/motel, restaurant,
recreational, entertainment, and retail sectors.

There are 422,575 indirect jobs supported by commercial service visitor spending. Induced
impacts result in 292,263 additional jobs supported by the spending of commercial service
visitors. When indirect and induced visitor-related employment impacts are combined, 714,838
jobs are supported by spending from visitors to Florida who arrive via the commercial airlines.
While most of this employment is associated with commercial service airports, commercial
service visitor-related employment, payroll, and spending (output) impacts in this study are
also attributable to the Charlotte County and St. Augustine airports.

Similar to visitors using commercial airline service, intra-state and inter-state visitors using
general aviation aircraft typically spend money while visiting, thereby helping to support
additional employment. Table 12-3 identifies the number of Florida jobs supported by
spending from visitors using general aviation aircraft to travel to and within the state. As
reflected in this table, general aviation visitors use both commercial service and general aviation
airports.

                                     Table 12-3
                   Employment from General Aviation Visitor Spending
                                                             Indirect     Induced        Total
                                                           Employment    Employment    Employment
  Commercial Service Airports Visitor Employment                11,804         7,198        19,002
  General Aviation Airports Visitor Employment                  12,234         7,279        19,513
  Total General Aviation Visitor Employment                     24,038        14,477        38,515
  Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


As discussed in Chapter 5, it is possible to calculate annual general aviation spending; and
subsequently, the number of jobs supported by this spending. Indirect jobs associated with
general aviation visitor spending are attributed to a variety of sectors; however, most of these
jobs are concentrated in the hotel/motel, restaurant, recreational and entertainment, and retail
sectors. As a result of general aviation visitor expenditures in Florida, there are 24,038 indirect


Chapter 12: Total Economic Impacts for Airport-Supported Activities                             12-3
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
     Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
     Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                        March 2010

     jobs supported in Florida. Induced impacts result in 14,477 additional jobs. When indirect and
     induced general aviation visitor-related employment impacts are combined, 38,515 jobs are
     supported by the spending of visitors using general aviation aircraft in Florida.

     Table 12-4 identifies the total number of jobs supported by on-airport aviation
     tenants/activities, off-airport air cargo activities, and visitors using the study airports. Study
     airports support 568,589 direct and indirect jobs. Induced impacts add 432,043 additional jobs.
     In total, 1,000,632 jobs are supported in Florida by on-airport aviation tenants/activities, by off-
     airport air cargo activities, and by visitors using study airports.

                                                  Table 12-4
                                    Total Airport-Supported Employment

                                                                  Total Direct        Total
                                                                  and Indirect      Induced           Total
                                                                  Employment       Employment       Employment
      Commercial Service Airports Employment                             540,141        406,241         946,382
      General Aviation Airports Employment                                28,448         25,802          54,250
      Total Airport-Supported Employment                                 568,589        432,043        1,000,632
      Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


     Total Airport-Supported Payroll Impacts

     Employment linked to on-airport aviation tenants/activities, off-airport air cargo activities, and
     visitors results in a significant annual payroll benefit.

     Table 12-5 identifies annual payroll benefits associated with on-airport aviation
     tenants/activities and off-airport air cargo activities. This table includes payroll for employees
     related to on-airport tenants/businesses, government agencies, construction at airports, air
     cargo, aviation-related schools, aviation-related businesses, and the FAA.

                                              Table 12-5
                              On- and Off-Airport Aviation Activity Payroll
                                                             Direct and
                                                           Indirect Payroll      Induced Payroll      Total Payroll
Commercial Service Airports Payroll                            $4,670,070,500      $5,368,405,700     $10,038,476,200
General Aviation Airports Payroll                               $694,726,700         $531,399,300      $1,226,126,000
Total On- and Off-Airport Aviation Activity Payroll            $5,364,797,200      $5,899,805,000     $11,264,602,200
Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers




     Chapter 12: Total Economic Impacts for Airport-Supported Activities                                    12-4
     Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                  March 2010

This study shows direct and indirect annual payroll impacts are nearly $5.4 billion for both the
commercial service and the general aviation airports. This direct and indirect payroll impact
ripples throughout the Florida economy, creating induced payroll impacts, measured through
the use of the IMPLAN model. Induced annual payroll impacts related to on-airport aviation
tenants/activities at the study airports and off-airport air cargo activities is nearly $5.9 billion.
Total payroll impacts supported by on-airport aviation tenants/activities and off-airport air
cargo activities, which include direct, indirect, and induced annual payroll, are nearly $11.3
billion annually. Table 12-5 also provides information on the distribution of this payroll impact
between commercial service and general aviation airports included in this FDOT study.

Table 12-6 identifies the annual payroll impact attributed to employees whose jobs are
supported by spending from commercial service visitors using the study airports that support
airline service.

                                       Table 12-6
                 Annual Payroll from Commercial Service Visitor Spending

                                                Indirect Payroll    Induced Payroll     Total Payroll
Commercial Service Airports Visitor Payroll        $9,475,471,500      $8,821,939,400   $18,297,410,900
Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


Indirect payroll consists of wages and benefits paid to employees working at restaurants,
hotels/motels, retail businesses, and other service businesses that are used by commercial
service visitors. Indirect annual payroll attributable to spending by commercial service visitors
is estimated at nearly $9.5 billion.

As employees in service-related businesses spend their payroll, the money continues to circulate
in Florida, generating additional employment and subsequent payroll. Annual induced payroll
impacts associated with commercial service visitor-supported payroll are estimated at more
than $8.8 billion. When indirect and induced annual payroll impacts stemming from
commercial service visitor spending in Florida are combined, a total annual payroll impact of
nearly $18.3 billion is produced.

Table 12-7 identifies the payroll impacts attributed to spending by visitors using general
aviation to travel to/within Florida. As reflected in Table 12-7, payroll supported by general
aviation visitor spending is associated with both commercial service and general aviation
airports considered in this study.




Chapter 12: Total Economic Impacts for Airport-Supported Activities                               12-5
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                      March 2010

                                       Table 12-7
                  Annual Payroll from General Aviation Visitor Spending
                                                          Indirect          Induced
                                                          Payroll            Payroll        Total Payroll
Commercial Service Airports Visitor Payroll               $272,617,200      $227,262,200      $499,879,400
General Aviation Airports Visitor Payroll                 $282,478,900      $235,483,200       $517,962,100
Total General Aviation Visitor Payroll                    $555,096,100      $462,745,400     $1,017,841,500
Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


Indirect payroll includes salaries paid to employees working in visitor-related businesses and
other service industries that are utilized by general aviation visitors. Indirect annual payroll
attributable to spending by general aviation visitors in Florida is estimated at nearly $555.1
million.

As employees in the visitor-related industries spend their payroll, this spending continues to
circulate, generating additional employment and subsequent payroll. The induced annual
payroll impact associated with general aviation visitor spending is estimated at approximately
$462.7 million. When indirect and induced payroll impacts stemming from general aviation
visitor spending are combined, a total payroll impact for general aviation visitor spending in
Florida of more than $1.0 billion is produced.

Total payroll benefits from on-airport aviation tenants/activities, off-airport air cargo activities,
and all visitors using study airports in Florida are identified in Table 12-8.

                                           Table 12-8
                                 Total Airport-Supported Payroll
                                              Total Direct and           Total Induced
                                              Indirect Payroll              Payroll         Total Payroll
 Commercial Service Airports Payroll             $14,411,947,800          $14,412,245,400    $28,824,193,200
 General Aviation Airports Payroll                  $983,417,000             $772,244,400     $1,755,661,400
 Total Airport-Supported Payroll                 $15,395,364,800          $15,184,489,800    $30,579,854,600
 Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


The collective direct and indirect annual payroll impact supported by study airports is nearly
$15.4 billion. With nearly $15.2 billion in induced annual payroll benefits, nearly $30.6 billion in
total annual payroll is realized in Florida as a result of visitor spending, on-airport aviation
activities, and off-airport air cargo activities.




Chapter 12: Total Economic Impacts for Airport-Supported Activities                                   12-6
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
    Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
    Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                   March 2010

    Total Airport-Supported Output Impacts

    Output or economic activity is defined as annual gross sales and average annual capital
    expenditures for on-airport aviation tenants and activities. The exceptions are organizations
    such as corporate flight departments and government agencies that do not generate revenue
    and airlines located on the airports (because of the difficulty in allocating airline revenues to
    specific airports). Output for these types of entities is defined as the sum of annual capital
    expenditures, payroll, and operating expenses. Output related to commercial service and
    general aviation visitors is defined by their total spending. Total annual economic output is
    discussed in this section.

    Table 12-9 identifies direct, indirect, induced, and total output for all on-airport aviation
    tenants/activities and off-airport air cargo activities. As expenditures are made by on-airport
    aviation tenants/activities and off-airport air cargo businesses, these expenditures ripple
    through Florida’s economy. For example, if an airport were to improve or expand its terminal
    to provide additional services, money would be spent on construction materials, labor, and
    other services.

                                             Table 12-9
                             On- and Off-Airport Aviation Activity Output
                                                           Direct and
                                                         Indirect Output    Induced Output      Total Output
Commercial Service Airports Output                        $18,807,481,600    $14,500,709,800    $33,308,191,400
General Aviation Airports Output                           $2,563,616,400     $1,909,183,200     $4,472,799,600
Total On- and Off-Airport Aviation Activity Output        $21,371,098,000    $16,409,893,000    $37,780,991,000
Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


    Total direct and indirect annual output from on-airport aviation tenants/activities and off-
    airport air cargo activities is estimated at nearly $21.4 billion. This output estimate is for both
    commercial service and general aviation airports as shown in Table 12-9. Total induced annual
    output for all study airports is estimated at more than $16.4 billion. When direct, indirect, and
    induced impacts are combined, the total annual output attributed to on-airport aviation
    tenants/activities and off-airport air cargo activities is nearly $37.8 billion.

    Table 12-10 identifies output attributed to commercial service visitor spending as it relates to
    study airports that support commercial airline flights.




    Chapter 12: Total Economic Impacts for Airport-Supported Activities                               12-7
    Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
 Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
 Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                         March 2010

                                       Table 12-10
                       Output from Commercial Service Visitor Spending
                                                     Indirect Output         Induced Output      Total Output
Commercial Service Airports Visitor Output               $31,009,066,200      $25,294,672,100     $56,303,738,300
Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


 Commercial service visitor spending (indirect output) is estimated at more than $31.0 billion.
 As various industries re-spend this output, the spending continues to circulate resulting in
 induced output impacts. Induced annual impacts related to commercial service visitor output
 (spending) are estimated at nearly $25.3 billion. In total, the combined annual output from
 commercial service visitor spending in Florida is more than $56.3 billion.

 Table 12-11 identifies the output (spending) attributed to general aviation visitors using both
 commercial service and general aviation airports in Florida. Indirect annual output is
 comparable to all general aviation visitor expenditures. Total indirect annual output from
 general aviation visitor spending is estimated at $1.6 billion. General aviation visitor output or
 spending is attributable to both commercial service and general aviation airports, as reflected in
 Table 12-11.

                                         Table 12-11
                         Output from General Aviation Visitor Spending
                                                              Indirect          Induced
                                                              Output             Output         Total Output
   Commercial Service Airports Visitor Output                $777,693,600       $633,805,300    $1,411,498,900
   General Aviation Airports Visitor Output                  $805,964,500       $656,845,500    $1,462,810,000
   Total General Aviation Visitor Output                    $1,583,658,100    $1,290,650,800    $2,874,308,900
   Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


 As the service industries re-spend indirect output, money continues to circulate, resulting in
 induced impacts. The induced impacts related to general aviation visitor spending (output) are
 estimated at nearly $1.3 billion each year. The total annual output from visitors arriving via
 general aviation aircraft at study airports is nearly $2.9 billion.

 The total combined annual output related to on-airport aviation tenants/activities, off-airport air
 cargo activities, and all visitors is presented in Table 12-12. Direct and indirect annual output is
 nearly $54.0 billion. Total annual induced output is estimated at nearly $43.0 billion. Combined
 output from on-airport aviation tenants/activities, off-airport air cargo activities, visitors, and
 the multiplier effect produces a total annual output estimate of nearly $97.0 billion for the study
 airports. This estimated annual output for all study airports is 13 percent of Florida’s estimated
 2008 gross state product of $744.1 billion.



 Chapter 12: Total Economic Impacts for Airport-Supported Activities                                      12-8
 Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010

                                          Table 12-12
                                Total Airport-Supported Output
                                           Total Direct and    Total Induced
                                           Indirect Output        Output         Total Output
   Commercial Service Airports Output        $50,574,203,200   $40,412,841,700   $90,987,044,900
   General Aviation Airports Output           $3,389,619,100    $2,582,374,200    $5,971,993,300
   Total Airport-Supported Output            $53,963,822,300   $42,995,215,900   $96,959,038,200
   Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


SUMMARY FOR AIRPORT-SUPPORTED IMPACTS

On-airport aviation tenants/activities, off-airport air cargo activities, and commercial service
and general aviation visitors using the 122 airports considered in this study are major
contributors to Florida’s economy. In 2008, the annual output associated with study airports
was estimated at nearly $97.0 billion. This estimate includes induced impacts measured using
the study multipliers.

Table 12-13 provides a summary of economic impacts associated with study airports. As
shown, study airports support a total of 1,000,632 jobs that have an annual payroll of nearly
$30.6 billion; and as noted, study airports account for a total of nearly $97.0 billion in total
annual economic activity or output.




Chapter 12: Total Economic Impacts for Airport-Supported Activities                             12-9
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
  Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
  Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                     March 2010

                                            Table 12-13
                             Total Airport-Supported Economic Impacts
                                                    Direct and Indirect
                                                         Impacts           Induced Impacts     Total Impacts
Employment
On- and Off-Airport Aviation Activity Impacts                   121,976             125,303           247,279
Commercial Service Visitor Impacts                              422,575             292,263           714,838
General Aviation Visitor Impacts                                 24,038              14,477             38,515
Total Airport-Supported Employment                              568,589             432,043          1,000,632
Payroll
On-and Off-Airport Aviation Activity Impacts              $5,364,797,200      $5,899,805,000   $11,264,602,200
Commercial Service Visitor Impacts                        $9,475,471,500      $8,821,939,400   $18,297,410,900
General Aviation Visitor Impacts                           $555,096,100        $462,745,400     $1,017,841,500
Total Airport-Supported Payroll                          $15,395,364,800     $15,184,489,800   $30,579,854,600
Output
On- and Off-Airport Aviation Activity Impacts            $21,371,098,000     $16,409,893,000   $37,780,991,000
Commercial Service Visitor Impacts                       $31,009,066,200     $25,294,672,100   $56,303,738,300
General Aviation Visitor Impacts                          $1,583,658,100      $1,290,650,800    $2,874,308,900
Total Airport-Supported Output                           $53,963,822,300     $42,995,215,900   $96,959,038,200
Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


  Table 12-14 shows the distribution of these total airport-supported impacts between Florida’s
  commercial service and general aviation airports. Total annual economic impacts for the
  commercial service airports are as follows:

       •   Jobs – 946,382
       •   Annual Payroll – $28,824,193,200
       •   Annual Economic Activity (Output) – $90,987,044,900

  Total annual economic impacts for general aviation airports are as follows:

       •   Jobs – 54,250
       •   Annual Payroll - $1,755,661,400
       •   Annual Economic Activity (Output) – $5,971,993,300




  Chapter 12: Total Economic Impacts for Airport-Supported Activities                                12-10
  Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                  March 2010

                                        Table 12-14
                       Total Airport-Supported Economic Impacts for
                     Commercial Service and General Aviation Airports
                                             Direct and Indirect      Induced
                                                  Impacts             Impacts         Total Impacts
 Employment
 Commercial Service Airports                              540,141          406,241            946,382
 General Aviation Airports                                 28,448           25,802             54,250
 Total Airport-Supported Employment                       568,589          432,043          1,000,632
 Payroll
 Commercial Service Airports                      $14,411,947,800   $14,412,245,400   $28,824,193,200
 General Aviation Airports                          $983,417,000      $772,244,400     $1,755,661,400
 Total Airport-Supported Payroll                  $15,395,364,800   $15,184,489,800   $30,579,854,600
 Output
 Commercial Service Airports                      $50,574,203,200   $40,412,841,700   $90,987,044,900
 General Aviation Airports                         $3,389,619,100    $2,582,374,200    $5,971,993,300
 Total Airport-Supported Output                   $53,963,822,300   $42,995,215,900   $96,959,038,200
 Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers




Chapter 12: Total Economic Impacts for Airport-Supported Activities                             12-11
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                 March 2010


CHAPTER 13: SUMMARY OF OFF-AIRPORT ECONOMIC
IMPACTS

INTRODUCTION

Economic impacts presented in the previous chapter of this report (Chapter 12) provided a
“roll-up” of all economic impacts associated with the daily operation of Florida’s commercial
service and general aviation airports. As other chapters of the report have documented,
aviation-related economic impacts can and do often extend beyond the airports themselves and
the visitors the airports help bring to Florida.

This chapter summarizes aviation-related off-airport economic benefits that extend beyond the
airports in the following categories:

   •   Air Cargo
   •   Aviation-Related Schools
   •   Aviation-Related Business
   •   The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)


OFF-AIRPORT AIR CARGO (AIR MAIL) ECONOMIC IMPACTS

There is a notable amount of air cargo activity and associated economic impact that takes place
on 24 different commercial service and general aviation airports in Florida. There is also a
significant amount of economic impact related to various types of businesses that support air
cargo, and this activity takes place off-airport. Because almost all off-airport air cargo activity is
supported by a particular study airport, in this study, many of the off-airport air cargo
economic impacts were assigned to a specific airport. Chapter 2 of this report mapped on- and
off-airport centers of air cargo activity in Florida. Chapter 7 of this report provided a more
detailed discussion of both on- and off-airport air cargo-related economic impacts and the
methods used to estimate these impacts.

Economic impacts associated with the air transport of U.S. mail and the United States Postal
Service take place off-airport, and these impacts are statewide in nature rather than airport
specific. Much of the First-Class Mail that is destined to Florida or that originates in Florida is
transported via air. As a result, a portion of the employment of the United States Postal Service
(USPS) in Florida is associated with and supported by air transportation.

Table 13-1 presents off-airport economic impacts associated with USPS operations in Florida;
more detailed information on these impacts was presented in Chapter 7 of this report. Since
these impacts are statewide and not airport specific in nature, they were not accounted for in
the individual airport economic impacts discussed in Chapter 12. The statewide off-airport



Chapter 13: Summary of Off-Airport Economic Impacts                                              13-1
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                        March 2010

economic impacts associated with the USPS are in addition to those reported in the individual
airport and statewide airport totals.

                                          Table 13-1
                      Off-Airport Air Cargo (Air Mail) Economic Impacts

                                  Indirect Impacts     Induced Impacts        Total Impacts
            Employment
            Off-Airport USPS                 14,530                  12,853           27,383
            Payroll
            Off-Airport USPS           $972,448,300         $367,742,900       $1,340,191,200
            Output
            Off-Airport USPS         $1,443,292,500        $1,263,150,900      $2,706,443,400
            Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


Total off-airport air cargo (air mail) economic impacts for the USPS in Florida are as follows:

   •   Jobs – 27,383
   •   Annual Payroll – $1,340,191,200
   •   Annual Economic Activity (Output) - $2,706,443,400

OFF-AIRPORT AVIATION-RELATED EDUCATION ECONOMIC IMPACTS

Florida is a world leader in providing all facets of aviation-related education. Many of the
providers of aviation-related education in Florida are actually located on an airport. Statewide,
there are at least 110 aviation-related educational facilities located on both commercial service
and general aviation airports.

In addition to the many aviation-related schools that are located on airports throughout Florida,
there are also more than 20 other aviation-related schools in Florida not located on an airport.
Economic impacts of aviation-related educational providers have been previously discussed in
Chapter 8 of this report, and their locations mapped in Chapter 2. The economic impact of
aviation-related schools located on-airport are reflected in the roll-up of total airport-related
economic impacts for all system airports presented in Chapter 12.

The economic impacts of the off-airport aviation-related schools in Florida              are non-airport
specific, and their impacts are in addition to those summarized in Chapter               12. Off-airport
aviation-related schools in Florida have spending to support their activities,           employment to
train/educate their students, and payroll for their employees. Off-airport               aviation-related
schools also have the added economic impact of student spending.




Chapter 13: Summary of Off-Airport Economic Impacts                                                   13-2
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                 March 2010

Chapter 8 of this report provides a more detailed discussion of on- and off-airport economic
impacts that are related to aviation-related schools; this chapter also details how economic
impacts associated with this aviation activity in Florida were estimated. Table 13-2 summarizes
the off-airport economic impacts for aviation-related education in Florida.

                                      Table 13-2
               Off-Airport Aviation-Related Education Economic Impacts
                                       Indirect          Induced          Total
                                       Impacts           Impacts         Impacts
               Employment
               Schools                         315                 160             475
               Student Spending                 77                  40             117
               Total                           392                 200             592
               Payroll
               Schools                 $12,330,600        $11,829,000     $24,159,600
               Student Spending         $1,788,800         $1,064,500      $2,853,300
               Total                   $14,119,400        $12,893,500     $27,012,900
               Output
               Schools                 $27,170,700        $19,394,500     $46,565,200
               Student Spending         $2,844,300         $2,318,200      $5,162,500
               Total                   $30,015,000        $21,712,700     $51,727,700
               Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers


When all off-airport educational related activities (direct and induced) are considered, including
both the impact of the schools themselves and their students, the following economic impacts
are generated:

   •   Jobs – 592
   •   Annual Payroll – $27,012,900
   •   Annual Economic Activity (Output) - $51,727,700

OFF-AIRPORT AVIATION-RELATED BUSINESS ECONOMIC IMPACTS

Throughout Florida, there are many businesses engaged in the manufacturing or the production
of products or services that support the civilian aviation industry. Some of these businesses
manufacture aircraft, and others produce parts or other durable goods that are used within the
industry. Other businesses repair or perform different types of maintenance on commercial or
general aviation aircraft. Some of these aviation-related businesses are located off-airport, and
their locations were previously mapped in Chapter 2. Chapter 9 of this report provides more
information on economic impacts associated with aviation-related businesses, both on- and off-
airport, and discusses the approach used to estimate annual economic impacts for these
businesses in Florida.


Chapter 13: Summary of Off-Airport Economic Impacts                                            13-3
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                   March 2010

There are at least 125 aviation-related businesses located throughout Florida that are not located
on an airport. These aviation-related businesses are primarily engaged in manufacturing that
supports the civilian aviation industry. Table 13-3 presents economic impacts for off-airport
aviation-related businesses as estimated in this study.

                                       Table 13-3
                 Off-Airport Aviation-Related Business Economic Impacts
                                    Indirect Impacts       Induced Impacts       Total Impacts
       Employment
       Off-Airport Businesses                    9,417                 13,233            22,650
       Payroll
       Off-Airport Businesses             $400,606,800           $383,044,600      $783,651,400
       Output
       Off-Airport Businesses           $2,214,956,100          $1,584,018,500    $3,798,974,600
       Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN Multipliers


Economic impacts for off-airport aviation-related businesses are in addition to those previously
presented for study airports in Chapter 12. Approximately 60 percent of the economic impacts
stemming from aviation-related businesses in Florida take place off-airport. Total economic
impacts for off-airport aviation-related businesses are as follows:

   •   Jobs – 22,650
   •   Annual Payroll - $783,651,400
   •   Annual Economic Activity (Output) - $3,798,974,600

OFF-AIRPORT  FEDERAL                       AVIATION             ADMINISTRATION                   (FAA)
ECONOMIC IMPACTS

The FAA is the federal agency charged with overseeing the nation’s airports, airways, and
aviation activity. The responsibilities of the FAA related to airports in Florida include
engineering; environmental review; planning; funding; and monitoring aircraft approaches,
departures, and the national airways system. Throughout Florida, FAA has a series of both on-
and off-airport locations. Chapter 10 of this report provided more information for on- and off-
airport economic impacts for the FAA; this prior chapter also discussed how these impacts were
estimated. Locations of FAA installations in Florida were mapped in Chapter 2.

Table 13-4 presents off-airport economic impacts for the FAA in Florida.




Chapter 13: Summary of Off-Airport Economic Impacts                                                13-4
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                     March 2010

                                         Table 13-4
                             Off-Airport FAA Economic Impacts
                                 Indirect Impacts      Induced Impacts       Total Impacts
          Employment
          Off-Airport FAA                      1,712                 1,330            3,042
          Payroll
          Off-Airport FAA              $161,651,600           $45,804,100      $207,455,700
          Output
          Off-Airport FAA              $236,769,700          $186,200,400      $422,970,100
          Source: Wilbur Smith Associates, FAA, and IMPLAN multipliers


Employment and other information for off-airport FAA installations was obtained directly from
FAA headquarters in support of this economic impact study. The off-airport FAA economic
impacts calculated in this study are in addition to those estimated for the on-airport economic
impacts summarized in Chapter 12. Almost 70 percent of the total statewide economic impact
related to the FAA occurs off-airport. Total off-airport economic impacts for the FAA follow:

   •   Jobs - 3,042
   •   Annual Payroll - $207,455,700
   •   Annual Economic Activity (Output) - $422,970,100

SUMMARY OF OFF-AIRPORT ECONOMIC IMPACTS

Table 13-5 provides an overview of all off-airport economic impacts estimated in the statewide
FDOT economic impact study. Total off-airport economic impacts estimated in the study
follow:

   •   Jobs - 53,667
   •   Annual Payroll - $2,358,311,200
   •   Annual Economic Activity (Output) - $6,980,115,800




Chapter 13: Summary of Off-Airport Economic Impacts                                                13-5
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                   March 2010

                                      Table 13-5
                     Summary of Total Off-Airport Economic Impacts

                                       Indirect Impacts     Induced Impacts      Total Impacts
       Employment
       USPS                                       14,530               12,853            27,383
       Aviation-Related Education                    392                  200               592
       Aviation-Related Businesses                 9,417               13,233            22,650
       FAA                                         1,712                1,330             3,042
       Total Employment                           26,051               27,616            53,667
       Payroll
       USPS                                $972,448,300           $367,742,900    $1,340,191,200
       Aviation-Related Education            $14,119,400           $12,893,500       $27,012,900
       Aviation-Related Businesses          $400,606,800          $383,044,600      $783,651,400
       FAA                                  $161,651,600           $45,804,100      $207,455,700
       Total Payroll                      $1,548,826,100          $809,485,100    $2,358,311,200
       Output
       USPS                               $1,443,292,500        $1,263,150,900    $2,706,443,400
       Aviation-Related Education            $30,015,000           $21,712,700       $51,727,700
       Aviation-Related Businesses        $2,214,956,100        $1,584,018,500    $3,798,974,600
       FAA                                  $236,769,700          $186,200,400      $422,970,100
       Total Output                       $3,925,033,300        $3,055,082,500    $6,980,115,800
       Source: Wilbur Smith Associates, FAA, and IMPLAN multipliers


Since the economic impacts for off-airport aviation-related activities noted above are not tied to
a specific airport, these impacts have not been previously accounted for in the economic
impacts presented for individual system airports in Chapter 12. These off-airport aviation-
related economic impacts are in addition to those presented in Chapter 12.




Chapter 13: Summary of Off-Airport Economic Impacts                                                13-6
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010


CHAPTER 14: BENEFITS FOR FLORIDA BUSINESSES

INTRODUCTION

Businesses throughout the U.S. increase their productivity through their use of air travel and
transportation. This study included a separate survey of non-aviation off-airport businesses
throughout Florida to measure this linkage. The goal of this survey was to measure the value
businesses in Florida gain from their use of various facets of aviation. This value is measured
by increased productivity that the businesses realize. In addition to estimating increased
business productivity, employment and payroll associated with increased productivity is also
discussed. Employment associated with increased business productivity is linked to residents
of Florida. These residents are employees of the businesses whose efficiency and productivity
are increased through their use of aviation.

RETURN ON INVESTMENT FROM BUSINESS TRAVEL

In the fall of 2009, a study sponsored by the U.S. Travel Association and the Destination and
Travel Foundation was released. This study was prepared by Oxford Economics USA. The
study, The Return on Investment of U.S. Business Travel, concluded that the benefit of business
travel by air is best expressed in terms of individual company performance. The study
produced results that demonstrate the robust relationship between a company’s investment in
business travel and its profitability.

Some of the key findings from the research contained in the Oxford Economics USA study can
be summarized as follows:

   •   Every one dollar invested in business travel results in $12.50 in incremental revenue and
       $3.80 in additional profits.
   •   Businesses, on average, would lose between 12 and 17 percent of their profit in the first
       year after eliminating business travel.
   •   Current business volumes would be reduced by 28 percent without in-person meetings.
   •   The success rate of converting potential clients to clients is 40 percent with an in-person
       meeting and only 16 percent without an in-person meeting.
   •   A $1 million dollar increase in spending for government travel increases productivity
       and, therefore, output by an estimated $4.6 to $6.3 million.

In 2008, U.S. businesses spent an estimated $229 billion on business travel, while the public
sector (government) spent approximately $32 billion on travel. This represents about two
percent of all company expenses not including labor or capital. Business travel generally helps
to support four core business functions. These functions are:




Chapter 14: Benefits for Florida Businesses                                                  14-1
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

   •   Keeping customers
   •   Converting prospects
   •   Building relational networks
   •   Investing in people

It is estimated that a five percent increase in employee retention results in an increase in
profitability ranging between 25 to 85 percent. The Oxford Economics USA study concluded
that efficient business travel is a key component of job satisfaction, and resultant employee
retention.

Travel and business sales are inextricably linked. For all dollars invested in business travel,
businesses report that the highest return from the investment comes from customer/client
meetings. Business travel is perceived to be similar to a capital investment, in that business
travel is expected to yield benefits to corporate productivity. Most businesses participating in
the study conducted by Oxford Economics USA believe that increasing business travel has a
positive impact on both revenue and profitability.

The positive impacts of business travel differ by business sector. Across all sectors of business,
a 10 percent increase in business travel would increase productivity and is likely to yield an
increase in gross domestic product (GDP) ranging between 1.5 and 2.8 percent. A 10 percent
increase in government travel would increase GDP by an estimated 1.0 to 1.4 percent.
Countries that spend the most on business travel as a percent of their GDP have the highest
business productivity.

There is a correlation between travel “intensity” and productivity by economic sector. Service
sectors such as information; financial, insurance, and real estate; manufacturing, and
professional services have higher travel intensity than other sectors. As a result, these sectors
are most likely to see their productivity increased from air travel.

Using this information, a survey was designed for this economic impact study. The objective of
this survey was to collect information from businesses throughout Florida as to how they use
and rely on aviation and air travel. This survey and its results are discussed in the following
sections.

FLORIDA’S INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY FROM BUSINESS USE OF AIR
TRANSPORTATION

Economic impacts associated with aviation in Florida extend beyond on-airport activities and
visitors who arrive in Florida by air. Many employees and companies in Florida rely heavily on
aviation and air transportation. As a result, the productivity of businesses in Florida is
increased from “value-added” impacts associated with air transportation supported by study
airports.


