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19th Century

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					  19th Century


Nationalism/Reaction/Revolt/Reaction
Age of -isms
Many of the ideas and ideologies that shape our
 world originated or were modified in the 19th
 Century

Most of these –isms deal with economics;
 however, many also describe or impact the
 social systems of class and hierarchy and
 imply political action. Other –isms deal with
 politics and imply economic action. All are
 interrelated.
   Economic Concepts of the 19thC
 Class Consciousness
 Owners – capitalists
 Non-landed middle class
 and white collar workers –
 bourgeoisie
 Factory and
  trade
  workers—
  proletariat
Economics—systems and theorists

 Capitalism    (free market economy, free enterprise system)   : an
 economic system in which the
     means of production and distribution are
      privately owned and operated for profit
     decisions regarding investment of capital are
      made by investors
      production, distribution, and the prices of
      goods, services, and labor are determined
      largely by the forces of supply and demand in
      a free market.
Classical Economics (capitalism)
 Adam Smith Wealth of Nations (1776) described
 Laissez faire economics is based on these principles:
    Though government must perform many important
     functions, economic growth is best when unregulated (free
     enterprise)
    Society=many individuals who compete out of self interest
     to meet demand of consumers in the marketplace
    Distrust government regulation because government,
     composed of individuals acting out of self interest, is
     corrupt
    Government roles: maintain sound currency, enforce laws
     and contracts, protect property, impose low tariffs and
     taxes, maintain army and navy to protect foreign trade.
Malthus (British)
        The Principle of Population (1798) responding to
         Romantic ideals of continuing progress of man: a
         bleak picture
        Basic thesis: population will outrun food supply
           Population grows geometrically; food supply
             arithmetically
           Cannot control two basic drives for food, sex.
           Eventually, resources will be gone: life will end.
        Life for working class inevitably continues to worsen
           If wages raised, workers will have more children,
             who will consume extra wages PLUS more food
        Two solutions;
           Marriage/chastity/contraception (but he
             considered contraception a vice)
           Convince the working class to work for a higher
             standard of living, spending on consumer goods
             instead of having children
 “Through the animal and vegetable kingdoms,
  nature has scattered the seeds of life abroad with
  the most profuse and liberal hand. She has been
  comparatively sparing in the room, and the
  nourishment necessary to rear them... The race of
  plants, and race of animals shrink under this
  great restrictive law. And the race of man cannot,
  by any efforts of reason, escape from it. Among
  plants and animals its effects are waste of seed,
  sickness, and premature death. Among mankind,
  misery and vice. ... ―
Ricardo (British)
 Principles of Political Economy
  (1817)
      Iron Law of Wages
          Raise wages: more children in
           working class
          Increased numbers enter labor
           market: wages go down
          Low wages: fewer children in
           working class
          Decreased numbers enter labor
           market: wages go up
          Raise wages: more children, etc.

      Conclusion: Wages will always tned
       toard minimum level
      Supported employers in desire for low
       wages and against labor unions
 ―The market price of labour is the price which
  is really paid for it, from the natural operation
  of the proportion of the supply to the demand;
  labour is dear when it is scarce, and cheap
  when it is plentiful. However much the market
  price of labour may deviate from its natural
  price, it has, like commodities, a tendency to
  conform to it.―
Influence of Classical Economics
 Working classes hated these ideas; landowners and
  merchants loved them
 France: Louis Philippe and Guizot told French to go
  forth and enrich themselves: anyone who worked
  with enough energy need not be poor
      Capital intensive projects of roads, canals, rr’s
      Poor stayed poor
 Germany: stayed aristocratic
   Zollverein: free trade union 1834 all German states
    (not Austria)
   State domination of economy
Utilitarianism (Britain)
         Jeremy Bentham popularized the basic
          premise, principle of utility: Must evaluate
          actions on basis of their consequences.
          Best actions: the greatest happiness for
          the greatest number
              Principle of utility would overcome special
               interests of privileged groups=rational govt
              Apply reason/utility to strip traditional
               abuses from legal system = justice
         New Poor Law –1834 (by followers of B)
         Poor Law Commission
            Government relief only in workhouses
            Workhouse life to be more unpleasant than
             life outside (awful work, husband and wife
             separated, social stigma)
            Assumption: didn’t work, because lazy
   Repeal of Corn Laws

