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19th Century Nationalism/Reaction/Revolt/Reaction Age of -isms Many of the ideas and ideologies that shape our world originated or were modified in the 19th Century Most of these –isms deal with economics; however, many also describe or impact the social systems of class and hierarchy and imply political action. Other –isms deal with politics and imply economic action. All are interrelated. Economic Concepts of the 19thC Class Consciousness Owners – capitalists Non-landed middle class and white collar workers – bourgeoisie Factory and trade workers— proletariat Economics—systems and theorists Capitalism (free market economy, free enterprise system) : an economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately owned and operated for profit decisions regarding investment of capital are made by investors production, distribution, and the prices of goods, services, and labor are determined largely by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. Classical Economics (capitalism) Adam Smith Wealth of Nations (1776) described Laissez faire economics is based on these principles: Though government must perform many important functions, economic growth is best when unregulated (free enterprise) Society=many individuals who compete out of self interest to meet demand of consumers in the marketplace Distrust government regulation because government, composed of individuals acting out of self interest, is corrupt Government roles: maintain sound currency, enforce laws and contracts, protect property, impose low tariffs and taxes, maintain army and navy to protect foreign trade. Malthus (British) The Principle of Population (1798) responding to Romantic ideals of continuing progress of man: a bleak picture Basic thesis: population will outrun food supply Population grows geometrically; food supply arithmetically Cannot control two basic drives for food, sex. Eventually, resources will be gone: life will end. Life for working class inevitably continues to worsen If wages raised, workers will have more children, who will consume extra wages PLUS more food Two solutions; Marriage/chastity/contraception (but he considered contraception a vice) Convince the working class to work for a higher standard of living, spending on consumer goods instead of having children “Through the animal and vegetable kingdoms, nature has scattered the seeds of life abroad with the most profuse and liberal hand. She has been comparatively sparing in the room, and the nourishment necessary to rear them... The race of plants, and race of animals shrink under this great restrictive law. And the race of man cannot, by any efforts of reason, escape from it. Among plants and animals its effects are waste of seed, sickness, and premature death. Among mankind, misery and vice. ... ― Ricardo (British) Principles of Political Economy (1817) Iron Law of Wages Raise wages: more children in working class Increased numbers enter labor market: wages go down Low wages: fewer children in working class Decreased numbers enter labor market: wages go up Raise wages: more children, etc. Conclusion: Wages will always tned toard minimum level Supported employers in desire for low wages and against labor unions ―The market price of labour is the price which is really paid for it, from the natural operation of the proportion of the supply to the demand; labour is dear when it is scarce, and cheap when it is plentiful. However much the market price of labour may deviate from its natural price, it has, like commodities, a tendency to conform to it.― Influence of Classical Economics Working classes hated these ideas; landowners and merchants loved them France: Louis Philippe and Guizot told French to go forth and enrich themselves: anyone who worked with enough energy need not be poor Capital intensive projects of roads, canals, rr’s Poor stayed poor Germany: stayed aristocratic Zollverein: free trade union 1834 all German states (not Austria) State domination of economy Utilitarianism (Britain) Jeremy Bentham popularized the basic premise, principle of utility: Must evaluate actions on basis of their consequences. Best actions: the greatest happiness for the greatest number Principle of utility would overcome special interests of privileged groups=rational govt Apply reason/utility to strip traditional abuses from legal system = justice New Poor Law –1834 (by followers of B) Poor Law Commission Government relief only in workhouses Workhouse life to be more unpleasant than life outside (awful work, husband and wife separated, social stigma) Assumption: didn’t work, because lazy Repeal of Corn Laws Corn Laws 1815 During French Revolution/Napoleon and continental system, no importing of grains, so prices up, landlords profits soared After Waterloo, grain imports drove prices and profits down Corn laws: tariffs on imported grain to bring prices back up; Consequence: workers demanded higher wages to pay for bread— social unrest Anti Corn Law League Organized by manufacturers to call for imported grain, lower prices, no need for higher wages Then British manufactured goods’ prices stay low, strengthen competitive position in foreign markets 1846 Repeal of Corn Laws Sir Robert Peel 1846 as result of Irish Potato famine: had to import grain to feed starving Irish Accompanied with government aid to make British ag more efficient and keep profits high Socialism To right the wrongs of capitalism Free market CANNOT adequately produce and distribute goods