Chapter 14: Benefits for Florida Businesses                                                  14-2
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

Methodology for Estimating Business Use/Reliance on Aviation

A statewide non-aviation business survey sought information from Florida businesses on topics
such as reliance on commercial airline service, general aviation, and air cargo. The survey also
collected information on factors important to businesses when they consider expanding or
relocating. In addition, basic business data such as employment and payroll were collected.

Approximately 1,700 businesses in Florida received surveys designed to determine their
dependence on aviation. While it is impossible to make exact estimates of all the additional
benefits that businesses in Florida derive from their use of air transportation, it is possible to
make some broad assumptions as to how air transportation benefits the state’s non-aviation
business community. The survey targeted businesses in the economic sectors noted in the
previous section, which have higher propensities to rely on aviation.

For this study, Florida businesses in the following economic sectors were surveyed:

   •   Manufacturing
   •   Wholesale/distributors
   •   Finance, insurance, and real estate
   •   Professional services

Information from the non-aviation business surveys was used to:

   •   Determine how the business community in Florida relies on air cargo
   •   Assess how businesses use both commercial and general aviation
   •   Document ways businesses benefit from air transportation
   •   Determine how commercial service and general aviation airports influence the locations
       of businesses in Florida
   •   Estimate the increases in productivity the Florida business community realizes from its
       use of air transportation

Business Use of Air Cargo in Florida

Air cargo activity at commercial service airports in Florida provides jobs and supports
economic activity in Florida. Many businesses and industries rely on air cargo to transport
commodities to their customers or as a function of their supply chain management. Business
surveys helped to illustrate how important air cargo is to Florida businesses.

Of the businesses participating in the non-aviation business survey, 95 percent indicate that
they use some form of air cargo or express shipping service on a regular basis. There are
several means by which businesses in Florida ship and receive air cargo. According to survey
results, of the responding businesses that indicated they rely on air cargo, these businesses ship
and receive air cargo using one or more of the following methods:

Chapter 14: Benefits for Florida Businesses                                                  14-3
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

   •   93 percent use an overnight express provider (UPS, FedEx, etc.)
   •   54 percent use the United States Postal Service (USPS)
   •   29 percent use freight forwarder service
   •   21 percent ship internationally

Business Use of Commercial Aviation in Florida

Florida generates more than 68 million commercial airline enplanements every year.
Approximately 40 percent of these enplanements can be attributed to trips that support sales,
operations, and management of businesses throughout the state.

Of survey respondents, 93 percent reported using commercial airline service in 2008. These
businesses reported 91 percent of their commercial airline trips were domestic flights, with the
other 9 percent of the business trips being international. In addition, 80 percent of the
respondents reported that clients or vendors used commercial air transportation to visit them in
Florida in 2008.

Access to air service is important for economic development, and commercial air service
supports the operations of companies doing business in Florida. Commercial aviation connects
businesses in Florida with customers and other businesses within the state, around the country,
and around the world.

Business Use of General Aviation in Florida

Business use of general aviation aircraft can range from the rental of small single-engine aircraft
to multiple aircraft corporate fleets that are supported by dedicated flight crews and mechanics.
Florida businesses use general aviation to visit customers, vendors, and branch offices. The
non-aviation business survey effort provided insight into how businesses in Florida rely on
general aviation to increase their productivity. Businesses were asked if they own or rent
general aviation aircraft, if they use charter or air taxi services, or if clients and vendors use
general aviation to visit them in Florida.

A total of 35 percent of all survey respondents to the non-aviation business survey indicate they
use general aviation in some way to support their operations and increase their productivity.
The specific breakdown for business use of general aviation follows:

   •   7 percent reported owning their own general aviation aircraft
   •   4 percent reported fractional ownership in a general aviation aircraft
   •   14 percent reported leasing or renting a general aviation aircraft
   •   11 percent reported using general aviation charters or air taxi service
   •   34 percent reported clients or vendors using general aviation to visit them in Florida



Chapter 14: Benefits for Florida Businesses                                                     14-4
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                            March 2010

Impact of Airports on Business Locations in Florida

This study’s non-aviation business survey questioned respondents on the importance of various
factors that they would consider if they were contemplating relocation or expansion. Survey
respondents were asked to consider several different factors. Businesses rated each factor on a
scale from 1 to 5, with 1 being not important and 5 being very important. When the scores were
averaged, the factors influencing the location of businesses in Florida, in order of importance,
are shown in Table 14-1.

                                         Table 14-1
                               Factors Influencing Business
                                  Location or Relocation
                             Rank                  Factor
                               1     Available trained workforce
                               2     Quality of life
                               3     Convenient highway access
                               4     Tax incentives
                               5     A commercial service airport
                               6     Proximity of suppliers
                               7     Universities or R&D centers
                               8     Natural resources
                               9     An urban business district
                              10     A general aviation airport
                              11     Historic location of business
                              12     Water transportation facilities
                              13     Rail transportation facilities
                             Source: Wilbur Smith Associates


As shown, proximity to a commercial service airport ranked fifth and proximity to a general
aviation airport ranked tenth. This information underscores the value that companies
conducting business in Florida gain from their proximity to airports.

Increased Productivity for Businesses Using Aviation in Florida

It is impossible to make exact estimates of the economic benefit Florida businesses realize from
using air transportation. Nevertheless, it is possible to make broad assumptions as to how air
transportation increases the productivity of businesses in Florida. Surveys of non-aviation
businesses provided insight into how the productivity of companies in certain employment
sectors increases as a result of using aviation as a business tool.

Survey responses reveal that for the employment sectors surveyed in this study, the overall
productivity of businesses in these sectors increases by an estimated 24 percent as a result of
commercial aviation, general aviation, and air cargo. Florida’s geographic location within the


Chapter 14: Benefits for Florida Businesses                                                14-5
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010

U.S. and the state’s important role in Latin American trade make businesses in Florida
somewhat more reliant on air transportation than comparable businesses in other states.

According to the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), there are over
3.8 million employees in Florida in the surveyed employment sectors (manufacturing,
wholesale/distributors, finance/insurance/real estate, and professional services). Survey results
were extrapolated to all employment included in the surveyed business sectors.

When the above percentages are applied to the 3.8 million jobs in the surveyed employment
sectors, there are 920,640 additional non-aviation business jobs in Florida that are dependent
upon air transportation. It is estimated that the annual payroll associated with these 920,640
value-added jobs is $38.6 billion. This payroll figure was calculated by multiplying the number
of jobs by the average annual payroll (obtained from Florida Research and Economic Database)
for surveyed economic sectors.

The average yearly output for these jobs was determined from IMPLAN multipliers. The
annual output associated with the 920,640 value-added jobs is estimated at $94.5 billion.

SUMMARY

As this chapter has shown, many economic benefits tied to aviation extend beyond airport
boundaries. The productivity of many non-aviation businesses in Florida increases because
these businesses rely on commercial aviation, general aviation, and air cargo to improve their
efficiency. This study estimates that non-aviation business productivity in Florida is increased
by $94.5 billion on an annual basis as a result of air transportation. Clearly, aviation’s impact on
Florida’s economy extends beyond the boundaries of public airports and military airfields, and
this economic impact is significant.




Chapter 14: Benefits for Florida Businesses                                                    14-6
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                            March 2010


CHAPTER 15: TOTAL ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AVIATION
IN FLORIDA

INTRODUCTION

The previous chapters of this report have identified and summarized the economic benefits
associated with on- and off-airport aviation activities in Florida. Specific aviation groups and
benefits of air transportation were considered in this report and include the following:

   •   Airports
   •   Visitors
   •   Airport construction
   •   Air cargo
   •   Aviation education
   •   Aviation-related businesses
   •   Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
   •   Military airfields
   •   Aviation benefits for Florida businesses

This chapter combines economic impacts associated with these aviation groups to provide a
complete picture of the statewide economic impacts of all aviation activities in Florida.


STATEWIDE ECONOMIC IMPACTS

Table 15-1 summarizes Florida’s total annual economic impacts from aviation activities
examined in this study. Total economic impacts include on-airport tenants and businesses,
visitor spending, construction activity, on- and off-airport air cargo activity (including the
USPS), on- and off-airport aviation-related schools, on- and off-airport aviation-related
businesses, on- and off-airport FAA facilities, and military airfields.




Chapter 15: Total Economic Impacts of Aviation in Florida                                  15-1
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010

                                          Table 15-1
                       Florida’s Total Economic Impacts from Aviation
                                             Direct and
                                          Indirect Impacts     Induced Impacts     Total Impacts
 Employment
 Airports                                             78,339             80,522             158,861
 Visitors Arriving by Air                            446,613            306,740             753,353
 Construction at Airports                             13,320             12,001              25,321
 Air Cargo                                            21,005             20,868              41,873
 Aviation Education                                    2,904              3,481               6,385
 Aviation Businesses                                   5,557              7,779              13,336
 FAA                                                     851                652               1,503
 Airport-Supported Activities Total                  568,589            432,043           1,000,632
 Military Airfields Total                             70,701             46,159             116,860
 Off-Airport Activities Total                         26,051             27,616              53,667
 All Activities Total Employment                     665,341            505,818           1,171,159
 Payroll
 Airports                                     $3,478,397,800      $4,274,163,800     $7,752,561,600
 Visitors Arriving by Air                    $10,030,567,600      $9,284,684,800    $19,315,252,400
 Construction at Airports                       $516,366,100        $524,711,100     $1,041,077,200
 Air Cargo                                      $952,381,300        $762,026,300     $1,714,407,600
 Aviation Education                              $90,032,200         $84,150,300       $174,182,500
 Aviation Businesses                            $241,314,600        $230,298,800       $471,613,400
 FAA                                             $86,305,200         $24,454,700       $110,759,900
 Airport-Supported Activities Total          $15,395,364,800     $15,184,489,800    $30,579,854,600
 Military Airfields Total                     $3,655,994,700      $2,199,981,700     $5,855,976,400
 Off-Airport Activities Total                 $1,548,826,100        $809,485,100     $2,358,311,200
 All Activities Total Payroll                $20,600,185,600     $18,193,956,600    $38,794,142,200
 Output
 Airports                                    $16,359,552,800     $12,433,685,900    $28,793,238,700
 Visitors Arriving by Air                    $32,592,724,300     $26,585,322,900    $59,178,047,200
 Construction at Airports                     $1,508,314,700      $1,350,477,100     $2,858,791,800
 Air Cargo                                    $2,206,261,000      $1,684,107,800     $3,890,368,800
 Aviation Education                             $301,295,400        $220,164,900       $521,460,300
 Aviation Businesses                            $886,621,600        $635,696,200     $1,522,317,800
 FAA                                            $109,052,500         $85,761,100      $194,813,600
 Airport-Supported Activities Total          $53,963,822,300     $42,995,215,900    $96,959,038,200
 Military Airfields Total                     $6,305,238,400      $4,491,981,200    $10,797,219,600
 Off-Airport Activities Total                 $3,925,033,300      $3,055,082,500     $6,980,115,800
 All Activities Total Output                 $64,194,094,000     $50,542,279,600   $114,736,373,600
 Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers




Chapter 15: Total Economic Impacts of Aviation in Florida                                      15-2
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010

As shown in this table:

   •   Airport-supported activities are responsible for more than one million jobs, $30.6 billion
       in annual payroll, and $97.0 billion in annual economic activity or output.
   •   Military airfields support 116,860 jobs, $5.9 billion in annual payroll, and $10.8 billion in
       annual output.
   •   Off-airport aviation activities support 53,667 jobs, $2.4 billion in annual payroll, and $7.0
       billion in annual economic activity or output.
   •   All aviation activities in Florida combined support nearly 1.2 million jobs, $38.8 billion
       in payroll, and $114.7 billion in annual output.

Exhibit 15-1 summarizes the distribution of the total annual economic impact that Florida
realizes from aviation by category.

                                      Exhibit 15-1
         Distribution of Florida’s Total Annual Economic Impact by Category

                                 Off-Airport
                                  Activities
                                 $7.0 billion,
                  Military
                                     6%
                  Airfields
                $10.8 billion,
                     9%




                                                                       Airport-
                                                                      Supported
                                                                      Activities
                                                                    $97.0 billion,
                                                                         85%




Chapter 15: Total Economic Impacts of Aviation in Florida                                      15-3
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010

As shown on Exhibit 15-1, on-airport aviation activities are responsible for the majority (85
percent) of the total annual economic activity or output associated with aviation in Florida.

Not shown in Table 15-1 and Exhibit 15-1 are the benefits Florida businesses realize from using
aviation. As explained in Chapter 14, many non-aviation businesses in Florida rely on and
benefit from their use of various aspects of the aviation industry. In particular, businesses in the
manufacturing, wholesale, distribution, finance, insurance, real estate, and professional service
sectors rely on commercial aviation, air cargo, and general aviation to support their business
activities. This study shows that as many as 920,600 jobs in Florida may benefit on a regular
basis from aviation. The annual payroll associated with these jobs is estimated at $38.6 billion.
The annual productivity of businesses in Florida that use aviation is increased by an estimated
$94.5 billion.

SUMMARY

As shown in this chapter, aviation in Florida clearly has a significant impact on the state’s
economy. Aviation activities in Florida account for the following total economic impacts:

   •   Jobs – 1,171,159
   •   Annual Payroll - $38.8 billion
   •   Annual Output - $114.7 billion

In addition to these benefits, the use of air transportation by Florida businesses accounts for the
following impacts:

   •   Annual Business Productivity Increase - $94.5 billion
   •   Jobs Associated with Productivity Increase – 920,600
   •   Payroll Associated with Productivity Increase - $38.6 billion

Clearly, when aviation is contributing $114.7 billion in annual economic activity or output and
aviation is increasing the productivity of Florida businesses by an estimated $94.5 billion each
year, aviation has a significant positive impact on Florida’s economy each year.




Chapter 15: Total Economic Impacts of Aviation in Florida                                      15-4
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
           APPENDIX A
APPROACH TO ADJUSTING ECONOMIC
IMPACTS FOR COMMERCIAL SERVICE
AIRPORTS WITH EXISTING ECONOMIC
         IMPACT STUDIES
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010


APPENDIX A

Introduction

The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) released a statewide economic impact study
for airports in August 2000, which has been updated for 2008 in this study. The updated
statewide aviation economic impact study provides each airport with an estimate of its
individual economic impact, as well as a statewide estimate of all economic impacts that Florida
receives from aviation. This is critical information that demonstrates to the public, government
officials, business leaders, and other stakeholders how each community and the entire state
benefits from aviation.

The economic impacts of 122 airports were quantified in FDOT’s study update. Nineteen of
these airports are commercial service airports, 102 are public-use general aviation airports, and
one is the new Northwest Florida Beaches International Airport that is currently under
construction. An extensive data collection effort during the first half of 2009 was undertaken to
collect data on economic impacts for the majority of the airports.

Seven of the commercial service airports, on their own initiative, completed economic impact
studies after FDOT released its 2000 study. The commercial service airports with existing
economic impact studies include the following:

   •   Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport
   •   Melbourne International Airport
   •   Miami International Airport
   •   Orlando International Airport
   •   Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport
   •   St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport
   •   Tampa International Airport

This appendix describes the methodology used to update the economic impacts of these
commercial service airports, considering their existing economic impact studies. Because there
were differences in how the economic impacts were estimated among these studies, various
assumptions and modifications were required for a more consistent methodology. The total
updated economic impacts for each airport listed above are presented at the end of this
appendix.




Appendix A                                                                                   A-1
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

Economic Impact Update Approach

Background information on the seven commercial service airports with existing economic
impact studies is provided in Table A-1. The base year for the study and the consultant or
university that conducted the study are both presented.

                                      Table A-1
          Commercial Service Airports with Existing Economic Impact Studies
                                                    Existing
                                                   Study Base
                      Airport                         Year            Consultant/University
 Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport       2006       Jacobs Consultancy
 Melbourne International Airport                      2002       Wilbur Smith Associates
 Miami International Airport                          2008       Martin Associates
 Orlando International Airport                        2003       Fishkind & Associates
 Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport             2003       Wilbur Smith Associates
 St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport      2003       Infrastructure Management Group
 Tampa International Airport                          2003       Univ. S. Florida - CUTR
 Source: Wilbur Smith Associates


Similar to other study airports, total economic impacts for the seven commercial service airports
included in this appendix were quantified in terms of employment, payroll, and output.
Output represents total economic activity or spending; it represents the total value of aviation-
related activities supported by the airports discussed in this appendix. This appendix presents
total economic impacts for the airports in terms of three aviation-dependent groups:

   •   On-airport activities/tenants
   •   Visitors traveling to Florida via commercial airlines
   •   Visitors traveling to/within Florida via general aviation aircraft

Economic Impact Update Process

For each of the seven commercial service airports, direct, indirect, and induced impacts were
estimated in terms of employment, payroll, and output for on-airport activities/tenants and
commercial service and general aviation visitors traveling to/within Florida. As stated earlier,
there were variations in how impacts were estimated among the existing economic impact
studies. In order to present the economic impacts of the seven airports so that a more consistent
methodology was used, various assumptions and modifications were required. The discussion
below details the process used to modify, as needed, the economic impacts for each airport
included in this appendix.




Appendix A                                                                                    A-2
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

The base year for the FDOT economic impact study was 2008. As shown in Table A-1, most of
the economic impact studies were prepared in the 2002-2003 time frame. The only existing
economic impact based on 2008 data is the study for Miami International Airport. While it was
necessary to adjust findings from other studies to the 2008 base year for the FDOT statewide
economic impact study, results from the 2008 for Miami International were for the most part
adopted verbatim for this study.

Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport

      •   Direct Impacts: Direct employment impacts from Jacobs Consultancy’s 2006 study were
          not changed. The direct payroll and output impacts from Jacobs Consultancy’s study
          were inflated to 2008 dollars using the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics’ (BLS) Consumer
          Price Index (CPI).

          CIP expenditure data for 2005 – 2008 provided by the Broward County Aviation
          Department in the airport management survey was used to estimate additional direct
          employment, payroll, and output impacts generated by on-airport capital improvement
          projects (CIP). Employment and payroll impacts associated with CIP expenditures were
          identified using Florida-specific employment ratios per $1 million of CIP output from
          the IMPLAN model and the BLS average state wage for construction-related workers in
          Florida ($35,950).

      •   Indirect Impacts: Commercial service and general aviation visitor expenditures were
          identified using the same methodologies detailed for these aviation groups in Chapter 5.
          For commercial service visitors, calendar year 2008 passenger enplanements and 2008
          visitor percentages were used to estimate annual visitors (see Table A-2). Data
          regarding average visitor spending was based on Greater Ft. Lauderdale Convention &
          Visitors Bureau data. For general aviation visitors, the number of annual true transient
          arrivals based on aircraft operations data from the FAA’s 2008 Terminal Area Forecast
          (TAF) was used to estimate annual visitors (see Table A-3). Data regarding average
          visitor spending was based on the tier structure presented in Chapter 51. Employment
          and payroll impacts associated with commercial service and general aviation visitor
          expenditures were identified using Florida-specific employment ratios per $1 million of
          visitor output from the IMPLAN model and the BLS average state wage for workers in
          Florida in service sectors ($23,100).




1   Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport was assigned to Tier One.

Appendix A                                                                                    A-3
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                         March 2010

                                     Table A-2
            Commercial Service Airport Enplanements and Annual Visitors
                                                             2008            Percent
                        Airport                          Enplanements        Visitor      Annual Visitors
   Ft Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport               11,020,091        61%            6,775,150
   Melbourne International Airport                                145,117        47%               69,640
   Miami International Airport*                                17,000,000        48%            8,200,000
   Orlando International Airport                               17,288,480        73%           12,644,790
   Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport                       753,126        64%              475,980
   St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport                363,725        61%              222,820
   Tampa International Airport                                  8,871,917        57%            5,112,000
   Total                                                       55,442,456                      33,500,380
   * Data are from Martin Associates' 2008 economic impact study
   Source: FAA and U.S. DOT


                                      Table A-3
             General Aviation True Transient Arrivals and Annual Visitors
                                                                   2008 Annual True           Annual
                            Airport                                Transient Arrivals         Visitors
    Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport                               23,267           93,068
    Melbourne International Airport                                              17,209           68,837
    Miami International Airport                                                  24,123           96,493
    Orlando International Airport                                                13,128           52,513
    Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport                                     23,344           93,376
    St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport                              17,840           64,225
    Tampa International Airport                                                  13,076           52,306
    Total                                                                      131,988           520,818
    Source: FAA 2008 Terminal Area Forecast and Wilbur Smith Associates


   •   Induced Impacts: Florida-specific IMPLAN multipliers were applied to direct and
       indirect impacts to estimate induced impacts.

Melbourne International Airport

   •   Direct Impacts: The direct employment impacts from Wilbur Smith Associates’ (WSA)
       2002 study were not changed. The direct payroll and output impacts from WSA’s study
       were inflated to 2008 dollars using BLS’ CPI.

       CIP expenditure data for 2005 – 2008 provided by the Melbourne Airport Authority in
       the airport management survey was used to estimate additional direct employment,


Appendix A                                                                                                  A-4
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010

          payroll, and output impacts generated by on-airport construction activities.
          Employment and payroll impacts associated with CIP expenditures were identified
          using Florida-specific employment ratios per $1 million of CIP output from the IMPLAN
          model and the BLS average state wage for construction-related workers in Florida.

      •   Indirect Impacts: Commercial service and general aviation visitor expenditures were
          identified using the same methodologies detailed for these groups in Chapter 5. For
          commercial service visitors, calendar year 2008 passenger enplanements and 2008 visitor
          percentages were used to estimate annual visitors (see Table A-2). Data regarding
          average visitor spending from WSA’s 2002 study was used and inflated to 2008 dollars
          using BLS’ CPI. For general aviation visitors, the number of annual true transient
          arrivals based on aircraft operations data from the FAA’s 2008 TAF was used to estimate
          annual visitors (see Table A-3). Data regarding average visitor spending was based on
          the tier structure presented in Chapter 52. Employment and payroll impacts associated
          with commercial service and general aviation visitor expenditures were identified using
          Florida-specific employment ratios per $1 million of visitor output from the IMPLAN
          model and the BLS average state wage for service sector workers in Florida.

      •   Induced Impacts: Florida-specific IMPLAN multipliers were applied to direct and
          indirect impacts to estimate induced impacts.

      Miami International Airport

      •   Direct Impacts: The direct employment and payroll impacts from Martin Associates’
          study were not changed, since the study’s base year, 2008, is the same as FDOT’s
          statewide study. Martin Associates estimated total output impacts generated by on-
          airport businesses, but did not provide direct output impacts. Therefore, direct output
          impacts for FDOT’s statewide study were estimated based on total output from the
          Martin Associates study and multipliers at comparable airports. Impacts from on-
          airport construction from the Martin Associates study were adopted for use in this
          study.

      •   Indirect Impacts: Commercial service visitor employment and payroll impacts from the
          Martin Associates study were not changed. The Martin Associates study, however, only
          estimated total output impacts generated by commercial service visitors. Therefore,
          indirect output impacts for FDOT’s statewide study were estimated based on total
          output from the Martin Associates study and multipliers at comparable airports.

          The Martin Associates study did not estimate general aviation visitor impacts. For
          FDOT’s statewide study, general aviation visitor expenditures were identified using the
          methodology detailed for this group in Chapter 5. The number of annual true transient

2   Melbourne International Airport was assigned to Tier Two.

Appendix A                                                                                   A-5
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010

          arrivals, based on aircraft operations data from the FAA’s 2008 TAF, was used to
          estimate annual general aviation visitors (see Table A-3). Data regarding average visitor
          spending was based on the tier structure presented in Chapter 53. Employment and
          payroll impacts associated with general aviation visitor expenditures were identified
          using Florida-specific employment ratios per $1 million of visitor output from the
          IMPLAN model and the BLS average state wage for service sector workers in Florida.

      •   Induced Impacts: The 2008 induced employment and payroll impacts from the Martin
          Associates study were not changed. The Martin Associates study did not include an
          estimate of induced output. Therefore, induced output impacts for FDOT’s statewide
          study were estimated based on total output impacts from the Martin Associates study
          and multipliers at comparable airports.

Orlando International Airport

      •   Direct Impacts: Direct employment impacts for airport tenants from the Fishkind &
          Associates 2003 study were not changed, and direct employment data from the Greater
          Orlando Aviation Authority’s (GOAA) airport management survey was used for
          Orlando International. Direct payroll and output impacts for airport tenants from the
          Fishkind & Associates study were inflated to 2008 dollars using BLS’ CPI. Direct payroll
          and output data from GOAA’s airport management survey were used for Orlando
          International.

          CIP expenditure data for 2005 – 2008 provided by GOAA in the airport management
          survey were used to estimate additional direct employment, payroll, and output impacts
          generated by on-airport construction activities. Employment and payroll impacts
          associated with CIP expenditures were identified using Florida-specific employment
          ratios per $1 million of CIP output from the IMPLAN model and the BLS average state
          wage for construction-related workers in Florida.

      •   Indirect Impacts: Commercial service and general aviation visitor expenditures were
          identified using the same methodologies detailed for these groups in Chapter 5. For
          commercial service visitors, calendar year 2008 passenger enplanements and 2008 visitor
          percentages were used to estimate annual visitors (see Table A-2). Data regarding
          average visitor spending from the Fishkind & Associates study was inflated to 2008
          dollars using BLS’ CPI. For general aviation visitors, the number of annual true
          transient arrivals based on aircraft operations data from the FAA’s 2008 TAF was used
          to estimate annual visitors (see Table A-3). Data regarding average visitor spending was
          based on the tier structure presented in Chapter 54. Employment and payroll impacts
          associated with commercial service and general aviation visitor expenditures were

3   Miami International Airport was assigned to Tier One.
4   Orlando International Airport was assigned to Tier One.

Appendix A                                                                                     A-6
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010

          identified using Florida-specific employment ratios per $1 million of visitor output from
          the IMPLAN model and the BLS average state wage for service sector workers in
          Florida.

      •   Induced Impacts: Florida-specific IMPLAN multipliers were applied to direct and
          indirect impacts to estimate induced impacts.

Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport

      •   Direct Impacts: Direct employment impacts for airport tenants from WSA’s 2003 study
          were not changed, and direct employment data from the Sarasota Manatee Airport
          Authority’s (SMAA) airport management survey were used for Sarasota-Bradenton
          International. The direct payroll and output impacts from WSA’s study were inflated to
          2008 dollars using BLS’ CPI.

          CIP expenditure data for 2005 – 2008 provided by the SMAA in the airport management
          survey were used to estimate additional direct employment, payroll, and output impacts
          generated by on-airport construction activities. Employment and payroll impacts
          associated with CIP expenditures were identified using Florida-specific employment
          ratios per $1 million of CIP output from the IMPLAN model and the BLS average state
          wage for construction-related workers in Florida.

      •   Indirect Impacts: Commercial service and general aviation visitor expenditures were
          identified using the same methodologies detailed for these groups in Chapter 5. For
          commercial service visitors, calendar year 2008 passenger enplanements and 2008 visitor
          percentages were used to estimate annual visitors (see Table A-2). Data regarding
          average visitor spending from WSA’s 2003 study was inflated to 2008 dollars using BLS’
          CPI. For general aviation visitors, the number of annual true transient arrivals based on
          aircraft operations data from the FAA’s 2008 TAF was used to estimate annual general
          aviation visitors (see Table A-3). Data regarding average visitor spending was based on
          the tier structure presented in Chapter 55. Employment and payroll impacts associated
          with commercial service and general aviation visitor expenditures were identified using
          Florida-specific employment ratios per $1 million of visitor output from the IMPLAN
          model and the BLS average state wage for retail workers in Florida.

      •   Induced Impacts: Florida-specific IMPLAN multipliers were applied to direct and
          indirect impacts to estimate induced impacts.




5   Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport was assigned to Tier One.

Appendix A                                                                                     A-7
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                March 2010

St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport

      •   Direct Impacts: Pinellas County (airport management) included a list of on-airport
          tenants and their associated employment in the airport management survey for the St.
          Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport. This employment data, along with the
          airport management employment data provided in the survey, were used for direct
          employment impacts. The Pinellas County payroll and output data provided in the
          airport management survey were used as direct payroll and output impacts for airport
          management. To update direct payroll and output impacts associated with airport
          tenants, tenants were grouped into categories, similar to the methodology used to group
          airport tenants at the other study airports. Estimates of payroll and output for each
          tenant were identified using ratios of payroll and output per employee. These ratios
          were developed from survey data obtained from tenants and businesses who responded
          to the airport tenant survey sent to on-airport tenants at other airports analyzed in the
          statewide study.

          To identify additional direct employment, payroll, and output impacts generated by on-
          airport construction activities, CIP expenditure data for 2005 – 2008 provided by Pinellas
          County in the airport management survey were used. CIP expenditures for tenants
          were estimated using ratios of CIP expenditures per employee for the business
          categories represented at the airport. These ratios were developed from survey data
          obtained from tenants and businesses who responded to the airport tenant survey sent
          to on-airport tenants at the other study airports. Employment and payroll impacts
          associated with CIP expenditures were identified using Florida-specific employment
          ratios per $1 million of CIP output from the IMPLAN model and the BLS average state
          wage for construction-related workers in Florida.

      •   Indirect Impacts: Commercial service and general aviation visitor expenditures were
          identified using the same methodologies detailed for these groups in Chapter 5. For
          commercial service visitors, calendar year 2008 passenger enplanements and 2008 visitor
          percentages were used to estimate annual visitors (see Table A-2). Data regarding
          average visitor spending from Infrastructure Management Group’s 2003 study was
          inflated to 2008 dollars using BLS’ CPI. For general aviation visitors, the number of
          annual true transient arrivals based on aircraft operations data from the FAA’s 2008 TAF
          was used to estimate annual visitors (see Table A-3). Data regarding average visitor
          spending was based on the tier structure presented in Chapter 56. Employment and
          payroll impacts associated with commercial service and general aviation visitor
          expenditures were identified using Florida-specific employment ratios per $1 million of
          visitor output from the IMPLAN model and the BLS average state wage for service
          sector workers in Florida.



6   St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport was assigned to Tier Three.

Appendix A                                                                                      A-8
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010

      •   Induced Impacts: Florida-specific IMPLAN multipliers were applied to direct and
          indirect impacts to estimate induced impacts.

Tampa International Airport

      •   Direct Impacts: The Hillsborough County Aviation Authority (HCAA) included a list of
          on-airport tenants and their associated employment with the airport management
          survey for Tampa International Airport. This employment data, along with airport
          management employment data provided in the survey, were used for direct
          employment impacts. HCAA payroll and output data provided in the airport
          management survey were used as direct payroll and output impacts for airport
          management. To update direct payroll and output impacts associated with airport
          tenants, tenants were grouped into categories, similar to the methodology used to group
          airport tenants at the other study airports. Estimates of payroll and output for each
          tenant were identified using ratios of payroll and output per employee. These ratios
          were developed from survey data obtained from tenants and businesses who responded
          to the airport tenant survey sent to on-airport tenants at other study airports.

          To identify additional direct employment, payroll, and output impacts generated by on-
          airport construction activities, CIP expenditure data for 2005 – 2008 provided by HCAA
          in the airport management survey were used; estimates of CIP expenditures were used
          for on-airport tenants. CIP expenditures for tenants were estimated using ratios of CIP
          expenditures per employee for business categories. These ratios were developed from
          survey data obtained from tenants and businesses who responded to the airport tenant
          survey sent to other airports analyzed in the statewide study. Employment and payroll
          impacts associated with CIP expenditures were identified using Florida-specific
          employment ratios per $1 million of CIP output from the IMPLAN model and the BLS
          average state wage for construction-related workers in Florida.