 Corn Laws 1815
     During French Revolution/Napoleon and continental system, no
      importing of grains, so prices up, landlords profits soared
     After Waterloo, grain imports drove prices and profits down
     Corn laws: tariffs on imported grain to bring prices back up;
     Consequence: workers demanded higher wages to pay for bread—
      social unrest
 Anti Corn Law League
     Organized by manufacturers to call for imported grain, lower prices,
      no need for higher wages
     Then British manufactured goods’ prices stay low, strengthen
      competitive position in foreign markets
 1846 Repeal of Corn Laws
     Sir Robert Peel 1846
      as result of Irish Potato famine: had to import grain to feed starving
      Irish
     Accompanied with government aid to make British ag more efficient
      and keep profits high
Socialism
    To right the wrongs of capitalism
       Free market CANNOT adequately produce and
         distribute goods
        Mismanagement, low wages, unequal distribution
         of resources cause much suffering
        Human society SHOULD NOT be individual, but
         an unselfish community
    means of production and distribution are government
     owned and operated
    decisions regarding investment of capital are made by
     the government
    production, distribution, and the prices of goods,
     services, and labor are determined largely by the
     government
Utopian Socialism
 Definition: early 19th Century thinkers and
  writers labeled as:
     utopian because ideals visionary and
      advocated creation of ideal communities and
      labeled
     socialist because they wanted change of the
      structures of government and economics that
      supported capitalism
     Often had radical ideas about sexual morality
      (―free love‖) and family
     As a consequence, people who may have
      shared their economic concerns rejected their
      social ideas
  Saint Simonianism
 Count Claude Henri de Saint Simon
  (1760-1825), liberal French aristocrat
      Fought in Am Rev, welcomed Fr Rev
      Writer and social critic
      Advocated sexuality outside marriage
 Ideal government: large board of
  directors organizing and administering
  individuals and groups for social
  harmony
      (kind of technocracy)
      Not redistribution of wealth, but
       management by experts to provide
       economic/social justice
 Only a few followed him: Saint
  Simonian societies where discussed
  feminism, other advanced ideas
  Owenism
 Robert Owen, British cotton manufacturer
       Self made; partner in factory at New Lanark,
        Scotland
 Believed in environmentalism of Enlightenment:
       If people in correct surroundings = good
        character
 New Lanark put ideals in practice
       Provided good living conditions for his workers
       Recreation for all; education for children,
        several churches (though he didn’t believe,
        advocated ―free love‖
       Rewards for good work in factories
       Mad a good profit
 Pleaded for reorganization of industry based on
   his model
       US: sold New Lanark to establish New
        Harmony, Indiana
            Quarrels among members: failed
       Back to Britain, Grand National Union
            Attempt to gather all union members in one:
            Collapsed with other trade organizations in
             1830’s
Fourierism
 Charles Fourier, French intellectual commercial
  salesman, but not as known as Owens
      Writer who hoped for someone to apply his ideas
      They didn’t
 Believed industrial order ignored emotional man;
  social discipline ignored pleasure seeking
 Advocated phalanxes: communal agrarian
  communities with ―liberated‖ living; avoid boredom
      ―Free love,‖ with marriage for later life
      No one required to work at same thing for whole day,
       move from one task to another to avoid boredom
Influence of utopian socialists
 Expected government to apply their ideas;
  government, society too hard to change
 Louis Blanc, 1830 The Organization of Labor
  demanded end to competition, but recognized
  difficulties, didn’t seek whole new society, just
  give vote to working class. Working class
  with power would finance jobs for poor, social
  justice to replace existing order.
Anarchism
 Basic idea: overthrow and abolish existing
  social/economic/political order; then rebuild a
  new order with equality and freedom so that
  all develop to potential
 Anarchists believe that the classless,
  stateless society should be established right
  away, as soon as possible.
 Some wanted peaceful abolition of traditional
  society; others felt that if assassinated
  political or economic leaders, upper class,
  existing order falls.
       Auguste Blanqui (1805-81)
 Major spokesman for terrorism
    Société républicaine centrale vs
     government
    in and out of prison for involvement in
     movements to overthrow the government
    1870 two unsuccessful armed
     demonstrations: 12th of January at funeral
     of Victor Noir, journalist shot by Pierre
     Bonaparte; 14th of August, led an attempt
     to seize some guns at a barrack.
    Part of Commune; imprisoned through
