A STRUGGLE FOR LOVE IN F. SCOTT FITZGERALD THE GREAT GATSBY: AN INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH by DWI PURWANINGRUM A 320 010 285 ENGLISH DEPARTMENT SCHOOL OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF SURAKARTA 2006 APPROVAL A STRUGGLE FOR LOVE IN F. SCOTT FITZGERALD THE GREAT GATSBY: AN INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH by: DWI PURWANINGRUM A 320 010 285 Approved to be examined by The Consultants Team Consultant I Consultant II Drs. H. Abdillah Nugroho, M. Hum. Mauly Halwat Hikmat, S.Pd, M. Hum. DEDICATION This research paper is dedicated to: My father and Mother who have sacrificed everything for me and always support me with love, praying and trus. My beloved Brother, thank for love, attention and prayer. The Big Family KARYO’S HUSADA My beloved one, thank for togetherness SUMMARY DWI PURWANINGRUM, A. 320. 010 285 A STRUGGLE FOR LOVE IN F. SCOTT FITZGERALD “THE GREAT GATSBY”: AN INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH. RESEARCH PAPER. MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF SURAKARTA. 2006. The research investigates how the major character struggles to get his love in F, Scoot Fitzgerald “The Great Gatsby”. Therefore, the study analyzes the novel in terms of its structural elements and based on the individual psychological approach. The object of the study is the personality of the major character of Jay Gatsby. The data sources are literary data. Those are divided in two categories, primary data sources and secondary data sources. The primary data source is the novel it self. The secondary data are the other sources related to the novel. The method of data collection of the study is library research. The technique of data analysis is descriptive analysis. The outcome of the study shows that the struggle for getting love can change the personality. It is reflected in the major character’s personality when he wants to get his love again from his ex-girl friend. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Assalamu’alaikum wr. wb. Glory to Allah SWT, the Almighty, the Lord of the universe, the supreme being. The writer is so grateful to Him for giving her all the kindness, protection, power and love to complete this research as a partial fulfilment of the requirements for getting Bachelor Degree of Education in English Department. The writer is fully aware that this work cannot be separated from other people’s help and guidance. Therefore, in this opportunity, she would like to express her gratitude and appreciation to: 1. Drs. Sofyan Anif, M.Si, the Dean of School of Teacher Training and Education. 2. Koesoema Ratih, S.Pd., M.Hum., as the Head of English Department. 3. Drs. H. Abdillah Nugroho, H.Hum, as the first consultant who has advised and guided her during the arrangement of this research paper . 4. Mauluy Halwat Hikmat, S.Pd., M.Hum., as the second consultant who has improved the research’s writing in order to make this research paper more interesting to read in correct sentences. 5. Dra. Dwi Haryanti, as the Academic Consultant. 6. All of English Department’s lecturers in Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta. 7. Her beloved mother and father, thanks for their loves, attention, motivation and pray in finishing this research paper, she will do her best. 8. Her dearly beloved friends: Woro, Rudi, Erkha, Kyky, Cimot, Ana, Hevi, Ella, Nita, Yani, IIN, Gustin, TRita, Eny, Dije, Mba’ Nila, Mas Mawan, Niknok, Jen, Jemblung, Sigit2,Adi, Erhas thanks for the true friendship. 9. All the friend and family in Tunggul Sari 7A: Mas Agus, Mas Ya2n, M’heri, M’ Tita, M”Atoun, Kak RAN, Dina, M’ DEvita thanks for love and the support. 10. All the friends in English Department especially class F, thank for togetherness. 11. My Dear, Alie AJ thanks for support, attention, and helping. 12. Mr.M. Agus Hartadi Family: Thank for attention and helping her in everything. 13. All crew RAPMA FM, thanks for great experience. 14. All crew GSM FM, thanks for giving her part time and experience. 15. The parties whose names cannot mentioned one by one. For all, the researcher can present nothing but the deepest thank and she wishes Allah SWT will bless them. The researcher is really aware that research paper is far from being perfect. Therefore, she hopes it evokes some criticism for improvement. Wassalamu’alaikum wr. wb. Surakarta, September 2006 Dp TABLE OF CONTENT Page TITLE ............................................................................................................. i APPROVAL ................................................................................................... ii ACCEPTANCE .............................................................................................. iii MOTTO .......................................................................................................... iv DEDICATION................................................................................................ v SUMMARY .................................................................................................... vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT............................................................................. vii TABLE OF CONTENT................................................................................. x CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION ................................................................ 1 A. Background the Study.................................................... 1 B. Literature Review........................................................... 3 C. Problem Statement ......................................................... 3 D. Objectives of the Study.................................................. 3 E. Benefits of the Study...................................................... 3 F. Research Method ........................................................... 4 G. Research Paper Organization......................................... 5 CHAPTER II: UNDERLYING THEORY .................................................. 7 A. Notion of Individual Psychology ................................... 7 B. Basic Assumption of Individual Psychology................. 8 C. Theoretical Application ................................................. 14 x CHAPTER III: STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS ............................................. 15 A. Structural Analysis........................................................ 15 1. Character and Characterization .............................. 15 a. Major Character ................................................ 16 b. Minor Character................................................ 20 2. Plot.......................................................................... 22 a. Exposition ......................................................... 23 b. Complication..................................................... 24 c. Resolution ......................................................... 27 d. Causality ........................................................... 29 e. Plausibility ........................................................ 30 3. Setting..................................................................... 31 4. Point of View.......................................................... 33 5. Style........................................................................ 34 6. Theme ..................................................................... 38 B. Discussion ..................................................................... 39 CHAPTER IV: INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS ............ 42 A. Individual Psychology .................................................. 42 1. Fictional Finalism ................................................. 42 2. Inferiority Feeling................................................. 43 3. Striving for Superiority......................................... 44 4. Style of Life .......................................................... 44 5. Social Interest ....................................................... 45 xi 6. Creative Power ..................................................... 46 B. Discussion .................................................................... 48 CHAPTER V : CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS .......................... 50 A. Conclusion ................................................................... 50 B. Suggestion.................................................................... 51 BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIXES xii CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study There are many needs that people try to fulfill. For example, the needs of food, cloth, house and love. The last is as important as the others. Lack of love will make people feel anxious, bored and lonely. Love can make people feel: happy, sad, and angry. It makes people laugh and cry. Musbikin (2002:30) says that love is sacred. It is given by Allah, It’s priceless. It means everybody deserves love even though he or she has to struggle for it. In the struggle to find love, people’s personality and life style change. People will try to be better when they meet someone that they love. Someone who is falling in love will always feel happy and tries to look better and better in front of the person that they love. They will do everything as a form of sacrifice .Although they realize that love is not always beautiful like our wish .Because of love our life has a meaning. F. Scott Fitzgerald writes a story on the struggle of love. His novel is The Great Gatsby. This novel consists of 186 pages and tells how James Gatz or Jay Gatsby tries to win back his ex-girl friends heart, Daisy. In the past they were a couple. However, since Gatsby was a poor man, Daisy’s parents did not approve their relationship. Daisy then got married with Tom Buchanan, a rich man from the other side of America. Since that day, Gatsby made a promise to 1 2 himself to change his life. His wish was that the wanted to become a rich man in order to get Daisy back. By the passing of time, Gatsby’s dream came true. He became a rich man. He began to find Daisy and her husband. He did it and built a