      •   Indirect Impacts: Commercial service and general aviation visitor expenditures were
          identified using the same methodologies detailed for these groups in Chapter 5. For
          commercial service visitors, calendar year 2008 passenger enplanements and 2008 visitor
          percentages were used to estimate annual visitors (see Table A-2). Data regarding
          average visitor spending at comparable commercial service airports in Florida where
          commercial service passenger surveys were conducted in 2009 for the statewide study
          were used. For general aviation visitors, the number of annual true transient arrivals
          based on aircraft operations data from the FAA’s 2008 TAF was used to estimate annual
          visitors (see Table A-3). Data regarding average visitor spending was based on the tier
          structure presented in Chapter 57. Employment and payroll impacts associated with
          commercial service and general aviation visitor expenditures were identified using



7   Tampa International Airport was assigned to Tier One.

Appendix A                                                                                   A-9
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
 Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
 Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                            March 2010

            Florida-specific employment ratios per $1 million of visitor output from the IMPLAN
            model and the BLS average state wage for service sector workers in Florida.

        •   Induced Impacts: Florida-specific IMPLAN multipliers were applied to direct and
            indirect impacts to estimate induced impacts.

 Updated Total Economic Impacts for Commercial Service Airports with Existing
 Economic Impact Studies

 Table A-4 presents updated total economic impacts for the seven commercial service airports,
 based on the assumptions noted in the previous sections. Total employment, payroll, and
 output are shown for each airport. Combined, the seven airports support 769,000 total jobs in
 Florida with a total payroll in excess of $23.4 billion. Total output is estimated at nearly $73.2
 billion.

                                                 Table A-4
                                          Total Economic Impacts
                                                         Total
                     Airport                           Employment          Total Payroll           Total Output
Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport               133,900         $3,432,849,400         $10,517,439,600
Melbourne International Airport                                10,900          $407,522,000          $1,151,991,300
Miami International Airport                                  279,400         $9,969,532,600         $26,585,774,700
Orlando International Airport                                246,000         $6,871,975,700         $26,151,471,700
Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport                       11,500          $314,435,900            $966,936,400
St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport                 8,000          $265,216,600            $893,796,700
Tampa International Airport                                    79,300        $2,175,756,900          $6,922,971,000
Total                                                        769,000        $23,437,289,100         $73,190,381,400
Source: Wilbur Smith Associates, IMPLAN multipliers, and existing commercial service airport economic impact studies


 This appendix described the methodology used to update the economic impacts for seven of
 Florida’s commercial service airports. In most of the prior studies, direct, indirect, and induced
 impacts were estimated in terms of employment, payroll, and output for on-airport activities
 and commercial service and general aviation visitors traveling to/within Florida. There were
 variations in how these impacts were estimated among the studies. In order to develop
 comparative economic impacts for the seven airports, in most instances, the process below was
 followed:

        •   The direct employment, payroll, and output impacts from existing studies were used
            where possible. The direct payroll and output impacts from the existing studies were
            inflated to 2008 dollars using the BLS’ CPI.



 Appendix A                                                                                                  A-10
 Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010

   •   Data from the airport management surveys completed in 2009 were used when possible.
       This data included employment, payroll, output, and CIP expenditures for airport
       management and, in some cases, on-airport tenant lists with associated tenant
       employment.
   •   Standard methodologies to estimate commercial service and general aviation visitor
       impacts were used. These were the same methodologies used to estimate commercial
       service and general aviation visitor impacts for the other airports analyzed in the
       statewide study.
   •   Florida-specific IMPLAN multipliers were applied to the direct and indirect impacts to
       estimate induced impacts.

The seven commercial service airports discussed in this appendix are a major catalyst for
Florida’s economy. In total, there are 769,000 total jobs supported by the airports. Total annual
payroll associated with these jobs is estimated at over $23.4 billion. Total annual output of all
seven airports combined is estimated at nearly $73.2 billion.




Appendix A                                                                                  A-11
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
        APPENDIX B
VISITOR ECONOMIC IMPACTS
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                                 March 2010



APPENDIX B

                                                            Table B-1
                                             Commercial Service Visitor-Related Output

    Associated City                           Airport Name                    Indirect Output     Induced Output      Total Output
Commercial Service Airports
Daytona Beach               Daytona Beach International Airport                     $92,516,800        $75,467,700       $167,984,500
Fort Lauderdale             Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport       $4,742,605,000      $3,868,631,100     $8,611,236,100
Fort Myers                  Southwest Florida International Airport              $1,580,869,900      $1,289,545,000     $2,870,414,900
Gainesville                 Gainesville Regional Airport                            $28,110,700        $22,930,400        $51,041,100
Jacksonville                Jacksonville International Airport                     $727,605,000       $593,520,900      $1,321,125,900
Key West                    Key West International Airport                         $195,530,400       $159,497,800       $355,028,200
Melbourne                   Melbourne International Airport                         $48,748,000        $39,764,700        $88,512,700
Miami                       Miami International Airport1                         $7,899,572,100      $6,443,827,900    $14,343,400,000
Naples                      Naples Municipal Airport                                  $904,800            $738,100         $1,642,900
Orlando                     Orlando International Airport                        $9,862,936,200      $8,045,380,500    $17,908,316,700
Orlando                     Orlando Sanford International Airport                  $378,096,300       $308,420,200       $686,516,500
Panama City                 Panama City-Bay County International Airport            $79,944,000        $65,211,800       $145,155,800
Pensacola                   Pensacola Regional Airport                             $183,238,000       $149,470,600       $332,708,600
Sarasota                    Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport               $380,784,000       $310,612,600       $691,396,600
St. Petersburg/Clearwater   St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport        $133,692,000       $109,055,100       $242,747,100
Tallahassee                 Tallahassee Regional Airport                            $72,048,600        $58,771,400       $130,820,000
Tampa                       Tampa International Airport                          $3,067,200,000      $2,501,972,100     $5,569,172,100
Valparaiso                  Northwest Florida Regional Airport/Eglin AFB           $213,416,400       $174,087,700       $387,504,100



Appendix B                                                                                                                        B-1
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                                                       March 2010


                                                                Table B-1
                                             Commercial Service Visitor-Related Output, Cont.

     Associated City                             Airport Name                            Indirect Output         Induced Output            Total Output
Commercial Service Airports
West Palm Beach               Palm Beach International Airport                               $1,301,209,800          $1,061,421,000          $2,362,630,800
Punta Gorda                   Charlotte County Airport   2                                      $14,695,200             $11,987,100             $26,682,300
St. Augustine                 St. Augustine Airport2                                             $5,343,000               $4,358,400              $9,701,400
Commercial Service Airports Total                                                           $31,009,066,200         $25,294,672,100         $56,303,738,300
1Total output figure is from the Martin Associates 2008 economic impact study for Miami International Airport; 2 The FAA and FDOT classified the airport as a
general aviation airport in the past, even though the airport had limited scheduled airline activity. The FAA and FDOT have re-classified the airport as
commercial service.
Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers




Appendix B                                                                                                                                               B-2
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                                                       March 2010


                                                              Table B-2
                                            Commercial Service Visitor-Related Employment
                                                                                                       Indirect        Induced           Total
         Associated City                                   Airport Name                              Employment       Employment       Employment
      Commercial Service Airports
      Daytona Beach                 Daytona Beach International Airport                                      1,233               808           2,041
      Fort Lauderdale               Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport                          63,226            51,575         114,801
      Fort Myers                    Southwest Florida International Airport                                 21,075            13,818          34,893
      Gainesville                   Gainesville Regional Airport                                               375               246             621
      Jacksonville                  Jacksonville International Airport                                       9,700             6,360          16,060
      Key West                      Key West International Airport                                           2,607             1,709           4,316
      Melbourne                     Melbourne International Airport                                            650               426           1,076
      Miami                         Miami International Airport1                                           114,492            80,145         194,637
      Naples                        Naples Municipal Airport                                                    12                 8              20
      Orlando                       Orlando International Airport                                          131,487            86,211         217,698
      Orlando                       Orlando Sanford International Airport                                    5,041             3,305           8,346
      Panama City                   Panama City-Bay County International Airport                             1,066               699           1,765
      Pensacola                     Pensacola Regional Airport                                               2,443             1,602           4,045
      Sarasota                      Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport                                 5,076             3,328           8,404
      St. Petersburg/Clearwater     St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport                          1,782             1,168           2,950
      Tallahassee                   Tallahassee Regional Airport                                               961               630           1,591
      Tampa                         Tampa International Airport                                             40,890            26,810          67,700
      Valparaiso                    Northwest Florida Regional Airport/Eglin AFB                             2,845             1,865           4,710
      West Palm Beach               Palm Beach International Airport                                        17,347            11,374           28,721
      Punta Gorda                   Charlotte County Airport2                                                   196              129              325
      St. Augustine            St. Augustine Airport2                                                           71               47              118
      Commercial Service Airports Total                                                                    422,575          292,263          714,838
      1 Data are from the Martin Associates 2008 economic impact study for Miami International Airport; 2 The FAA and FDOT classified the airport as a

      general aviation airport in the past, even though the airport had limited scheduled airline activity. The FAA and FDOT have re-classified the
      airport as commercial service.
      Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers

Appendix B                                                                                                                                               B-3
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                                                       March 2010


                                                                Table B-3
                                                 Commercial Service Visitor-Related Payroll
    Associated City                                   Airport Name                              Indirect Payroll      Induced Payroll         Total Payroll
 Commercial Service Airports
 Daytona Beach                 Daytona Beach International Airport                                    $28,482,300           $24,592,200             $53,074,500
 Fort Lauderdale               Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport                      $1,460,520,600        $1,261,044,700          $2,721,565,300
 Fort Myers                    Southwest Florida International Airport                              $486,832,500          $420,341,600            $907,174,100
 Gainesville                   Gainesville Regional Airport                                            $8,662,500            $7,479,400             $16,141,900
 Jacksonville                  Jacksonville International Airport                                   $224,070,000          $193,466,800            $ 417,536,800
 Key West                      Key West International Airport                                         $60,221,700           $51,996,700           $112,218,400
 Melbourne                     Melbourne International Airport                                        $15,015,000           $12,964,300             $27,979,300
 Miami                         Miami International Airport1                                        $2,358,600,000        $2,677,000,000          $5,035,600,000
 Naples                        Naples Municipal Airport                                                  $431,400              $372,500               $ 803,900
 Orlando                       Orlando International Airport                                       $3,037,349,700        $2,622,593,000          $5,659,942,700
 Orlando                       Orlando Sanford International Airport                                $116,447,100           $100,542,900            $216,990,000
 Panama City                   Panama City-Bay County International Airport                           $24,624,600           $21,261,400             $45,886,000
 Pensacola                     Pensacola Regional Airport                                             $56,433,300           $48,725,700            $105,159,000
 Sarasota                      Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport                             $117,255,600          $101,241,000            $218,496,600
 St. Petersburg/Clearwater     St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport                        $41,164,200           $35,542,100             $76,706,300
 Tallahassee                   Tallahassee Regional Airport                                           $22,199,100           $19,167,200             $41,366,300
 Tampa                         Tampa International Airport                                          $944,559,000          $815,552,500           $1,760,111,500
 Valparaiso                    Northwest Florida Regional Airport/Eglin AFB                           $65,719,500           $56,743,600           $122,463,100
 West Palm Beach               Palm Beach International Airport                                     $400,715,700           $345,986,500            $746,702,200
 Punta Gorda                   Charlotte County Airport2                                               $4,527,600            $3,909,200              $8,436,800
 St. Augustine            St. Augustine Airport       2                                                $1,640,100            $1,416,100              $3,056,200
 Commercial Service Airports Total                                                                 $9,475,471,500        $8,821,939,400         $18,297,410,900
 1Data are from the Martin Associates 2008 economic impact study for Miami International Airport; 2 The FAA and FDOT classified the airport as a general aviation
 airport in the past, even though the airport had limited scheduled airline activity. The FAA and FDOT have re-classified the airport as commercial service.
 Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers




Appendix B                                                                                                                                               B-4
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                       March 2010

                                       Table B-4
                     Airports within General Aviation Visitor Tiers
  Associated City           Airport Name
  Tier One
  Boca Raton                Boca Raton Airport
  Daytona Beach             Daytona Beach International Airport
  Fort Lauderdale           Ft. Lauderdale Executive Airport
  Fort Lauderdale           Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport
  Fort Myers                Page Field
  Fort Myers                Southwest Florida International Airport
  Gainesville               Gainesville Regional Airport
  Jacksonville              Jacksonville International Airport
  Key West                  Key West International Airport
  Marco Island              Marco Island Airport
  Miami                     Miami International Airport
  Miami                     Opa-Locka Executive Airport
  Naples                    Naples Municipal Airport
  Orlando                   Executive Airport
  Orlando                   Orlando International Airport
  Orlando                   Orlando Sanford International Airport
  Panama City               Panama City-Bay County International Airport
  Sarasota                  Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport
  Tallahassee               Tallahassee Regional Airport
  Tampa                     Tampa International Airport
  West Palm Beach           North Palm Beach County General Aviation Airport
  West Palm Beach           Palm Beach International Airport
  Tier Two
  Destin                    Destin-Ft. Walton Beach Airport
  Fernandina Beach          Fernandina Beach Municipal Airport
  Fort Pierce               St. Lucie County International Airport
  Hollywood                 North Perry Airport
  Jacksonville              Craig Municipal Airport
  Marathon                  The Florida Keys Marathon Airport
  Melbourne                 Melbourne International Airport
  Miami                     Kendall-Tamiami Executive Airport
  New Smyrna Beach          New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport
  Ocala                     Ocala International-Jim Taylor Field




Appendix B                                                                            B-5
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                        March 2010

                                        Table B-4
                    Airports within General Aviation Visitor Tiers, Cont.
  Associated City             Airport Name
  Tier Two
  Orlando                     Kissimmee Gateway Airport
  Palm Coast                  Flagler County Airport
  Pompano Beach               Pompano Beach Airpark
  Punta Gorda                 Charlotte County Airport
  St. Augustine               St. Augustine Airport
  Tampa                       Peter O. Knight Airport
  Tampa                       Tampa Executive Airport
  Titusville                  Space Coast Regional Airport
  Venice                      Venice Municipal Airport
  Vero Beach                  Vero Beach Municipal Airport
  Tier Three
  Apalachicola                Apalachicola Regional Airport
  Apalachicola                St. George Island Airport
  Avon Park                   Avon Park Executive Airport
  Bartow                      Bartow Municipal Airport
  Clearwater                  Clearwater Air Park
  Crystal River               Crystal River Airport
  Deland                      Deland Municipal-Sidney H. Taylor Field
  Jacksonville                Herlong Airport
  Lake Wales                  Chalet Suzanne Air Strip
  Leesburg                    Leesburg International Airport
  Malabar                     Valkaria Airport
  Merritt Island              Merritt Island Airport
  Navarre                     Ft. Walton Beach Airport
  Ormond Beach                Ormond Beach Municipal Airport
  Pensacola                   Pensacola Regional Airport
  Plant City                  Plant City Airport
  Sebastian                   Sebastian Municipal Airport
  St. Petersburg              Albert Whitted Airport
  St. Petersburg/Clearwater   St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport
  Stuart                      Witham Field
  Tampa                       Tampa North Aero Park
  Zephyrhills                 Zephyrhills Municipal Airport




Appendix B                                                                             B-6
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                           March 2010

                                        Table B-4
                    Airports within General Aviation Visitor Tiers, Cont.
  Associated City             Airport Name
  Tier Four
  Apopka                      Orlando Apopka Airport
  Brooksville                 Hernando County Airport
  Carrabelle                  Carrabelle-Thompson Airport
  Cedar Key                   George T. Lewis Airport
  Crestview                   Bob Sikes Airport
  DeFuniak Springs            DeFuniak Springs Airport
  Dunnellon                   Dunnellon/Marion County & Park of Commerce Airport
  Everglades                  Everglades Airpark
  Homestead                   Homestead General Aviation Airport
  Inverness                   Inverness Airport
  Jacksonville                Cecil Field
  Lake City                   Lake City Municipal Airport
  Lake Wales                  Lake Wales Municipal Airport
  Lakeland                    Lakeland Linder Regional Airport
  Milton                      Peter Prince Field
  Okeechobee                  Okeechobee County Airport
  Palatka                     Palatka Municipal-Lt. Kay Larkin Field
  Pensacola                   Coastal Airport
  Pensacola                   Ferguson Airport
  Perry                       Perry-Foley Airport
  Port St. Joe                Costin Airport
  Quincy                      Quincy Municipal Airport
  Sebring                     Sebring Regional Airport
  Titusville                  Arthur Dunn Air Park
  Umatilla                    Umatilla Municipal Airport
  Wauchula                    Wauchula Municipal Airport
  West Palm Beach             Palm Beach County Park Airport
  Williston                   Williston Municipal Airport
  Winter Haven                Jack Browns SPB
  Winter Haven                Winter Haven's Gilbert Airport
  Tier Five
  Arcadia                     Arcadia Municipal Airport
  Archer                      Flying Ten Airport




Appendix B                                                                                B-7
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010

                                        Table B-4
                    Airports within General Aviation Visitor Tiers, Cont.
  Associated City                   Airport Name
  Tier Five
  Belle Glade                       Belle Glade State Municipal Airport
  Blountstown                       Calhoun County Airport
  Bonifay                           Tri-County Airport
  Clewiston                         Airglades Airport
  Cross City                        Cross City Airport
  Deland                            Bob Lee Flight Strip
  Englewood                         Buchan Airport
  High Springs                      Oak Tree Landing Airport
  Hilliard                          Hilliard Airpark
  Immokalee                         Immokalee Airport
  Indiantown                        Indiantown Airport
  Keystone Heights                  Keystone Airpark
  La Belle                          La Belle Municipal Airport
  Live Oak                          Suwannee County Airport
  Marianna                      Marianna Municipal Airport
  Pahokee                           Palm Beach County Glades Airport
  Panacea                           Wakulla County Airport
  Pierson                           Pierson Municipal Airport
  Punta Gorda                       Shell Creek Airpark
  Vero Beach                        New Hibiscus Airpark
  Zellwood                          Bob White Field
  Tier Six
  Fort Lauderdale               Downtown Fort Lauderdale Heliport
  Miami                             Dade-Collier Training and Transition Airport
  Miami                             Miami SPB
  Valparaiso                        Northwest Florida Regional Airport / Eglin AFB
  Source: Wilbur Smith Associates




Appendix B                                                                                  B-8
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                             March 2010



                                                           Table B-5
                                              General Aviation Operations for 2008
                                                                                   Itinerant General      Estimated True
          Associated City                            Airport Name                 Aviation Operations    Transient Arrivals
      Commercial Service Airports
      Daytona Beach             Daytona Beach International Airport                            228,100               68,400
      Fort Lauderdale           Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport                  77,600               23,300
      Fort Myers                Southwest Florida International Airport                         13,500                4,100
      Gainesville               Gainesville Regional Airport                                    50,600               15,200
      Jacksonville              Jacksonville International Airport                              32,900                9,900
      Key West                  Key West International Airport                                  40,900               12,300
      Melbourne                 Melbourne International Airport                                 86,000               17,200
      Miami                     Miami International Airport                                     80,400               24,100
      Naples                    Naples Municipal Airport                                        91,800               27,600
      Orlando                   Orlando International Airport                                   43,800               13,100
      Orlando                   Orlando Sanford International Airport                          102,900               30,900
      Panama City               Panama City-Bay County International Airport                    40,600               12,200
      Pensacola                 Pensacola Regional Airport                                      44,100                8,800
      Sarasota                  Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport                        77,800               23,300
      St. Petersburg/Clearwater St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport                 89,200               17,800
      Tallahassee               Tallahassee Regional Airport                                    52,300               15,700
      Tampa                     Tampa International Airport                                     43,600               13,100
      Valparaiso                Northwest Florida Regional Airport/Eglin AFB                   100,900                    0
      West Palm Beach           Palm Beach International Airport                               110,800               33,200
      Commercial Service Airports Total                                                      1,407,800              370,200
      General Aviation Airports
      Apalachicola               Apalachicola Regional Airport                                  9,400                 1,900
      Apalachicola               St. George Island Airport                                        500                   300



Appendix B                                                                                                                    B-9
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                                 March 2010



                                                          Table B-5
                                          General Aviation Operations for 2008, Cont.
                                                                                        Itinerant General     Estimated True
          Associated City                           Airport Name                       Aviation Operations   Transient Arrivals
      General Aviation Airports
      Apopka                      Orlando Apopka Airport                                             5,400                  800
      Arcadia                     Arcadia Municipal Airport                                          6,900                  700
      Archer                      Flying Ten Airport                                                10,000                1,000
      Avon Park                   Avon Park Executive Airport                                       17,300                3,500
      Bartow                      Bartow Municipal Airport                                          20,200                4,000
      Belle Glade                 Belle Glade State Municipal Airport                                  600                  100
      Blountstown                 Calhoun County Airport                                               500                  100
      Boca Raton                  Boca Raton Airport                                                50,200               15,100
      Bonifay                     Tri-County Airport                                                27,200                2,700
      Brooksville                 Hernando County Airport                                           36,200                5,400
      Carrabelle                  Carrabelle-Thompson Airport                                          500                  300
      Cedar Key                   George T. Lewis Airport                                            3,000                  500
      Clearwater                  Clearwater Air Park                                                5,100                1,000
      Clewiston                   Airglades Airport                                                  4,600                  500
      Crestview                   Bob Sikes Airport                                                 41,100                6,200
      Cross City                  Cross City Airport                                                14,400                1,400
      Crystal River               Crystal River Airport                                             19,900                4,000
      DeFuniak Springs            DeFuniak Springs Airport                                           6,200                  900
      Deland                      Bob Lee Flight Strip                                               1,000                  100
      Deland                      Deland Municipal-Sidney H. Taylor Field                           45,500                9,100
      Destin                      Destin-Ft. Walton Beach Airport                                   40,700                8,100
      Dunnellon                   Dunnellon/Marion County & Park of Commerce Airport                 3,000                  500
      Englewood                   Buchan Airport                                                       800                  100



Appendix B                                                                                                                        B-10
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                            March 2010



                                                            Table B-5
                                            General Aviation Operations for 2008, Cont.
                                                                                   Itinerant General     Estimated True
          Associated City                             Airport Name                Aviation Operations   Transient Arrivals
      General Aviation Airports
      Everglades                  Everglades Airpark                                            3,000                  400
      Fernandina Beach            Fernandina Beach Municipal Airport                           37,000                7,400
      Fort Lauderdale             Downtown Fort Lauderdale Heliport                                 0                    0
      Fort Lauderdale             Ft. Lauderdale Executive Airport                            157,600               47,300
      Fort Myers                  Page Field                                                   45,600               13,700
      Fort Pierce                 St. Lucie County International Airport                       83,200               16,600
      High Springs                Oak Tree Landing Airport                                        100                   10
      Hilliard                    Hilliard Airpark                                              1,900                  200
      Hollywood                   North Perry Airport                                          59,100               11,800
      Homestead                   Homestead General Aviation Airport                           50,100                7,500
      Immokalee                   Immokalee Airport                                            10,000                1,000
      Indiantown                  Indiantown Airport                                            1,000                  100
      Inverness                   Inverness Airport                                             6,400                1,000
      Jacksonville                Cecil Field                                                  31,900                4,800
      Jacksonville                Craig Municipal Airport                                      87,700               17,500
      Jacksonville                Herlong Airport                                              32,900                6,600
      Keystone Heights            Keystone Airpark                                             17,700                1,800
      La Belle                    La Belle Municipal Airport                                    7,100                  700
      Lake City                   Lake City Municipal Airport                                  16,800                2,500
      Lake Wales                  Chalet Suzanne Air Strip                                      2,100                  400
      Lake Wales                  Lake Wales Municipal Airport                                  6,000                  900
      Lakeland                    Lakeland Linder Regional Airport                             69,200               10,400
      Leesburg                    Leesburg International Airport                               35,000                7,000



Appendix B                                                                                                                   B-11
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                           March 2010



                                                           Table B-5
                                           General Aviation Operations for 2008, Cont.
                                                                                  Itinerant General     Estimated True
          Associated City                             Airport Name               Aviation Operations   Transient Arrivals
      General Aviation Airports
      Live Oak                    Suwannee County Airport                                      6,700                  700
      Malabar                     Valkaria Airport                                            11,400                2,300
      Marathon                    The Florida Keys Marathon Airport                           30,900                6,200
      Marco Island                Marco Island Airport                                        10,400                3,100
      Marianna                    Marianna Municipal Airport                                  17,200                1,700
      Merritt Island              Merritt Island Airport                                      49,500                9,900
      Miami                       Dade-Collier Training and Transition Airport                14,500                    0
      Miami                       Kendall-Tamiami Executive Airport                          145,100               29,000
      Miami                       Miami SPB                                                    3,500                    0
      Miami                       Opa-Locka Executive Airport                                 66,800               20,000
      Milton                      Peter Prince Field                                           6,100                  900
      Navarre                     Ft. Walton Beach Airport                                       800                  200
      New Smyrna Beach            New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport                          82,600               16,500
      Ocala                       Ocala International-Jim Taylor Field                        74,300               14,900
      Okeechobee                  Okeechobee County Airport                                    6,600                1,000
      Orlando                     Executive Airport                                           86,700               26,000
      Orlando                     Kissimmee Gateway Airport                                   89,500               17,900
      Ormond Beach                Ormond Beach Municipal Airport                              73,000               14,600
      Pahokee                     Palm Beach County Glades Airport                             8,300                  800
      Palatka                     Palatka Municipal-Lt. Kay Larkin Field                      25,900                3,900
      Palm Coast                  Flagler County Airport                                     143,400               28,700
      Panacea                     Wakulla County Airport                                       1,600                  200
      Pensacola                   Coastal Airport                                                500                  100



Appendix B                                                                                                                  B-12
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                           March 2010



                                                           Table B-5
                                           General Aviation Operations for 2008, Cont.
                                                                                  Itinerant General     Estimated True
          Associated City                            Airport Name                Aviation Operations   Transient Arrivals
      General Aviation Airports
      Pensacola                   Ferguson Airport                                            17,500                2,600
      Perry                       Perry-Foley Airport                                          7,400                1,100
      Pierson                     Pierson Municipal Airport                                   10,000                1,000
      Plant City                  Plant City Airport                                          15,100                3,000
      Pompano Beach               Pompano Beach Airpark                                       43,000                8,600
      Port St. Joe                Costin Airport                                               7,300                1,100
      Punta Gorda                 Charlotte County Airport                                    46,200                9,200
      Punta Gorda                 Shell Creek Airpark                                          1,100                  100
      Quincy                      Quincy Municipal Airport                                     2,200                  300
      Sebastian                   Sebastian Municipal Airport                                 25,000                5,000
      Sebring                     Sebring Regional Airport                                    59,000                8,800
      St. Augustine               St. Augustine Airport                                       54,200               10,800
      St. Petersburg              Albert Whitted Airport                                      37,500                7,500
      Stuart                      Witham Field                                                48,600                9,700
      Tampa                       Peter O. Knight Airport                                     30,400                6,100
      Tampa                       Tampa Executive Airport                                     45,400                9,100
      Tampa                       Tampa North Aero Park                                        1,000                  200
      Titusville                  Arthur Dunn Air Park                                         7,100                1,100
      Titusville                  Space Coast Regional Airport                                64,300               12,900
      Umatilla                    Umatilla Municipal Airport                                   2,000                  300
      Venice                      Venice Municipal Airport                                    82,900               16,600
      Vero Beach                  New Hibiscus Airpark                                         2,000                  200
      Vero Beach                  Vero Beach Municipal Airport                                93,700               18,700



Appendix B                                                                                                                  B-13
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                               March 2010



                                                              Table B-5
                                              General Aviation Operations for 2008, Cont.
                                                                                     Itinerant General      Estimated True
           Associated City                               Airport Name               Aviation Operations    Transient Arrivals
      General Aviation Airports
      Wauchula                   Wauchula Municipal Airport                                        8,000                1,200
      West Palm Beach            North Palm Beach County General Aviation Airport                 24,700                7,400
      West Palm Beach            Palm Beach County Park Airport                                   50,900                7,600
      Williston                  Williston Municipal Airport                                      11,300                1,700
      Winter Haven               Jack Browns SPB                                                     500                  100
      Winter Haven               Winter Haven's Gilbert Airport                                   25,600                3,800
      Zellwood                   Bob White Field                                                   8,000                  800
      Zephyrhills                Zephyrhills Municipal Airport                                    12,500                2,500
      General Aviation Airports Total                                                          2,931,300              585,600
      All Airports Total                                                                       4,339,100              955,800
      Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and 2008 FAA Terminal Area Forecast




Appendix B                                                                                                                      B-14
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
  Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
  Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                            March 2010



                                                                 Table B-6
                                                  General Aviation Visitor-Related Output

    Associated City                              Airport Name                  Indirect Output     Induced Output     Total Output
Commercial Service Airports
Daytona Beach               Daytona Beach International Airport                     $153,306,000       $124,941,400      $278,247,400
Fort Lauderdale             Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport           $52,118,300        $42,475,400       $94,593,700
Fort Myers                  Southwest Florida International Airport                   $9,089,500         $7,407,800       $16,497,300
Gainesville                 Gainesville Regional Airport                             $33,982,400        $27,695,000       $61,677,400
Jacksonville                Jacksonville International Airport                       $22,131,000        $18,036,300       $40,167,300
Key West                    Key West International Airport                           $27,492,900        $22,406,200       $49,899,100
Melbourne                   Melbourne International Airport                          $24,781,200        $20,196,200       $44,977,400
Miami                       Miami International Airport                              $54,036,200        $44,038,500       $98,074,700
Naples                      Naples Municipal Airport                                 $61,717,200        $50,298,300      $112,015,500
Orlando                     Orlando International Airport                            $29,407,400        $23,966,500       $53,373,900
Orlando                     Orlando Sanford International Airport                    $69,128,600        $56,338,500      $125,467,100
Panama City                 Panama City-Bay County International Airport             $27,276,500        $22,229,800       $49,506,300
Pensacola                   Pensacola Regional Airport                                $7,303,100         $5,951,900       $13,255,000
Sarasota                    Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport                 $52,290,300        $42,615,600       $94,905,900
St. Petersburg/Clearwater   St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport          $14,771,700        $12,038,600       $26,810,300
Tallahassee                 Tallahassee Regional Airport                             $35,137,500        $28,636,400       $63,773,900
Tampa                       Tampa International Airport                              $29,291,100        $23,871,700       $53,162,800




  Appendix B                                                                                                                 B-15
  Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
  Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
  Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                            March 2010



                                                                Table B-6
                                              General Aviation Visitor-Related Output, Cont.