Mismanagement, low wages, unequal distribution of resources cause much suffering Human society SHOULD NOT be individual, but an unselfish community means of production and distribution are government owned and operated decisions regarding investment of capital are made by the government production, distribution, and the prices of goods, services, and labor are determined largely by the government Utopian Socialism Definition: early 19th Century thinkers and writers labeled as: utopian because ideals visionary and advocated creation of ideal communities and labeled socialist because they wanted change of the structures of government and economics that supported capitalism Often had radical ideas about sexual morality (―free love‖) and family As a consequence, people who may have shared their economic concerns rejected their social ideas Saint Simonianism Count Claude Henri de Saint Simon (1760-1825), liberal French aristocrat Fought in Am Rev, welcomed Fr Rev Writer and social critic Advocated sexuality outside marriage Ideal government: large board of directors organizing and administering individuals and groups for social harmony (kind of technocracy) Not redistribution of wealth, but management by experts to provide economic/social justice Only a few followed him: Saint Simonian societies where discussed feminism, other advanced ideas Owenism Robert Owen, British cotton manufacturer Self made; partner in factory at New Lanark, Scotland Believed in environmentalism of Enlightenment: If people in correct surroundings = good character New Lanark put ideals in practice Provided good living conditions for his workers Recreation for all; education for children, several churches (though he didn’t believe, advocated ―free love‖ Rewards for good work in factories Mad a good profit Pleaded for reorganization of industry based on his model US: sold New Lanark to establish New Harmony, Indiana Quarrels among members: failed Back to Britain, Grand National Union Attempt to gather all union members in one: Collapsed with other trade organizations in 1830’s Fourierism Charles Fourier, French intellectual commercial salesman, but not as known as Owens Writer who hoped for someone to apply his ideas They didn’t Believed industrial order ignored emotional man; social discipline ignored pleasure seeking Advocated phalanxes: communal agrarian communities with ―liberated‖ living; avoid boredom ―Free love,‖ with marriage for later life No one required to work at same thing for whole day, move from one task to another to avoid boredom Influence of utopian socialists Expected government to apply their ideas; government, society too hard to change Louis Blanc, 1830 The Organization of Labor demanded end to competition, but recognized difficulties, didn’t seek whole new society, just give vote to working class. Working class with power would finance jobs for poor, social justice to replace existing order. Anarchism Basic idea: overthrow and abolish existing social/economic/political order; then rebuild a new order with equality and freedom so that all develop to potential Anarchists believe that the classless, stateless society should be established right away, as soon as possible. Some wanted peaceful abolition of traditional society; others felt that if assassinated political or economic leaders, upper class, existing order falls. Auguste Blanqui (1805-81) Major spokesman for terrorism Société républicaine centrale vs government in and out of prison for involvement in movements to overthrow the government 1870 two unsuccessful armed demonstrations: 12th of January at funeral of Victor Noir, journalist shot by Pierre Bonaparte; 14th of August, led an attempt to seize some guns at a barrack. Part of Commune; imprisoned through much of it: condemned to death, then out of prison; died of apoplexy He wanted to develop a professional revolutionary vanguard (trained terrorists and assassins) to attack capitalistic society Vague ideas of what would develop after ―it is my duty as a proletarian, deprived of all the rights of the city, to reject the competence of a court where only the privileged classes who are not my peers sit in judgment over me‖ [defense speech] Bakunin (1814-76) Russian anarchist Life of struggle Peasant, sought ed in Moscow Imprisoned and condemned to death for part in uprising vs government Escaped to W. Europe: set up international anarchist organization Social Democratic Alliance Differed from Marxism: didn’t believe in intermediate ―dictatorship of proletariat‖ before dissolved government altogether Rejected governing systems in every name and shape, from the idea of God downwards; and every form of external authority The revolutionist should be a devoted man, who allowed no private interests or feelings, and no scruples of religion, patriotism or morality, to turn him aside from his mission: by all available means to overturn the existing society. Proudhon (1809-65) Much tamer anarchism The Confessions of a Revolutionary, Proudhon wrote, anarchy is order. What is Property attacked banking system "Property is theft!". Do away with money, trappings of wealth Criticized banks for only lending to already rich, cronies, large businesses Tried to establish banks that loaned only to small businessmen Envisioned society organized on basis of mutualism Like small businesses Peaceful cooperation, exchange of good instead of competition No need for state Influenced French labor Karl Marx directed some of his writings against Proudhon’s ideas Influence of Anarchism STILL