     much of it: condemned to death, then out
     of prison; died of apoplexy
 He wanted to develop a professional
  revolutionary vanguard (trained terrorists and
  assassins) to attack capitalistic society
 Vague ideas of what would develop after
―it is my duty as a proletarian, deprived of all the
   rights of the city, to reject the competence of
   a court where only the privileged classes who
   are not my peers sit in judgment over me‖
   [defense speech]
        Bakunin (1814-76)
 Russian anarchist
 Life of struggle
       Peasant, sought ed in Moscow
       Imprisoned and condemned to death for
        part in uprising vs government
       Escaped to W. Europe: set up
        international anarchist organization Social
        Democratic Alliance
 Differed from Marxism: didn’t believe in
  intermediate ―dictatorship of proletariat‖
  before dissolved government altogether
 Rejected governing systems in every name
  and shape, from the idea of God
  downwards; and every form of external
  authority
 The revolutionist should be a devoted man,
  who allowed no private interests or
  feelings, and no scruples of religion,
  patriotism or morality, to turn him aside
  from his mission: by all available means to
  overturn the existing society.
Proudhon (1809-65)
         Much tamer anarchism
         The Confessions of a Revolutionary, Proudhon
          wrote, anarchy is order.
         What is Property attacked banking system
               "Property is theft!".
               Do away with money, trappings of wealth
               Criticized banks for only lending to already rich,
                cronies, large businesses
               Tried to establish banks that loaned only to small
                businessmen
         Envisioned society organized on basis of
           mutualism
               Like small businesses
               Peaceful cooperation, exchange of good instead
                of competition
         No need for state
         Influenced French labor
         Karl Marx directed some of his writings against
           Proudhon’s ideas
Influence of Anarchism
 STILL AROUND: Actual fomenting of riots and other
  social disturbances from its inception into the 20th C
 Assassination of world political and business leaders,
  royalty to disrupt society
 Most successful: anarchist party allied with liberal left
  and socialists in Spain in early 1930’s after king
  overthrown
      Anarchist government in Barcelona was actually
       successful in redistributing means of production,
       organizing factories, etc until revolution intervened
      Communists and rightists made sure, during the chaos
       of the revolution, that successful leaders were killed or
       exiled.
Marxism
 Another kind of socialism
 Difference from others:
   Abolition of private property with extensive,
     radical rearrangement of society
   Claims to scientific accuracy in describing the
     march of history
   Rejected reform of present society
   Call for immediate revolution
 Defined by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in
  Communist Manifesto
Friedrich Engels (1820-95)
                 Middle class German:
                  father owned textile
                  factory in Manchester,
                  England
                 Partnership with Marx,
                  who became his great
                  friend because ideas
                  were similar
                     Wrote Communist
                      Manifesto
    Karl Marx (1818-1883)
 Early life
    Rhineland German Jewish
     (family converted to
     Lutheranism) he atheistic,
     anti religion and church
    Edited radical journal, so
     driven from Germany to
     Paris
 Partnership with Engels
    Asked to write pamphlet for
     Communist League
    Communist Manifesto
     (German, 1848), which
     defined Communism,
     differentiated vs socialism
    Pamphlet regarded as just
     one more; no influence then
Das Kapital (Capital)
 Influences:
      German Hegelianism
           (thought from thesis vs antithesis=synthesis)
           Marx: dominant vs subordinate social groups = conditions
            leading to new dominant social group = new discontent,
            conflict, etc
      French socialism
           Portrayal of problems of capitalistic society with all its
            inequalities
           Idea of forced redistribution of property
           Development of society/social conditions in historical stages
      British classical economics
           Vocabulary for analyzing industrial/capital economy and society
            empirically and scientifically
Major Ideas
 Marx’s words:
     ―What I did that was new was to prove:
          (1) that the existence of classes is bound up with
           particular historical phases in the development of
           production
          (2) that the class struggle necessarily leads to the
           dictatorship of the proletariat
          (3) that this dictatorship itself only constitutes the
           transition to the abolition of all classes and to a
           classless society
History falls into an inevitable pattern:

 History is merely the record of humankind’s struggle
    with physical nature to produce what man must have
    to survive
   The particular productive process of a human group
    at a given time in history determines structure, ideas,
    values of society
   Inevitable class conflict results from this interaction:
    traditionally conflict between class that owns and
    controls and the classes who work for them to
    actually produce
   Piecemeal reforms cannot eliminate resulting
    inevitable inequalities and evils; inherent in
    structures of production—must be total
    transformation of society
   Capitalism makes such revolution inevitable
     Specifically in the 19th C….
 Early 19th C (industrial revolution) produced struggle between bourgeoisie
  (middle class) and proletariat (workers)
 Capitalism sharpens struggle by increasing struggle and size of proletariat class
    Production/competition drives out smaller and traditional industry for giant
      factories and corporations
    Production/competition forces ex-middle class owners and artisans driven out
      of business + increasing number of workers needed for factories down into
      proletariat class
    Few giants can force workers to work for less = increased suffering = social
      unrest increases to explosion point and…
 Eventually proletariat class will revolt, overthrow few remaining magnates,
  organize means of production through dictatorship of the proletariat
 Culminates in class society free of class conflict
    Victorious proletariat, by nature, could not turn into oppressors
    ―From each according to his ability; to each according to his need‖
    Marx/Engels: ―The proletarian movement is the self conscious, independent
      movement of the immense majority, in the interest of the immense majority.‖
Political –isms Nationalism
 Single most powerful European political ideology of
  19-20th C Europe (now in Central/E Europe and old
  USSR)
 Based on concept that a nation is composed of
  people with common language, customs, culture and
  history. This nation, then should be administered by
  the same government: national and ethnic
  boundaries should coincide
 Also related: popular sovereignty– particular ethnic
  group should be able to decide own form of
  government, determine own leaders; BUT usually
  significant minorities (sometimes ruling minorities)
  within each ethnic grouping: (Slavs in German areas
  of Austria, etc)
         Influence in the                     19th       C
 Contraries: Congress of Vienna
       Settlement on basis that legitimate monarchies rather than dynasties should be basis
        of political units
       Nationalists protested reestablishment of multinational Austrian and Russian empires
       Also protested when peoples of same ethnic group (
        Germans and Italians) put in political units smaller than ethnic nation
 Creating Nations
       Elite writers/journalists spread idea of nationalism
       Language: ―official‖ or dominant sometimes imposed by government over local
        dialects; during 19th c resurrect dead languages (in 1850 less than half inhabitants of
        France spoke official French—Provence, etc. local languages)
 Problems of nation
       How big is big enough? Viable economy? Significant cultural association? Cultural
        elite to nourish and spread? Ability to conquer others? Argument in reality lead to
        unrest and rebellion
 Problem spots in the 1800’s:
       Ireland
       Italy
       Germany
       Poland
       E. Europe (Hungarians, Czechs, Slavs)
       Balkans: Serbs, Greeks, Albanians, Romanians, Bulgarians
        Liberalism
 Often used by conservatives to mean anyone who challenges traditional
  political, social, religious values
 19th C: political goals
    Based on Enlightenment principles (Dec. Rights of Man and Citizen);
      Often from educated, middle class (who wanted careers open to talent,
      not birth)
    Wanted legal equality, religious toleration, freedom of the press
    Government limited in power, recognizing legitimacy only when freely
      given consent of governed
            Republican or Parliamentary government
            State or crown ministers responsible to Representatives of people, not just
             to monarch or ruler
            Constitutional government, but not necessarily democracy: wanted
             representation of propertied, middle classes
 Ironically, contemptuous of both aristocracy and lower classes
       Privilege based on wealth and property, not birth
       BUT NOT voices of common people==separated from rural and urban
        working classes
   Economic goals of 19th C liberals
 Followed Adam Smith
    Laissez faire freedom from mercantilistic, regulated economies
    Ability to manufacture and sell goods freely
    Remove tariffs and internal barriers to trade
    Vs guilds: labor to be bought and sold as any other commodity
 Wanted freedom for talented and propertied to enrich selves
    Then more goods and services for all at lower prices
    Progress = material progress for all
 Programs
    Britain: protect civil liberties with reform; limit monarch and
     parliament; expand electorate to middle class
    France: Napoleonic Code already guaranteed legal system; called
     for greater rights ―principles of 1789‖
    Germany: little middle class participation in government and
     military, no idea of individual liberty; therefore, wanted united
     Germany so that they could achieve a freer social and political order
     (didn’t happen)
    Conservatism
 Conservatism in general seeks to preserve the traditional
    institutions of government and economy to keep power in
    hands of traditional aristocracies, church hierarchies and
    monarchies
   Associated with Romantic thinkers such as Edmund Burke
    (Irish born, British protested Fr Rev) and Friedrich Hegel
   Threatened by waves of Revolution, beginning with the
    French Revolution
   Feared and hated Enlightenment rationalism and reformist
    writings
   Saw selves surrounded by enemies; permanently defending
    selves vs liberalism, nationalism and popular sovereignty
Philosophy
Rousseau: Basis of Romanticism
           State of nature opposite to Hobbes
              Noble savage;
              Man good, civilization bad