    Associated City                               Airport Name                 Indirect Output     Induced Output     Total Output
Commercial Service Airports
Valparaiso                  Northwest Florida Regional Airport/Eglin AFB                     $0                 $0                   $0
West Palm Beach             Palm Beach International Airport                         $74,432,700        $60,661,200      $135,093,900
Commercial Service Airports Total                                                   $777,693,600       $633,805,300     $1,411,498,900
General Aviation Airports
Apalachicola                Apalachicola Regional Airport                             $1,552,500         $1,265,300        $2,817,800
Apalachicola                St. George Island Airport                                  $207,000            $168,700          $375,700
Apopka                      Orlando Apopka Airport                                     $276,200            $225,100          $501,300
Arcadia                     Arcadia Municipal Airport                                  $105,800             $86,200          $192,000
Archer                      Flying Ten Airport                                         $154,000            $125,500          $279,500
Avon Park                   Avon Park Executive Airport                               $2,864,900         $2,334,800        $5,199,700
Bartow                      Bartow Municipal Airport                                  $3,341,800         $2,723,500        $6,065,300
Belle Glade                 Belle Glade State Municipal Airport                          $9,200              $7,500           $16,700
Blountstown                 Calhoun County Airport                                       $7,900              $6,400           $14,300
Boca Raton                  Boca Raton Airport                                       $33,747,800        $27,503,800       $61,251,600
Bonifay                     Tri-County Airport                                         $418,500            $341,100          $759,600
Brooksville                 Hernando County Airport                                   $1,850,800         $1,508,400        $3,359,200
Carrabelle                  Carrabelle-Thompson Airport                                 $89,300             $72,800          $162,100
Cedar Key                   George T. Lewis Airport                                    $153,500            $125,100          $278,600
Clearwater                  Clearwater Air Park                                        $843,700           $ 687,600        $1,531,300



  Appendix B                                                                                                                  B-16
  Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
  Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
  Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                              March 2010



                                                                  Table B-6
                                                General Aviation Visitor-Related Output, Cont.

    Associated City                                Airport Name                  Indirect Output     Induced Output     Total Output
General Aviation Airports
Clewiston                   Airglades Airport                                             $71,300             $58,100          $129,400
Crestview                   Bob Sikes Airport                                           $2,100,100         $1,711,500        $3,811,600
Cross City                  Cross City Airport                                           $221,800            $180,800          $402,600
Crystal River               Crystal River Airport                                       $3,298,300         $2,688,100        $5,986,400
DeFuniak Springs            DeFuniak Springs Airport                                     $317,100            $258,400          $575,500
Deland                      Bob Lee Flight Strip                                          $15,400             $12,600           $28,000
Deland                      Deland Municipal-Sidney H. Taylor Field                     $7,538,100         $6,143,400       $13,681,500
Destin                      Destin-Ft. Walton Beach Airport                            $11,713,000         $9,545,900       $21,258,900
Dunnellon                   Dunnellon/Marion County & Park of Commerce Airport           $153,500            $125,100          $278,600
Englewood                   Buchan Airport                                                $12,500             $10,200           $22,700
Everglades                  Everglades Airpark                                           $153,200            $124,900          $278,100
Fernandina Beach            Fernandina Beach Municipal Airport                         $10,656,000         $8,684,400       $19,340,400
Fort Lauderdale             Downtown Fort Lauderdale Heliport                                  $0                 $0                   $0
Fort Lauderdale             Ft. Lauderdale Executive Airport                          $105,926,000        $86,327,600      $192,253,600
Fort Myers                  Page Field                                                 $30,623,700        $24,957,700       $55,581,400
Fort Pierce                 St. Lucie County International Airport                     $23,951,200        $19,519,800       $43,471,000
High Springs                Oak Tree Landing Airport                                       $1,500              $1,200            $2,700
Hilliard                    Hilliard Airpark                                              $29,000             $23,600           $52,600
Hollywood                   North Perry Airport                                        $17,022,500        $13,873,000       $30,895,500



  Appendix B                                                                                                                   B-17
  Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
  Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
  Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                              March 2010



                                                                  Table B-6
                                                General Aviation Visitor-Related Output, Cont.

    Associated City                               Airport Name                   Indirect Output     Induced Output     Total Output
General Aviation Airports
Homestead                   Homestead General Aviation Airport                          $2,561,800         $2,087,800        $4,649,600
Immokalee                   Immokalee Airport                                            $154,700            $126,100          $280,800
Indiantown                  Indiantown Airport                                            $15,400             $12,600           $28,000
Inverness                   Inverness Airport                                            $329,000            $268,100          $597,100
Jacksonville                Cecil Field                                                 $1,634,000         $1,331,700        $2,965,700
Jacksonville                Craig Municipal Airport                                    $25,243,500        $20,573,000       $45,816,500
Jacksonville                Herlong Airport                                             $5,451,100         $4,442,500        $9,893,600
Keystone Heights            Keystone Airpark                                             $271,800            $221,500          $493,300
La Belle                    La Belle Municipal Airport                                   $109,600             $89,300          $198,900
Lake City                   Lake City Municipal Airport                                  $859,700            $700,600        $1,560,300
Lake Wales                  Chalet Suzanne Air Strip                                     $343,100            $279,600          $622,700
Lake Wales                  Lake Wales Municipal Airport                                 $307,600            $250,700          $558,300
Lakeland                    Lakeland Linder Regional Airport                           $22,868,900        $18,637,700       $41,506,600
Leesburg                    Leesburg International Airport                              $5,800,800         $4,727,500       $10,528,300
Live Oak                    Suwannee County Airport                                      $103,200             $84,100          $187,300
Malabar                     Valkaria Airport                                            $1,887,800         $1,538,500        $3,426,300
Marathon                    The Florida Keys Marathon Airport                           $8,888,800         $7,244,200       $16,133,000
Marco Island                Marco Island Airport                                        $6,978,000         $5,686,900       $12,664,900
Marianna                    Marianna Municipal Airport                                   $264,900            $215,900          $480,800



  Appendix B                                                                                                                   B-18
  Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
  Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
  Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                               March 2010



                                                                   Table B-6
                                                 General Aviation Visitor-Related Output, Cont.

    Associated City                                Airport Name                   Indirect Output     Induced Output     Total Output
General Aviation Airports
Merritt Island              Merritt Island Airport                                       $8,197,200         $6,680,600       $14,877,800
Miami                       Dade-Collier Training and Transition Airport                        $0                 $0                   $0
Miami                       Kendall-Tamiami Executive Airport                           $41,790,800        $34,058,700       $75,849,500
Miami                       Miami SPB                                                           $0                 $0                   $0
Miami                       Opa-Locka Executive Airport                                 $44,860,000        $36,560,000       $81,420,000
Milton                      Peter Prince Field                                            $312,800            $254,900          $567,700
Navarre                     Ft. Walton Beach Airport                                      $124,200            $101,200          $225,400
New Smyrna Beach            New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport                          $23,790,800        $19,389,000       $43,179,800
Ocala                       Ocala International-Jim Taylor Field                        $21,404,400        $17,444,200       $38,848,600
Okeechobee                  Okeechobee County Airport                                     $335,700            $273,600          $609,300
Orlando                     Executive Airport                                           $58,246,900        $47,470,100      $105,717,000
Orlando                     Kissimmee Gateway Airport                                   $25,778,000        $21,008,600       $46,786,600
Ormond Beach                Ormond Beach Municipal Airport                              $12,087,800         $9,851,300       $21,939,100
Pahokee                     Palm Beach County Glades Airport                              $128,200            $104,500          $232,700
Palatka                     Palatka Municipal-Lt. Kay Larkin Field                       $1,323,800         $1,078,900        $2,402,700
Palm Coast                  Flagler County Airport                                      $41,310,400        $33,667,200       $74,977,600
Panacea                     Wakulla County Airport                                         $24,300             $19,800           $44,100
Pensacola                   Coastal Airport                                                $26,600             $21,700           $48,300
Pensacola                   Ferguson Airport                                              $895,100            $729,500        $1,624,600



  Appendix B                                                                                                                    B-19
  Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
   Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
   Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                              March 2010



                                                                   Table B-6
                                                 General Aviation Visitor-Related Output, Cont.

     Associated City                               Airport Name                   Indirect Output     Induced Output     Total Output
General Aviation Airports
Perry                       Perry-Foley Airport                                           $378,500            $308,500          $687,000
Pierson                     Pierson Municipal Airport                                     $154,000            $125,500          $279,500
Plant City                  Plant City Airport                                           $2,494,900         $2,033,300        $4,528,200
Pompano Beach               Pompano Beach Airpark                                       $12,383,100        $10,092,000       $22,475,100
Port St. Joe                Costin Airport                                                $370,800            $302,200          $673,000
Punta Gorda                 Charlotte County Airport                                    $13,318,600        $10,854,400       $24,173,000
Punta Gorda                 Shell Creek Airpark                                            $16,900             $13,800           $30,700
Quincy                      Quincy Municipal Airport                                      $111,700             $91,000          $202,700
Sebastian                   Sebastian Municipal Airport                                  $4,140,000         $3,374,000        $7,514,000
Sebring                     Sebring Regional Airport                                     $3,015,300         $2,457,400        $5,472,700
St. Augustine               St. Augustine Airport                                       $15,612,200        $12,723,600       $28,335,800
St. Petersburg              Albert Whitted Airport                                       $6,202,500         $5,054,900       $11,257,400
Stuart                      Witham Field                                                 $8,053,800         $6,563,700       $14,617,500
Tampa                       Peter O. Knight Airport                                      $8,757,200         $7,136,900       $15,894,100
Tampa                       Tampa Executive Airport                                     $13,071,200        $10,652,800       $23,724,000
Tampa                       Tampa North Aero Park                                         $165,600            $135,000          $300,600
Titusville                  Arthur Dunn Air Park                                          $365,400            $297,800          $663,200
Titusville                  Space Coast Regional Airport                                $18,506,000        $15,082,000       $33,588,000
Umatilla                    Umatilla Municipal Airport                                    $102,300             $83,400          $185,700



   Appendix B                                                                                                                   B-20
   Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
  Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
  Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                               March 2010



                                                                  Table B-6
                                                General Aviation Visitor-Related Output, Cont.

     Associated City                              Airport Name                   Indirect Output     Induced Output      Total Output
General Aviation Airports
Venice                       Venice Municipal Airport                                  $23,885,300        $19,466,100        $43,351,400
Vero Beach                   New Hibiscus Airpark                                         $30,800             $25,100            $55,900
Vero Beach                   Vero Beach Municipal Airport                              $26,984,400        $21,991,800        $48,976,200
Wauchula                     Wauchula Municipal Airport                                  $407,500            $332,100           $739,600
West Palm Beach              North Palm Beach County General Aviation Airport          $16,588,300        $13,519,100        $30,107,400
West Palm Beach              Palm Beach County Park Airport                             $2,604,400         $2,122,500         $4,726,900
Williston                    Williston Municipal Airport                                 $578,000            $471,100         $1,049,100
Winter Haven                 Jack Browns SPB                                              $25,600             $20,900            $46,500
Winter Haven                 Winter Haven's Gilbert Airport                             $1,307,900         $1,065,900         $2,373,800
Zellwood                     Bob White Field                                             $123,200            $100,400           $223,600
Zephyrhills                  Zephyrhills Municipal Airport                              $2,071,300         $1,688,100         $3,759,400
General Aviation Airports Total                                                       $805,964,500       $656,845,500      $1,462,810,000
All Airports Total                                                                  $1,583,658,100      $1,290,650,800     $2,874,308,900
Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers




  Appendix B                                                                                                                     B-21
  Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                           March 2010



                                                          Table B-7
                                         General Aviation Visitor-Related Employment
                                                                                    Indirect     Induced        Total
          Associated City                            Airport Name                 Employment    Employment    Employment
      Commercial Service Airports
      Daytona Beach             Daytona Beach International Airport                     2,327         1,384         3,711
      Fort Lauderdale           Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport            791           645         1,436
      Fort Myers                Southwest Florida International Airport                   138            82           220
      Gainesville               Gainesville Regional Airport                              516           307           823
      Jacksonville              Jacksonville International Airport                        336           200           536
      Key West                  Key West International Airport                            417           249           666
      Melbourne                 Melbourne International Airport                           376           224           600
      Miami                     Miami International Airport                               820           488         1,308
      Naples                    Naples Municipal Airport                                  937           557         1,494
      Orlando                   Orlando International Airport                             446           266           712
      Orlando                   Orlando Sanford International Airport                   1,049           624         1,673
      Panama City               Panama City-Bay County International Airport              414           246           660
      Pensacola                 Pensacola Regional Airport                                111            66           177
      Sarasota                  Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport                  794           472         1,266
      St. Petersburg/Clearwater St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport           224           134           358
      Tallahassee               Tallahassee Regional Airport                              533           318           851
      Tampa                     Tampa International Airport                               445           264           709
      Valparaiso                Northwest Florida Regional Airport/Eglin AFB                0             0             0
      West Palm Beach           Palm Beach International Airport                        1,130           672         1,802
      Commercial Service Airports Total                                                11,804         7,198        19,002
      General Aviation Airports
      Apalachicola              Apalachicola Regional Airport                             24            14            38
      Apalachicola              St. George Island Airport                                  3             2             5



Appendix B                                                                                                                  B-22
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                              March 2010



                                                           Table B-7
                                      General Aviation Visitor-Related Employment, Cont.
                                                                                         Indirect    Induced       Total
          Associated City                           Airport Name                       Employment   Employment   Employment
      General Aviation Airports
      Apopka                      Orlando Apopka Airport                                        4            3            7
      Arcadia                     Arcadia Municipal Airport                                     2            1            3
      Archer                      Flying Ten Airport                                            2            2            4
      Avon Park                   Avon Park Executive Airport                                  44           25           69
      Bartow                      Bartow Municipal Airport                                     51           30           81
      Belle Glade                 Belle Glade State Municipal Airport                           0            0            0
      Blountstown                 Calhoun County Airport                                        0            0            0
      Boca Raton                  Boca Raton Airport                                          512          305          817
      Bonifay                     Tri-County Airport                                            6            4           10
      Brooksville                 Hernando County Airport                                      28           17           45
      Carrabelle                  Carrabelle-Thompson Airport                                   1            1            2
      Cedar Key                   George T. Lewis Airport                                       2            2            4
      Clearwater                  Clearwater Air Park                                          13            7           20
      Clewiston                   Airglades Airport                                             1            1            2
      Crestview                   Bob Sikes Airport                                            32           19           51
      Cross City                  Cross City Airport                                            3            2            5
      Crystal River               Crystal River Airport                                        50           30           80
      DeFuniak Springs            DeFuniak Springs Airport                                      5            3            8
      Deland                      Bob Lee Flight Strip                                          0            0            0
      Deland                      Deland Municipal-Sidney H. Taylor Field                     114           69          183
      Destin                      Destin-Ft. Walton Beach Airport                             178          105          283
      Dunnellon                   Dunnellon/Marion County & Park of Commerce Airport            2            2            4
      Englewood                   Buchan Airport                                                0            0            0



Appendix B                                                                                                                    B-23
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                       March 2010



                                                           Table B-7
                                      General Aviation Visitor-Related Employment, Cont.
                                                                                 Indirect     Induced       Total
          Associated City                              Airport Name            Employment    Employment   Employment
      General Aviation Airports
      Everglades                  Everglades Airpark                                     2            2             4
      Fernandina Beach            Fernandina Beach Municipal Airport                   162           96           258
      Fort Lauderdale             Downtown Fort Lauderdale Heliport                      0            0             0
      Fort Lauderdale             Ft. Lauderdale Executive Airport                   1,608          956         2,564
      Fort Myers                  Page Field                                           465          276           741
      Fort Pierce                 St. Lucie County International Airport               364          216           580
      High Springs                Oak Tree Landing Airport                               0            0             0
      Hilliard                    Hilliard Airpark                                       0            0             0
      Hollywood                   North Perry Airport                                  258          154           412
      Homestead                   Homestead General Aviation Airport                    39           23            62
      Immokalee                   Immokalee Airport                                      2            2             4
      Indiantown                  Indiantown Airport                                     0            0             0
      Inverness                   Inverness Airport                                      5            3             8
      Jacksonville                Cecil Field                                           25           15            40
      Jacksonville                Craig Municipal Airport                              383          228           611
      Jacksonville                Herlong Airport                                       83           49           132
      Keystone Heights            Keystone Airpark                                       4            3             7
      La Belle                    La Belle Municipal Airport                             2            1             3
      Lake City                   Lake City Municipal Airport                           13            8            21
      Lake Wales                  Chalet Suzanne Air Strip                               5            3             8
      Lake Wales                  Lake Wales Municipal Airport                           5            3             8
      Lakeland                    Lakeland Linder Regional Airport                     347          207           554
      Leesburg                    Leesburg International Airport                        88           52           140



Appendix B                                                                                                              B-24
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                        March 2010



                                                           Table B-7
                                      General Aviation Visitor-Related Employment, Cont.
                                                                                   Indirect    Induced       Total
          Associated City                             Airport Name               Employment   Employment   Employment
      General Aviation Airports
      Live Oak                    Suwannee County Airport                                 2            1             3
      Malabar                     Valkaria Airport                                      363          215           578
      Marathon                    The Florida Keys Marathon Airport                      29           17            46
      Marco Island                Marco Island Airport                                  135           80           215
      Marianna                    Marianna Municipal Airport                            106           63           169
      Merritt Island              Merritt Island Airport                                  4            2             6
      Miami                       Dade-Collier Training and Transition Airport          124           74           198
      Miami                       Kendall-Tamiami Executive Airport                       0            0             0
      Miami                       Miami SPB                                             634          378         1,012
      Miami                       Opa-Locka Executive Airport                             0            0             0
      Milton                      Peter Prince Field                                    681          405         1,086
      Navarre                     Ft. Walton Beach Airport                                5            3             8
      New Smyrna Beach            New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport                      2            1             3
      Ocala                       Ocala International-Jim Taylor Field                  361          215           576
      Okeechobee                  Okeechobee County Airport                             325          193           518
      Orlando                     Executive Airport                                       5            3             8
      Orlando                     Kissimmee Gateway Airport                             884          526         1,410
      Ormond Beach                Ormond Beach Municipal Airport                        391          233           624
      Pahokee                     Palm Beach County Glades Airport                      183          110           293
      Palatka                     Palatka Municipal-Lt. Kay Larkin Field                  2            1             3
      Palm Coast                  Flagler County Airport                                 20           12            32
      Panacea                     Wakulla County Airport                                627          373         1,000
      Pensacola                   Coastal Airport                                         0            0             0



Appendix B                                                                                                               B-25
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                      March 2010



                                                           Table B-7
                                      General Aviation Visitor-Related Employment, Cont.
                                                                                 Indirect    Induced       Total
          Associated City                            Airport Name              Employment   Employment   Employment
      General Aviation Airports
      Pensacola                   Ferguson Airport                                      0            0            0
      Perry                       Perry-Foley Airport                                   6            3            9
      Pierson                     Pierson Municipal Airport                             2            2            4
      Plant City                  Plant City Airport                                   38           23           61
      Pompano Beach               Pompano Beach Airpark                               188          112          300
      Port St. Joe                Costin Airport                                        6            3            9
      Punta Gorda                 Charlotte County Airport                            202          120          322
      Punta Gorda                 Shell Creek Airpark                                   0            0            0
      Quincy                      Quincy Municipal Airport                              2            1            3
      Sebastian                   Sebastian Municipal Airport                          63           37          100
      Sebring                     Sebring Regional Airport                             46           27           73
      St. Augustine               St. Augustine Airport                               237          141          378
      St. Petersburg              Albert Whitted Airport                               94           56          150
      Stuart                      Witham Field                                        122           73          195
      Tampa                       Peter O. Knight Airport                             133           79          212
      Tampa                       Tampa Executive Airport                             198          119          317
      Tampa                       Tampa North Aero Park                                 3            1            4
      Titusville                  Arthur Dunn Air Park                                  6            3            9
      Titusville                  Space Coast Regional Airport                        281          167          448
      Umatilla                    Umatilla Municipal Airport                            2            1            3
      Venice                      Venice Municipal Airport                              1            0            1
      Vero Beach                  New Hibiscus Airpark                                410          243          653
      Vero Beach                  Vero Beach Municipal Airport                          6            3            9



Appendix B                                                                                                            B-26
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                            March 2010



                                                             Table B-7
                                        General Aviation Visitor-Related Employment, Cont.
                                                                                     Indirect     Induced        Total
           Associated City                              Airport Name               Employment    Employment    Employment
      General Aviation Airports
      Wauchula                  Wauchula Municipal Airport                                   6             4            10
      West Palm Beach           North Palm Beach County General Aviation Airport           252           150           402
      West Palm Beach           Palm Beach County Park Airport                              40            23            63
      Williston                 Williston Municipal Airport                                  9             5            14
      Winter Haven              Jack Browns SPB                                              0             0             0
      Winter Haven              Winter Haven's Gilbert Airport                              20            12            32
      Zellwood                  Bob White Field                                              2             1             3
      Zephyrhills               Zephyrhills Municipal Airport                               31            19            50
      General Aviation Airports Total                                                   12,234         7,279        19,513
      All Airports Total                                                                24,038        14,477        38,515
      Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers




Appendix B                                                                                                                   B-27
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                           March 2010



                                                            Table B-8
                                             General Aviation Visitor-Related Payroll
    Associated City                             Airport Name                 Indirect Payroll   Induced Payroll    Total Payroll
 Commercial Service Airports
 Daytona Beach             Daytona Beach International Airport                    $53,742,200        $44,801,200        $98,543,400
 Fort Lauderdale           Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport         $18,269,800        $15,230,300        $33,500,100
 Fort Myers                Southwest Florida International Airport                 $3,185,500         $2,655,500         $5,841,000
 Gainesville               Gainesville Regional Airport                           $11,912,700         $9,930,800        $21,843,500
 Jacksonville              Jacksonville International Airport                      $7,757,000         $6,466,500        $14,223,500
 Key West                  Key West International Airport                          $9,637,300         $8,034,000        $17,671,300
 Melbourne                 Melbourne International Airport                         $8,687,900         $7,242,500        $15,930,400
 Miami                     Miami International Airport                            $18,942,000        $15,790,600        $34,732,600
 Naples                    Naples Municipal Airport                               $21,635,500        $18,036,000        $39,671,500
 Orlando                   Orlando International Airport                          $10,309,500         $8,594,300        $18,903,800
 Orlando                   Orlando Sanford International Airport                  $24,231,900        $20,200,500        $44,432,400
 Panama City               Panama City-Bay County International Airport            $9,561,100         $7,970,400        $17,531,500
 Pensacola                 Pensacola Regional Airport                              $2,559,500         $2,133,700         $4,693,200
 Sarasota                  Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport               $18,329,900        $15,280,400        $33,610,300
 St. Petersburg/Clearwater St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport         $5,179,000         $4,317,400         $9,496,400
 Tallahassee               Tallahassee Regional Airport                           $12,316,900        $10,267,700        $22,584,600
 Tampa                     Tampa International Airport                            $10,268,000         $8,559,700        $18,827,700
 Valparaiso                Northwest Florida Regional Airport/Eglin AFB                    $0                 $0                 $0
 West Palm Beach           Palm Beach International Airport                       $26,091,500        $21,750,700        $47,842,200
 Commercial Service Airports Total                                               $272,617,200       $227,262,200       $499,879,400
 General Aviation Airports
 Apalachicola              Apalachicola Regional Airport                             $545,200          $454,500           $999,700
 Apalachicola              St. George Island Airport                                  $71,600           $59,700           $131,300
 Apopka                    Orlando Apopka Airport                                     $97,000           $80,900           $177,900


Appendix B                                                                                                                 B-28
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                                March 2010



                                                           Table B-8
                                         General Aviation Visitor-Related Payroll, Cont.
    Associated City                            Airport Name                       Indirect Payroll   Induced Payroll    Total Payroll
 General Aviation Airports
 Arcadia                     Arcadia Municipal Airport                                     $37,000            $30,800            $67,800
 Archer                      Flying Ten Airport                                            $53,100            $44,300            $97,400
 Avon Park                   Avon Park Executive Airport                                $1,004,900          $837,700          $1,842,600
 Bartow                      Bartow Municipal Airport                                   $1,171,200          $976,300          $2,147,500
 Belle Glade                 Belle Glade State Municipal Airport                            $2,300             $1,900             $4,200
 Blountstown                 Calhoun County Airport                                         $2,300             $1,900             $4,200
 Boca Raton                  Boca Raton Airport                                        $11,829,500         $9,861,400        $21,690,900
 Bonifay                     Tri-County Airport                                           $147,800          $123,200            $271,000
 Brooksville                 Hernando County Airport                                      $649,100          $541,100          $1,190,200
 Carrabelle                  Carrabelle-Thompson Airport                                   $32,300            $26,900            $59,200
 Cedar Key                   George T. Lewis Airport                                       $53,100            $44,300            $97,400
 Clearwater                  Clearwater Air Park                                          $295,700           $246,500           $542,200
 Clewiston                   Airglades Airport                                             $25,400            $21,200            $46,600
 Crestview                   Bob Sikes Airport                                            $736,900           $614,300         $1,351,200
 Cross City                  Cross City Airport                                            $78,500            $65,400           $143,900
 Crystal River               Crystal River Airport                                      $1,157,300           $964,800         $2,122,100
 DeFuniak Springs            DeFuniak Springs Airport                                     $110,900            $92,400           $203,300
 Deland                      Bob Lee Flight Strip                                           $4,600             $3,800             $8,400
 Deland                      Deland Municipal-Sidney H. Taylor Field                    $2,642,600         $2,203,000         $4,845,600
 Destin                      Destin-Ft. Walton Beach Airport                            $4,104,900         $3,422,000         $7,526,900
 Dunnellon                   Dunnellon/Marion County & Park of Commerce Airport            $53,100            $44,300            $97,400
 Englewood                   Buchan Airport                                                 $4,600             $3,800             $8,400
 Everglades                  Everglades Airpark                                            $53,100            $44,300            $97,400
 Fernandina Beach            Fernandina Beach Municipal Airport                         $3,735,300         $3,113,900         $6,849,200


Appendix B                                                                                                                      B-29
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                             March 2010



                                                             Table B-8
                                           General Aviation Visitor-Related Payroll, Cont.
    Associated City                               Airport Name                 Indirect Payroll   Induced Payroll    Total Payroll
 General Aviation Airports
 Fort Lauderdale             Downtown Fort Lauderdale Heliport                               $0                 $0                 $0
 Fort Lauderdale             Ft. Lauderdale Executive Airport                       $37,133,300        $30,955,500        $68,088,800
 Fort Myers                  Page Field                                             $10,734,600         $8,948,700        $19,683,300
 Fort Pierce                 St. Lucie County International Airport                  $8,396,900         $6,999,900        $15,396,800
 High Springs                Oak Tree Landing Airport                                        $0                 $0                 $0
 Hilliard                    Hilliard Airpark                                                $0                 $0                 $0
 Hollywood                   North Perry Airport                                     $5,966,700         $4,974,000        $10,940,700
 Homestead                   Homestead General Aviation Airport                        $898,600           $749,100         $1,647,700
 Immokalee                   Immokalee Airport                                          $53,100            $44,300            $97,400
 Indiantown                  Indiantown Airport                                          $4,600             $3,800             $8,400
 Inverness                   Inverness Airport                                         $115,500            $96,300           $211,800
 Jacksonville                Cecil Field                                               $572,900           $477,600         $1,050,500
 Jacksonville                Craig Municipal Airport                                 $8,849,600         $7,377,300        $16,226,900
 Jacksonville                Herlong Airport                                         $1,910,400         $1,592,600         $3,503,000
 Keystone Heights            Keystone Airpark                                           $94,700            $78,900           $173,600
 La Belle                    La Belle Municipal Airport                                 $39,300            $32,800            $72,100
 Lake City                   Lake City Municipal Airport                               $300,300           $250,300           $550,600
 Lake Wales                  Chalet Suzanne Air Strip                                  $120,100           $100,100           $220,200
 Lake Wales                  Lake Wales Municipal Airport                              $108,600            $90,500           $199,100
 Lakeland                    Lakeland Linder Regional Airport                        $8,015,700         $6,682,100        $14,697,800
 Leesburg                    Leesburg International Airport                          $2,032,800         $1,694,600         $3,727,400
 Live Oak                    Suwannee County Airport                                    $37,000            $30,800            $67,800
 Malabar                     Valkaria Airport                                          $660,700           $550,800         $1,211,500
 Marathon                    The Florida Keys Marathon Airport                       $3,116,200         $2,597,800         $5,714,000


Appendix B                                                                                                                   B-30
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                            March 2010



                                                            Table B-8
                                          General Aviation Visitor-Related Payroll, Cont.
    Associated City                              Airport Name                 Indirect Payroll   Induced Payroll    Total Payroll
 General Aviation Airports
 Marco Island                Marco Island Airport                                   $2,446,300         $2,039,300         $4,485,600
 Marianna                    Marianna Municipal Airport                                $92,400            $77,000           $169,400
 Merritt Island              Merritt Island Airport                                 $2,873,600         $2,395,500         $5,269,100
 Miami                       Dade-Collier Training and Transition Airport                   $0                 $0                 $0
 Miami                       Kendall-Tamiami Executive Airport                     $14,650,000        $12,212,700        $26,862,700
 Miami                       Miami SPB                                                      $0                 $0                 $0
 Miami                       Opa-Locka Executive Airport                           $15,726,500        $13,110,100        $28,836,600
 Milton                      Peter Prince Field                                       $108,600            $90,500           $199,100
 Navarre                     Ft. Walton Beach Airport                                  $43,900            $36,600            $80,500
 New Smyrna Beach            New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport                     $8,339,100         $6,951,700        $15,290,800
 Ocala                       Ocala International-Jim Taylor Field                   $7,502,900         $6,254,700        $13,757,600
 Okeechobee                  Okeechobee County Airport                                $117,800            $98,200           $216,000
 Orlando                     Executive Airport                                     $20,418,100        $17,021,200        $37,439,300
 Orlando                     Kissimmee Gateway Airport                              $9,036,700         $7,533,300        $16,570,000
 Ormond Beach                Ormond Beach Municipal Airport                         $4,236,500         $3,531,700         $7,768,200
 Pahokee                     Palm Beach County Glades Airport                          $43,900            $36,600            $80,500
 Palatka                     Palatka Municipal-Lt. Kay Larkin Field                   $464,300           $387,100           $851,400
 Palm Coast                  Flagler County Airport                                $14,481,400        $12,072,100        $26,553,500
 Panacea                     Wakulla County Airport                                         $0                 $0                 $0
 Pensacola                   Coastal Airport                                                $0                 $0                 $0
 Pensacola                   Ferguson Airport                                         $314,200           $261,900           $576,100
 Perry                       Perry-Foley Airport                                      $131,700           $109,800           $241,500
 Pierson                     Pierson Municipal Airport                                 $53,100            $44,300            $97,400
 Plant City                  Plant City Airport                                       $875,500           $729,800         $1,605,300


Appendix B                                                                                                                  B-31
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                              March 2010