big house in front of the Island where Daisy and her husband lived. To attract Daisy’s attention, Gatsby threw parties all day long for the rich people in town. One day, he met Daisy and they had an affair. There are many conflicts in the story. One of them is when Gatsby realizes that Daisy is a married woman and asks her to leave her husband. Tom himself had an affair with Mr. Wilson’s wife. Without Gatsby and Daisy knowing it, Tom was aware of their relationship. He decided to make Gatsby fail. In the end of the story, Gatsby was murdered by Mr. Wilson. He suspected that Gatsby was responsible for his wife death and he believes that her death was not caused by an accident. Mr. Wilson knew the story from Buchanan, he said that James Gatsby was the one who killed Mrs. Wilsons. To know more about the novel, it is better to know about the writer. The author F. Scott Fitzgerald was born on September 24.1896. His other novel is this side of paradise (1920), the beautiful and dammed(1922), short stories all sad young man (1830) and the last Tycan (1939). Almost all of his literary works, novels or poem tell about an American Dream, how American people try to get her wish getting a material for her life or just having fun with other people. The real example is exploring in his novel the great Gatsby. This novel fully tells about how Americans try to 3 change their lives just like their dreams. Their aim makes them become a good man, wealthy and good appearance. So, that is why the researcher is interested in analyzing this novel by using an individual psychological approach and takes a title for his study “Struggle for Love in F. Scott Fitzgerald” The Great Gatsby: an Individual Psychological Approach” B. Literary Review Fitzgerald is an American novelist that is very popular. As long as the writer knows, there has been other researcher who conducted a research on the novel. In his study, Kaharuddin (2000) discussed “James Gatz Defense Mechanism in Fitzgerald the Great Gatsby” using psychoanalytic Approach. In his problem he focused on Gatsby’s defense mechanism in relation with his problem. In this opportunity the researcher decides to conduct a research on the major character’s way on struggle for getting his ex- girl friend’s love, and the influence that he gets because of it. Here the researcher uses an individual psychological approach. C. Problem Statement Based on the title and the background of the study, the main problem in this research is, “How is a struggle for love reflected in F.S Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby?” 4 D. Objective of the Study The aims of the research are follows: 1. To analyze the novel on the structural elements 2. To analyze the novel with individual psychological Approach E. Benefit of the Study The benefits of this study are as follows: 1. Theoretical Benefit This study is expected to give contribution to the development of the body of knowledge, particularly the literary studies on Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby. 2. Practical Benefit It is expected to give a condition in literary field as reference to the other researcher in analyzing this novel particularly the students of Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta. F. Research Method In analyzing The Great Gatsby the writer searches for many data. 1. Object of the Study The object of the study is Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby 2. Type of the Data and the Data Source In doing this study, the writer uses two sources of data, namely primary and secondary data sources. 5 a. Primary Data The primary data source is the novel itself, The Great Gatsby by F- Scott Fitzgerald b. Secondary Data Source The secondary data are taken from other sources which are related to the primary data such as the biography of the author, and website about The Great Gatsby. 3. Technique of the Data Collection The method of collecting data that the writer uses is library research. Firstly, the writer reads and comprehends the primary and secondary data source. Secondly she notes down of important information in both sources. Then, she selects them by accepting the relevant information with the problem and rejecting the irrelevant information that does not support the topic of the study. Beside that the writer uses internet to find the information about the novel and literary theory that she uses. 4. Technique of the Data Analysis In analyzing the data, the writer employs descriptive qualitative analysis or content analysis. The analysis is started on the author and then the structural analysis of the novel and finally the individual analysis of the literature. 6 G. Paper Organization The paper consists of five chapters and each of them is sub divided into sub sequent division. Chapter one is the introduction that consists of background of the study, literature review, problem of the study, objective of the study, benefit of the study, research method, theoretical approach and paper organization. Chapter two is the underlying theory, namely explaining about principle theory of personality. Chapter three is structural analysis; the researcher explains the structural elements of the story and discussion. Chapter four is data analysis; it presents six basic principle of an individual psychological approach. This chapter represents the application of the underlying theory in which the novel is analyzed by means of Adler’s individual psychology. Finally, the last chapter integrates the overall discussion and brings to the conclusion of the study. CHAPTER II UNDERLYING THEORY This chapter presents the underlying theory, which supports the discussion of this thesis. In analyzing the problem, the writer uses Individual Psychological Approach, especially Adler’s Individual Psychological Theory. It can be used as theoretical framework to analyze the character’s personality. In order to make the theory easier to understand, the writer provides some aspects of the theory. The elaboration consists of the Notion of Individual Psychology, the Basic Assumption of Individual Psychology and Theoretical Application. A. Notion of Individual Psychology According to Adler as quoted by Ryckman (1985: 95) individual Psychology is a science that attempts to understand the experiences and behavior of each person as an organized entity. He believes further that all actions are guided by a person’s fundamental attitudes toward life. Adler (in Hjelle and Ziegler, 1982: 141) believes that the major purpose of a personality theory should be to serve as an economical and fruitful guide for therapists and ultimately for everyone, in effecting change toward more psychologically healthy behavior. Adler (in Feist, 1985: 64) states as follows: Individual Psychology insists on the fundamental unity of personality. All Apparent dichotomies and multiplicities of life are organized in 7 8 one-self consistent totally. No definite division can be made between mind and body, between conscious and unconscious, or between reason and emotion. All behavior is seen in relation to the final goal of superiority of success. This gives direction and unity to the individual. Adler’s Individual Psychology depicts the human being as single, invisible, self-consistent and unfired (Adler in Hjelle and Ziegler, 1992: 139). Adler makes consciousness of the center of personality, which makes him pioneer in the development of an ego-oriented psychology. Man conscious being, he is ordinarily aware of the reason for his behavior. He is a conscious of his inferiorities and conscious of the goals for which he strives. More than that, he is a self-conscious individual who is capable of planning and guiding his actions with full awarness of their meaning for his own self realization (Hall and Lindzey, 1981: 121). In his earliest writings, the final goal of our struggle was to be aggressive and all-powerful, dominate others. Humans were seen as selfish and concerned only with self aggrandizement later, Adler revised his thinking and claimed that the final goals is to be superior (Ryckman, 1985: 95). B. Basic Assumption of Individual Psychology The basic assumption of Individual Psychology can be presented under six general headings: (1) fiction finalism, (2) inferiority feeling, (3) striving for superiority, (4) style of life, (5) social interest, and (6) creative power. 1. Fiction Finalism It deals with individual goal of life, which is unreal in nature or as a fiction. According to Adler as quoted by Hjelle and Ziegler (1992: 154) 9 each person’s guest for superiority is guided by the fictional goal that he or she has adopted. He also believes that the person’s fictional goal of superiority is self-determined; it is formed by the person’s own creative power, therefore it makes the individually unique. Adler (in Ryckman, 1985: 98) argues that people create ideas that guide their behavior and he concluded that, no one’s various striving can occur without the perception of goals. Adler (in Hall and Lindzey, 1981: 122) states as follows: Individual psychology insists absolutely on the indispensability finalism for the understanding of all psychological phenomena. Causes, powers, instincts impulses, and the like cannot serve as explanatory principles. The final goal alone can explain man’s behavior. Experiences, traumata, sexual development mechanisms cannot yield an explanation, but the perspective in which these are regarded the individual way of seeing them, which subordinate all life to the final goal, can do so. Adler’s concept of fiction finalism is the idea the human behavior is directed toward a future goal of its own making. Adler (in Hjelle and Ziegler, 1992: 153) theorizes that our ultimate goals (those goals which give our live direction and purpose) are fictional goals that can neither be tested nor confirmed against reality. 