           Test of true values—feelings
              education =to free a person
              God=beyond reason

           Social contract: sum of wills of
            individuals
                Come together to discuss, then all vote
                ―general will‖
    Kant: Critique of Pure Reason
 World of phenomena=what we can perceive
   Categories of understanding: mind sets up to
    impose on sensory experience; from
    mind=reasoning
   God and most of nature really not in this
    category
 Noumenal world=objective reality we cannot
  perceive totally
      Can only be known through ―practical reason,‖
       feelings/conscience (innate sense/moral duty)
      Categorical imperative: act by rules you will to
       be universal law
Hegel

         German born philosopher: educated,
          worked as editor, but didn’t like
          journalism, so became teacher,
          university professor
         Absolute (reality) = pure Thought, or
          Spirit, or Mind, incapable of definition
          because process of development; self
          recognition
         Geist= between spirit and reality (world
          Spirit) ―The Absolute‖
          (Christian/others atheistic)
 Dialectic
 developmental process = dialectic = thesis vs antithesis produces
  synthesis.
    The thesis might be an idea or a historical movement.
    The idea or movement contains within itself incompleteness that
      gives rise to opposition, an antithesis, a conflicting idea or
      movement.
    As a result of the conflict, a third point of view arises, synthesis,
      which overcomes the conflict by reconciling at a higher level the
      truth contained in both the thesis and antithesis. This synthesis
      becomes a new thesis that generates another antithesis, giving
      rise to a new synthesis,
 Dialectic:
                                                             Synthesis
                                                     Antithesis
                    Synthesis which becomes Thesis
        Antithesis
Thesis
Implications—why basis of conservatism
 Reality is the Absolute unfolding dialectically in this
  process of self-development toward the goal of total self
  consciousness
    ―God is God,‖ Hegel argued, ―only in so far as he
     knows himself.‖
    Expressed in Nature and in history
    Its increasing self consciousness manifests in
          Art—material = beauty
          Religion—in symbols
          Philosophy--rationally
 Hegel considered membership in the state one of the
  individual's highest duties. Ideally, the state is the
  manifestation of the general will, which is the highest
  expression of the ethical spirit. Obedience to this
  general will is the act of a free and rational individual.
      Schopenhauer: Anti Romantic
      Freedom of the Will; Freedom & Reality

 Divided reality into what is capable of
    being experienced and what isn’t
   Experience depends on the senses;
    therefore, cannot conceive of reality
    outside of sensory experience
   Independent reality is a closed book ; ―all
    is one‖ (noumenal only describes what
    happens inside you, not objective reality)
   No God, free will, etc.
    Universe=energy/go/impersonal force you
    cannot define ―nature red in tooth and
    claw‖
   Relief from horror of existence only
    through arts.

				
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