                                                            Table B-8
                                          General Aviation Visitor-Related Payroll, Cont.
    Associated City                             Airport Name                    Indirect Payroll   Induced Payroll    Total Payroll
 General Aviation Airports
 Pompano Beach               Pompano Beach Airpark                                    $4,340,500         $3,618,400         $7,958,900
 Port St. Joe                Costin Airport                                             $129,400           $107,900           $237,300
 Punta Gorda                 Charlotte County Airport                                 $4,668,500         $3,891,800         $8,560,300
 Punta Gorda                 Shell Creek Airpark                                              $0                 $0                 $0
 Quincy                      Quincy Municipal Airport                                    $39,300            $32,800            $72,100
 Sebastian                   Sebastian Municipal Airport                              $1,450,700         $1,209,300         $2,660,000
 Sebring                     Sebring Regional Airport                                 $1,058,000           $882,000         $1,940,000
 St. Augustine               St. Augustine Airport                                    $5,472,400         $4,562,000        $10,034,400
 St. Petersburg              Albert Whitted Airport                                   $2,173,700         $1,812,100         $3,985,800
 Stuart                      Witham Field                                             $2,822,800         $2,353,200         $5,176,000
 Tampa                       Peter O. Knight Airport                                  $3,070,000         $2,559,200         $5,629,200
 Tampa                       Tampa Executive Airport                                  $4,583,000         $3,820,500         $8,403,500
 Tampa                       Tampa North Aero Park                                       $57,800            $48,200           $106,000
 Titusville                  Arthur Dunn Air Park                                       $127,100           $106,000           $233,100
 Titusville                  Space Coast Regional Airport                             $6,486,500         $5,407,300        $11,893,800
 Umatilla                    Umatilla Municipal Airport                                  $37,000            $30,800            $67,800
 Venice                      Venice Municipal Airport                                 $8,373,800         $6,980,700        $15,354,500
 Vero Beach                  New Hibiscus Airpark                                        $11,600             $9,700            $21,300
 Vero Beach                  Vero Beach Municipal Airport                             $9,459,500         $7,885,700        $17,345,200
 Wauchula                    Wauchula Municipal Airport                                 $143,200           $119,400           $262,600
 West Palm Beach             North Palm Beach County General Aviation Airport         $5,814,300         $4,847,000        $10,661,300
 West Palm Beach             Palm Beach County Park Airport                             $912,500           $760,700         $1,673,200
 Williston                   Williston Municipal Airport                                $203,300           $169,500           $372,800




Appendix B                                                                                                                    B-32
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                              March 2010



                                                              Table B-8
                                            General Aviation Visitor-Related Payroll, Cont.
    Associated City                                Airport Name                 Indirect Payroll   Induced Payroll    Total Payroll
 General Aviation Airports
 Winter Haven                 Jack Browns SPB                                                 $0                $0                  $0
 Winter Haven                 Winter Haven's Gilbert Airport                            $457,400          $381,300            $838,700
 Zellwood                     Bob White Field                                            $43,900           $36,600             $80,500
 Zephyrhills                  Zephyrhills Municipal Airport                             $725,300          $604,600          $1,329,900
 General Aviation Airports Total                                                    $282,478,900       $235,483,200      $517,962,100
 All Airports Total                                                                 $555,096,100       $462,745,400     $1,017,841,500
 Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers




Appendix B                                                                                                                    B-33
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
          APPENDIX C
AIRPORT CONSTRUCTION ECONOMIC
           IMPACTS
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                        March 2010



APPENDIX C

                                                           Table C-1
                                           Airport Construction-Related Employment
                                                                                 Direct         Induced        Total
        Associated City                          Airport Name                  Employment     Employment     Employment
   Commercial Service Airports
   Daytona Beach             Daytona Beach International Airport                       158            133            291
   Fort Lauderdale           Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport            608            513          1,121
   Fort Myers                Southwest Florida International Airport                   650            549          1,199
   Gainesville               Gainesville Regional Airport                               88             74            162
   Jacksonville              Jacksonville International Airport                        528            446            974
   Key West                  Key West International Airport                             95             80            175
   Melbourne                 Melbourne International Airport                           312            263            575
   Miami                     Miami International Airport1                             2,990          3,277         6,267
   Naples                    Naples Municipal Airport                                    86             73           159
   Orlando                   Orlando International Airport                            1,127            952         2,079
   Orlando                   Orlando Sanford International Airport*                   1,369          1,156         2,525
   Panama City               Northwest Florida Beaches International Airport            546            461         1,007
   Panama City               Panama City-Bay County International Airport               173            146           319
   Pensacola                 Pensacola Regional Airport                                 181            153           334
   Sarasota                  Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport                    86             73           159
   St. Petersburg/Clearwater St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport            190            160           350
   Tallahassee               Tallahassee Regional Airport                               122            103           225
   Tampa                     Tampa International Airport                              1,016            858         1,874
   Valparaiso                Northwest Florida Regional Airport/Eglin AFB                38             32            70
   West Palm Beach           Palm Beach International Airport                           830            701         1,531
   Commercial Service Airports Total                                                 11,193         10,203        21,396




Appendix C                                                                                                            C-1
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                           March 2010


                                                          Table C-1
                                       Airport Construction-Related Employment, Cont.
                                                                                      Direct        Induced       Total
      Associated City                            Airport Name                       Employment    Employment    Employment
   General Aviation Airports
   Apalachicola                Apalachicola Regional Airport                                 11             9           20
   Apalachicola                St. George Island Airport                                      1             1            2
   Apopka                      Orlando Apopka Airport                                        36            30           66
   Arcadia                     Arcadia Municipal Airport                                      0             0            0
   Archer                      Flying Ten Airport                                             0             0            0
   Avon Park                   Avon Park Executive Airport                                    8             7           15
   Bartow                      Bartow Municipal Airport                                      29            25           54
   Belle Glade                 Belle Glade State Municipal Airport                            1             1            2
   Blountstown                 Calhoun County Airport                                         2             2            4
   Boca Raton                  Boca Raton Airport                                            29            25           54
   Bonifay                     Tri-County Airport                                             9             8           17
   Brooksville                 Hernando County Airport                                       30            25           55
   Carrabelle                  Carrabelle-Thompson Airport                                    0             0            0
   Cedar Key                   George T. Lewis Airport                                        0             0            0
   Clearwater                  Clearwater Air Park                                            2             2            4
   Clewiston                   Airglades Airport                                              8             7           15
   Crestview                   Bob Sikes Airport                                             35            30           65
   Cross City                  Cross City Airport                                             2             2            4
   Crystal River               Crystal River Airport                                          5             4            9
   DeFuniak Springs            DeFuniak Springs Airport                                      12            10           22
   Deland                      Bob Lee Flight Strip                                           0             0            0
   Deland                      Deland Municipal-Sidney H. Taylor Field                       63            53          116
   Destin                      Destin-Ft. Walton Beach Airport                               10             8           18
   Dunnellon                   Dunnellon/Marion County & Park of Commerce Airport             1             1            2
   Englewood                   Buchan Airport                                                 0             0            0


Appendix C                                                                                                               C-2
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                        March 2010


                                                           Table C-1
                                        Airport Construction-Related Employment, Cont.
                                                                                Direct           Induced       Total
      Associated City                               Airport Name              Employment       Employment    Employment
   General Aviation Airports
   Everglades                  Everglades Airpark                                          1             1            2
   Fernandina Beach            Fernandina Beach Municipal Airport                         20            17           37
   Fort Lauderdale             Downtown Fort Lauderdale Heliport                           0             0            0
   Fort Lauderdale             Ft. Lauderdale Executive Airport                          105            89          194
   Fort Myers                  Page Field                                                 49            41           90
   Fort Pierce                 St. Lucie County International Airport                    103            87          190
   High Springs                Oak Tree Landing Airport                                    0             0            0
   Hilliard                    Hilliard Airpark                                            2             2            4
   Hollywood                   North Perry Airport                                        36            30           66
   Homestead                   Homestead General Aviation Airport                          7             6           13
   Immokalee                   Immokalee Airport                                           9             8           17
   Indiantown                  Indiantown Airport                                          1             1            2
   Inverness                   Inverness Airport                                           6             5           11
   Jacksonville                Cecil Field                                               211           178          389
   Jacksonville                Craig Municipal Airport                                    23            19           42
   Jacksonville                Herlong Airport                                             7             6           13
   Keystone Heights            Keystone Airpark                                            5             4            9
   La Belle                    La Belle Municipal Airport                                  9             8           17
   Lake City                   Lake City Municipal Airport                                21            18           39
   Lake Wales                  Chalet Suzanne Air Strip                                    2             2            4
   Lake Wales                  Lake Wales Municipal Airport                                1             1            2
   Lakeland                    Lakeland Linder Regional Airport                           46            39           85
   Leesburg                    Leesburg International Airport                             78            66          144
   Live Oak                    Suwannee County Airport                                     5             4            9
   Malabar                     Valkaria Airport                                            4             3            7


Appendix C                                                                                                            C-3
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                        March 2010


                                                           Table C-1
                                        Airport Construction-Related Employment, Cont.
                                                                                Direct           Induced       Total
      Associated City                              Airport Name               Employment       Employment    Employment
   General Aviation Airports
   Marathon                    The Florida Keys Marathon Airport                          19            16           35
   Marco Island                Marco Island Airport                                        4             3            7
   Marianna                    Marianna Municipal Airport                                  4             3            7
   Merritt Island              Merritt Island Airport                                     11             9           20
   Miami                       Dade-Collier Training and Transition Airport                0             0            0
   Miami                       Kendall-Tamiami Executive Airport                          40            34           74
   Miami                       Miami SPB                                                   7             6           13
   Miami                       Opa-Locka Executive Airport                               172           145          317
   Milton                      Peter Prince Field                                          9             8           17
   Navarre                     Ft. Walton Beach Airport                                    0             0            0
   New Smyrna Beach            New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport                          7             6           13
   Ocala                       Ocala International-Jim Taylor Field                       31            26           57
   Okeechobee                  Okeechobee County Airport                                  10             8           18
   Orlando                     Executive Airport                                          70            59          129
   Orlando                     Kissimmee Gateway Airport                                  59            50          109
   Ormond Beach                Ormond Beach Municipal Airport                             25            21           46
   Pahokee                     Palm Beach County Glades Airport                            3             3            6
   Palatka                     Palatka Municipal-Lt. Kay Larkin Field                     10             8           18
   Palm Coast                  Flagler County Airport                                     17            14           31
   Panacea                     Wakulla County Airport                                      0             0            0
   Pensacola                   Coastal Airport                                             0             0            0
   Pensacola                   Ferguson Airport                                            2             2            4
   Perry                       Perry-Foley Airport                                         2             2            4
   Pierson                     Pierson Municipal Airport                                   0             0            0
   Plant City                  Plant City Airport                                          9             8           17


Appendix C                                                                                                            C-4
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                         March 2010


                                                           Table C-1
                                        Airport Construction-Related Employment, Cont.
                                                                                    Direct        Induced       Total
      Associated City                             Airport Name                    Employment    Employment    Employment
   General Aviation Airports
   Pompano Beach               Pompano Beach Airpark                                       14            12           26
   Port St. Joe                Costin Airport                                               0             0            0
   Punta Gorda                 Charlotte County Airport                                    95            80          175
   Punta Gorda                 Shell Creek Airpark                                          1             1            2
   Quincy                      Quincy Municipal Airport                                     4             3            7
   Sebastian                   Sebastian Municipal Airport                                  9             8           17
   Sebring                     Sebring Regional Airport                                    32            27           59
   St. Augustine               St. Augustine Airport                                       85            72          157
   St. Petersburg              Albert Whitted Airport                                      20            17           37
   Stuart                      Witham Field                                                38            32           70
   Tampa                       Peter O. Knight Airport                                     27            23           50
   Tampa                       Tampa Executive Airport                                     32            27           59
   Tampa                       Tampa North Aero Park                                        3             3            6
   Titusville                  Arthur Dunn Air Park                                         3             3            6
   Titusville                  Space Coast Regional Airport                                36            30           66
   Umatilla                    Umatilla Municipal Airport                                   5             4            9
   Venice                      Venice Municipal Airport                                    18            15           33
   Vero Beach                  New Hibiscus Airpark                                         0             0            0
   Vero Beach                  Vero Beach Municipal Airport                                78            66          144
   Wauchula                    Wauchula Municipal Airport                                   4             3            7
   West Palm Beach             North Palm Beach County General Aviation Airport            10             8           18
   West Palm Beach             Palm Beach County Park Airport                              14            12           26
   Williston                   Williston Municipal Airport                                  7             6           13
   Winter Haven                Jack Browns SPB                                              0             0            0



Appendix C                                                                                                             C-5
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                                                 March 2010


                                                                 Table C-1
                                              Airport Construction-Related Employment, Cont.
                                                                                                          Direct         Induced        Total
      Associated City                                      Airport Name                                 Employment     Employment     Employment
   General Aviation Airports
   Winter Haven              Winter Haven's Gilbert Airport                                                       23             19            42
   Zellwood                  Bob White Field                                                                       0              0             0
   Zephyrhills               Zephyrhills Municipal Airport                                                        13             11            24
   General Aviation Airports Total                                                                             2,127          1,798         3,925
   All Airports Total                                                                                         13,320         12,001        25,321
   1   Data are from the Martin Associates 2008 economic impact study for Miami International Airport
   Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers




Appendix C                                                                                                                                     C-6
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                               March 2010


                                                             Table C-2
                                                Airport Construction-Related Payroll

   Associated City                             Airport Name                      Direct Payroll   Induced Payroll   Total Payroll
Commercial Service Airports
Daytona Beach              Daytona Beach International Airport                      $5,680,100         $4,074,800     $9,754,900
Fort Lauderdale            Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport          $21,857,600        $15,680,200    $37,537,800
Fort Myers                 Southwest Florida International Airport                 $23,367,500        $16,763,400    $40,130,900
Gainesville                Gainesville Regional Airport                             $3,163,600         $2,269,500     $5,433,100
Jacksonville               Jacksonville International Airport                      $18,981,600        $13,617,000    $32,598,600
Key West                   Key West International Airport                           $3,415,300         $2,450,100     $5,865,400
Melbourne                  Melbourne International Airport                         $11,216,400         $8,046,400    $19,262,800
Miami                      Miami International Airport1                           $145,000,000       $258,300,000   $403,300,000
Naples                     Naples Municipal Airport                                 $3,091,700         $2,217,900     $5,309,600
Orlando                    Orlando International Airport                           $40,515,700        $29,065,200    $69,580,900
Orlando                    Orlando Sanford International Airport*                  $49,215,600        $35,306,400    $84,522,000
Panama City                Northwest Florida-Panama City International Airport     $19,628,700        $14,081,300    $33,710,000
Panama City                Panama City-Bay County International Airport             $6,219,400         $4,461,700    $10,681,100
Pensacola                 Pensacola Regional Airport                                $6,507,000         $4,668,000    $11,175,000
Sarasota                  Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport                  $3,091,700         $2,217,900     $5,309,600
St. Petersburg/Clearwater St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport           $6,830,500         $4,900,100    $11,730,600
Tallahassee               Tallahassee Regional Airport                              $4,385,900         $3,146,400     $7,532,300
Tampa                     Tampa International Airport                              $36,525,200        $26,202,500    $62,727,700
Valparaiso                Northwest Florida Regional Airport/Eglin AFB              $1,366,100           $980,000     $2,346,100
West Palm Beach           Palm Beach International Airport                         $29,838,500        $21,405,600    $51,244,100
Commercial Service Airports Total                                                 $439,898,100       $469,854,400   $909,752,500




Appendix C                                                                                                                    C-7
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                               March 2010


                                                           Table C-2
                                           Airport Construction-Related Payroll, Cont.

   Associated City                            Airport Name                       Direct Payroll   Induced Payroll   Total Payroll
General Aviation Airports
Apalachicola                Apalachicola Regional Airport                             $395,500           $283,700       $679,200
Apalachicola                St. George Island Airport                                  $36,000            $25,800         $61,800
Apopka                      Orlando Apopka Airport                                  $1,294,200           $928,400      $2,222,600
Arcadia                     Arcadia Municipal Airport                                       $0                 $0              $0
Archer                      Flying Ten Airport                                              $0                 $0              $0
Avon Park                   Avon Park Executive Airport                              $287,600           $206,300        $493,900
Bartow                      Bartow Municipal Airport                                $1,042,600           $747,900      $1,790,500
Belle Glade                 Belle Glade State Municipal Airport                        $36,000            $25,800         $61,800
Blountstown                 Calhoun County Airport                                     $71,900            $51,600        $123,500
Boca Raton                  Boca Raton Airport                                      $1,042,600          $747,900       $1,790,500
Bonifay                     Tri-County Airport                                       $323,600            $232,100        $555,700
Brooksville                 Hernando County Airport                                 $1,078,500          $773,700       $1,852,200
Carrabelle                  Carrabelle-Thompson Airport                                     $0                 $0              $0
Cedar Key                   George T. Lewis Airport                                         $0                 $0              $0
Clearwater                  Clearwater Air Park                                        $71,900            $51,600        $123,500
Clewiston                   Airglades Airport                                        $287,600           $206,300        $493,900
Crestview                   Bob Sikes Airport                                       $1,258,300          $902,700       $2,161,000
Cross City                  Cross City Airport                                         $71,900            $51,600       $123,500
Crystal River               Crystal River Airport                                    $179,800            $129,000        $308,800
DeFuniak Springs            DeFuniak Springs Airport                                 $431,400           $309,500        $740,900
Deland                      Bob Lee Flight Strip                                            $0                 $0              $0
Deland                      Deland Municipal-Sidney H. Taylor Field                 $2,264,900         $1,624,800      $3,889,700
Destin                      Destin-Ft. Walton Beach Airport                           $359,500          $257,900         $617,400
Dunnellon                   Dunnellon/Marion County & Park of Commerce Airport         $36,000            $25,800         $61,800
Englewood                   Buchan Airport                                                  $0                 $0              $0



Appendix C                                                                                                                    C-8
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                             March 2010


                                                             Table C-2
                                             Airport Construction-Related Payroll, Cont.

   Associated City                               Airport Name                 Direct Payroll   Induced Payroll    Total Payroll
General Aviation Airports
Everglades                  Everglades Airpark                                       $36,000            $25,800            $61,800
Fernandina Beach            Fernandina Beach Municipal Airport                      $719,000          $515,800          $1,234,800
Fort Lauderdale             Downtown Fort Lauderdale Heliport                             $0                 $0                 $0
Fort Lauderdale             Ft. Lauderdale Executive Airport                      $3,774,800         $2,708,000         $6,482,800
Fort Myers                  Page Field                                            $1,761,600         $1,263,700         $3,025,300
Fort Pierce                 St. Lucie County International Airport                $3,702,900         $2,656,400         $6,359,300
High Springs                Oak Tree Landing Airport                                      $0                 $0                 $0
Hilliard                    Hilliard Airpark                                         $71,900            $51,600           $123,500
Hollywood                   North Perry Airport                                   $1,294,200          $928,400          $2,222,600
Homestead                   Homestead General Aviation Airport                      $251,700          $180,600            $432,300
Immokalee                   Immokalee Airport                                       $323,600          $232,100            $555,700
Indiantown                  Indiantown Airport                                       $36,000            $25,800            $61,800
Inverness                   Inverness Airport                                       $215,700          $154,700            $370,400
Jacksonville                Cecil Field                                           $7,585,500         $5,441,700        $13,027,200
Jacksonville                Craig Municipal Airport                                 $826,900          $593,200          $1,420,100
Jacksonville                Herlong Airport                                         $251,700          $180,600            $432,300
Keystone Heights            Keystone Airpark                                        $179,800          $129,000            $308,800
La Belle                    La Belle Municipal Airport                              $323,600          $232,100            $555,700
Lake City                   Lake City Municipal Airport                             $755,000          $541,600          $1,296,600
Lake Wales                  Chalet Suzanne Air Strip                                 $71,900            $51,600           $123,500
Lake Wales                  Lake Wales Municipal Airport                             $36,000            $25,800            $61,800
Lakeland                    Lakeland Linder Regional Airport                      $1,653,700         $1,186,300         $2,840,000
Leesburg                    Leesburg International Airport                        $2,804,100         $2,011,600         $4,815,700
Live Oak                    Suwannee County Airport                                 $179,800          $129,000            $308,800
Malabar                     Valkaria Airport                                        $143,800          $103,200            $247,000



Appendix C                                                                                                                  C-9
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                             March 2010


                                                             Table C-2
                                             Airport Construction-Related Payroll, Cont.

   Associated City                              Airport Name                  Direct Payroll   Induced Payroll    Total Payroll
General Aviation Airports
Marathon                    The Florida Keys Marathon Airport                      $683,100           $490,000          $1,173,100
Marco Island                Marco Island Airport                                    $143,800           $103,200           $247,000
Marianna                    Marianna Municipal Airport                             $143,800           $103,200           $247,000
Merritt Island              Merritt Island Airport                                  $395,500           $283,700           $679,200
Miami                       Dade-Collier Training and Transition Airport                  $0                 $0                 $0
Miami                       Kendall-Tamiami Executive Airport                     $1,438,000         $1,031,600         $2,469,600
Miami                       Miami SPB                                               $251,700           $180,600           $432,300
Miami                       Opa-Locka Executive Airport                           $6,183,400         $4,435,900        $10,619,300
Milton                      Peter Prince Field                                     $323,600           $232,100           $555,700
Navarre                     Ft. Walton Beach Airport                                      $0                 $0                 $0
New Smyrna Beach            New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport                     $251,700           $180,600           $432,300
Ocala                       Ocala International-Jim Taylor Field                  $1,114,500           $799,500         $1,914,000
Okeechobee                  Okeechobee County Airport                              $359,500           $257,900           $617,400
Orlando                     Executive Airport                                     $2,516,500         $1,805,300         $4,321,800
Orlando                     Kissimmee Gateway Airport                             $2,121,100         $1,521,600         $3,642,700
Ormond Beach                Ormond Beach Municipal Airport                          $898,800           $644,800         $1,543,600
Pahokee                     Palm Beach County Glades Airport                       $107,900             $77,400           $185,300
Palatka                     Palatka Municipal-Lt. Kay Larkin Field                  $359,500           $257,900           $617,400
Palm Coast                  Flagler County Airport                                 $611,200           $438,500          $1,049,700
Panacea                     Wakulla County Airport                                        $0                 $0                 $0
Pensacola                   Coastal Airport                                               $0                 $0                 $0
Pensacola                   Ferguson Airport                                         $71,900            $51,600           $123,500
Perry                       Perry-Foley Airport                                      $71,900            $51,600           $123,500
Pierson                     Pierson Municipal Airport                                     $0                 $0                 $0
Plant City                  Plant City Airport                                     $323,600           $232,100           $555,700



Appendix C                                                                                                                  C-10
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                              March 2010


                                                            Table C-2
                                            Airport Construction-Related Payroll, Cont.

   Associated City                             Airport Name                    Direct Payroll   Induced Payroll    Total Payroll
General Aviation Airports
Pompano Beach               Pompano Beach Airpark                                   $503,300           $361,100            $864,400
Port St. Joe                Costin Airport                                                 $0                 $0                 $0
Punta Gorda                 Charlotte County Airport                               $3,415,300         $2,450,100         $5,865,400
Punta Gorda                 Shell Creek Airpark                                       $36,000            $25,800            $61,800
Quincy                      Quincy Municipal Airport                                $143,800           $103,200           $247,000
Sebastian                   Sebastian Municipal Airport                              $323,600          $232,100            $555,700
Sebring                     Sebring Regional Airport                               $1,150,400          $825,300          $1,975,700
St. Augustine               St. Augustine Airport                                  $3,055,800         $2,192,200         $5,248,000
St. Petersburg              Albert Whitted Airport                                  $719,000           $515,800          $1,234,800
Stuart                      Witham Field                                           $1,366,100          $980,000          $2,346,100
Tampa                       Peter O. Knight Airport                                 $970,700           $696,400          $1,667,100
Tampa                       Tampa Executive Airport                                $1,150,400          $825,300          $1,975,700
Tampa                       Tampa North Aero Park                                   $107,900             $77,400          $185,300
Titusville                  Arthur Dunn Air Park                                     $107,900            $77,400           $185,300
Titusville                  Space Coast Regional Airport                           $1,294,200          $928,400          $2,222,600
Umatilla                    Umatilla Municipal Airport                               $179,800          $129,000            $308,800
Venice                      Venice Municipal Airport                                 $647,100          $464,200          $1,111,300
Vero Beach                  New Hibiscus Airpark                                           $0                 $0                 $0
Vero Beach                  Vero Beach Municipal Airport                           $2,804,100         $2,011,600         $4,815,700
Wauchula                    Wauchula Municipal Airport                               $143,800          $103,200            $247,000
West Palm Beach             North Palm Beach County General Aviation Airport        $359,500           $257,900            $617,400
West Palm Beach             Palm Beach County Park Airport                           $503,300          $361,100            $864,400
Williston                   Williston Municipal Airport                              $251,700          $180,600            $432,300
Winter Haven                Jack Browns SPB                                                $0                 $0                 $0
Winter Haven                Winter Haven's Gilbert Airport                          $826,900           $593,200          $1,420,100


Appendix C                                                                                                                   C-11
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                                      March 2010


                                                            Table C-2
                                            Airport Construction-Related Payroll, Cont.

    Associated City                             Airport Name                          Direct Payroll    Induced Payroll    Total Payroll
General Aviation Airports
Zellwood                    Bob White Field                                                        $0                 $0                 $0
Zephyrhills                 Zephyrhills Municipal Airport                                    $467,400           $335,300          $802,700
General Aviation Airports Total                                                           $76,468,000        $54,856,700      $131,324,700
All Airports Total                                                                       $516,366,100       $524,711,100     $1,041,077,200
1 Data are from the Martin Associates 2008 economic impact study for Miami International Airport

Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers




Appendix C                                                                                                                           C-12
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                                  March 2010


                                                            Table C-3
                                               Airport Construction-Related Output
                                                                                                       Induced
      Associated City                             Airport Name                      Direct Output       Output        Total Output
   Commercial Service Airports
   Daytona Beach              Daytona Beach International Airport                      $17,834,300     $15,968,000      $33,802,300
   Fort Lauderdale            Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport           $68,660,700     $61,475,700     $130,136,400
   Fort Myers                 Southwest Florida International Airport                  $73,366,600     $65,689,200     $139,055,800
   Gainesville                Gainesville Regional Airport                              $9,909,400      $8,872,400      $18,781,800
   Jacksonville               Jacksonville International Airport                       $59,661,900     $53,418,600     $113,080,500
   Key West                   Key West International Airport                           $10,737,800      $9,614,100      $20,351,900
   Melbourne                  Melbourne International Airport                          $35,272,300     $31,581,200      $66,853,500
   Miami                      Miami International Airport1                            $341,782,900    $306,017,100     $647,800,000
   Naples                     Naples Municipal Airport                                  $9,730,700      $8,712,400      $18,443,100
   Orlando                    Orlando International Airport                           $127,235,800    $113,921,300     $241,157,100
   Orlando                    Orlando Sanford International Airport                   $154,587,400    $138,410,700     $292,998,100
   Panama City                Northwest Florida-Panama City International Airport      $61,624,400     $55,175,700     $116,800,100
   Panama City                Panama City-Bay County International Airport             $19,538,200     $17,493,600      $37,031,800
   Pensacola                 Pensacola Regional Airport                                $20,491,100      $18,346,800      $38,837,900
   Sarasota                  Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport                   $9,727,600       $8,709,700      $18,437,300
   St. Petersburg/Clearwater St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport           $21,424,800      $19,182,800      $40,607,600
   Tallahassee               Tallahassee Regional Airport                              $13,832,100      $12,384,600      $26,216,700
   Tampa                     Tampa International Airport                             $114,782,300     $102,771,000     $217,553,300
   Valparaiso                Northwest Florida Regional Airport/Eglin AFB               $4,245,400       $3,801,100       $8,046,500
   West Palm Beach           Palm Beach International Airport                          $93,783,100      $83,969,200    $177,752,300
   Commercial Service Airports Total                                                $1,268,228,800   $1,135,515,200   $2,403,744,000




Appendix C                                                                                                                        C-13
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                               March 2010


                                                           Table C-3
                                           Airport Construction-Related Output, Cont.
                                                                                                     Induced
      Associated City                            Airport Name                       Direct Output     Output       Total Output
   General Aviation Airports
   Apalachicola                Apalachicola Regional Airport                            $1,187,500    $1,063,200      $2,250,700
   Apalachicola                St. George Island Airport                                  $109,500       $98,000        $207,500
   Apopka                      Orlando Apopka Airport                                   $4,080,200    $3,653,200      $7,733,400
   Arcadia                     Arcadia Municipal Airport                                   $53,300       $47,700        $101,000
   Archer                      Flying Ten Airport                                           $5,000        $4,500          $9,500
   Avon Park                   Avon Park Executive Airport                                $882,000      $789,700      $1,671,700
   Bartow                      Bartow Municipal Airport                                 $3,313,600    $2,966,800      $6,280,400
   Belle Glade                 Belle Glade State Municipal Airport                         $86,100       $77,100        $163,200
   Blountstown                 Calhoun County Airport                                    $207,700      $186,000        $393,700
   Boca Raton                  Boca Raton Airport                                       $3,329,000    $2,980,600      $6,309,600
   Bonifay                     Tri-County Airport                                       $1,026,300     $918,900       $1,945,200
   Brooksville                 Hernando County Airport                                  $3,425,700    $3,067,200      $6,492,900
   Carrabelle                  Carrabelle-Thompson Airport                                 $42,800       $38,300         $81,100
   Cedar Key                   George T. Lewis Airport                                          $0            $0              $0
   Clearwater                  Clearwater Air Park                                       $190,700      $170,700        $361,400
   Clewiston                   Airglades Airport                                          $947,200      $848,100      $1,795,300
   Crestview                   Bob Sikes Airport                                        $3,980,600    $3,564,100      $7,544,700
   Cross City                  Cross City Airport                                         $204,500      $183,100        $387,600
   Crystal River               Crystal River Airport                                     $613,100      $548,900       $1,162,000
   DeFuniak Springs            DeFuniak Springs Airport                                 $1,333,400    $1,193,900      $2,527,300
   Deland                      Bob Lee Flight Strip                                             $0            $0              $0
   Deland                      Deland Municipal-Sidney H. Taylor Field                  $7,060,200    $6,321,400     $13,381,600
   Destin                      Destin-Ft. Walton Beach Airport                          $1,144,500    $1,024,700      $2,169,200
   Dunnellon                   Dunnellon/Marion County & Park of Commerce Airport          $73,700       $66,000        $139,700
   Englewood                   Buchan Airport                                                   $0            $0              $0


Appendix C                                                                                                                    C-14
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                          March 2010