2. Inferiority Feeling Inferiority means feeling weak and unskilled in the face of tasks that need to be completed. It is manifestation of individual consciousness due to a condition, which is resulted from inability or imperfection feeling. This inferiority feeling is considered as a challenge to strive for the 10 compensation of inferiority until psychological equilibrium is attained (Hall and Lindzey, 1985: 147). According to Adler as quoted by Hall and Lindzey (1985: 147), the feeling of inferiority is quite normal. Throughout life, feelings of inferiority arise constantly as we meet new and unfamiliar task that must be mustered. Each time we confront a new task our initial awareness of inferiority is overcome as we achieve a higher level of functioning. Feeling of inferiority can be largely constructive or largely destructive. Acknowledging that we all feel inferior at some point in our lives could serve as a basis for mutual help and cooperation to overcome problems in living. But if we dwell excessively on our inferiority, real, or imagined, we are less likely to trust others or selves. As a consequence, we are act to operate on the useless side of life, we are more likely to overcompensate for our deficiencies and develop an exaggerated sense of superiority that others find loathsome (Ryckman, 1985: 99). 3. Striving for Superiority Each individual is forced by drivers to be superior, powerful and regarded. This is a response to the feeling of inferiority. By inferiority feeling, person will make some efforts to cover it. Person will strive to cover his or her weaknesses to be perfect, superior and regarded. The one dynamic force behind the person activity is the striving for success or 11 superiority (Feist, 1985: 68). Adler (in Fredenburgh, 1971: 219). States as follows: I should like to emphasize first of all that striving for perfection is innate, this is not meant in a concrete way, as there were a driver which would later in life be capable of bringing everything to completion and which only needed to develop it. The striving for perfection is in nate the sense that it is a part of life as striving, an urge, a something without which life would be unthinkable…. Adler (in Hall and Lindzey, 1981: 123) acknowledges that the striving for superiority may manifest it self in a thousand different way, and that each person has his own concrete mode of achieving or trying to achieve perfection. Adler (in Hjelle and Ziegler, 1992: 143) believes that the great dynamic force governing human behavior is a striving to be aggressive there are three distinct stages in his theorizing on the ultimate goal of human life: to be aggressive, to be powerful, and to be superior. 4. Style of Life According to Adler (in Hjelle and Ziegler, 1992: 144) the style of life encompasses the unique pattern of traits, behaviors and habits which, when taken together, defines the flavor of a person’s existence. The style of life, originally called “life plan” or “guiding image” refers to the unique ways in which people pursue their goal (Ryckman, 1985: 98). Style of life is the term Adler uses to refer to the flavor of a person’s life. It include not only the person’s goal, but also self-concept, feelings toward others, and attitude toward the world. It is the product of the interaction of heredity, environment, and goal of success, social 12 interest and creative power (Feist, 1985: 74). The individual’s style of life is largely determined by the specific inferiorities, either fancied or real, that the person has. The style is a compensation for a particular inferiority Adler (in Hall and Lindzey, 1981: 126). 5. Social Interest Basically, man is social creature by nature and not by habit. He fully realizes his position as a free individual and his bound concerns the society. Therefore, in his efforts to develop himself, he must also consider the existence and the importance of his society. Thus, a man should live among others, and this means that he must interact with others in his society so that his behavior is always influenced by his society (Hall and Lindzey, 1970: 125). According Adler as quoted by Feist (1985:71) social interest can be defined as an attitude of relatedness with humanity in general, as well as empathy fun each member of human race. It manifest it self as well as cooperation with others for social advancement rather than for personal gain. It is part of human nature and some amount of its exist in everyone. Adler (in Phares, 1988: 93), says that social interest is a predisposition, nurtured by experience to contribute to society. Since man was born, he has automatically become a member of society. If his social feeling can develop naturally, he will be able to make an adaptation with his living environments appropriately. Adler states that 13 social interest takes in such matters as co-operation, interpersonal and social relations, identification with the group, empathy, and so forth (in Hall and Lidzey, 1970: 125). According to Hall and Lindzey (1985: 147), Adler’s concept of social interest is not easy to define. It can be translated in many different ways and the broader meaning of the concept is still debated. For present purposes, we will define social interest as caring for and concerning the welfare or others that continues, throughout life, to guide a person’s behavior. Although the capacity for social interest is in born, Adler (in Hall and Lindzey, 1985: 148) says it is too small or weak. 6. Creative Power According to Adler as quoted by Hjelle and Ziegler (1992: 150) creative power means the influences of heredity any environment toward a person in overcoming the problem or life. Each person is empowered with the freedom to create his or her own life style. Ultimately, people are solely responsible for whom they are, and how they behave. This creative of life is responsible for the person’s life goal, and contributes to the development of social interest. The creative self is the yeast that acts the facts of the world and transforms these facts into a personality that as subjective, dynamic, unified, personal and uniquely stylized. The creative self gives meaning to 14 life; it creates the goal as well as the means to the goal. The creative self is the active principle of human life (Hall and Lindzey, 1970: 166). The concept of the creative self implies what we each create our own personality, that we actively construct it out of our experiences and heredities (Ryckman, 1985: 98). Adler’s concept of the creative self underscored his belief that human beings are the matters of their own fate (Adler in Hjelle and Zeigler, 1992: 150). Creative power implies freedom, free to be what we will. We may choose to experience pain, joy, or anxiety, or to do defend ourselves against these experiences by erecting various safeguarding tendencies. Creative power is a dynamic concept. It implies movement and this movement is the most salient characteristic of life. All psychic life involves free movement toward a goal, movement with a direction (Feist, 1985: 75). C. Theoretical Application In this research, the writer will apply the individual psychological theory related to the concept of struggle in psychological aspect. It will be begun by analyzing Jay Gatsby’s personality viewed from his fictional finalism, inferiority feeling, striving for superiority, and style of life, social interest, and creative power. The writer also analyzes the events and conflicts that are related to the individual psychological theory based on the characterization of Jay Gatsby. CHAPTER III STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS This section deals with structural elements and discussion. A work of literature has structural elements to form a single unity, those elements are inevitable. It is better to talk about it separately. Sunaryo (1959:28) states that one element cannot stand without the others and one has no meaning by itself. The elements support each other to produce a good story. The researcher would like to expound the elements that generally consist of character and characterization, setting, plot, point of view, style and theme. A. Structural Analysis 1. Character and Characterization A novel as literary work needs character that is person who has function to make concrete or dramatize in the term of action. Kennedy (1983:450) states that character is an imagined person who inhabits a story. There are two kinds of character, namely major character and minor character. Major character is the most important, it cannot stand-alone. Therefore, it needs minor characters that support and make the major character more vivid. Generally, characterization is development of the character within a particular work. It is the presentation of the qualities of the characters physically, mentally and socially. 15 16 a. Major Characters 1) Jay Gatsby or James Gatz Gatsby is a protagonist character. Morally, he is a perfect gentleman and a good person (Fitzgerald, 1953:73). Physically he is handsome, he has tanned skin drawn attractively tight on his face and he has short hair looked as thought it were timed everyday. (Fitzgerald, 1953:51). Later in the novel it is mentioned that his real name is James Gatz; he was born in North Dakota, to an impoverished farming family (Fitzgerald, 1953:100). Socially, he is also a fantastically wealth young man. He gets much money from Dan Cody a product of the Nevada silver fields, of the Yukon, of every rush for metal since seventy five. He gets much money from Dan Cody $ 25.000. From Dan Cody, Gatsby found a taste of elite society (Fitzgerald, 1953:101-103). Thus, because of his wealth every Saturday in West Eggs he makes the site of extravagant parties (Fitzgerald, 1953:40-43). In the other hand, Gatsby is suspected as the murder, because he gets his wealthy fantastically. Many people do not believe that Gatsby’s wealthy comes from Dan Cody and his struggle in work. They believe that he is once killed a man in cold blood when he lives in Germany during World War I. Thus, all of people say that he is mysterious (Fitzgerald, 1953:45). Mentally, he is a hard worker; he works briefly for a millionaire, and there he becomes acquainted with the people and 17 customs of high society. He usually manages his time to his work. He has a dream to win Daisy’s love (Fitzgerald, 1953:177-178). Talking about his love story, Gatsby meets Daisy when he serves in the Army in World War I; he is a lieutenant. But in the reality he has to lose Daisy, because he is the poor man, and Daisy must get married to other man (Fitzgerald, 1953: 76-77). Actually, Gatsby is very careful about woman. He would never so much as look at a friend’s wife (Fitzgerald, 1953:740). 