AROUND: Actual fomenting of riots and other social disturbances from its inception into the 20th C Assassination of world political and business leaders, royalty to disrupt society Most successful: anarchist party allied with liberal left and socialists in Spain in early 1930’s after king overthrown Anarchist government in Barcelona was actually successful in redistributing means of production, organizing factories, etc until revolution intervened Communists and rightists made sure, during the chaos of the revolution, that successful leaders were killed or exiled. Marxism Another kind of socialism Difference from others: Abolition of private property with extensive, radical rearrangement of society Claims to scientific accuracy in describing the march of history Rejected reform of present society Call for immediate revolution Defined by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in Communist Manifesto Friedrich Engels (1820-95) Middle class German: father owned textile factory in Manchester, England Partnership with Marx, who became his great friend because ideas were similar Wrote Communist Manifesto Karl Marx (1818-1883) Early life Rhineland German Jewish (family converted to Lutheranism) he atheistic, anti religion and church Edited radical journal, so driven from Germany to Paris Partnership with Engels Asked to write pamphlet for Communist League Communist Manifesto (German, 1848), which defined Communism, differentiated vs socialism Pamphlet regarded as just one more; no influence then Das Kapital (Capital) Influences: German Hegelianism (thought from thesis vs antithesis=synthesis) Marx: dominant vs subordinate social groups = conditions leading to new dominant social group = new discontent, conflict, etc French socialism Portrayal of problems of capitalistic society with all its inequalities Idea of forced redistribution of property Development of society/social conditions in historical stages British classical economics Vocabulary for analyzing industrial/capital economy and society empirically and scientifically Major Ideas Marx’s words: ―What I did that was new was to prove: (1) that the existence of classes is bound up with particular historical phases in the development of production (2) that the class struggle necessarily leads to the dictatorship of the proletariat (3) that this dictatorship itself only constitutes the transition to the abolition of all classes and to a classless society History falls into an inevitable pattern: History is merely the record of humankind’s struggle with physical nature to produce what man must have to survive The particular productive process of a human group at a given time in history determines structure, ideas, values of society Inevitable class conflict results from this interaction: traditionally conflict between class that owns and controls and the classes who work for them to actually produce Piecemeal reforms cannot eliminate resulting inevitable inequalities and evils; inherent in structures of production—must be total transformation of society Capitalism makes such revolution inevitable Specifically in the 19th C…. Early 19th C (industrial revolution) produced struggle between bourgeoisie (middle class) and proletariat (workers) Capitalism sharpens struggle by increasing struggle and size of proletariat class Production/competition drives out smaller and traditional industry for giant factories and corporations Production/competition forces ex-middle class owners and artisans driven out of business + increasing number of workers needed for factories down into proletariat class Few giants can force workers to work for less = increased suffering = social unrest increases to explosion point and… Eventually proletariat class will revolt, overthrow few remaining magnates, organize means of production through dictatorship of the proletariat Culminates in class society free of class conflict Victorious proletariat, by nature, could not turn into oppressors ―From each according to his ability; to each according to his need‖ Marx/Engels: ―The proletarian movement is the self conscious, independent movement of the immense majority, in the interest of the immense majority.‖ Political –isms Nationalism Single most powerful European political ideology of 19-20th C Europe (now in Central/E Europe and old USSR) Based on concept that a nation is composed of people with common language, customs, culture and history. This nation, then should be administered by the same government: national and ethnic boundaries should coincide Also related: popular sovereignty– particular ethnic group should be able to decide own form of government, determine own leaders; BUT usually significant minorities (sometimes ruling minorities) within each ethnic grouping: (Slavs in German areas of Austria, etc) Influence in the 19th C Contraries: Congress of Vienna Settlement on basis that legitimate monarchies rather than dynasties should be basis of political units Nationalists protested reestablishment of multinational Austrian and Russian empires Also protested when peoples of same ethnic group ( Germans and Italians) put in political units smaller than ethnic nation Creating Nations Elite writers/journalists spread idea of nationalism Language: ―official‖ or dominant sometimes imposed by government over local dialects; during 19th c resurrect dead languages (in 1850 less than half inhabitants of France spoke official French—Provence, etc. local languages) Problems of nation How big is big enough? Viable economy? Significant