                                                            Table C-3
                                            Airport Construction-Related Output, Cont.
                                                                                                Induced
      Associated City                               Airport Name               Direct Output     Output       Total Output
   General Aviation Airports
   Everglades                  Everglades Airpark                                     $69,700       $62,400        $132,100
   Fernandina Beach            Fernandina Beach Municipal Airport                  $2,314,600    $2,072,400      $4,387,000
   Fort Lauderdale             Downtown Fort Lauderdale Heliport                           $0            $0              $0
   Fort Lauderdale             Ft. Lauderdale Executive Airport                   $11,881,900   $10,638,500     $22,520,400
   Fort Myers                  Page Field                                          $5,573,500    $4,990,300     $10,563,800
   Fort Pierce                 St. Lucie County International Airport             $11,653,300   $10,433,800     $22,087,100
   High Springs                Oak Tree Landing Airport                                    $0            $0              $0
   Hilliard                    Hilliard Airpark                                      $175,000      $156,700        $331,700
   Hollywood                   North Perry Airport                                 $4,055,500    $3,631,100      $7,686,600
   Homestead                   Homestead General Aviation Airport                    $799,700      $716,000      $1,515,700
   Immokalee                   Immokalee Airport                                     $978,400      $876,000      $1,854,400
   Indiantown                  Indiantown Airport                                    $114,800      $102,800        $217,600
   Inverness                   Inverness Airport                                     $716,500      $641,500      $1,358,000
   Jacksonville                Cecil Field                                        $23,873,700   $21,375,400     $45,249,100
   Jacksonville                Craig Municipal Airport                             $2,627,600    $2,352,600      $4,980,200
   Jacksonville                Herlong Airport                                       $784,600      $702,500      $1,487,100
   Keystone Heights            Keystone Airpark                                      $580,600      $519,800      $1,100,400
   La Belle                    La Belle Municipal Airport                          $1,003,500      $898,500      $1,902,000
   Lake City                   Lake City Municipal Airport                         $2,393,700    $2,143,200      $4,536,900
   Lake Wales                  Chalet Suzanne Air Strip                              $176,000      $157,600        $333,600
   Lake Wales                  Lake Wales Municipal Airport                           $76,700       $68,700        $145,400
   Lakeland                    Lakeland Linder Regional Airport                    $5,228,700    $4,681,500      $9,910,200
   Leesburg                    Leesburg International Airport                      $8,782,100    $7,863,100     $16,645,200
   Live Oak                    Suwannee County Airport                               $528,800      $473,500      $1,002,300
   Malabar                     Valkaria Airport                                      $420,800      $376,800        $797,600


Appendix C                                                                                                               C-15
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                          March 2010


                                                            Table C-3
                                            Airport Construction-Related Output, Cont.
                                                                                                Induced
      Associated City                              Airport Name                Direct Output     Output       Total Output
   General Aviation Airports
   Marathon                    The Florida Keys Marathon Airport                   $2,149,000    $1,924,100      $4,073,100
   Marco Island                Marco Island Airport                                  $423,100      $378,800        $801,900
   Marianna                    Marianna Municipal Airport                            $451,700      $404,400        $856,100
   Merritt Island              Merritt Island Airport                              $1,216,000    $1,088,800      $2,304,800
   Miami                       Dade-Collier Training and Transition Airport                $0            $0              $0
   Miami                       Kendall-Tamiami Executive Airport                   $4,461,700    $3,994,800      $8,456,500
   Miami                       Miami SPB                                             $817,700      $732,100      $1,549,800
   Miami                       Opa-Locka Executive Airport                        $19,382,000   $17,353,800     $36,735,800
   Milton                      Peter Prince Field                                    $989,400     $885,900       $1,875,300
   Navarre                     Ft. Walton Beach Airport                                $6,300        $5,600         $11,900
   New Smyrna Beach            New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport                    $781,600     $699,800       $1,481,400
   Ocala                       Ocala International-Jim Taylor Field                $3,547,300    $3,176,100      $6,723,400
   Okeechobee                  Okeechobee County Airport                           $1,101,600     $986,300       $2,087,900
   Orlando                     Executive Airport                                   $7,896,700    $7,070,400     $14,967,100
   Orlando                     Kissimmee Gateway Airport                           $6,675,100    $5,976,600     $12,651,700
   Ormond Beach                Ormond Beach Municipal Airport                      $2,774,300    $2,484,000      $5,258,300
   Pahokee                     Palm Beach County Glades Airport                      $320,200      $286,700        $606,900
   Palatka                     Palatka Municipal-Lt. Kay Larkin Field              $1,177,000    $1,053,800      $2,230,800
   Palm Coast                  Flagler County Airport                              $1,958,900    $1,753,900      $3,712,800
   Panacea                     Wakulla County Airport                                 $23,800       $21,300         $45,100
   Pensacola                   Coastal Airport                                        $30,000       $26,900         $56,900
   Pensacola                   Ferguson Airport                                      $267,800      $239,800        $507,600
   Perry                       Perry-Foley Airport                                  $256,700      $229,800        $486,500
   Pierson                     Pierson Municipal Airport                                   $0            $0              $0
   Plant City                  Plant City Airport                                  $1,004,400     $899,300       $1,903,700


Appendix C                                                                                                               C-16
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                             March 2010


                                                           Table C-3
                                           Airport Construction-Related Output, Cont.
                                                                                                   Induced
      Associated City                             Airport Name                    Direct Output     Output       Total Output
   General Aviation Airports
   Pompano Beach               Pompano Beach Airpark                                  $1,558,200    $1,395,100      $2,953,300
   Port St. Joe                Costin Airport                                            $25,000       $22,400         $47,400
   Punta Gorda                 Charlotte County Airport                              $10,678,100    $9,560,700     $20,238,800
   Punta Gorda                 Shell Creek Airpark                                       $69,800       $62,500       $132,300
   Quincy                      Quincy Municipal Airport                                $395,500      $354,100        $749,600
   Sebastian                   Sebastian Municipal Airport                            $1,018,900      $912,300      $1,931,200
   Sebring                     Sebring Regional Airport                               $3,632,500    $3,252,400      $6,884,900
   St. Augustine               St. Augustine Airport                                  $9,611,100    $8,605,400     $18,216,500
   St. Petersburg              Albert Whitted Airport                                 $2,206,900    $1,976,000      $4,182,900
   Stuart                      Witham Field                                           $4,288,600    $3,839,800      $8,128,400
   Tampa                       Peter O. Knight Airport                                $3,026,400    $2,709,700      $5,736,100
   Tampa                       Tampa Executive Airport                                $3,660,800    $3,277,700      $6,938,500
   Tampa                       Tampa North Aero Park                                   $317,100      $283,900        $601,000
   Titusville                  Arthur Dunn Air Park                                     $366,300      $328,000        $694,300
   Titusville                  Space Coast Regional Airport                           $4,045,100    $3,621,800      $7,666,900
   Umatilla                    Umatilla Municipal Airport                               $521,700      $467,100        $988,800
   Venice                      Venice Municipal Airport                               $2,086,900    $1,868,500      $3,955,400
   Vero Beach                  New Hibiscus Airpark                                      $12,900       $11,600         $24,500
   Vero Beach                  Vero Beach Municipal Airport                           $8,850,400    $7,924,300     $16,774,700
   Wauchula                    Wauchula Municipal Airport                               $400,000      $358,100        $758,100
   West Palm Beach             North Palm Beach County General Aviation Airport       $1,084,600     $971,100       $2,055,700
   West Palm Beach             Palm Beach County Park Airport                         $1,582,200    $1,416,600      $2,998,800
   Williston                   Williston Municipal Airport                              $779,500      $697,900      $1,477,400
   Winter Haven                Jack Browns SPB                                                $0            $0              $0
   Winter Haven                Winter Haven's Gilbert Airport                         $2,581,200    $2,311,100      $4,892,300


Appendix C                                                                                                                  C-17
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                                             Draft – March 2010



                                                                   Table C-3
                                                   Airport Construction-Related Output, Cont.
                                                                                                                           Induced
           Associated City                                 Airport Name                             Direct Output           Output        Total Output
   General Aviation Airports
   Zellwood                  Bob White Field                                                                   $25,600          $22,900          $48,500
   Zephyrhills               Zephyrhills Municipal Airport                                                  $1,442,000       $1,291,100       $2,733,100
   General Aviation Airports Total                                                                       $240,085,900     $214,961,900     $455,047,800
   All Airports Total                                                                                   $1,508,314,700   $1,350,477,100   $2,858,791,800
   1   Data are from the Martin Associates 2008 economic impact study for Miami International Airport
   Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers




Appendix C                                                                                                                                            C-18
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
            APPENDIX D
AIR CARGO GROUND TRANSPORT PROCESS
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                      March 2010


APPENDIX D
To provide context for the economic impacts related to air cargo activity that take place off-
airport; the following sections identify the ground transport (off-airport) processes for the
integrated express industry. The off-airport processes for freight forwarders with air cargo
services, customs brokers, and perishables importers are also discussed. These activities are key
contributors to the off-airport air cargo-related economic impacts documented for some study
airports in Chapter 7.

Integrated Express Ground Transport Process

The integrated express industry expedites the process of transporting goods. The integrated
express industry provides collection and delivery of goods, usually door-to-door, and allows
                              1
the shipper and consignee to track information on the shipment’s progress. When cargo is
transported across international borders, integrated express carriers accommodate customs
clearance as well as the payment of required duties and taxes. One on the greatest strengths of
the integrated express carriers is the level of rapid, guaranteed delivery to a wide range of
destinations.

The integrated express operators orchestrate a door-to-door logistics process utilizing a variety
of different transport modes such as vans, trucks, freight aircraft, warehouses, and air cargo hub
airports. When packages arrive early in the morning at a hub airport on containerized cargo
aircraft, they are immediately sorted by destination, typically on the ramp or within an on-
airport warehouse. After being sorted, trucks depart to other stations located within the
airport’s market area.

Depending on the size of the market area, there may be anywhere from one to as many as six or
seven stations where the express packages are trucked. From these stations, the packages are
sorted again by assigned geographic areas; within these geographic areas, van drivers deliver
the packages that same morning. In the afternoon and early evening, packages are collected
from customers, drop boxes, and authorized stores and are consolidated by van drivers at their
assigned station. Packages are then trucked to the airport for loading onto hub bound aircraft.
This off-airport activity supports a number of jobs and economic output related to integrated
express carriers, even though many of these workers do not step foot on an airport as part of
their job.

This process meets the needs of hundreds, if not thousands, of businesses and individuals in the
market area served by integrated express carriers. Although integrated express companies,
such as FedEx Express and UPS, do not disclose air cargo volume data on a per flight basis, a


1 In a contract of carriage, the consignee is the person to whom the shipment is to be delivered whether by
land, sea or air.


Appendix D                                                                                            D-1
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                March 2010

report by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) provides a glimpse of cargo
volumes for a single air cargo flight.

Table D-1 identifies air cargo volume per container on a DC-8 flight from Atlanta to Newark.
This aircraft accommodated 18 Unit Loading Devise (ULD) positions with a total of 4,400
packages weighing over 41,400 pounds. These containers were loaded at six air cargo stations
in northwest Georgia. Packages averaged approximately nine pounds each, but a few where
several hundred pounds in size. It is noteworthy to point out that while a passenger jet may
accommodate 100 to 200 passengers, a cargo aircraft may serve several thousand customers, as
represented by their shipments, on a single flight.

                                      Table D-1
                   Example DC-8 Single Cargo Flight Volume Statistics
            ULD
           Position       Packages     Capacity     Origin Station             Weight
              1                 386       100%      Pleasantdale, GA                 3,380
              2                 381       100%      Roswell, GA                      2,210
              3                 144        70%      Atlanta, GA                      1,550
              4                   0         0%      Atlanta, GA                          0
              5                 146        40%      Pleasantdale, GA                   810
              6                 289        50%      Forest Park, GA                    930
              7                 137        15%      Macon, GA                          440
              8                 266        95%      Pleasantdale, GA                 2,490
              9                 318       100%      Roswell, GA                      3,240
             10                 200       100%      Atlanta, GA                      2,610
             11                 523       100%      Pleasantdale, GA                 2,860
             12                 368       100%      Atlanta, GA                      3,500
             13                 360       100%      Pleasantdale, GA                 2,890
             14                 212        75%      Athens, GA                       1,560
             15                 147        45%      Atlanta, GA (on airport)         5,660
             16                 173        80%      Atlanta, GA (on airport)         1,650
             17                 347       100%      Forest Park, GA                  2,940
             18                   3        90%      Unidentified                     2,700
            Total             4,400                                                 41,420
         Source: National Transportation Safety Board


Air Freight Forwarding Ground Transport Process

Freight forwarding companies act as brokers between the shipper and the air carrier (all-cargo,
commercial passenger, or ad-hoc charter). The forwarder handles wide-ranging types and sizes
of freight, from small packages to be consolidated into container loads, to oversized, one-time
freight movements. Shipments are tendered to an air cargo carrier or commercial carrier to
transport to another airport where the forwarder’s agent or subsidiary picks up the shipment
then transports the shipment to the consignee. In addition to arranging transport of goods,


Appendix D                                                                                    D-2
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                March 2010

freight forwarders also offer other services such as customs clearance, trade documentation,
insurance, and supply-chain management.

Freight forwarders in Florida may truck air cargo originating in Florida to more distant gateway
airports, beyond the state, such as New York’s JFK International or Chicago O’Hare
International where cargo is on-loaded onto international flights. On the return trip, a
forwarder may collect, while in Chicago, cargo destined for South America and truck it to
Miami International Airport.

Air cargo trucking companies, such as Forward Air, Inc., are in markets like Tampa where they
operate line-haul truck routes to major gateway airports such as Atlanta or Miami. After air
cargo arrives in Tampa, Forward Air breaks the cargo down in its off-airport warehouse; they
provide cartage service (small local trucks) to surrounding markets such as Sarasota and
Clearwater.

Air freight forwarders are often located off-airport for several reasons. Forwarders can
accommodate both sea and air forwarding and locate at facilities near both seaports and
airports. Forwarders often seek warehouses with lower real estate costs; and they prefer
locations near limited access highways. It is noteworthy to point out that although there are
hundreds of air freight forwarders in the Miami area, none are located on Miami International
Airport property.

Similar to integrated express carriers, off-airport activity associated with freight forwarders
supports a number of jobs and economic output related to air cargo.

Customs Brokers Ground Transport Process

Custom brokers are commonly affiliated with the air cargo industry and nearly always located
off-airport in markets where there is extensive importing and exporting. A customs broker is
licensed by the USCBP Agency and has a broad range of knowledge including customs law,
customs classification, customs tariff schedule, import and export regulations, shipping
procedures, and trade documentation.

A customs broker acts as a professional agent for an importer or exporter and prepares and
submits all documents for clearing goods through customs. They are paid a fee for customs-
brokerage. There are over 200 customs broker firms in Florida, most of which are in the Miami
area.

Perishable Importers Ground Transport Process

Miami International Airport’s total air trade for 2008 was valued at $40.7 billion, or 96.3 percent
of the dollar value of Florida’s total air imports and exports, and 32.6 percent of the State’s total



Appendix D                                                                                      D-3
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010

(air and sea) trade with the world. In 2008, Miami International Airport accommodated 71
percent of perishable imports to the U.S., followed by JFK International Airport and Los
Angeles International airports with 11.6 percent and 8.8 percent, respectively. Perishable
imports at the airport are comprised of flowers, produce, and seafood. Table D-2 identifies the
volumes and value of perishables transported via Miami International Airport in 2008.

                                       Table D-2
                   Miami International Airport 2008 Top Three Imports
                          Perishable
                           Imports               Tons        Dollar Value
                       Flowers                     172,743     $738,845,200
                       Seafood                     147,717     $901,201,500
                       Produce                     131,286     $243,950,400
                       Source: Miami International Airport


Miami International Airport’s unique import commodities have significant impacts for the local
and state economy. Perishable imports require significant handling and care which are
extremely labor intensive. In addition, perishable commodities at the airport are bulky in
nature and, therefore, require significantly more warehouse space than standard air cargo. As a
result, 80 percent of air cargo warehouse space used to accommodate air cargo activity
associated with Miami International is located off-airport in the warehouse district in the
environs of the airport.

Floral Importers Handling and Transport Process

This section identifies the transport process for flower imports via Miami International Airport
and how businesses and personnel on- and off-airport transport this perishable commodity.

On-Airport Activity -The process begins in South American countries such as Colombia where
flower farms transport boxes of flowers in refrigerated trucks to the airport in Bogotá. Those
boxes then are scanned and stacked on airline pallets (skids) so they can be loaded into freighter
aircraft. When the aircraft arrive in Miami, the skids loaded with flowers are immediately taken
out of the plane and into a warehouse facility at the Miami International Airport where the pre-
cooling process begins. Within the on-airport warehouse, staff break down the skids and sort
flower boxes by importer; these boxes are scanned again and then stacked on wooden pallets.

During this process, the airlines pull boxes that have to be opened for the U.S. Customs Border
Protection (USCBP) and United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) inspection. USCBP
provides a physical inspection of the flowers; and once the inspection is complete and cleared,
the importers pick up the flowers in their refrigerated trucks. Flowers are then transported to
refrigerated warehouse facilities which are off-airport. If pests are found in the flower boxes, the
boxes are diverted to the fumigation facility on the airport. About 10 percent of all flower
shipments require fumigation.


Appendix D                                                                                     D-4
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                            March 2010



Off Airport Activity - After flowers are cleared by USCBP and USDA, the importers truck the
flowers to their own warehouses which are usually located within a two mile radius of the
airport. These warehouses are located off-airport, since Miami International Airport does not
have the capacity to accommodate warehouses for all importers. Importers have their own
refrigerated truck fleets and drivers; these jobs are supported by the airport.

Once the flowers have arrived at the importer’s refrigerated warehouses, staff break down the
flower boxes and place them on racks where they are stored until sold, which usually takes
place within one to two days. Flowers may also be placed into processing centers where
bouquet production takes place. Approximately 50 percent of all arriving flowers are sent into
bouquet production by the importers. These flowers bouquets are sold to mass marketers and
retail chains such as Publix, Kroger, Wal-Mart, and Target stores. The remaining 50 percent are
sold by wholesalers who sell in bulk to regional flower distribution centers throughout the U.S.
There are five or six such distribution centers in North America. Approximately 35 trucking
lines in Miami specialize in flower transport, and these trucking companies differ from the air
freight forwarders in the Miami market.

The flower distribution process takes place on average six days a week, 52 weeks a year.
Seasonal demand increases demand for labor and temporary workers are hired to fill voids.
The transport process for produce and seafood imports related to Miami International follow a
similar pattern as the flower industry, and both of the commodities also provide significant
economic benefits that are aviation-related.




Appendix D                                                                                 D-5
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
            APPENDIX E
 APPROACH TO ADJUSTING AIR CARGO
ECONOMIC IMPACTS FOR COMMERCIAL
  SERVICE AIRPORTS WITH EXISTING
     ECONOMIC IMPACT STUDIES
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010


APPENDIX E

Seven commercial service airports in Florida, on their own initiative, completed economic
impact studies after FDOT released its 2000 Economic Impact Study. The commercial service
airports with existing economic impact studies are identified in Table E-1. Results from the
economic impact studies for these airports were used to estimate air cargo-related economic
impacts for these airports. These results were incorporated into FDOT’s statewide economic
impact report. While the majority of the studies listed in Table E-1 identified direct impacts of
air cargo activity, three did not.

Economic impact studies that did not identify direct on-airport economic impacts for air cargo
activity included the studies for: Orlando International Airport, Sarasota/Bradenton
International Airport, and St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport. As a result,
economic impacts related to air cargo activity at these three airports were measured through
efforts similar to those described in Chapter 7. These efforts included surveys, phone calls, and
visits to select air cargo tenants at these airports.

Since the economic impact studies noted in Table E-1 were prepared in different years, it was
necessary to devise an approach so that the results from these prior studies could be compared
directly to the results from FDOT’s most recent statewide economic impact study. In order to
accomplish this objective, the direct payroll and output impacts from the existing economic
impact studies were inflated to 2008 dollars using the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics’ (BLS)
Consumer Price Index (CPI). To account for increases or decreases in air cargo activity at the
airports since their prior studies were completed, historic air cargo tonnages at each airport
were analyzed. For example, if an airport had a two percent annual increase in air cargo
tonnage, air cargo-related employment and output were adjusted by this growth rate to reflect
increases in air cargo activity. Airports with decreases in air cargo activity were adjusted in a
similar manner.




Appendix E                                                                                   E-1
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
   Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
   Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                       March 2010

                                          Table E-1
              Commercial Service Airports with Existing Economic Impact Studies
                                                   Existing
                                                  Study Base
                         Airport                     Year                 Consultant
Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport       2006      Jacobs Consultancy
Melbourne International Airport                      2002      Wilbur Smith Associates
Miami International Airport                          2008      Martin Associates
Orlando International Airport                        2003      Fishkind & Associates
Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport             2003      Wilbur Smith Associates
St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport      2003      Infrastructure Management Group
Tampa International Airport                          2003      Univ. S. Florida - CUTR
Source: Wilbur Smith Associates




   Appendix E                                                                              E-2
   Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
            APPENDIX F
AIRPORT-SPECIFIC AIR CARGO ACTIVITY
      AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                            March 2010


APPENDIX F
This appendix provides more detail regarding the economic impact of air cargo activity at
Florida’s airports with scheduled air cargo service. This appendix discusses each airport’s
direct and indirect air cargo impacts, as well as describes air cargo activity at each airport.
Airports are discussed in two categories: Commercial Service and General Aviation.

Direct Air Cargo Impacts for Commercial Service Airports

Daytona Beach International Airport

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Daytona Beach International Airport serves the air cargo needs of eastern Florida along the
Interstate 95 corridor, primarily in Volusia County. A limited amount of air cargo demand in
the Daytona market area is accommodated by passenger airlines that serve the airport.

The airport accommodated 106 metric tons of enplaned and deplaned air cargo in fiscal year
2008. No mail was reported to be transported via the airport. Air cargo volumes averaged
about 916 pounds per weekday.

Passenger carriers accommodate air cargo in the belly compartment of commercial passenger
aircraft. US Airways and Delta Air Lines are the only passenger carriers currently operating at
the airport. Both carriers have a small number of employees devoted to air cargo support.
These employees are in involved in baggage handling and contribute to the processing and
movement of air cargo. All cargo loaded and unloaded at the airport is considered domestic
cargo, although some cargo may connect to international flights at the passenger carrier’s
respective hubs and gateways, Atlanta or Charlotte.

Based on surveys and interviews of the passenger airlines located at the airport, there are an
estimated five employees on-airport whose jobs are supported by air cargo activity. These
employees have an annual payroll of $200,400. Annual output related to the air cargo portion of
the airport’s passenger airline activity is estimated at nearly $614,000. Passenger airlines and
government agencies support 100 percent of this airport’s air cargo related on-airport
workforce. Government positions related to cargo are within airport management, Department
of Homeland Security, and the FAA.

The total direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity represents less than
one percent of the Daytona International Airport’s direct employment impact and less than one
percent of the airport’s direct annual economic output impact from all on-airport tenants,
government, and construction-related activities.




Appendix F                                                                                  F-1
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                    March 2010

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
As stated above, air cargo demand in the Daytona market area is accommodated by passenger
airlines that serve Daytona Beach International Airport. Integrated express carriers do not
operate at the airport.

Integrators such as UPS, DHL or FedEx Express do not have aircraft operations at Daytona
Beach International Airport. Although UPS and FedEx Express have off-airport stations in
Daytona Beach, these stations truck air cargo to and from their respective aircraft which operate
at Orlando International Airport, 71 miles away.

Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport serves the air cargo needs of southeast
Florida. Air cargo demand in the airport’s market area is accommodated by passenger airlines,
integrated express companies, and freight forwarders located on the airport.

The airport accommodated 125,034 metric tons of enplaned and deplaned air cargo in fiscal year
2008. Approximately 95 percent of this traffic was air freight and 5 percent was mail. Air cargo
volumes averaged about 1,081,000 pounds per weekday.

In 2008, Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International was served by DHL, FedEx Express, and UPS
all of which utilized cargo jet aircraft to serve the airport. FedEx Express operated routes from
the airport to their national hub in Memphis, as well as routes to their regional hubs in Fort
Worth, Texas and Newark, New Jersey.                      FedEx Express operations at Fort
Lauderdale/Hollywood International support both the Fort Lauderdale and the Miami markets.
Mountain Air Cargo provides FedEx Express turboprop feeder service utilizing a C208 from
Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International to Marathon and Key West, Florida. UPS operated a
B757 to their hub in Louisville, while DHL utilized a DC8 on their route to their Wilmington,
          1
Ohio hub .

Many passenger airlines accommodate air cargo in the belly of passenger aircraft. Passenger
airlines at the airport include the major legacy carriers, as well as several low-cost carriers.
These airlines all have a portion of their employees, such as baggage handlers and ramp agents,
contributing to processing and moving air cargo. A majority of cargo loaded and unloaded at
the airport is domestic cargo, although some cargo may connect to international flights at hubs
and gateways.

Based on surveys and interviews of the passenger airlines, integrated express companies, and
freight forwarders located at the airport, there are 861 employees on-airport whose jobs are

1Reorganization within DHL resulted in DHL switching from its Wilmington, Ohio hub to Cincinnati/Northern
Kentucky International Airport in January 2009.


Appendix F                                                                                           F-2
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

related to air cargo activity. These employees have an annual payroll of nearly $42 million.
Direct annual output related to cargo activity is estimated at over $109 million. Approximately
88 percent of the air cargo employment at the airport is attributed to integrated express and
other cargo carriers, while passenger airlines support 10 percent of on-airport cargo related
employment. Government activity on the airport related to air cargo supports 20 full-time
equivalent positions or two percent of the air cargo related on-airport workforce. Government
positions are typically within airport management, Department of Homeland Security, and the
FAA.

When all aspects of the direct annual economic impact for the airport are considered, the total
direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity represents nine percent of
Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport’s direct employment impact and 11 percent
of the airport’s direct annual output impact from all on-airport tenants, government, and
construction-related activities.

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
There are eight integrated express stations located within a 20-mile radius of Fort
Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport. These stations rely on cargo jet aircraft
operations at Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport. In addition, approximately 10
freight forwarders with air cargo service are located in the vicinity of the airport. Also included
in the indirect air cargo impacts for this airport is AmeriJet, an all cargo company with its
headquarters in Fort Lauderdale. Indirect air cargo businesses support nearly 450 full-time
equivalent employees. These employees have an annual payroll of nearly $22 million. Indirect
annual output related to cargo activity for Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport is
estimated at over $66.9 million.

Approximately 85 percent of the air cargo indirect employment related to this airport is
attributed to integrated express and other cargo carriers, while air freight forwarders and the air
freighter business support the remaining 15 percent of the off-airport cargo related
employment.


Gainesville Regional Airport

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Gainesville Regional Airport serves the air cargo needs of north central Florida, along the
Interstate 75 corridor. The airport’s air cargo market area includes Ocala. Air cargo demand in
the market area is accommodated by passenger airlines and one integrated express company
located at the airport. Additional air cargo service is provided by air cargo carriers specializing
in the transport of medical supplies and financial documents.




Appendix F                                                                                     F-3
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

The airport accommodated 726,000 pounds of enplaned and deplaned air cargo in fiscal year
2008. No mail was reported to be transported at the airport. Air cargo movements per week
day averaged about 2,800 pounds.

In 2008, AirNet, a bank check hauler; Mountain Air Cargo, a contracted feeder service for FedEx
Express; and Quest Diagnostics, a medical supply firm with its own fleet of cargo aircraft,
served the airport. These carriers had scheduled domestic routes to Birmingham, Jacksonville,
and Tampa, respectively. Quest Diagnostic’s supply chain network includes a Gainesville to
Tampa Executive Airport route, while Mountain Air Cargo operates two Cessna Caravans
which feed into a Memphis-bound FedEx DC-10 aircraft that operates from Jacksonville
International Airport.

Based on surveys and interviews of passenger airlines and integrated express companies
located at the airport, there are 16 employees at the airport whose jobs are supported by air
cargo activity. These employees have an annual payroll of $774,700. Annual output related to
passenger airlines (cargo activity only), integrated express companies, and air freight
forwarders located on the airport is estimated at over $1.9 million. Approximately 85 percent of
the air cargo employment at the airport is attributed to integrated express and other cargo
carriers, while passenger airlines and government agencies support the remaining 15 percent of
the airport’s air cargo-related employment.

The total direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity represents four
percent of Gainesville Regional Airport’s direct employment impact and three percent of the
airport’s direct annual output impact from all on-airport tenants, government, and
construction-related activities.

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
There are five integrated express stations located within a 40-mile radius of Gainesville
Regional Airport. These stations rely on cargo aircraft operations at the Gainesville Regional
Airport. There are no freight forwarders or customs brokers with air cargo services located in
the vicinity of the airport. Off-airport, the integrated express carriers support 38 full-time
equivalent indirect employees. These employees have an annual payroll of $1.9 million.
Indirect annual output related to air cargo activity for Gainesville Regional is estimated at $5.2
million.

Analysis indicates 100 percent of the indirect air cargo employment and economic output
related to this airport is attributed to integrated express carriers.




Appendix F                                                                                    F-4
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                March 2010

Jacksonville International Airport

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Jacksonville International Airport serves the air cargo needs of northeastern Florida. Air cargo
demand in the Jacksonville market area is accommodated by passenger airlines, integrated
express companies, and air freight forwarders which operate from the airport.

The airport accommodated 150,277,800 pounds of enplaned and deplaned air cargo between
August 2008 and July 2009. Approximately 95.7 percent of this traffic was air freight and 4.3
percent was mail. Air cargo movements averaged about 590,000 pounds per day.

Passenger airlines accommodate air cargo in the belly of commercial passenger aircraft. All
airlines at Jacksonville International have a small number of employees dedicated to air cargo
transport. In addition, other airline employees, such as baggage handlers, contribute to the
processing and movement of air cargo. The exception to this is AirTran; this airline does not
transport mail or freight. There are no passenger carriers operating international routes from
the airport. All cargo loaded and unloaded at the airport is considered domestic cargo,
although some cargo may connect to international flights at an air carrier’s respective hub or
gateway.

In 2008, DHL, FedEx Express, and UPS had significant operations at the airport. FedEx
operated a DC-10 to their hub in Memphis; this flight was supported by Mountain Air Cargo
turboprop feeder service from Gainesville. DHL operated a DC-9 aircraft which was routed to
Knoxville and Wilmington, Ohio. In January 2009, DHL reduced the size of aircraft serving
Jacksonville to a Cessna 208 which feeds a cargo jet in Atlanta. UPS operated B-757 aircraft from
the airport to their regional hub in Columbia, South Carolina and to their national hub in
Louisville, Kentucky.

Based on surveys and interviews of passenger airlines, integrated express companies, and air
freight forwarders located on the airport, there are 240 employees whose jobs are related to air
cargo activity. These employees have an annual payroll of $10.7 million. Annual output related
to air cargo activity supported by passenger airlines, integrated express companies, and air
freight forwarders is estimated at $23.8 million. Approximately 71 percent of the air cargo
employment at the airport is attributed to integrated express and other cargo carriers, while
passenger airlines and ground transportation companies support seven percent and 16 percent,
respectively, of the airport’s remaining air cargo-related employment. Government activity on
the airport related to air cargo supports 14 full-time equivalent positions or six percent of the air
cargo-related on-airport workforce. These positions are within airport management, the
Department of Homeland Security, and the FAA.

The total direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity represents seven
percent of Jacksonville International Airport’s direct employment impact and six percent of the



Appendix F                                                                                       F-5
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

airport’s direct annual output impact from all on-airport tenants, government, and
construction-related activities.

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
There are seven integrated express stations located within a 50-mile radius of Jacksonville
International Airport. These stations rely on cargo aircraft operations at Jacksonville
International Airport. In addition, approximately 50 freight forwarders with air cargo services
are located in the vicinity of this airport. These indirect air cargo businesses support 319 full-
time equivalent employees. These employees have an annual payroll of nearly $13.9 million.
Indirect annual output related to off-airport air cargo activity is estimated at $38.7 million.