2) Daisy Fay Buchanan Daisy Fay Buchanan is Nick’s cousin, Tom’s wife and the woman Gatsby loves (Fitzgerald, 1953:6). Physically, she has beautiful face, she has the kind voice that the ear follows up and down, as if each speech is an arrangement of notes that will never be played again. Her face is sad and lovely with bright things in it, bright eyes and a bright passionate mouth, but there is an excitement in her voice that men who have cared for her find it difficult to forget: a singing compulsion, a whispered “Listen” to a promise that she had done gay, exiting things just a while since and that there were gay, exciting things hovering in the next hour (Fitzgerald, 1953: 10). Socially, Daisy is a woman in her early twenties coming from a faithfully wealthy family in Louisville, Chicago, and she is the most popular girl that loves Gatsby, a lieutenant. Because Jay Gatsby is not a wealthy lieutenant, after he leaves war, Daisy meets another man and gets married to him that is very wealthy and 18 makes Daisy life in luxury, until they have a daughter and live. Daisy is well known as the millionaire’s wife in Chicago. Morally, she has a perfect reputation, but actually she is a materialistic woman; money is her happiness (Fitzgerald, 1953: 79). Actually Daisy in her wealth and beauty is the symbol of all that Gatsby desires, and in reality she is the woman that kills myrtle Wilson, her husband mistress while driving Gatsby’s car (Fitzgerald, 1953:140). 3) Tom Buchanan Tom Buchanan is Daisy’s husband, a former Yale football player at new Haven while completing his education, likes Daisy, and he comes from an immensely wealthy Midwestern family. Physically, he is a tall, hulking man. He has a cruel body or muscular body structure, exactly. Morally, he is a brutal man. His speaking voice, a gruff husky tenor, added to emphasize his controlling nature and he has contempt in his eyes and exhibits extreme arrogance man. He also thinks that he has authority to dominate everyone (Fitzgerald, 1953 : 12-13&37). After marrying Daisy, they travel to France for a year and then they move east to New York. In thirty years old he has a daughter (Fitzgerald, 1953: 79). When he comes to Lake Forest from Chicago, he brings polo ponies. He spends time with his mistress and meets Gatsby (Fitzgerald, 1953: 24). 19 4) Nick Carraway Nick Carraway is a narrator in this novel. Socially, he is Daisy’s nephew who comes from a well-to-do Minnesota family in Middle Western. After graduating from Yale in 1915, he participates in Great War, World War I. After returning from the Great War, he decides to go east to learn the bond business, he travels to New York to acquire knowledge and learns the profession. There, he meets another student and rents a house, and there he also meets Gatsby, Jordan Baker, and Buchanan. Nick visits his cousin Daisy (Fitzgerald, 1953:3-6). Physically, he is handsome, caring, honest, responsible and fair minded; he helps another people. In reality he helps Daisy and Gatsby meet each other, therefore, he serves as a link between them (Fitzgerald,1953:83-98). But, he is a sensitive man (Fitzgerald, 1953:61). 5) Jordan Baker Jordan Baker is Daisy’s long-time friend. Socially, she is a professional golfer who cheats in order to win her first tournament. She is a slender, small-breasted girl with an erect backward at the shoulders like a young cadet. She has grey sun-strained eyes with polite reciprocal curiosity out of wan, charming, discontented face and masculine, icy demeanor that Nick initially finds compelling (Fitzgerald, 1953:11). 20 Likes Nick, Jordan is also caring, and fair minded. She helps Daisy and Gatsby meet each other and she serves as a link between them (Fitzgerald, 1953:83-98). b. Minor Character 1) Myrtle Wilson She is Tom Buchanan’s mistress, George B. Wilson’s wife. She is beautiful, vital and voluptuous woman. She has been having a long-term affair with Tom Buchanan and is incredibly jealous of Daisy (Fitzgerald, 1953: 26-39). After a fight with her husband, she runs out into the street and is hit and killed by Gatsby’s car (Fitzgerald, 1953: 140-145). 2) George B. Wilson He is Myrtle’s husband. He is a blond, spiritless man anemic and faintly handsome; he has blue eyes (Fitzgerald, 1953: 250). He is devastated by myrtle’s affair with Tom. After her diet, the magnitude of his grief drives Wilson to murder Jay Gatsby before committing suicide himself (Fitzgerald, 1953: 165-166). 3) Meyer Wolfsheim Meyer Wolfsheim is one of Jay Gatsby’s close friends. He is fifty years old Jews has a flat nose and small eyes. He is a sentimental man but does not wish to show this quality to the public (Fitzgerald, 1953: 73-74). Wolfsheim is a business associate of Gatsby. After Gatsby’s death, he tells Nick about Gatsby. He meets Gatsby after he 21 returned from the Army and gives him a job in the American Legion. Meyer has helped him in time of need, but he could not afford to come to attend the funeral because of business in The Swastika Land Holding Company (Fitzgerald, 1953: 169-171). 4) Henry Gatz Henry Gatz is Gatsby’s father. He lives in Minnesota. He is very proud of his son. He tells that Gatsby helps him and saves him from poverty and he tells Nick that Gatsby has extravagant plans and dreams of self-improvement (Fitzgerald, 1953: 171-179). 5) Dan Cody He is a somewhat coarse man who becomes immensely wealthy during the Gold Rush. He gives Gatsby a taste of elite society. Though he leaves Gatsby money after his death, it is later seized by Cody’s ex-wife (Fitzgerald, 1953: 101-103). 6) Catherine Catherine is Myrtle Wilson’s sister. She lives in New York City. She is thirty years old, with a solid, sticky bob of red hair and a complexion powdered milky white. Her eyebrows have been plucked and then drawn on again at a more rakish angle; the efforts of nature toward the restoration of the old alignment gave a blurred air to face (Fitzgerald, 1953:30). 7) The McKess The McKees are Chaterine’s neighbours. Mr. McKee is a pale, feminine man from the flat blow. While Mrs. McKee is shrill, languid, handsome and horrible. They are shallows gossips who 22 concern themselves only with status and fashion. They are photographer twenty seven times since they had been married (Fitzgerald, 1953: 30-31). 8) Ewing Klipspringer Klipspringer is a shiftless freeloader who almost lives at Gatsby’s mansion. Though he takes advantages of Gatsby’s wealth and generosity, Klipspringer fails to attend his funeral. He is slightly worn young man with shell rimmed glasses and scanty blond hair. He usually plays piano in Gatsby mansion (Fitzgerald, 1953:.96). 9) Owl Eyes Owl Eyes is an eccentric, bespectacled man whom Nick meets at one of Gatsby’s parties. He is one of the few people to attend Gatsby’s funeral (Fitzgerald, 1953: 55-57). 10) Pammy Pammy is Daisy’s and Tom’s daughter she is like Daisy, beautiful. She has shape or the face and has the same hair with her mother. She is a discipline child (Fitzgerald, 1953: 119-120). 2. Plot Klaler (1995:15) states that plot is the logical interaction of the various thematic elements of a text which leads to a change of the original situation as presented of the narrative. He mentions that an ideal traditional 23 plot line encompasses exposition, complications, (including climax) and resolution and resolution. a. Exposition Exposition is the introductory section of the story that introduces the characters problem and situation. The exposition begins with Gatsby childhood or young man. He is seventeen years old, was born in Nor Dakota with impoverished farmer family. Almost entirely of his childhood Gatsby is very poor but his parents love him (Fitzgerald, 1953:.100). He ever joined army in World War I. In World War, he meets the “golden girl”. Daisy Fay that is very beautiful came from the rich family in Louisville, Chicago. Actually, they love each other, but when World War I is finished Daisy get married to another man because basically she is a materialistic girl. She has married a rich man, Tom Buchanan (Fitzgerald, 1953: 76-77). While, after the World War I is finished and he cannot win Daisy, he has relationship with Dan Cody, a man whom he met while working as a fisherman on Lake Superior. Cody is a self-made millionaire who has made his fortune during the Yukon gold rush. Cody appointed Gatsby as his personal assistant. After Cody died, Gatsby inherited $25.000; he is unable to claim it, however, due to the malicious intervention of body’s mistress, Ella Kaye. Due to Cody, Gatsby finds his dream to lie in successful of life and have social class (Fitzgerald, 1953: 101-103). After that, Gatsby is a fantastically wealthy young man. 24 But, he usually feels unconscious because he usually has a dream to win Daisy’s love. He does not want Daisy to get married to another man because she is his passionate lover. He has wishes to win Daisy, to posses Daisy. But his dreams make him has mental condition in his personality. Because of his wealthy too, Gatsby usually makes extravagant parties to meet east Eggers and West Eggers in Saturday, and he is very famous as a millionaire, on the other side, because of his wealth he is supposed as a killer and having illegal business (Fitzgerald, 1953: 40-43). In his mansion in West Egg, he meets Nick Caraway. As Daisy’s cousin Nick knows that Gatsby is Daisy’s lover from Jordan Barker, Daisy’s friend. In Gatsby’s parties, they have plans to invite Daisy and Gatsby (Fitzgerald, 1953: 81-82). b. Complication The complication here is when Gatsby and Daisy meet in Gatsby’s party. Daisy comes with his husband, Tom Buchanan. Tom Buchanan is the man who has an affair with Myrtle Wilson. Gatsby is very happy when he meets his passionate love, his true love and his dream. Daisy is also very happy because she knows that this party is Gatsby’s mine as a millionaire, the man who has the greatest love to her. Here, they meet and make the meeting full of happiness; they make a beautiful day. But here the conflict is begun; Tom knows that Gatsby and his wife have an affair. In addition, Gatsby say to Nick that he loves Daisy very much and he wants Nick help him to say to Tom that Daisy never loves him and Gatsby