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					A STRUGGLE FOR LOVE IN F. SCOTT FITZGERALD
             THE GREAT GATSBY:
  AN INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH




                    by



           DWI PURWANINGRUM
               A 320 010 285




          ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
SCHOOL OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
 MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF SURAKARTA
                   2006
                                APPROVAL



         A STRUGGLE FOR LOVE IN F. SCOTT FITZGERALD
                             THE GREAT GATSBY:
            AN INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH




                                       by:



                          DWI PURWANINGRUM
                              A 320 010 285




                          Approved to be examined by

                            The Consultants Team



           Consultant I                            Consultant II




Drs. H. Abdillah Nugroho, M. Hum.     Mauly Halwat Hikmat, S.Pd, M. Hum.
DEDICATION




 This research paper is dedicated to:
    My father and Mother who have sacrificed
    everything for me and always support me
    with love, praying and trus.
    My beloved      Brother, thank for love,
    attention and prayer.
    The Big Family KARYO’S HUSADA
    My beloved one, thank for togetherness
                                    SUMMARY



DWI PURWANINGRUM, A. 320. 010 285 A STRUGGLE FOR LOVE IN
F. SCOTT FITZGERALD “THE GREAT GATSBY”: AN INDIVIDUAL
PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH. RESEARCH PAPER. MUHAMMADIYAH
UNIVERSITY OF SURAKARTA. 2006.

        The research investigates how the major character struggles to get his love in
F, Scoot Fitzgerald “The Great Gatsby”. Therefore, the study analyzes the novel in
terms of its structural elements and based on the individual psychological approach.
        The object of the study is the personality of the major character of Jay
Gatsby. The data sources are literary data. Those are divided in two categories,
primary data sources and secondary data sources. The primary data source is the
novel it self. The secondary data are the other sources related to the novel. The
method of data collection of the study is library research. The technique of data
analysis is descriptive analysis.
        The outcome of the study shows that the struggle for getting love can change
the personality. It is reflected in the major character’s personality when he wants to
get his love again from his ex-girl friend.
                             ACKNOWLEDGEMENT




Assalamu’alaikum wr. wb.

       Glory to Allah SWT, the Almighty, the Lord of the universe, the supreme

being. The writer is so grateful to Him for giving her all the kindness, protection,

power and love to complete this research as a partial fulfilment of the requirements

for getting Bachelor Degree of Education in English Department.

       The writer is fully aware that this work cannot be separated from other

people’s help and guidance. Therefore, in this opportunity, she would like to express

her gratitude and appreciation to:

1. Drs. Sofyan Anif, M.Si, the Dean of School of Teacher Training and Education.

2. Koesoema Ratih, S.Pd., M.Hum., as the Head of English Department.

3. Drs. H. Abdillah Nugroho, H.Hum, as the first consultant who has advised and

    guided her during the arrangement of this research paper .

4. Mauluy Halwat Hikmat, S.Pd., M.Hum., as the second consultant who has

    improved the research’s writing in order to make this research paper more

    interesting to read in correct sentences.

5. Dra. Dwi Haryanti, as the Academic Consultant.

6. All of English Department’s lecturers in Muhammadiyah University of

    Surakarta.

7. Her beloved mother and father, thanks for their loves, attention, motivation and

    pray in finishing this research paper, she will do her best.
8. Her dearly beloved friends: Woro, Rudi, Erkha, Kyky, Cimot, Ana, Hevi, Ella,

    Nita, Yani, IIN, Gustin, TRita, Eny, Dije, Mba’ Nila, Mas Mawan, Niknok, Jen,

    Jemblung, Sigit2,Adi, Erhas thanks for the true friendship.

9. All the friend and family in Tunggul Sari 7A: Mas Agus, Mas Ya2n, M’heri, M’

    Tita, M”Atoun, Kak RAN, Dina, M’ DEvita thanks for love and the support.

10. All the friends in English Department especially class F, thank for togetherness.

11. My Dear, Alie AJ thanks for support, attention, and helping.

12. Mr.M. Agus Hartadi Family: Thank for attention and helping her in everything.

13. All crew RAPMA FM, thanks for great experience.

14. All crew GSM FM, thanks for giving her part time and experience.

15. The parties whose names cannot mentioned one by one.

       For all, the researcher can present nothing but the deepest thank and she

wishes Allah SWT will bless them. The researcher is really aware that research paper

is far from being perfect. Therefore, she hopes it evokes some criticism for

improvement.

Wassalamu’alaikum wr. wb.