Approximately 88 percent of the indirect off-airport air cargo employment related to the airport
is attributed to integrated express and other cargo carriers, while the air freight forwarder
activity supports 12 percent of the off-airport air cargo-related employment.

Key West International Airport

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Key West International Airport serves the air cargo needs of Key West and the Florida Keys.
Air cargo demand in the Key West market area is accommodated by passenger airlines and one
integrated express carrier located at the airport.

Passenger carriers accommodate air cargo in the belly of passenger aircraft. US Airways
Express, Continental Connection, Delta Connection, and American Eagle are the passenger
carriers operating at the airport. All of these commercial carriers have employees, such as
baggage handlers and ramp agents, who contribute to the processing and movement of air
cargo. Hence, a portion of the jobs for these employees are supported by air cargo. All cargo
loaded and unloaded at the airport is considered domestic cargo, although some cargo may
connect to international flights at hubs and gateways such as Atlanta or Miami.

In 2008, Mountain Air Cargo operated a Cessna Caravan to Ft. Lauderdale from Key West.
Cargo carried by this flight fed to larger FedEx Express jets aircraft bound for Memphis,
Newark, or Fort Worth.

Based on surveys and interviews of the passenger airlines and integrated express companies
located at the airport, there are 17 employees on-airport whose jobs are related to air cargo
activity. These employees earn an annual payroll of $814,400. Annual output related to cargo
activity is estimated at $2.2 million. Approximately 94 percent of the air cargo employment at
the airport is attributed to integrated express and passenger airlines, while government
agencies support six percent of the air cargo-related employment. Government positions are
within airport management, the Department of Homeland Security, and the FAA.




Appendix F                                                                                    F-6
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010

The total direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity represents five
percent of the direct employment impact for Key West International Airport and four percent of
the airport’s direct annual output impact from all on-airport tenants, government, and
construction-related activities.

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
There is one integrated express station located off Key West International Airport. This station
relies on cargo aircraft operations at the airport. There are no freight forwarders or customs
brokers with air cargo services located in the vicinity of Key West International Airport. The
indirect integrated express business supports three full-time equivalent employees. These
employees have an annual payroll of $165,400. Indirect annual output related to off-airport air
cargo activity for Key West International Airport is estimated at over $459,800.

Analysis indicates 100 percent of the indirect air cargo employment and economic output
related to this airport is attributed to integrated express carriers.

Melbourne International Airport

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Melbourne International Airport serves the air cargo needs of central Florida’s Space Coast. Air
cargo demand in the Melbourne market area is accommodated by passenger airlines and air
freight forwarders located at the airport.

The airport accommodated 83 metric tons of enplaned and deplaned air cargo in fiscal year
2008. No mail was reported to be transported at the airport. Air cargo volumes averaged
approximately 717 pounds per weekday.

Passenger carriers accommodate air cargo in the belly of commercial passenger aircraft. Delta
Airlines offers the only scheduled passenger service. Other air taxi and charter service is
offered from Melbourne International. A portion of the airline’s employees, such as baggage
handlers, warehouse workers, and ramp agents, contribute to the processing and movement of
air cargo.

Based on the airport’s current economic impact study, incorporated into this FDOT statewide
economic impact study, there are 38 on-airport employees whose jobs are related to air cargo
activity. These employees earn an annual payroll of over $1.7 million. Annual output related to
this cargo activity is estimated at over $4.8 million. Approximately 26 percent of the air cargo-
related employment is attributed to passenger airlines, while other cargo carriers and freight
forwarders at the airport support 70 percent of the on-airport air cargo-related employment.
Government activity at the airport related to air cargo supports the remaining four percent of
the air cargo-related employment. Government positions are within airport management, the
Department of Homeland Security, and the FAA.



Appendix F                                                                                   F-7
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

The total direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity represents less than
one percent of the Melbourne International Airport’s direct employment impact and less than
one percent of the airport’s direct annual output impact from all on-airport tenants,
government, and construction-related activities.

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
Melbourne International Airport has limited air cargo service. Melbourne International Airport
does not have UPS, DHL, or FedEx Express aircraft operations. Although UPS and FedEx
Express have off-airport stations in Melbourne, these stations truck air cargo to and from their
respective aircraft at Orlando International Airport, 61 miles away. A limited amount of air
cargo demand in the Melbourne market area is accommodated by passenger airlines that serve
the airport. Melbourne International has no indirect off-airport air cargo economic impacts.

Miami International Airport

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Miami International Airport serves as an international gateway for North America to markets in
the Caribbean, Latin America, and South America. The airport also offers extensive passenger
and cargo service to Asia and Europe, as well as to parts of the Middle-East. Air cargo demand
in the Miami market area is accommodated by passenger airlines, integrated express
companies, and freight forwarders located on the airport and off-airport. Rankings for 2008
show Miami International Airport as the leading airport in the United States for international
freight. Among world airports, Miami International ranks 10th in international freight. Miami
International’s total air trade for 2008 was valued at $40.7 billion, or 96 percent of the dollar
value for Florida’s total air imports and exports, and 33 percent of Florida’s total (air and sea)
trade with the world.

The airport accommodated 1,886,944 metric tons of enplaned and deplaned air cargo in fiscal
year 2008. Approximately 98 percent of this traffic was air freight and two percent was mail.
Air cargo volumes averaged approximately 16.3 million pounds per weekday. Miami
International handles 82 percent of all U.S. air imports and 79 percent of all U.S. exports from
the Latin American/Caribbean region. Miami International serves as a distribution hub for
perishable products, hi-tech commodities, telecommunications equipment, textiles,
pharmaceuticals, and industrial machinery.

Nearly 90 commercial passenger airlines at Miami International contribute to the year-round,
two-way air cargo traffic, linking the Americas with high growth markets in Asia, Europe, the
Middle East, and beyond. In addition, FedEx, UPS, and LAN Cargo are the largest cargo
operators on the airport. These carriers operate major gateways at the airport. In all, there were
more than 25 other businesses operating at Miami International Airport in 2008 whose activities
were devoted exclusively to providing air cargo services.




Appendix F                                                                                    F-8
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

American Airlines is the predominant commercial passenger carrier serving the airport.
American Airlines carries a significant amount of belly-hold cargo on its passenger flights. A
large volume of air cargo lift to Europe, the Caribbean, and Latin America is provided by
international commercial passenger flights. For the commercial airlines serving Miami
International, all have a portion of their employees, such as baggage handlers, warehouse
workers, and ramp agents, who contribute to the processing and movement of air cargo, 24
hours per day seven days per week. Some airlines contract this task out to ground handling
companies which are included in this analysis.

This FDOT statewide economic impact study incorporates findings from the most recent
economic impact study for Miami International Airport. Based on information from this prior
study, there are 5,633 on-airport employees whose jobs are related to air cargo activity. These
employees have an annual payroll of nearly $245 million. Annual output related to cargo
activity is estimated at over $413 million. Approximately 87 percent of the air cargo-related
employment at Miami International is attributed to integrated express and all cargo carriers,
while passenger airlines support 12 percent of the on-airport cargo-related employment.
Government activity on the airport related to air cargo supports 83 full-time equivalent
positions or one percent of the air cargo-related on-airport workforce. Government positions
are typically within airport management, the Department of Homeland Security, and the FAA.

The total direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity at Miami
International Airport represents 15 percent of the airport’s direct employment impact and six
percent of the airport’s direct annual output impact from all on-airport tenants, government,
and construction-related activities.

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
There are eight integrated express stations located within a 25-mile radius of Miami
International Airport. These stations rely on cargo aircraft operations at Miami International
Airport. In addition, over 200 freight forwarders and nearly 175 customs brokers with air cargo
services are located in the vicinity of the airport. Perishable importers are also located in close
proximity of the airport, and they comprise 260 businesses related to the import of flowers,
seafood, and produce. Also included in the indirect off-airport air cargo impact for this airport
are DHL Express’ U.S. headquarters in Plantation, Florida as well as FedEx’s Latin American
Caribbean Headquarters located just south of the airport. In aggregate, these indirect off-
airport air cargo businesses support 9,053 full-time employees with an annual payroll of nearly
$389.5 million. Indirect annual output related to Miami International Airport’s off-airport cargo
activity is estimated at over $938.5 million.

Approximately 12 percent of the indirect air cargo employment related to the airport is
attributed to integrated express and other cargo carriers, while air freight forwarders and
customs brokers comprise 39 percent of the off-airport cargo-related employment. The
remaining balance of the indirect air cargo-related jobs, 49 percent, is related to perishable
importers in the airport vicinity.


Appendix F                                                                                     F-9
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

Northwest Florida Regional Airport/Eglin AFB

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Northwest Florida Regional Airport serves the air cargo needs of the communities of Fort
Walton Beach, Destin, and Valparaiso in Okaloosa County. Air cargo demand in this portion of
the Florida Panhandle is accommodated by commercial passenger airlines that serve the airport.
Air cargo served on integrated express carriers such as UPS and FedEx Express is trucked to
other airports.

Passenger carriers accommodate air cargo in the belly of commercial passenger aircraft. US
Airways Express, Continental Connection, Delta Connection, and American Eagle are the
passenger carriers operating at the airport. All of these commercial airlines have employees,
such as baggage handlers and ramp agents, who contribute to processing and moving air cargo.
All cargo loaded and unloaded at the airport is domestic cargo, although some cargo may
connect to international flights at airline hubs and gateways.

Based on surveys and interviews with the passenger airlines located at the airport, there are five
employees on the airport whose jobs are related to air cargo activity. These employees earn an
annual payroll of $186,700. Annual output related to cargo activity is estimated at $607,400.
Passenger airlines and government agencies support 100 percent of the air cargo-related on-
airport workforce at the airport. Government positions are within airport management, the
Department of Homeland Security, and the FAA.

The total direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity represents two
percent of Northwest Florida Regional Airport’s direct employment impact and one percent of
the airport’s direct annual output impact from all on-airport tenants, government, and
construction-related activities.

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
Northwest Florida Regional Airport has limited air cargo service. Northwest Florida Regional
Airport does not have UPS, DHL, or FedEx Express aircraft operations. UPS and FedEx Express
have off-airport stations in Pensacola that support air cargo operations in Valparaiso, Florida.
Air cargo demand in the Valparaiso market area is accommodated by passenger airlines that
serve the airport.

Orlando International Airport

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Orlando International Airport serves the air cargo needs of Central Florida. Air cargo demand
in the Orlando market area is accommodated by passenger airlines, integrated express
companies, and freight forwarders located at the airport.




Appendix F                                                                                   F-10
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

The airport accommodated 125,034 metric tons of enplaned and deplaned air cargo in fiscal year
2008.    There is a significant workforce on-airport to handle mail, which represents
approximately five percent of all air cargo employment. The remaining 95 percent of the
airport’s air cargo is air freight. Air cargo volumes at the airport average approximately 1.1
million pounds per weekday.

Passenger airlines serving the airport accommodate air cargo in the belly of commercial
passenger aircraft. Passenger airlines at the airport include the major legacy carriers, as well as
several low-cost carriers. Southwest Airlines is the largest carrier in terms of passengers
carried, and AirTran operates a secondary hub at the airport. Most commercial airlines serving
the airport have a portion of their employees, such as baggage handlers, warehouse workers,
and ramp agents, that contribute to the processing and movement of air cargo. The exception to
this is AirTran; this carrier does not transport mail or freight. Some airlines contract this task
out to ground handling companies which are included in this analysis.

In June 2008, UPS was the dominant integrated express carrier at the airport with six departures
to three hub airports and two non-hub air cargo airports (Boston Logan and Atlanta). FedEx
Express operated two wide-body aircraft routes to Memphis and one to Indianapolis, their
second largest U.S. hub. Mountain Air Cargo provided turboprop feeder service to and from
Vero Beach for FedEx. DHL operated a wide-body B767 to their hub in Wilmington, Ohio.
Quest Diagnostics operated a Beech 58 aircraft at the airport to support their medical supply
chain management. BAX Global provided air cargo lift to its hub in Toledo, Ohio, while Capital
Cargo International provided air cargo lift to Atlanta.

Based on surveys and interviews of the passenger airlines, integrated express companies, and
freight forwarders located at the airport, there are 753 employees on-airport whose jobs are
related to air cargo activity. These employees have an annual payroll of over $32.0 million.
Annual output related to cargo activity is estimated at $91.8 million. Approximately 70 percent
of the air cargo-related employment at the airport is attributed to integrated express and other
cargo carriers, while passenger airlines support 29 percent of the on-airport air cargo-related
employment. Government activity at the airport related to air cargo supports one percent of the
air cargo-related on-airport workforce. Government positions are typically within airport
management, the Department of Homeland Security, and the FAA.

The total direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity represents five
percent of the Orlando International Airport’s direct employment impact and two percent of the
airport’s direct annual output impact from on-airport tenants, government, and construction-
related activities.

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
There are 12 integrated express stations located within a 55-mile radius of Orlando International
Airport. Orlando International Airport supports more integrated express stations than any
other airport in the state as a result of its central location within Florida. In addition,


Appendix F                                                                                    F-11
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010

approximately 45 freight forwarders and customs brokers with air cargo services are located in
the vicinity of the airport. These indirect off-airport air cargo businesses support 1,073 full-time
equivalent employees. These employees have an annual payroll of nearly $56.4 million.
Indirect annual output related to cargo activity is estimated at over $161.2 million.

Approximately 33 percent of the indirect off-airport air cargo employment related to this airport
is attributed to integrated express carriers, while air freight forwarders and customs brokers
support the remaining 67 percent of the airport’s off-airport cargo-related employment.

Orlando Sanford International Airport

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Orlando Sanford International Airport functions as an international cargo gateway for air cargo
demand in Central Florida. Air cargo demand in the market area is frequently accommodated
by belly-hold space on commercial passenger airlines. Berries and strawberries grown in
Florida are commonly transported on commercial flights to Europe.

The airport accommodated 4,900 metric tons of enplaned and deplaned air cargo in fiscal year
2008. No mail was reported to be transported from the airport. Air cargo volumes averaged
about 42,100 pounds per weekday.

Passenger carriers serving the airport accommodate air cargo in the belly of commercial
passenger aircraft. Allegiant Air, Direct Air, and First Choice Airlines are domestic passenger
carriers operating at the airport, while international passenger routes are served by
Flyglobespan, Thomas Cook Airlines, and Thomsonfly. These commercial airlines all have a
portion of their employees, such as baggage handlers and ramp agents, who contribute to the
processing and movement of air cargo. One freight forwarder is also located at the airport.

In 2008, after British Airways and Virgin Atlantic discontinued service to the airport,
Flyglobespan added routes to Belfast and Glasgow using Boeing 767s. In 2008, Icelandair
discontinued its A330 Orlando Sanford to Dublin route, but added an Orlando Sanford to
Reykjavik route using a Boeing 757. Despite this being a narrow body aircraft, the 757’s non-
container cargo lift capacity is capable of accommodating bulk loaded cargo. Additionally, in
2008, Flight Express added an Orlando Sanford to Orlando Executive route in a Cessna 210 to
support the transport of bank checks.

Based on surveys and interviews of the passenger airlines and freight forwarder located at the
airport, there are 31 employees on-airport whose jobs are related to air cargo activity. These
employees have an annual payroll of nearly $2.2 million. Annual output related to air cargo
activity is estimated at nearly $6.2 million. Approximately 45 percent of the air cargo-related
employment is attributed to cargo carriers and freight forwarders on the airport, while
passenger airlines support 32 percent of the on-airport cargo-related employment. Government
activity on the airport, related to air cargo, supports 23 percent of the air cargo-related on-


Appendix F                                                                                     F-12
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

airport workforce. Government positions are within airport management, the Department of
Homeland Security, and the FAA.

The total direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity represents less than
one percent of Orlando Sanford International Airport’s direct employment impact and less than
one percent of the airport’s direct annual output impact from all on-airport tenants,
government, and construction-related activities.

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
Although Orlando Sanford International Airport functions as an international cargo gateway
for air cargo demand in Central Florida, there are no off-airport cargo businesses associated
with the airport. Freight forwarders based in Orlando primarily rely on Orlando International
Airport. There is one freight forwarder located at Orlando Sanford International Airport; the
impacts for this activity were included in the airport’s on-airport direct cargo impacts.

Palm Beach International Airport

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Palm Beach International Airport serves the air cargo needs along the Interstate 95 corridor in
southeast Florida. Air cargo demand in the Palm Beach market area is accommodated by
passenger airlines and integrated express companies located at the airport.

The airport accommodated 13,600 metric tons of enplaned and deplaned air cargo in fiscal year
2008. Approximately 78 percent of this traffic was air freight and 22 percent was mail. Air
cargo volumes averaged about 117,300 pounds per weekday.

Passenger carriers accommodate air cargo in the belly compartments of commercial passenger
aircraft. Passenger airlines serving the airport include Air Canada, American Airlines, Bahamas
Air, Continental Airlines, JetBlue Airways, Delta Airlines, Northwest Airlines, Southwest
Airlines, Spirit Airlines, and US Airways. A portion of the employees for these commercial
carriers, such as baggage handlers and ramp agents, contribute to processing and moving air
cargo. Some airlines contract this task out to ground handling companies which are included in
this analysis.

UPS is the largest cargo operator at the airport, with two flights from Palm Beach to Miami
utilizing Boeing 757 aircraft. The final destinations for these UPS flights were Louisville and
Philadelphia. Flight Express operated bank check hauling flights at the airport in 2008, utilizing
a Cessna 210 aircraft.

Based on surveys and interviews of the passenger airlines and integrated express companies
located at the airport, there are 152 employees on the airport whose jobs are related to air cargo
activity. These employees earn an annual payroll of nearly $7.3 million. Annual output related
to cargo activity is estimated at over $19.6 million. Approximately 81 percent of the air cargo


Appendix F                                                                                   F-13
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010

employment is attributed to integrated express and other cargo carriers on the airport, while air
cargo activity supported by passenger airlines accounts for 16 percent of the on-airport air
cargo-related employment. Government activity at the airport, related to air cargo, supports the
remaining 3 percent of the cargo-related employment. Government positions are within airport
management, the Department of Homeland Security, and the FAA.

The total direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity represents five
percent of Palm Beach International Airport’s direct employment impact and four percent of the
airport’s direct annual output impact from all on-airport tenants, government, and
construction-related activities.

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
There are 10 integrated express stations located within a 60-mile radius of Palm Beach
International Airport. These stations rely on cargo aircraft operations at Palm Beach
International Airport. In addition, approximately 10 freight forwarders with air cargo services
are located in the vicinity of Palm Beach International. These indirect off-airport air cargo
businesses support 403 full-time employees. These employees have an annual payroll of nearly
$21.2 million. Indirect annual output related to off-airport air cargo activity is estimated at over
$57.6 million.

Approximately 93 percent of the indirect off-airport air cargo employment related to this airport
is attributed to integrated express and other cargo carriers, while air freight forwarder activity
supports seven percent of all off-airport air cargo-related employment.

Panama City-Bay County International Airport

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Panama City-Bay County International Airport serves the air cargo needs of Bay County in the
Florida Panhandle. Air cargo demand in the Panama City market area is accommodated by
passenger airlines, integrated express companies, and bank check haulers located at the airport.

The airport accommodated 533 metric tons of enplaned and deplaned air cargo in fiscal year
2008. No mail was reported to be transported via the airport. Air cargo volumes averaged
about 4,600 pounds per weekday.

Passenger carriers accommodate air cargo in the belly compartment of commercial passenger
aircraft. Passenger airlines serving the airport include Delta Connection and Northwest Airlink.
A portion of employees for these commercial carriers, such as baggage handlers, warehouse
workers, and ramp agents, contribute to the processing and movement of air cargo. All cargo
loaded and unloaded at the airport is considered domestic cargo, although some cargo may
connect to international flights at airline hubs and gateways




Appendix F                                                                                     F-14
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

In 2008, Air Cargo Carriers, a contracted feeder service for DHL; Flight Express, a contracted
feeder to UPS; and Quest Diagnostics, a medical supply firm with its own fleet of cargo aircraft,
served the airport with scheduled domestic routes to Dothan, Destin, Orlando, and Pensacola.
Quest Diagnostic’s supply chain network includes a Panama City to Pensacola route, while Air
Cargo Carriers operates, on a contract basis, a Shorts 330 aircraft that feeds into a DHL DC-9
aircraft at Pensacola by way of Dothan. Flight Express operates a Beech 58 to Destin and
Dothan, continuing on to Birmingham where it then feeds into a Louisville bound UPS A300.
Flight Express also operates a Cessna 210 to transport bank checks to Pensacola and Orlando
Executive.

Based on surveys and interviews of passenger airlines, integrated express companies, and bank
check haulers located at the airport, there are 10 employees on-airport whose jobs are related to
air cargo activity. These employees earn an annual payroll of $510,000. Annual output related
to cargo activity at the airport is estimated at nearly $1.3 million. Approximately 87 percent of
the air cargo employment at the airport is attributed to integrated express and other cargo
carriers, while passenger airlines support 12 percent of the on-airport cargo-related
employment. Government activity at the airport, related to air cargo, supports the remaining
one percent of the air cargo related-employment. Government positions are within airport
management, the Department of Homeland Security, and the FAA.

The total direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity represents four
percent of Panama City-Bay County International Airport’s direct employment impact and four
percent of the airport’s direct annual output impact from all on-airport tenants, government,
and construction-related activities.

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
There are two integrated express stations located within a three-mile radius of Panama City-Bay
County International Airport. These stations rely on cargo aircraft operations at the airport.
There are also three freight forwarders with air cargo services located in the vicinity of the
airport. These indirect off-airport air cargo businesses support 34 full-time employees. These
employees have an annual payroll of nearly $1.7 million. Indirect annual output related to air
cargo activity is estimated at $4.7 million.

Approximately 85 percent of the indirect off-airport air cargo employment related to this airport
is attributed to integrated express and other cargo carriers, while air freight forwarder activity
supports 15 percent of the off-airport air cargo-related employment.

Pensacola Regional Airport

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Pensacola Regional Airport serves the air cargo needs of the northwest Florida Panhandle. Air
cargo demand in the Pensacola market area is accommodated by passenger airlines, integrated
express companies, and bank check haulers which are all located at the airport.


Appendix F                                                                                   F-15
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010



The airport accommodated 2,600 metric tons of enplaned and deplaned air cargo in fiscal year
2008. No mail was reported to be transported via the airport. Air cargo volumes averaged
about 22,800 pounds per weekday.

Passenger carriers serving the airport accommodate air cargo in the belly of commercial
passenger aircraft. Passenger airlines include American Eagle, Continental Airlines, Delta
Airlines, Northwest Airlines, and US Airways. A portion of the airline employees, such as
baggage handlers and ramp agents, contribute to the movement of air cargo. All cargo loaded
and unloaded at the airport is considered domestic cargo, although some cargo may connect to
international flights at airline hubs and gateways.

In 2008, Air Cargo Carriers Inc., Flight Express, Quest Diagnostics, and DHL all served the
airport on scheduled domestic air cargo routes. Air Cargo Carriers, a contract feeder service for
DHL, operated a Shorts 330 aircraft from Pensacola Regional Airport to Panama City. Flight
Express, operated a Beech 58 from Pensacola Regional Airport to Bob Sikes Airport (Crestview,
FL), continuing on to Tallahassee and Craig Municipal Airport near Jacksonville. Flight Express
also operated Cessna 210s to transport bank checks to Panama City and Bob Sikes Airport.
Quest Diagnostics, a medical supply firm, with its own fleet of cargo aircraft, operated Beech
58s on routes to Mobile and Tallahassee. DHL maintained its daily cargo lift capacity from
Pensacola at 20,000 pounds, operating a DC-9 to Tri-Cities Airport in Tennessee, continuing on
to their hub, now in Cincinnati.

Based on surveys and interviews of the passenger airlines, integrated express companies, and
freight forwarders located at the airport, there are 14 employees on-airport whose jobs are
related to air cargo activity. These employees earn an annual payroll of $612,900. Annual
output related to cargo activity at the airport is estimated at over $1.7 million. Approximately
50 percent of the air cargo-related employment is attributed to integrated express and other
cargo carriers at the airport, while passenger airlines serving the airport support 38 percent of
the on-airport cargo-related employment. Government activity on the airport, related to air
cargo, supports the remaining 12 percent of the cargo-related employment. Government
positions are within airport management, the Department of Homeland Security, and the FAA.

The total direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity represents two
percent of Pensacola Regional Airport’s direct employment impact and two percent of the
airport’s direct annual output impact from all on-airport tenants, government, and
construction-related activities.

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
There are three integrated express stations located within a 50-mile radius of Pensacola
Regional Airport. DHL is the only integrated express operator on the airport. UPS and FedEx
Express truck cargo into the market from Mobile, Alabama. There are two freight forwarders
with air cargo services located in the vicinity of the airport. These integrated express businesses


Appendix F                                                                                    F-16
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

and freight forwarders with air cargo services in the airport’s market area support 54 full-time
indirect jobs. These employees have an annual payroll of nearly $2.7 million. Indirect annual
output related to air cargo activity is estimated at over $7.4 million.

Approximately 80 percent of the indirect off-airport air cargo employment related to this airport
is attributed to integrated express and other cargo carriers, while air freight forwarder activity
supports 20 percent of the off-airport cargo-related employment.

St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Air cargo demand in the Tampa/St. Petersburg-Clearwater market area is accommodated by
integrated express companies located at two airports. St. Petersburg-Clearwater International
Airport serves as a local market station for UPS, while Tampa International Airport serves as a
local market station for FedEx Express. DHL also operated at St. Petersburg-Clearwater
International Airport in 2008.

St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport accommodated 17,600 metric tons of enplaned
and deplaned air cargo in fiscal year 2008. No mail was reported to be transported via the
airport. Air cargo volumes averaged about 151,800 pounds per weekday.

Commercial passenger and charter carriers at the airport typically do not carry freight;
therefore, these carriers do not contribute to on-airport cargo activity.

In 2008, UPS operated scheduled service to its Louisville hub with an Airbus A300. UPS also
operated routes to Jacksonville and to its hubs in Philadelphia and Columbia, SC using an
Airbus A300 and two Boeing 757s. Integrated express carrier DHL served the market with a
dedicated DC-9 on scheduled routes to the carrier’s Wilmington, Ohio hub.

Based on surveys and interviews of cargo companies located at the airport, there are 44
employees on-airport whose jobs are related to air cargo activity. These employees have an
annual payroll of $2.2 million. Annual output related to cargo activity is estimated at nearly
$5.4 million. Approximately 91 percent of the employment is attributed to integrated express
and ground handlers at the airport, while government activity at the airport, related to air
cargo, supports the remaining nine percent of the air cargo-related employment. Government
positions are within airport management, the Department of Homeland Security, and the FAA.

The total direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity represents two
percent of St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport’s direct employment impact and two
percent of the airport’s direct annual output impact from all on-airport tenants, government,
and construction-related activities.




Appendix F                                                                                   F-17
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
There are seven integrated express stations located within a 60-mile radius of St. Petersburg-
Clearwater International Airport. UPS is the only integrated express operator at the airport,
and there are no freight forwarders with air cargo service in the airport’s market area. Indirect
integrated express operations related to the airport support 121 full-time employees. These
employees have an annual payroll of over $6.0 million. Indirect annual output related to off-
airport air cargo activity for this airport is estimated at over $16.8 million.

Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport provides air cargo services for southwestern Florida
along the Interstate 75 corridor in both Sarasota and Manatee counties. Air cargo demand in the
Sarasota market area is accommodated by commercial passenger airlines serving the airport.
There are no integrated express carriers operating at the airport. This is largely due to the
airport’s proximity to the Tampa International and St. Petersburg-Clearwater International
airports where FedEx Express and UPS operate local market stations.

The airport accommodated 224 metric tons of enplaned and deplaned air cargo in fiscal year
2008. No mail was reported to be transported via the airport. Air cargo volumes averaged
about 1,932 pounds per weekday.

Passenger carriers accommodate air cargo in the belly of commercial passenger aircraft. Air
Canada, AirTran Airways, Delta Airlines, JetBlue Airways, Northwest Airlines, and US
Airways are the passenger carriers operating at the airport. Most have a small number of
employees such as baggage handlers that contribute to processing and moving air cargo. The
exception to this is AirTran; this carrier does not transport mail or freight. All cargo loaded and
unloaded at the airport is considered domestic cargo, although some cargo may connect to
international flights at airline hubs and gateways.

Based on surveys and interviews of the passenger airlines located at the airport, there are eight
full-time equivalent employees on the airport whose jobs are related to air cargo activity. These
employees have an annual payroll of $362,900. Annual output related to cargo activity is
estimated at $975,100. Passenger airlines support 80 percent of the air cargo-related on-airport
workforce, while government agencies support the remaining 20 percent of the cargo-related
employment. Government positions are within airport management, the Department of
Homeland Security, and the FAA.

Total direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity represents less than one
percent of Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport’s direct employment impact and one
percent of the airport’s direct annual output impact from all on-airport tenants, government,
and construction-related activities.



Appendix F                                                                                    F-18
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport has limited air cargo activity. Integrated express
carriers do not operate at the airport. Air cargo demand in the Sarasota/Bradenton market area
is accommodated by passenger airlines that serve the airport.

Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport does not support UPS, DHL, or FedEx Express aircraft
operations.    Although UPS and FedEx Express have four off-airport stations in
Sarasota/Bradenton, these stations truck air cargo to and from their respective aircraft at Tampa
International Airport and St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport which are 44 miles
and 57 miles away, respectively.

Southwest Florida International Airport

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Southwest Florida International Airport serves the air cargo needs of southwest Florida along
the Interstate 75 corridor, which includes Fort Myers and Naples. Air cargo demand in the Fort
Myers market area is accommodated by passenger airlines, integrated express companies, and
air freight forwarders located at the airport.

The airport accommodated 15,400 metric tons of enplaned and deplaned air cargo in fiscal year
2008. Approximately 99.5 percent of this traffic was air freight and 0.5 percent was mail. Air
cargo volumes averaged about 133,100 pounds per weekday.

Passenger carriers accommodate air cargo in the belly of commercial passenger aircraft.
Passenger airlines serving the airport include American Airlines, Air Canada, Continental
Airlines, Delta Airlines, Northwest Airlines, Southwest Airlines, JetBlue Airways, Spirit
Airlines, Sun Country, Sunwing Airlines, USA 3000, US Airways, West Jet, and LTU. A portion
of the employees for these airlines, such as baggage handlers, warehouse workers, and ramp
agents, contribute to processing and moving air cargo.

Southwest Florida International Airport supports scheduled air cargo by UPS on a route to its
hub in Louisville and a FedEx Express route to its hub in Memphis. AirNet Systems operates a
bank check hauling route from Southwest Florida International to Tampa International utilizing
a Cessna Caravan (C208).