wants to marry Daisy after she 25 is free and they will go back to Louisville (Fitzgerald, 1953: 112). But in the reality he has accepted that Daisy does not understand his willing. Someday, on the summer, Daisy invites Gatsby, Nick and Jordan to have lunch together. Daisy invites her daughter too. Here she said to Gatsby that she loves him and Tom Buchanan saw it. He is angry and jealous. He invites Gatsby to go to the city. Tom is desperate to pick a fight with Gatsby, forces the entire party to drive into New York. Gatsby and Daisy drive in Tom’s car, while Nick, Jordan and Tom drive in Gatsby’s car. On the way, Tom furiously tells Nick that Gatsby never studies in Oxford. They stop for gas at Wilson garage. Here, Wilson tells them that he does not know about his wife’s affair. While leaving the garage, they see Myrtle peering down at the car from her window. She stares at Jordan with an expression of jealousy, since she has assumed that Jordan is Tom’s wife. Because feeling that both his wife and his mistress are slipping away from him, Tom grows panicked and impatient. To escape from the summer heat, the group (Daisy and Gatsby while Tom with Nick and Jordan) takes a suite at the Plaza Hotel. There, Tom finally confronts to Gatsby, mocking his use of the phrase “old sport’. Tom accuses Gatsby of never having been at oxford; Gatsby replies that he did, in fact, study there for five months after the end of the war. Tom regards Daisy affair with the lower class Gatsby as one of the harbingers of the decline of civilization, here Tom hisses, there will even be intermarriage between 26 the races. In other side, Gatsby tells Tom that Daisy does not love him and has never loved him; he informs him that he is not going to take care of Daisy anymore. Tom calls Gatsby as a “common swindler” and reveals that he has made his fortune in boot legging. Here Daisy says that he loves Gatsby but he also loves Tom. Basically, she is a materialistic woman, so she just loves them with their wealthy. Actually in reality she has true love just to Gatsby but she cannot say that she loves him, because since five years ago she finds the luxury from Tom and they have a daughter, the true of their happily. Daisy’s statement makes Gatsby panic and conscious. He wants Daisy; he wants to win Daisy but in reality he has to loose his passionate loves. In addition Tom also accuses that Gatsby is the murder when he is in German and has illegal business in illegal medicine. This makes Gatsby disappointed and angry. As the confrontation draws to close their debates, Nick here realizes that today is his thirtieth birthday. When they are in the Valley of ashes, Nick, Jordan and Tom find that someone has been struck and killed by an automobile. The young Greek, Michaelis who runs the coffee house next to Wilson’s garage tells them that the victim is Myrtle Wilson. She ran out into the road during a fight with her husband; there, an opulent yellow car struck her. Nick, realize that the fatal car must have been Gatsby’s Roll-Royce. Tom presumes that Gatsby the driver and he killed Myrtle (Fitzgerald, 1953: 115-149). 27 c. Resolution Resolution is when the tension drawn into the feeling action. The resolution in this story starts when Nick finds himself unable to sleep, since the terrible events of the day have greatly unsettled him. He is wracked by anxiety; he hurries to Gatsby mansion shortly before dawn. He advises Gatsby to leave Long Island until the scandal of Myrtle’s death has quitted down because he is accused as the Myrtle’s death. Gatsby refuses, as he cannot bring himself to leave Daisy, he spent the entire night in front of the Buchanan’s mansion, just to ensure that Daisy was safe. He tells Nick that Tom did not try to harm her, and Daisy did not come but to meet him, though he was standing on her lawn in full moonlight. Gatsby in his misery tells to nick the story of his first meeting with Daisy. He does so even though it patently gives the lie to his earliest account of his past. Gatsby and Daisy first met in Louisville in 1917, Gatsby was instantly smitten with her wealth, her beauty and her youthful innocent. Realizing that Daisy would spurn him if she new of his poverty, Gatsby determined to lie to her about his past and his circumstances. Before he left for the World War I, Daisy promised to wait for him. But in reality she was married with another man who was social equal and the choice of her parents. The other story in this section is the event in West Egg to the valley Ashes, where George Wilson is very sad because his wife is dead. George has sought refuge with Michaelis his neighbor. George tells Michaelis that he confronted Myrtle with the evidence of her 28 affair and told her that, though she could conceal her sin from her husband. But in the reality Wilson assumes that the driver of the fatal car was Myrtle’s lover and he wants to kill myrtle and not caused an accident. From here, Wilson decides to punish the man for his sins. When he meets Tom, he hopes that Tom will know the driver’s identify, from Tom he knows that Gatsby was the driver because the “death car’ is yellow that is Gatsby’s car. Although in the reality the yellow car is driven by Tom, Nick and Jordan. So actually they are bad driver. Michaelis also said that when Myrtle runs for her car, she wants to stop the yellow car driver but the yellow car driver did not stop and becomes accident. After Wilson knows the identity of the “death car” he drives to Gatsby Mansion. There he finds Gatsby floating in his pool. Storing contemplatively at the sky, Wilson shoots Gatsby and then turn the gun on himself. It is the final of Gatsby’s dream. He has to die when he wants to possess his dream to win his love. After him dead reporters and gossipmongers swarm around Gatsby’s mansion, the spreading grotesquely exaggerated stories about his murder, his life and his relationship. Nick as his friends tries to give Gatsby a funeral as grand as his parties. But in reality Tom and Daisy do not come to Gatsby’s funeral. Daisy forgets Gatsby and his wish fittingly she goes to New York with Tom. While Tom, actually he is the man that must be responsible for Myrtle’s death. Not only Daisy and Gatsby that do not came to Gatsby funeral but also Meyer Wolfsheim. He can come to funeral because he has to finish his company organization problems. 29 But, in Gatsby’s funeral Nicks tells about Henry C. Gatz, Gatsby’s father. From the story of Henry Gatz, Nick knows that Gatsby is a hard worker and he does not join in an illegal business, but he works with Mr. Wolsheim. From the story, Gatsby fails to realize that the American Dream is already dead when he begins to dream of it and solve his anxiety to his problems, his goals, the pursuit of wealth and status because he has died bringing his dream and his anxiety (Fitzgerald, 1953: 150-180). d. Causality In this novel, the writer sees that the story has relation to each other, because one event causes another event or makes a cause effect relation. Gatsby as the major character in this novel feels anxious with his problem. He has a lover, Daisy Fay. He loves Daisy more than everything. He loves Daisy since in the World War I, five years long time ago. They meet in the situation that is not a good time. Daisy is a wealthy woman. She comes from the wealthy family in Louisville, Chicago, while Gatsby is a poor man. He comes from the poor farmer family in North Dakota. Actually, he knows that he cans posses Daisy in his life because Daisy loves him and promises him to wait for him. However, he is worried because he knows that Daisy is a materialistic woman and very famous in Louisville. In the reality, Daisy has been married to a rich man, Tom Buchanan. After the World War I finished, he works in Lake Superior. There, he meets Dan Cody. By their meeting, Gatsby gets luxury. When Cody died, Gatsby gets much money $25 000. Because he has a lot of money, he becomes a fantastically wealthy young man. 30 In West Egg, Gatsby is famous because of his wealth. He usually conducts extravagant parties. However, some people suppose that Gatsby is a killer when he lives in Germany and they think that Gatsby has an illegal business. In his party, he meets Nick and Jordan Baker. Nick is Daisy’s cousin, while Jordan is Daisy’s friend. They know that Gatsby is Daisy’s lover. When Gatsby meets Jordan, he wants to meet Daisy. Jordan tells Nick about it. They have planned to unite Gatsby and Daisy. When Daisy and Gatsby meet, their love grows up again. Gatsby loves her with his ambition to posses Daisy but he cannot get Daisy again because she is married to other man, although he knows that she also loves him, but she can not leave Tom. The events that happen will cause the other events occur. Therefore, this novel shows causality. e. Plausability The story in this novel changes the major character. The change is plausible because it is influenced from the out side. Before Gatsby gets wealth, he has no problem that makes him anxious, but after he gets wealth and meets Daisy again, he has many problems. He just feels how to get Daisy and marry her. But his “dream” always makes him anxious if Daisy cannot receive his desire because he knows that Daisy is married. He begs Daisy although he has to sacrifice for Daisy. It shows that the major character changes from a man who has no problem into a man who has many problems. Therefore, the plot has plausibility. 31 3. Setting Setting is given to create the story as real and concrete as possible. It is really important to create a real impression of the story for the readers will be able to create circumstance as if the story really happens. Setting may help the readers in developing their imagination about the story. Setting of a literary work consists of two broader setting. Firstly, setting of time. In many works of fiction, the time is very important, especially in the historical fiction. Secondly, is setting of place Work of fiction, the place is classified by the example of locale color region (Kennedy, 1983:32). A number of writers have devoted all parts of their work to the duplication of life in a particular region, for instance, Fitzgerald is one of the writers who devoted life in America. a. Setting of Place Generally, setting of place in Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby takes some places in New York and Chicago. In New York it takes place in West Egg, East Egg in Long Island, and Lake Superior. In Chicago, it takes place in Lousville. 