cultural association? Cultural elite to nourish and spread? Ability to conquer others? Argument in reality lead to unrest and rebellion Problem spots in the 1800’s: Ireland Italy Germany Poland E. Europe (Hungarians, Czechs, Slavs) Balkans: Serbs, Greeks, Albanians, Romanians, Bulgarians Liberalism Often used by conservatives to mean anyone who challenges traditional political, social, religious values 19th C: political goals Based on Enlightenment principles (Dec. Rights of Man and Citizen); Often from educated, middle class (who wanted careers open to talent, not birth) Wanted legal equality, religious toleration, freedom of the press Government limited in power, recognizing legitimacy only when freely given consent of governed Republican or Parliamentary government State or crown ministers responsible to Representatives of people, not just to monarch or ruler Constitutional government, but not necessarily democracy: wanted representation of propertied, middle classes Ironically, contemptuous of both aristocracy and lower classes Privilege based on wealth and property, not birth BUT NOT voices of common people==separated from rural and urban working classes Economic goals of 19th C liberals Followed Adam Smith Laissez faire freedom from mercantilistic, regulated economies Ability to manufacture and sell goods freely Remove tariffs and internal barriers to trade Vs guilds: labor to be bought and sold as any other commodity Wanted freedom for talented and propertied to enrich selves Then more goods and services for all at lower prices Progress = material progress for all Programs Britain: protect civil liberties with reform; limit monarch and parliament; expand electorate to middle class France: Napoleonic Code already guaranteed legal system; called for greater rights ―principles of 1789‖ Germany: little middle class participation in government and military, no idea of individual liberty; therefore, wanted united Germany so that they could achieve a freer social and political order (didn’t happen) Conservatism Conservatism in general seeks to preserve the traditional institutions of government and economy to keep power in hands of traditional aristocracies, church hierarchies and monarchies Associated with Romantic thinkers such as Edmund Burke (Irish born, British protested Fr Rev) and Friedrich Hegel Threatened by waves of Revolution, beginning with the French Revolution Feared and hated Enlightenment rationalism and reformist writings Saw selves surrounded by enemies; permanently defending selves vs liberalism, nationalism and popular sovereignty Philosophy Rousseau: Basis of Romanticism State of nature opposite to Hobbes Noble savage; Man good, civilization bad Test of true values—feelings education =to free a person God=beyond reason Social contract: sum of wills of individuals Come together to discuss, then all vote ―general will‖ Kant: Critique of Pure Reason World of phenomena=what we can perceive Categories of understanding: mind sets up to impose on sensory experience; from mind=reasoning God and most of nature really not in this category Noumenal world=objective reality we cannot perceive totally Can only be known through ―practical reason,‖ feelings/conscience (innate sense/moral duty) Categorical imperative: act by rules you will to be universal law Hegel German born philosopher: educated, worked as editor, but didn’t like journalism, so became teacher, university professor Absolute (reality) = pure Thought, or Spirit, or Mind, incapable of definition because process of development; self recognition Geist= between spirit and reality (world Spirit) ―The Absolute‖ (Christian/others atheistic) Dialectic developmental process = dialectic = thesis vs antithesis produces synthesis. The thesis might be an idea or a historical movement. The idea or movement contains within itself incompleteness that gives rise to opposition, an antithesis, a conflicting idea or movement. As a result of the conflict, a third point of view arises, synthesis, which overcomes the conflict by reconciling at a higher level the truth contained in both the thesis and antithesis. This synthesis becomes a new thesis that generates another antithesis, giving rise to a new synthesis, Dialectic: Synthesis Antithesis Synthesis which becomes Thesis Antithesis Thesis Implications—why basis of conservatism Reality is the Absolute unfolding dialectically in this process of self-development toward the goal of total self consciousness ―God is God,‖ Hegel argued, ―only in so far as he knows himself.‖ Expressed in Nature and in history Its increasing self consciousness manifests in Art—material = beauty Religion—in symbols Philosophy--rationally Hegel considered membership in the state one of the individual's highest duties. Ideally, the state is the manifestation of the general will, which is the highest expression of the ethical spirit. Obedience to this general will is the act of a free and rational individual. Schopenhauer: Anti Romantic Freedom of the Will; Freedom & Reality Divided reality into what is capable of being experienced and what isn’t Experience depends on the senses; therefore, cannot conceive of reality outside of sensory experience Independent reality is a closed book ; ―all is one‖ (noumenal only describes what happens inside you, not objective reality) No God, free will, etc. Universe=energy/go/impersonal force you cannot define ―nature red in tooth and claw‖ Relief from horror of existence only through arts.
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