Based on surveys and interviews of the passenger airlines, integrated express companies, and
freight forwarders located on the airport, there are 154 employees at the airport whose jobs are
related to air cargo activity. These employees have an annual payroll of over $6.9 million.
Annual output related to cargo activity is estimated at $15.3 million. Approximately 83 percent
of the air cargo-related employment at the airport is attributed to integrated express and other
cargo carriers, while commercial passenger airlines support 12 percent of the airport’s cargo-
related employment. Government activity on the airport, related to air cargo, supports the



Appendix F                                                                                  F-19
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                               March 2010

remaining five percent of the cargo-related employment. Government positions are within
airport management, the Department of Homeland Security, and the FAA.

The total direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity represents five
percent of Southwest Florida International Airport’s direct employment impact and three
percent of the airport’s direct annual output impact from all on-airport tenants, government,
and construction-related activities.

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
There are seven integrated express stations located within a 40-mile radius of Southwest Florida
International Airport. These stations rely on cargo aircraft operations at the airport. In addition,
four freight forwarders with air cargo services are located in the vicinity of the airport. These
indirect off-airport air cargo businesses support 174 full-time employees. These employees
have an annual payroll of nearly $8.7 million. Indirect annual output related to air cargo
activity is estimated at nearly $23.8 million.

Approximately 93 percent of the indirect off-airport air cargo employment related to this airport
is attributed to integrated express and other cargo carriers, while air freight forwarder activity
supports the remaining seven percent of off-airport cargo-related employment.

Tallahassee Regional Airport

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Tallahassee Regional Airport serves the air cargo needs of the state capital and the market area
along the Interstate 10 corridor in northwest Florida. Air cargo demand in the Tallahassee
market area is accommodated by passenger airlines, integrated express companies, and air
freight forwarders located at the airport.

The airport accommodated 12,600 metric tons of enplaned and deplaned air cargo in fiscal year
2008. No mail was reported to be transported via the airport. Air cargo volumes averaged
about 109,300 pounds per weekday.

Passenger carriers accommodate air cargo in the belly of commercial passenger aircraft.
Passenger airlines serving the airport include American Eagle, Continental Airlines, Delta
Airlines, Northwest Airlines, and US Airways. A portion of employees for these commercial
carriers, such as baggage handlers and ramp agents, contribute to processing and moving air
cargo. All cargo loaded and unloaded at the airport is considered domestic cargo, although
some cargo may connect to international flights at airline hubs and gateways.

The majority of the cargo lift capacity available at Tallahassee Regional Airport is through
FedEx Express. FedEx Express operates a B-727 at the airport on a route to their Memphis hub.
Mountain Air Cargo, a contracted feeder service for FedEx Express, serves the market with two
Cessna 208 flights to Orlando and an ATR-42 flight to Memphis (via Dothan) where cargo feeds


Appendix F                                                                                     F-20
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                March 2010

into the larger FedEx network. Quest Diagnostics, a medical supply firm, with its own fleet of
cargo aircraft, serves the market with on a scheduled domestic route to Vandenberg Airport in
the Tampa area on a Cessna 310 aircraft. DHL discontinued its DC-9 flights to Cincinnati and
now operates a Beech 99 in the market. UPS does not operate aircraft at Tallahassee Regional,
but serves the market by trucking air cargo to Albany, Georgia.

Based on surveys and interviews of the passenger airlines, integrated express companies, and
freight forwarders located at the airport, there are 57 employees on-airport whose jobs are
related to air cargo activity. These employees earn an annual payroll of over $2.8 million.
Annual output related to cargo activity at the airport is estimated at nearly $7.2 million.
Approximately 91 percent of the cargo-related employment at the airport is attributed to
integrated express and other cargo carriers on the airport, while passenger airlines support five
percent of the on-airport cargo-related employment. Government activity on the airport,
related to air cargo, supports the remaining four percent of the cargo-related employment.
Government positions are within airport management, the Department of Homeland Security,
and the FAA.

The total direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity represents eight
percent of Tallahassee Regional Airport’s direct employment impact and eight percent of the
airport’s direct annual output impact from all on-airport tenants, government, and
construction-related activities.

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
There are two integrated express stations located within a 15-mile radius of Tallahassee
Regional Airport. FedEx Express is the only integrator operating at the airport. UPS and DHL
truck cargo into the market from airports in Albany, Georgia and Panama City, Florida. There
are three freight forwarders with air cargo services located in the vicinity of the airport. Indirect
integrated express businesses and freight forwarders with air cargo services support 104 full-
time off-airport air cargo employees. These employees have an annual payroll of nearly $5.2
million. Indirect annual output related to air cargo activity is estimated at over $14.1 million.

Approximately 65 percent of the indirect off-airport air cargo employment related to the airport
is attributed to integrated express and other cargo carriers, while air freight forwarder activity
supports 35 percent of the off-airport air cargo-related employment.

Tampa International Airport

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Tampa International Airport serves as a local market station for FedEx Express. The airport’s
air cargo market area includes the Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg-Clearwater, and west-central
Florida. Air cargo demand in the Tampa market area is also accommodated by passenger
airlines that serve the airport.



Appendix F                                                                                      F-21
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

The airport accommodated 102,648 metric tons of enplaned and deplaned air cargo in fiscal year
2008. Approximately 93 percent of this air cargo activity was air freight and seven percent was
mail. Air cargo volumes averaged about 887,500 pounds per weekday.

Many passenger carriers accommodate air cargo in the belly of commercial passenger aircraft.
Passenger airlines at the airport include the major legacy carriers, as well as several low-cost
carriers. British Airways provides significant international lift for the airport, using wide-body
aircraft to London. Wide-body aircraft accommodate air cargo in containers (ULDs) in the belly
compartment of commercial aircraft. A portion of the employees for the commercial airlines
that serve the airport, such as baggage handlers, warehouse workers, and ramp agents,
contribute to the movement of air cargo. Some airlines contract this task out to ground
handling companies which are included in this analysis.

FedEx Express is the only integrated express operator at the airport; this cargo carrier operates
routes from Tampa to its hubs in Indianapolis, Memphis, and Newark. UPS serves the market
by operating at Clearwater-St. Petersburg (PIE). DHL is discontinuing use of a Boeing 727 to
serve the airport, and is upgrading this aircraft with a Boeing 767 on a route to its hub. Flight
Express also has considerable small package and bank check hauling activity at the airport.

Based on surveys and interviews of the passenger airlines and integrated express companies
located at the airport, there are 341 employees at the airport whose jobs are related to air cargo
activity. These employees have an annual payroll of $14.4 million. Annual output related to
on-airport cargo activity is estimated at over $42.8 million. Approximately 58 percent of the
airport’s cargo-related employment is attributed to integrated express and other cargo carriers,
while commercial passenger airlines support 37 percent of the on-airport cargo-related
employment. Government activity on the airport, related to air cargo, supports 15 full-time jobs
or five percent of the airport’s air cargo-related on-airport workforce. Government positions are
typically within airport management, the Department of Homeland Security, and the FAA.

The total direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity represents six
percent of Tampa International Airport’s direct employment impact and six percent of the
airport’s direct annual output impact from all on-airport tenants, government, and
construction-related activities.

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
There are eight integrated express stations located within a 45-mile radius of Tampa
International Airport. FedEx Express is the only integrated express operator on the airport.
There are 37 freight forwarders with air cargo services in the airport’s market area. Indirect off-
airport air cargo businesses associated with Tampa International airport support 706 full-time
employees. These employees have an annual payroll of nearly $36.6 million. Indirect annual
output related to off-airport air cargo activity is estimated at nearly $97.3 million.




Appendix F                                                                                    F-22
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010

Approximately 50 percent of the indirect off-airport air cargo employment related to this airport
is attributed to integrated express carriers, while air freight forwarder activity supports 50
percent of the off-airport air cargo-related employment.




Appendix F                                                                                  F-23
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010


Direct Air Cargo Impacts for General Aviation Airports

Charlotte County Airport

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Charlotte County Airport serves the air cargo needs of Punta Gorda in southwest Florida. Air
cargo demand in the Punta Gorda market area is accommodated by integrated express
companies, UPS and FedEx Express, who operate sorting facilities on airport property. It is
important to point out that these carriers do not currently operate aircraft at the airport. While
the cargo companies perform sorting operations on the airport, the carriers truck air cargo to
Southwest Regional Airport, 30 miles south in Fort Myers, for the cargo to be flown out of
Florida.

Passenger carriers at the airport operate only seasonally and/or as charters and do not carry
freight; therefore, commercial carriers do not contribute to the airport’s on-airport cargo
activity.

Based on surveys and interviews of the integrated express companies located at the airport,
there are 33 full-time employees at the airport whose jobs are related to air cargo activity. These
employees earn an annual payroll of almost $1.7 million. Annual output related to cargo
activity is estimated at nearly $4.5 million. One hundred percent of the air cargo employment at
the airport is attributed to integrated express operators.

Total direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity represents nine percent
of Charlotte County Airport’s direct employment impact and nine percent of the airport’s direct
annual output impact for all on-airport tenants, government, and construction-related activities.

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
Charlotte County Airport has UPS and FedEx Express stations located at the airport; but these
carriers do not have off-airport stations in the airport market area. There are no freight
forwarders or customs brokers attributed to the airport. All air cargo-related impacts for this
airport are in the on-airport category.

Craig Municipal Airport

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Craig Municipal Airport helps to serve the air cargo needs of Jacksonville in northeastern
Florida. The airport supports one bank check hauler that operates from the airport.

The airport accommodated 3.4 metric tons of enplaned and deplaned air cargo in fiscal year
2008. No mail was reported to be transported via the airport. Air cargo volumes averaged
about 30 pounds per weekday.


Appendix F                                                                                    F-24
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010



All scheduled air cargo activity at Craig Municipal is via a local carrier that serves the market
with routes to Macon Downtown Airport, Pensacola Gulf Coast Regional, Orlando Executive,
Columbia Metropolitan, and Tallahassee Regional. The carrier operates Cessna 210s and Beech
58s.

Based on surveys and interviews of the air cargo operators located at the airport, there are five
full-time equivalent employees on-airport whose jobs are related to air cargo activity. These
employees earn an annual payroll of $259,700. Annual output related to cargo activity is
estimated at over $652,800. One hundred percent of the on-airport cargo-related employment is
attributed to integrated express operators, bank check haulers, and government agencies.
Government positions are typically within airport management, the Department of Homeland
Security, and the FAA.

The total direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity represents two
percent of Craig Municipal Airport’s direct employment impact and one percent of the airport’s
direct annual output impact from all on-airport tenants, government, and construction-related
activities.

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
Craig Municipal Airport supports limited air cargo activity; air cargo activity is primarily
related to bank check hauling. UPS, DHL, and FedEx Express operate at nearby Jacksonville
International Airport. All off-airport cargo impacts related to freight forwarders and integrators
are attributed to Jacksonville International Airport. There are no indirect air cargo impacts for
Craig Municipal Airport.

Fort Lauderdale Executive Airport

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Fort Lauderdale Executive Airport, located just five miles from downtown Fort Lauderdale,
serves small package air cargo needs. Air cargo demand in the Fort Lauderdale market area is
supported by medical cargo companies and one air taxi/cargo charter operator that operates
from this airport. Additional air cargo service is provided by air cargo carriers specializing in
the transport of financial documents.

In 2008, bank check haulers, AirNet and Flight Express, served the airport on six total scheduled
domestic routes to various destinations in Florida. After discontinuing its route to Marathon,
Flight Express added two flights to Orlando Executive and one to Opa-Locka, while at the same
time maintaining its Tampa route. All air cargo routes are flown on either a Cessna 210 or a
Beech 58. AirNet, a medical cargo company, serves the airport with a Learjet 35 to Jacksonville
and a Beech 58 to Orlando Executive.




Appendix F                                                                                   F-25
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

Based on surveys and interviews of the integrated express and charter companies located at the
airport, there are 20 employees at the airport whose jobs are related to air cargo activity. These
employees earn an annual payroll of over $1 million. Annual output related to cargo activity is
estimated at $3.3 million.      Approximately 75 percent of the on-airport cargo-related
employment is attributed bank check haulers and other cargo carriers operating at the airport,
while a cargo charter operator and government agencies support the remaining 25 percent of
the cargo-related employment. Government positions are typically within airport management,
the Department of Homeland Security, and the FAA.

The total direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity represents two
percent of Fort Lauderdale Executive Airport’s direct employment impact and less than one
percent of the airport’s direct annual output impact from all on-airport tenants, government,
and construction-related activities.

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
As mentioned above, air cargo demand in the Fort Lauderdale market area is supported by
medical cargo companies and one air taxi/cargo charter operator that operate from this airport
to the Bahamas. As a result of this international cargo activity, nine jobs in the freight
forwarding sector are attributed to the airport. This activity supports $485,100 in indirect
payroll and over $1.2 million in indirect annual economic output.

Page Field

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Page Field, located just three miles south of downtown Fort Myers, helps to support the air
cargo needs of Fort Myers in southwest Florida. Air cargo demand in the market area is
accommodated by one integrated express company, located at the airport.

The airport accommodated 19 metric tons of enplaned and deplaned air cargo in fiscal year
2008. No mail was reported to be transported via the airport. Air cargo volumes averaged
about 164 pounds per weekday.

There is one cargo carrier serving the airport, operating scheduled domestic routes to Tampa
and Opa-Locka using Cessna 210 aircraft. Based on surveys and interviews of the one company
located at the airport, there are two employees on-airport whose jobs are related to air cargo
activity. These employees earn an annual payroll of $102,300. Annual output related to cargo
activity is estimated at $263,600. One hundred percent of the on-airport cargo-related
employment is attributed to integrated express activity and government agencies. Government
positions are typically within airport management, the Department of Homeland Security, and
the FAA.




Appendix F                                                                                   F-26
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                              March 2010

Total direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity represents two percent
of the Page Field’s direct employment impact and one percent of the airport’s direct annual
output impact from all on-airport tenants, government, and construction-related activities.

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
Page Field’s air cargo activity is primarily related to bank check hauling. UPS, DHL, and FedEx
Express operate at nearby Southwest Florida International Airport. All off-airport cargo
impacts related to freight forwarders and integrators are attributed to Southwest Florida
International Airport. There are no indirect off-airport air cargo economic impacts for Page
Field.

The Florida Keys Marathon Airport

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
The Florida Keys Marathon Airport supports the air cargo needs of Marathon in the central
Florida Keys. Air cargo demand in the Marathon market area is supported by an integrated
express carrier and bank check hauler that operate from the airport. Mountain Air Cargo serves
the airport, operating a Cessna 208 on a route to Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International
Airport. This service feeds into a FedEx Express jet flight. Flight Express operates a Beech 58 to
Ft. Lauderdale Executive Airport and hauls bank checks.

Based on surveys and interviews of the cargo carriers located at the airport, there are nine
employees on-airport whose jobs are related to air cargo activity. These employees earn an
annual payroll of $442,600. Annual output related to cargo activity is estimated at over $1.1
million. Approximately 94 percent of the airport’s air cargo-related employment is attributed to
the cargo carriers on the airport, while government agencies support six percent of the cargo-
related employment. Government positions are typically within airport management, the
Department of Homeland Security, and the FAA.

The total direct employment and output impact related to air cargo activity represents 11
percent of the Florida Keys Marathon Airport’s direct employment impact and nine percent of
the airport’s direct annual output impact for all on-airport tenants, government, and
construction-related activities.

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
The Florida Keys Marathon Airport supports FedEx Express, which has an on-airport station
but no off-airport stations. The airport also supports UPS; UPS has an off-airport facility located
in Islamorada. The indirect air cargo impacts attributed to the UPS station are three full-time
employees. These employees have an annual payroll of $165,400. Indirect annual output
related to air cargo activity is estimated at $459,800.




Appendix F                                                                                    F-27
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                             March 2010

Vero Beach Municipal Airport

Results Related to On-airport Air Cargo Activity
Vero Beach Municipal Airport, located just one mile northwest of the city’s central business
district, helps serve the air cargo needs of Vero Beach area. Air cargo demand in the Vero Beach
market area is accommodated by one integrated express company located at the airport.
Mountain Air Cargo, a contracted feeder service for FedEx, is the sole air cargo carrier serving
the market with scheduled domestic routes to Orlando using Cessna 208 Caravan aircraft.

Based on surveys and interviews of the integrated express company located at the airport, there
are two employees on-airport related to air cargo activity. These employees earn an annual
payroll of $119,500. Annual output related to cargo activity is estimated at $294,900. One
hundred percent of the on-airport cargo-related employment is attributed to integrated express
activity and government agencies. Government positions are typically within airport
management, Department of Homeland Security, and the FAA.

Total direct employment and output impacts related to air cargo activity represents less than
one percent of Vero Beach Municipal Airport’s direct employment impact and less than one
percent of the airport’s direct annual output impact for all on-airport tenants, government, and
construction-related activities.

Results Related to Off-airport Air Cargo Activity
FedEx Express has Cessna Caravan aircraft operations five days a week at Vero Beach
Municipal Airport; it is the only scheduled air cargo operator at the airport. FedEx Express
maintains an off-airport facility three miles south of the airport. Indirect air cargo impacts
attributed to this FedEx station are estimated at 15 full-time employees. These employees have
an estimated annual payroll of $748,000. Indirect annual output related to air cargo activity for
Vero Beach Municipal Airport is estimated at $2.1 million.




Appendix F                                                                                  F-28
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
          APPENDIX G
TOTAL AIRPORT-SPECIFIC ECONOMIC
           IMPACTS
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                                 March 2010



APPENDIX G

                                                              Table G-1
                                               Total Airport-Specific Economic Impacts
                                                                                      Total
      Associated City                              Airport Name                     Employment     Total Payroll     Total Output
  Commercial Service Airports
  Daytona Beach               Daytona Beach International Airport                          8,340     $237,414,200      $741,319,500
  Fort Lauderdale             Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport             134,638    $3,470,123,700   $10,637,293,900
  Fort Myers                  Southwest Florida International Airport                     41,588    $1,147,221,300    $3,762,932,000
  Gainesville                 Gainesville Regional Airport                                 2,391      $73,327,600      $231,383,700
  Jacksonville                Jacksonville International Airport                          23,040     $690,216,500     $2,181,699,000
  Key West                    Key West International Airport                               5,648     $154,368,900      $495,189,000
  Melbourne                   Melbourne International Airport                             10,893     $407,522,000     $1,151,991,300
  Miami                       Miami International Airport                                294,850   $10,628,672,700   $28,265,637,900
  Naples                      Naples Municipal Airport                                     2,372      $79,075,200      $273,138,900
  Orlando                     Orlando International Airport                              247,848    $6,967,465,000   $26,440,028,000
  Orlando                     Orlando Sanford International Airport                       18,025     $522,145,900     $2,530,024,000
  Panama City                 Northwest Florida Beaches International Airport   1          1,007      $33,710,000      $116,800,100
  Panama City                 Panama City-Bay County International Airport                 3,017      $83,933,500      $267,048,900
  Pensacola                   Pensacola Regional Airport                                   5,772     $163,998,100      $565,839,500
  Sarasota                    Sarasota/Bradenton International Airport                    11,487     $314,435,900      $966,936,400
  St. Petersburg/Clearwater   St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport              8,254     $275,444,700      $923,875,900
  Tallahassee                 Tallahassee Regional Airport                                 3,930     $122,355,200      $377,310,000
  Tampa                       Tampa International Airport                                 80,526    $2,237,724,400    $7,097,031,600



Appendix G                                                                                                                        G-1
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                               March 2010


                                                            Table G-1
                                          Total Airport-Specific Economic Impacts, Cont.
                                                                                 Total
      Associated City                               Airport Name               Employment        Total Payroll     Total Output
  Commercial Service Airports
  Valparaiso                  Northwest Florida Regional Airport/Eglin AFB             5,252       $140,624,800      $466,076,700
  West Palm Beach             Palm Beach International Airport                        37,504      $1,074,413,600    $3,495,488,600
  Commercial Service Airports Total                                                  946,382     $28,824,193,200   $90,987,044,900
  General Aviation Airports
  Apalachicola                Apalachicola Regional Airport                                70        $1,967,000        $6,677,000
  Apalachicola                St. George Island Airport                                      7         $193,100          $584,300
  Apopka                      Orlando Apopka Airport                                       232       $7,569,300       $18,355,700
  Arcadia                     Arcadia Municipal Airport                                      3          $67,800          $339,800
  Archer                      Flying Ten Airport                                             8          $97,400          $308,800
  Avon Park                   Avon Park Executive Airport                                  143       $4,882,800       $13,280,700
  Bartow                      Bartow Municipal Airport                                     295      $10,499,500       $34,763,400
  Belle Glade                 Belle Glade State Municipal Airport                           51       $1,781,500        $7,017,100
  Blountstown                 Calhoun County Airport                                        4          $127,700          $460,800
  Boca Raton                  Boca Raton Airport                                       1,237        $35,327,800      $154,474,100
  Bonifay                     Tri-County Airport                                            34         $901,200         $3,070,400
  Brooksville                 Hernando County Airport                                      413      $15,398,100       $62,864,400
  Carrabelle                  Carrabelle-Thompson Airport                                    2          $59,200          $264,300
  Cedar Key                   George T. Lewis Airport                                        4          $97,400          $281,300
  Clearwater                  Clearwater Air Park                                          87        $1,919,800        $8,147,000
  Clewiston                   Airglades Airport                                             24         $775,600        $3,837,600



Appendix G                                                                                                                      G-2
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                                March 2010


                                                             Table G-1
                                           Total Airport-Specific Economic Impacts, Cont.
                                                                                     Total
      Associated City                                Airport Name                  Employment       Total Payroll    Total Output
  General Aviation Airports
  Crestview                   Bob Sikes Airport                                             133         $3,982,100      $13,784,400
  Cross City                  Cross City Airport                                             22           $547,400       $1,230,800
  Crystal River               Crystal River Airport                                         115         $2,996,500       $9,613,100
  DeFuniak Springs            DeFuniak Springs Airport                                       85         $2,915,100       $9,191,400
  Deland                      Bob Lee Flight Strip                                              0           $8,400         $43,800
  Deland                      Deland Municipal-Sidney H. Taylor Field                     2,595        $66,180,300     $217,157,900
  Destin                      Destin-Ft. Walton Beach Airport                               386        $10,533,600      $40,008,200
  Dunnellon                   Dunnellon/Marion County & Park of Commerce Airport             27         $1,003,100       $4,053,500
  Englewood                   Buchan Airport                                                    4         $329,200        $543,100
  Everglades                  Everglades Airpark                                             11           $325,700        $933,200
  Fernandina Beach            Fernandina Beach Municipal Airport                            357        $10,136,400      $31,246,400
  Fort Lauderdale             Downtown Fort Lauderdale Heliport                                 3          $93,600        $387,300
  Fort Lauderdale             Ft. Lauderdale Executive Airport                            5,090       $176,202,500     $815,788,400
  Fort Myers                  Page Field                                                    987        $29,206,800      $94,555,400
  Fort Pierce                 St. Lucie County International Airport                      1,371        $50,039,500     $164,199,900
  High Springs                Oak Tree Landing Airport                                          0               $0          $4,100
  Hilliard                    Hilliard Airpark                                                  4         $140,400        $409,100
  Hollywood                   North Perry Airport                                         1,285        $41,757,200     $133,328,200
  Homestead                   Homestead General Aviation Airport                            127         $3,750,600      $11,179,400
  Immokalee                   Immokalee Airport                                              56         $1,914,900       $7,723,900



Appendix G                                                                                                                       G-3
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                               March 2010


                                                              Table G-1
                                            Total Airport-Specific Economic Impacts, Cont.
                                                                                   Total
      Associated City                              Airport Name                  Employment        Total Payroll    Total Output
  General Aviation Airports
  Indiantown                  Indiantown Airport                                             58        $1,703,500      $13,463,000
  Inverness                   Inverness Airport                                               25         $759,900       $2,649,900
  Jacksonville                Cecil Field                                               5,437        $217,937,900     $531,333,200
  Jacksonville                Craig Municipal Airport                                   1,191         $40,295,200     $131,309,300
  Jacksonville                Herlong Airport                                                212       $6,517,300      $21,596,600
  Keystone Heights            Keystone Airpark                                                45       $1,386,400       $4,848,100
  La Belle                    La Belle Municipal Airport                                      23         $715,500       $3,192,000
  Lake City                   Lake City Municipal Airport                               1,497         $58,524,600     $165,668,900
  Lake Wales                  Chalet Suzanne Air Strip                                        55       $1,552,300       $6,434,100
  Lake Wales                  Lake Wales Municipal Airport                                    12         $290,300        $746,500
  Lakeland                    Lakeland Linder Regional Airport2                         1,279         $44,234,900     $162,531,700
  Leesburg                    Leesburg International Airport                                 509      $17,607,900      $63,729,000
  Live Oak                    Suwannee County Airport                                         26         $948,900       $3,737,300
  Malabar                     Valkaria Airport                                                73       $2,193,600       $6,220,200
  Marathon                    The Florida Keys Marathon Airport                              387      $12,132,800      $37,773,600
  Marco Island                Marco Island Airport                                           202       $5,816,800      $20,534,900
  Marianna                    Marianna Municipal Airport                                      64       $2,144,500       $9,450,600
  Merritt Island              Merritt Island Airport                                         399      $11,260,300      $34,029,700
  Miami                       Dade-Collier Training and Transition Airport                     8         $373,400        $554,600
  Miami                       Kendall-Tamiami Executive Airport                         2,018         $67,443,400     $204,742,700



Appendix G                                                                                                                      G-4
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                              March 2010


                                                             Table G-1
                                           Total Airport-Specific Economic Impacts, Cont.
                                                                                  Total
      Associated City                               Airport Name                Employment        Total Payroll    Total Output
  General Aviation Airports
  Miami                       Miami SPB                                                      18         $619,500       $2,324,400
  Miami                       Opa-Locka Executive Airport                              2,418         $79,662,600     $252,544,800
  Milton                      Peter Prince Field                                             39       $1,111,400       $4,570,600
  Navarre                     Ft. Walton Beach Airport                                       18         $290,900        $660,400
  New Smyrna Beach            New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport                            940      $27,050,200      $94,898,900
  Ocala                       Ocala International-Jim Taylor Field                          794      $22,920,600      $88,646,200
  Okeechobee                  Okeechobee County Airport                                      83       $2,847,800       $9,866,300
  Orlando                     Executive Airport                                        2,085         $65,027,700     $245,517,600
  Orlando                     Kissimmee Gateway Airport                                1,132         $33,543,600     $109,062,000
  Ormond Beach                Ormond Beach Municipal Airport                                512      $14,775,700      $49,046,900
  Pahokee                     Palm Beach County Glades Airport                              13          $382,600       $2,552,900
  Palatka                     Palatka Municipal-Lt. Kay Larkin Field                         83       $2,551,500       $8,785,600
  Palm Coast                  Flagler County Airport                                   1,431         $40,751,800     $120,859,500
  Panacea                     Wakulla County Airport                                         1           $29,700        $113,900
  Pensacola                   Coastal Airport                                                10         $214,100        $465,300
  Pensacola                   Ferguson Airport                                               46       $1,106,000       $3,364,900
  Perry                       Perry-Foley Airport                                            17         $443,600       $1,860,900
  Pierson                     Pierson Municipal Airport                                      4           $97,400        $292,100
  Plant City                  Plant City Airport                                            93        $2,593,600       $8,216,700
  Pompano Beach               Pompano Beach Airpark                                         565      $17,063,500      $53,761,300



Appendix G                                                                                                                     G-5
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                              March 2010


                                                            Table G-1
                                          Total Airport-Specific Economic Impacts, Cont.
                                                                                   Total
       Associated City                              Airport Name                 Employment       Total Payroll    Total Output
  General Aviation Airports
  Port St. Joe                Costin Airport                                                  9         $237,300        $724,000
  Punta Gorda                 Charlotte County Airport3                                 1,386        $43,676,700     $141,383,900
  Punta Gorda                 Shell Creek Airpark                                           24          $692,900       $2,523,200
  Quincy                      Quincy Municipal Airport                                      19          $622,400       $2,077,600
  Sebastian                   Sebastian Municipal Airport                                  177        $5,387,300      $15,125,000
  Sebring                     Sebring Regional Airport                                     312        $9,285,300      $39,924,600
  St. Augustine               St. Augustine Airport3                                    2,925        $94,081,900     $256,038,500
  St. Petersburg              Albert Whitted Airport                                       345       $10,627,200      $36,674,900
  Stuart                      Witham Field                                              1,240        $35,775,300     $295,482,600
  Tampa                       Peter O. Knight Airport                                      338        $9,272,800      $28,779,100
  Tampa                       Tampa Executive Airport                                      454       $12,843,200      $41,154,900
  Tampa                       Tampa North Aero Park                                         32          $713,700       $2,068,200
  Titusville                  Arthur Dunn Air Park                                          40        $1,350,800       $4,030,500
  Titusville                  Space Coast Regional Airport                              1,380        $42,296,100     $171,029,200
  Umatilla                    Umatilla Municipal Airport                                    13          $387,100       $1,314,900
  Venice                      Venice Municipal Airport                                     818       $22,547,500      $83,037,600
  Vero Beach                  New Hibiscus Airpark                                          11          $264,600       $1,895,700
  Vero Beach                  Vero Beach Municipal Airport                              4,152       $131,992,200     $355,567,300
  Wauchula                    Wauchula Municipal Airport                                    22          $531,400       $1,598,600
  West Palm Beach             North Palm Beach County General Aviation Airport             639       $17,747,300      $53,317,800



Appendix G                                                                                                                     G-6
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
Florida Department of Transportation – Aviation Office
Statewide Aviation Economic Impact Study                                                                                                   March 2010


                                                              Table G-1
                                            Total Airport-Specific Economic Impacts, Cont.
                                                                                              Total
      Associated City                               Airport Name                            Employment         Total Payroll           Total Output
  General Aviation Airports
  West Palm Beach             Palm Beach County Park Airport                                            296              $9,852,100       $32,165,700
  Williston                   Williston Municipal Airport                                                75              $2,140,800        $7,052,800
  Winter Haven                Jack Browns SPB                                                            15               $408,800         $2,085,900
  Winter Haven                Winter Haven's Gilbert Airport                                            192              $4,849,800       $18,237,200
  Zellwood                    Bob White Field                                                            18               $578,600           $862,500
  Zephyrhills                 Zephyrhills Municipal Airport                                             224              $6,846,600       $25,775,800
  General Aviation Airports Total                                                                    54,250     $1,755,661,400          $5,971,993,300
  All Airports Total                                                                              1,000,632    $30,579,854,600        $96,959,038,200
  1 Impacts supported by construction activity only; 2 Includes impacts supported by the annual Sun 'N Fun Fly-In;   3   Includes impacts supported by
  commercial service visitors
  Source: Wilbur Smith Associates and IMPLAN multipliers




Appendix G                                                                                                                                          G-7
Wilbur Smith Associates, Inc.
              Florida Department of Transportation
                         Aviation Office
                   www.dot.state.fl.us/aviation




This report was prepared as an effort of the Continuing Florida Aviation System Planning Process
under the sponsorship of the Florida Department of Transportation. A full technical report containing
information on data collection, methodologies, and approaches for estimating statewide and airport
specific economic impacts is available at www.dot.state.fl.us/aviation/economicimpact.shtm. More
information on the Florida’s Aviation Economic Impact Study can be obtained from the Aviation
Office by calling 850-414-4500.




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