1) New York City New York is the place where Tom Buchanan, Daisy’s husband met his mistress, named Myrtle Wilson. So, Tom Buchanan and his girl and I went up together to New York – or not quite together, for Mrs. Wilson sat discreetly in another car. Tom deferred that much to the sensibilities of those East Eggers who might be on the train (Fitzgerald, 1953:27). 32 2) Lake Superior It is the place where Gatsby works as a fisherman and the place where he meets Dan Cody, a man who gives him a taste of elite society. For over a year he had been beating his way along the south shore of Lake Superior as a clam digger and a salmon – fisher or in any other capacity that brought him food and bed. His brown, hardening body lived naturally through the half fierce, half – lazy work of the bracing days (Fitzgerald, 1953: 100). 3) West Egg West Egg is the place where Gatsby lives and meets Daisy again after five years and the place where Gatsby must accept many problems in his life that makes him anxious. Well about six weeks ago, she heard the name Gatsby for the first time in years. It was when I asked you – do you remember? – if you knew Gatsby in West Egg. After you had gone home she came into my room and woke me up, and said: “what Gatsby?” and when I described him – I was half asleep – she said in the strangest voice that it must be the man she used to know. It wasn’t until then that I connected this Gatsby with the officer in her white car (Fitzgerald, 1953: 80). 4) East Egg, Long Island East Egg is the place where Daisy and Tom Buchanan live after they had spent a year in France. Across the courtesy bay the white palaces fashionable East Egg glittered along the water, and the history of the summer really begins on the evening. I drove over there to have dinner with the Tom Buchanans. Daisy was my cousin once removed, and I’d known Tom in college. And just after the war I spent two days with them in Chicago. Why the came East I don’t know. They had spent a year in France for no particular reason and then drifted here and there unrest fully where people played polo and were rich together (Fitzgerald, 1953: 6). 33 5) Louisville, Chicago It is the place where Gatsby meets Daisy for the first time, and falls in love to her. The largest of the banners and largest of the lawns belonged to Daisy Fay’s house. She was just eighteen, two years older than me, and by far the most popular of all the young girls in Louisville. She dressed in white, and had a little roadster, and all day long the telephone rang in her house and excited young officer from Champ Taylor demanded the privilege of monopolizing her that night. When I came opposite her house that morning her wide roadster was beside the curb, and she was sitting in it with a lieutenant, his name was Jay Gatsby (Fitzgerald, 1953: 76-77). b. Setting of Time The Great Gatsby is a novel about what happened to the American dream in the 1920s, a period when the old values that gave substance to the dream had been corrupted by the vulgar pursuit of wealth. The characters are Midwesterners who have come East in pursuit of this new dream of money, fame, success, glamour and excitement. Thus, setting of time in this story is happened in 1920s. 4. Point of View Point of view is way the author tells the readers about his story by using narrator. The narrator may and may not participate in the story. The narrator who is a participant in the story is called first person narrator. The first narrator is the major character; the narrator tells himself or his own story and the story is chiefly about him but if the narrator is the minor character; the narrator focuses on someone rather than himself telling the other character. 34 After analyzing and investigating the text of the of the novel, further the writer considers that Fitzgerald’s employs the participants point of view or the first person narrator; it means the narrator is involved in the story or recognized his self as character yet. Then, Fitzgerald’s chooses the selective omniscient point of view, because he knows not only the certain character, particularly the major but, he knows the minor character too. In this characters Fitzgerald’s seems to know everything about the character’s thought, feeling and action from the beginning to the end of the story. 5. Style a. Grammatical Structure Grammatical structure is informal both in narration and dialogue the point of his style and using the easy word because Fitzgerald’s sentences are never very long or flowery, so it is easy to understand. Fitzgerald's also uses modern English, so the readers can catch the meaning of the word easily. He also uses standard sentences; it means that the messages sent are not implicated but simple and easy to understand. For example: I told her how I had stopped of in Chicago for a day on my Way East, and how a dozen people had sent their love through me. “Do they miss me?” she cried ecstatically. ‘The whole town is desolate. All the cars have the left rear wheel painted back as a mourning wreath, and there’s persistent wail all night along the north shore.” “How gorgeous!Let’s go back, Tom.Tomorrow!” Then she added irrelevantly: “you aught to see the baby.” “I’d like to.” “She’s sleep. She’s three years old. Haven’t you ever seen her?” “Never” 35 “Well you ought to see her. She’s ___” Tom Buchanan, who had been hovering restlessly about the room, stopped and rested his hand on my shoulder. “What are you doing, Nick?” “I’m a bond man.” “Who with.” (Fitzgerald, 1953:10) b. Sentence Construction The sentence construction in The Great Gatsby tends to be long and short sentence, usually, Fitzgerald's uses language sentence construction in narration, when he describes some detailed information. 1) Long sentence For example: But above the gray land and the spasms of bleak dust which drift endlessly over it, you perceive, after a moment, the eyes of Doctor T.J. Eckleburg. The eyes of Doctor T.J. Eckleburg are blue and gigantic – their retinas are one yard high. They lood out of no face, but instead, from a pair of enormous yellow spectacles which pass over a non-existent nose ……( Fitzgerald, 1953: 23-24). 2) Short sentence Daisy went up stairs to wash her face – too late. I thought with humiliation of my towels, while Gatsby and I waited on the lawn (Fitzgerald, 1953: 92). c. Diction Diction is a style of manner of speaking. It refers to the writer’s choice of the character words. The diction of Fitzgerald's is simple so that the reader can understand the story. 36 Fitzgerald uses an American dialect in order to show that the story take place in America. For example: “I don’t” “Why-‘she said hesitantly,...“Tom’s got some woman in New York.” “Got some woman /” I repeated blankly” (Fitzgerald, 1953:16). d. Figurative Language In The Great Gatsby, the researcher finds several figurative languages, which are used by the author. He does not use as much figurative language as some other authors do, but he does use some. 1) Personification It is used to give an attribute to animate things to behave as human beings do. For example: “I had just left a country of wide lawns and friendly trees.”( Fitzgerald, 1953: 3) “Did you have a nice ride?” (Fitzgerald, 1953: 104). 2) Hyperbole According to Short (1997:100) hyperbole is “exaggerates for the purpose of emphasize or heightened effect. For example: “High in a white palace the king’s daughter the golden girl …” (Fitzgerald, 1953:123). “Her voice is full of money.” He said suddenly (Fitzgerald, 1953: 123). 3) Simile According to Short (1997:97) simile is directly states a comparison between two things of different nature that nevertheless 37 have something in common. Usually, simile indicated by some connective words such, as, like, and than. For example: At his lips touch she blossomed for him like a flower and the interaction was complete (Fitzgerald, 1953: 114). 4) Irony According to Short (1997:101) irony is a word intended to convey For example: “Even alone I can’t say I never loved Tom,” she admitted in a pitiful voice.” It wouldn’t be true.” (Fitzgerald, 1953:136). 5) Symbolism Symbolism is an object, character, figure or color used to represent abstract idea or concept. Fitzgerald's uses some symbolism in The Great Gatsby. For example: (a) The Green Light Green is continuously stated in the novel. Green is the color of light coming from Daisy’s dock which Gatsby stares at everyday day dreaming about her. It also represents greet, jealousy and envy. In other word the green light symbolizes the as – yet – nameless object for which Gatsby is hopelessly striving and as a symbolism for a number of things; among them are Gatsby’s dauntless romantic optimism Daisy herself and the American dream as a whole (Fitzgerald, 1953: 186). 38 (b) The Eyes of T.J. Eckleburg The eyes of T.J. Eckleburg seem to be a monstrous parody of the eyes of God: they watch, but they do not see; they are heartless, and entirely unknowing (Fitzgerald, 1953: 23). (c) The Image of the East and West Egg East and West Egg acts as a symbol of class and standing. It is a barrier for almost every character. East and West Egg acts as a symbol of this in its physical make up. In other word East and West Egg explains the symbol of the obsessive care that Gatsby takes in his reunion with Daisy (Fitzgerald, 1953: 4-5). (d) Imagery In The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald's uses vivid and detailed description of the surrounding area in order to make the reader feel as if they were involved in the story and when it take place as if they were presented at the events in the story. For example: In this story, water imagery in description of the rain, Long Island Sound and the swimming pool There is religious imagery in the Godlike eyes of Dr. Eckleburg and in wards such as incarnation, and grail (Fitzgerald, 1953:23). There is color imagery: pink for Gatsby, yellow and white for Daisy. 6. Theme Perrine (1959:15) states that theme is the controlling ideas of central insight he further states that it is the unifying generalization about life stated or implied by the author. She proposes some principles to look for a theme. First theme must be expressible in the form of statement with a 39 subject and predicate and second the theme must be stated as generalization about life. Generally, the author does not state the theme explicitly. He just gives some clues, so the readers have to comprehend and predict through the whole story of the novel to get the message. The theme of The Great Gatsby is “when we have some desire, it is necessary for us to sacrifice everything that we have as a struggle to reach our goal”. Gatsby loves Daisy but in the other side, Daisy realizes that she is a married woman. She still chooses her husband. Gatsby sacrifices his love, to posses his passionate lover Daisy Fay. But in reality, he died before he can win his love. This theme is suitable with the approach because life needs sacrifices. It means if we want to get a better life or we need something to own we have to struggle for it. B. Discussion After analyzing the structural elements of the novel, the next step to complete this study is relating all of the elements to one another and putting them back into a unity. In The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald wants to explore human’s struggle of life every time, human being always encounters the problem of life. It probably occurs, because what he wants and he gets is not compatible with what he wishes. This problem will grow to be more complicated ones. He attempts to handle it, although is not always successful. When human fails to overcome the problem, he feels anxiety. Thus, he will do some ways to block these feelings, such as avoiding the problem without doing anything or overcoming it. If he just avoids it, it influences his mental condition in The 40 Great Gatsby, major character overcomes the problem by struggling hard to win his love. In The Great Gatsby F Scott Fitzgerald, creates the major character of the novel namely, Gatsby. From the beginning to the end of the story, he represents Gatsby as human being who tries to make his life better by struggle. He also shows Gatsby’s effort getting her lover by changing his life. Scott Fitzgerald also adds other characters to support the major character to be more vivid. He puts them together with their own background, in a setting, which permits them to support each other. Fitzgerald creates those characters as the means of expressing what he wants to say and think although the content of the story is almost dominated by the major character story in facing his life, but other characters have a lot of roles. In this novel Fitzgerald takes the setting of place, generally in the America, particularly in New York. He describes New York as a ‘dream of an American. American found the successful life, the dream of money, glamour life and excitement. The character should be accustomed to the environment and also be ready to encounter the new problem of life causing the changing of their mental condition. He also takes the setting of time nineteenth century. It is time when all of people in America pursuits their dreams to find the successful life, the dream of money, social class, and certainly the dreams about the woman. While the woman as the one of the dream likes to the man that are wealthier and having social class more. So, life in this condition is full of complex problem and people are responsible to overcome it. Then Fitzgerald concern to these people, especially the changing of his mental conditions and is interested in reflecting it or supporting the theme of the 41 novel. Furthermore, he creates the character of The Great Gatsby as the symbol of American dream in nineteenth century long time ago. In The Great Gatsby Fitzgerald develops modern plot. In the opening chapter, he puts the exposition by introducing to the readers the narrator while introducing about the setting of place and the situation of the story begins. Then it does through the complication. It is the moment when Gatsby problem with Daisy begin to appears. His love has begun and then leads to the action or climax. It comes when the major character meets his lover as one of his dreams, in West Egg. Fitzgerald's gives the resolution is portraying about the end of the major character, Gatsby in his struggle of life and his love. He has to die before he poses his dreams to win the struggle of love. The author also considers that he uses the selective omniscient point of view, because the author centers the story as a character, and he knows everything about the character. Fitzgerald here is as participant because he is involved in the story or recognized himself as characters yet. He explains all of the character in this novel. From the explanation above, it can be seen clearly that the structural elements of the novel are interrelated together in building the story whereas they support each other. CHAPTER IV PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS A. Individual Psychology In this chapter the researcher is going to analyze the psychological aspect of the novel The Great Gatsby by using the data in the previous chapter and applying the individual psychological theory proposed by Alfred. The theory consists of six basic principles of individual psychology, namely fiction finalism, inferiority feeling; striving for superiority, style of life, social interest and creative power. 1. Fiction Finalism Fiction finalism relates to an individual expectation or dreams of life future life. In The Great Gatsby, the major character has the dream to get wealth to attract Daisy’s attention. “He was a son of good a phrase which, if it means anything, means just that and he must be about his father’s business. The service of a vast, vulgar, and meretricious beauty. So, he invented just the sort of Jay Gatsby that a seventeen year. Old boy would be like to invent, and this conception he was faithful to the end” (Fitzgerald, 1953: 100). Gatsby wanted to meet Daisy and asked the help of Nick and Baker, because they are people that are close to Daisy. Meeting Daisy is Gatsby’s deepest dream. Daisy accepted Gatsby invitation. “I certainly or awfully gad to see you again. We haven’t met for many years, said Daisy her voice as matter of fact as it could ever be. “Five years next November.” 42 43 The automatic quality of Gatsby answer set us all back at least another minute. (Fitzgerald, 1953: 88-89). When meeting Daisy, Gatsby expressed his wish to Daisy. He did not want to lose her. He wanted her to leave Tom and marry him. “He wanted nothing less of Daisy than that she should go to Tom and say: “I never loved you.” After she had obliterated four years with that sentence they could decide upon the more practical measures to taken. One of them was that, after she was free, they were to go back to Louisville and be married from her house just as if it were five years a go. (Fitzgerald, 1953:112). Based on the information above, the writer concludes that Gatsby try hard to get his dreams. 2. Inferiority Feeling Inferiority feeling arises when someone confronts he task of life that should be mastered. It leads to action on solve the problem of life. Gatsby’s inferiority feeling arises because he is aware he is not rich. In fact, Gatsby could not marry Daisy because he was a poor man. In the end, Daisy married with a rich man Tom Buchanan. One day, Gatsby met Daisy’s husband, he told him that Daisy only loved Gatsby and no one else. Gatsby sprang to his feet, vivid with excitement. “She never loved you; do you hear? “He cried.” She only married you because I was poor and she was tired of waiting for me. It was a terrible mistake, but in her heart she never loved any one except me!” (Fitzgerald, 1953: 133) The above information shows that Gatsby felt inferior when he was a poor man and could not marry Daisy. 44 3. Striving for Superiority Striving for superiority constitutes one’s effort to become better and achieve ideas goal. The major character Gatsby, shows his striving for superiority by becoming a lieutenant and in his country he also builds a business activity by selling a medicine and oil. With his wealthy every Saturday in West Eggs he threw parties. “Then came the war, old sport. It was a great relief and I tried very hard to die, but I seemed to bear an enchanted life. I accepted a commission as first lieutenant when it began. “I’ve been in several things he corrected him self.” I was in the drug business and then I was in the oil business (Fitzgerald, 1953: 67-92). Every Saturday night in west eggs he makes the site of extravagant parties. “In his blue gardens men and girls came and went like moths among the whisperings and the champagne and the stars. On week ends his Rolls Royce became an omnibus, beating parties to and from the city between nine in the morning and long past midnight” (Fitzgerald, 1953: 40). Gatsby showed his success. All his life, he strived to be an elite society. 4. Style of Life Style of life is a unique way in facing the task of life and achieving the goal of life. In The Great Gatsby, Jay Gatsby had a luxurious life in his luxurious house. He also wore luxurious clothes. This shows that he is a high class gentlemen who proudly shows his wealth: 45 “We went upstairs though period bedrooms swathed in rose and lavender silk and vivid with new flowers, though dressing rooms and poolrooms, and bathrooms, with sunken bath intruding into one chamber where a disheveled man in pajamas was doing Inver exercise on the floor (Fitzgerald, 1953: 93). “Finally we came to Gatsby’s own apartment, a bedroom an a bath, and an Adam study. His bedroom was the simplest room of all except where the dresser was garnished with a toilet set of pure dull gold (Fitzgerald, 1953: 93-94). Gatsby headed to his wardrobe and showed Daisy his fine clothes. “I’ve got a man in England who buys me clothes he sends over a selection of things of the beginning of each season, spring and fall (Fitzgerald, 1953: 94). Suddenly, with a strained sound Daisy bent her head into the shirts and began to scream stormily. “They’re such beautiful shirts “she sobbed her voice muffled in the thick folds.” It makes me sad because I’ve never seen such-such beautiful shirts before.” (Fitzgerald, 1953: 97). Gatsby’s life style shows that he was a man living with his wealth. 5. Social Interest According to Adler as quoted by Feist (1985: 71) social interest can be defined as an attitude of relatedness with humanity in general, as well as empathy for each member of human race. In The Great Gatsby, Jay Gatsby was known as a soldier by the West Egg society. He was also considered as a mysterious man because there was ever a rumor that Gatsby as a murderer. “There’s something funny about a fellow that’ll do a thing like that said the other girl eagerly. “He doesn’t want any trouble with any body.” “Who doesn’t? I inquired.” 46 “Gatsby. Somebody told me.” The two girls and Jordan learned together confidentially “Somebody told me they thought he killed a man once.” “I heard that prom a man who knew all about him, grew up with in Germany. “He assured us positively.” “Oh no”, said the first girl, “it couldn’t be that because he was in the American Army during the war.” As our credulity switched back to her she leaned forward with enthusiasm. “You look at him sometimes when he shirks nobody’s looking at him I’ll get he killed a man.” (Fitzgerald, 1953: 45). From the information above, we can conclude that Gatsby was an introvert and a mysterious person. 6. Creative Power Creative power is responsible for the person’s life goal and contributes to the development of social interest. The major character Gatsby used his creative power to strike for his dream. To meet Daisy, Gatsby tried to approach Daisy’s cousin, Nick and also her friends. Gatsby invited Daisy to his house to have a drink of tea. Nick and Baker, Daisy’s friend supported Gatsby’s plan to met Daisy because they new that Gatsby really loved Daisy. “I talked with Miss Baker” Said after a moment. “I’m going to call up Daisy tomorrow and invite her over here to tea. (Fitzgerald, 1953: 84). Daisy finally accepted Gatsby’s invitation although she came late Gatsby and Daisy met and had a little chat about the past. After that, Gatsby invited Daisy and Nick a grand four around his house. Gatsby did this to attract Daisy’s attention to his wealth. 47 “I want you and Daisy, to come over to my house said. I’d like to show her around. “You’re sure you want me to come? “Absolutely, old sport.” (Fitzgerald, 1953: 91). Daisy went upstairs to wash her face too late I thought with humiliation of my towels while Gatsby and I waited on the lawn. “My house looks well, doesn’t it? “He demanded. “She how the whole front of it catches the light.” “That huge place there? “she cried painting. “Do you like it?” “I love it, but I don’t see how you live there all alone (Fitzgerald, 1953: 92). Gatsby took Daisy to see some pictures. “Who’s this?” “That? That’s Mr. Dan Cody, old sport. “The name sounded faintly familiar. “He’s dead now. She used to be my best friend years ago.” ( Fitzgerald, 1953: 95). There was a small pictures of Gatsby, also in Yachting costume on the Burneau Gatsby with his head thrown back dentinal taken apparently when he was about eighteen. “I a dore it.” Exclaimed Daisy. The pompadour you never told me you had a pompadour or a yatch (Fitzgerald, 1953: 95). After seeing some pictures, Gatsby showed Daisy clipping about Daisy as a proof that Gatsby is faithful to Daisy. Gatsby always followed news on Daisy that was published in newspaper. “Look at this.” Said Gatsby quickly.” Here’s a lot of clippings about you.” (Fitzgerald, 1953: 96). From the information above we know that Gatsby’s strive to have Daisy is so strong. As a proof to that, Gatsby collected a clipping on Daisy because he did not want to lose track on her. 48 B. Discussion Individual psychological analysis shows that the major character strives for his dream. His strive for his dream is the fiction finalism of Jay Gatsby. In order to make his dream came true he strives to be wealthy especially to attract Daisy’s attention to marry him. Jay Gatsby feels inferior because he is just a poor soldier so that his wish to marry Daisy could not come true. He is just a lieutenant and does not have wealthy. Her try to get wealthy to marry Daisy. His inferiority does not make him give up in many ways. After reaching his success, Gatsby’s life style changes. He likes to wear fine clothes. He also owns expensive things and expensive house. He throws parties all day long for the rich people in his Town. Gatsby has a luxurious life in his house. In Wess Egg Gatsby is very famous with his wealthy. In social interaction, he is not sociable; he is considered as a mysterious person, because he never interaction with another people although he often throw parties in his house. He never joins in the parties Gatsby just sees them from the upstairs. The rich people in Wess Egg come in Gatsby’s parties but they never meet Gatsby and the people in Wess Egg also gossip him as a murderer. Creative power on the major character is shown when Gatsby persuaded Nick and Baker to make a plan for have a meeting with Daisy. He 49 invited Daisy to his house to have a drink of tea he also invited Daisy in his Parties. He showed around his luxuries house and luxuries things CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION Chapter five deals with conclusion and suggestion for the analysis of the novel. The conclusion is drawn based on the analyzing all the facts dealing with the major character ambition and his individuality. While, the suggestion for the analysis of the novel offers some suggestion to the other researcher to make a deeper research about the story from other approaches. A. Conclusion After analyzing the whole novel and analyzing all the facts dealing with Gatsby’s effort and his personality, the researcher comes to the conclusion that The Great Gatsby is the reflection of the human trying to get his desire. The author wants to describe how human beings have many ways making his dream come true. He also wants to show that humans are full of imagination and desire. It is Shown when Gatsby has a desire and works hard in fulfilling it. In this novel, F. Scott Fitzgerald describes Gatsby as a person who always tries to fulfill his wish by struggling and striving to make all dreams become true. Fitzgerald seems to give a description that life will not be wonderful without love. Because of love, people can change and do anything. It means that without love people will feel sad and lovely. But love also can make people become confused when one of their wish of love is not fulfilled. In The Great Gatsby Fitzgerald reflects the major character’s effort on struggling for his love. Here, F. Scott Fitzgerald in the story tells about he 50 51 become Army in World War I, he builds business medicine and sell oil. He does like that because he wants to get his love back. He tries to get an information about Daisy lived, and his feeling forces him to make himself creative and he struggles to be rich. B. Suggestion The Great Gatsby is an interesting novel that gives many worthy insights to the readers. It helps the reader contemplate their life and with the novel the reader can find the moral message from the story of major character so they can imitate or unimitate about the story. After analyzing this novel, the researcher suggests the other researchers to make a deeper research about the story from other approaches, for example by analyzing the different social status by using Sociological Approach. Because, the differences status between rich and poor people are very important at that time. It shows that a man who come from a poor family cannot marry with a girl from a rich family. This novel reflects the reality life of America. 52 BIBLIOGRAPHY Adler, Alfred. 1925. The Practice and Theory of Individual Psychology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. Barnet, Sylvan. 1963. An Introduction to Literature. Boston: Little Brown and Co. Feist, Jess,1985. Theories of Personality. New York: CBS College Publishing. Fitzgerald, F Scott. 1953. The Great Gatsby. Bantan Books Company. New York. Fredenbrugh, Franz A. 1971. The Psychology of Personality and Adjusment. California: Cumings Publishing Company. Hall, Calvin. S and Gardner, Lindzay. 1970. Introduction to Theory of Personality. New York: John Willey and Sons inc. . 1970. The Theory of Personality (Second Edition). New York: John Willey & Sons Inc. . 1981. The Theory of Personality (Third Edition). New York: John Willey & Sons Inc. . 1985. The Theory of Personality (Fourth Edition). New York: John Willey & Sons Inc. Hjelle, Larry A and Zieger, Daniel J. 1982. Personality Theories (Third Edition) Basic Assumption, Research, and application. USA: Mc. Graw Hill International Editional. Kennedy, X.J. 1983. Literatur: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry and Drama. Canada: Little Brown and Company. Kennedy, William. 1966. How to Analyze Fiction. New York: Monarch Press. Koesnosoebroto. 1988. The Anatomy of Fiction. Jakarta: Depdikbud. Klaler, Mario. 1995. An Introduction to Literature Studies. London: Routledge. Musbikin, Imam. 2002. Kuncup-kuncup Cinta di Taman Hati. Yogyakarta: Mitra Pustaka. Perrine, Laurence. 1959. Story and Structure. New York: Hard Court: Brace and World. 53 Phares, E. Jery. 1988. Introduction to Personality. Columbus: Charles E. Merrill. Pickering, H. James and Jeffry. D. Hoeper. 1997. Literature. Prentice Hall, Inc. Ryckman, Richard M. 1985. Theories of Personality (Third Edition). California Wadsworth inc. Short, Mick. 1997. Exploring the Language of Poem, Plays and Prase. New York Addision Wesley Longman inc. Sunaryo, Kusnobroto. 1959. The Anatomy of Prose Fiction. Jakarta. Suryabrata, Sumadi. 2002. Psikologi Kepribadian. Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo Persada. Tarigan, Henry Guntur. 1986. Pengajaran Gaya Bahasa. Bandung: PT. Angkasa. Wellek, Reme and Austen Warren. 1962. Theory of Literature. London: harvest Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc. Winklear & Aardrijkskunde, Van de. 1990. Ensiklopedi Indonesia, Geografi, Eropa. Jakarta: PT. Intermassa. 54 VIRTUAL REFERENCE Study World: Symbolism in The Great Gatsby Fitzgerald. hhtp//www.Psycentral. con/psychelp/chap G/chap 5i.htm.May 2th.
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