                                                          Surakarta, September 2006

                                                                   Dp
                                             TABLE OF CONTENT
                                                                                                                  Page

TITLE ............................................................................................................. i

APPROVAL ................................................................................................... ii

ACCEPTANCE .............................................................................................. iii

MOTTO .......................................................................................................... iv

DEDICATION................................................................................................ v

SUMMARY .................................................................................................... vi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT............................................................................. vii

TABLE OF CONTENT................................................................................. x

CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION ................................................................ 1

                         A. Background the Study.................................................... 1

                         B. Literature Review........................................................... 3

                         C. Problem Statement ......................................................... 3

                         D. Objectives of the Study.................................................. 3

                         E.     Benefits of the Study...................................................... 3

                         F.     Research Method ........................................................... 4

                         G. Research Paper Organization......................................... 5

CHAPTER II: UNDERLYING THEORY .................................................. 7

                         A. Notion of Individual Psychology ................................... 7

                         B. Basic Assumption of Individual Psychology................. 8

                         C. Theoretical Application ................................................. 14




                                                             x
CHAPTER III: STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS ............................................. 15

                A.    Structural Analysis........................................................ 15

                      1. Character and Characterization .............................. 15

                            a. Major Character ................................................ 16

                            b. Minor Character................................................ 20

                      2. Plot.......................................................................... 22

                            a. Exposition ......................................................... 23

                            b. Complication..................................................... 24

                            c. Resolution ......................................................... 27

                            d. Causality ........................................................... 29

                            e. Plausibility ........................................................ 30

                      3. Setting..................................................................... 31

                      4. Point of View.......................................................... 33

                      5. Style........................................................................ 34

                      6. Theme ..................................................................... 38

                B.    Discussion ..................................................................... 39

CHAPTER IV: INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS ............ 42

                A.    Individual Psychology .................................................. 42

                      1.     Fictional Finalism ................................................. 42

                      2.     Inferiority Feeling................................................. 43

                      3.     Striving for Superiority......................................... 44

                      4.     Style of Life .......................................................... 44

                      5.     Social Interest ....................................................... 45




                                                    xi
                   6.     Creative Power ..................................................... 46

              B.   Discussion .................................................................... 48

CHAPTER V : CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS .......................... 50

              A.   Conclusion ................................................................... 50

              B.   Suggestion.................................................................... 51

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIXES




                                                xii
                                   CHAPTER I

                               INTRODUCTION



A. Background of the Study

          There are many needs that people try to fulfill. For example, the needs

   of food, cloth, house and love. The last is as important as the others. Lack of

   love will make people feel anxious, bored and lonely. Love can make people

   feel: happy, sad, and angry. It makes people laugh and cry. Musbikin

   (2002:30) says that love is sacred. It is given by Allah, It’s priceless. It means

   everybody deserves love even though he or she has to struggle for it.

           In the struggle to find love, people’s personality and life style change.

   People will try to be better when they meet someone that they love. Someone

   who is falling in love will always feel happy and tries to look better and better

   in front of the person that they love. They will do everything as a form of

   sacrifice .Although they realize that love is not always beautiful like our wish

   .Because of love our life has a meaning.

          F. Scott Fitzgerald writes a story on the struggle of love. His novel is

   The Great Gatsby. This novel consists of 186 pages and tells how James Gatz

   or Jay Gatsby tries to win back his ex-girl friends heart, Daisy. In the past they

   were a couple. However, since Gatsby was a poor man, Daisy’s parents did not

   approve their relationship. Daisy then got married with Tom Buchanan, a rich

   man from the other side of America. Since that day, Gatsby made a promise to




                                        1
                                                                            2




himself to change his life. His wish was that the wanted to become a rich man

in order to get Daisy back.

       By the passing of time, Gatsby’s dream came true. He became a rich

man. He began to find Daisy and her husband. He did it and built a big house

in front of the Island where Daisy and her husband lived. To attract Daisy’s

attention, Gatsby threw parties all day long for the rich people in town. One

day, he met Daisy and they had an affair.

       There are many conflicts in the story. One of them is when Gatsby

realizes that Daisy is a married woman and asks her to leave her husband. Tom

himself had an affair with Mr. Wilson’s wife. Without Gatsby and Daisy

knowing it, Tom was aware of their relationship. He decided to make Gatsby

fail. In the end of the story, Gatsby was murdered by Mr. Wilson. He

suspected that Gatsby was responsible for his wife death and he believes that

her death was not caused by an accident. Mr. Wilson knew the story from

Buchanan, he said that James Gatsby was the one who killed Mrs. Wilsons.

       To know more about the novel, it is better to know about the writer.

The author F. Scott Fitzgerald was born on September 24.1896. His other

novel is this side of paradise (1920), the beautiful and dammed(1922), short

stories all sad young man (1830) and the last Tycan (1939).

       Almost all of his literary works, novels or poem tell about an American

Dream, how American people try to get her wish getting a material for her life

or just having fun with other people. The real example is exploring in his

novel the great Gatsby. This novel fully tells about how Americans try to
                                                                                   3




   change their lives just like their dreams. Their aim makes them become a good

   man, wealthy and good appearance.

          So, that is why the researcher is interested in analyzing this novel by

   using an individual psychological approach and takes a title for his study

   “Struggle for Love in F. Scott Fitzgerald” The Great Gatsby: an Individual

   Psychological Approach”



B. Literary Review

          Fitzgerald is an American novelist that is very popular. As long as the

   writer knows, there has been other researcher who conducted a research on the

   novel. In his study, Kaharuddin (2000) discussed “James Gatz Defense

   Mechanism in Fitzgerald the Great Gatsby” using psychoanalytic Approach.

   In his problem he focused on Gatsby’s defense mechanism in relation with his

   problem. In this opportunity the researcher decides to conduct a research on

   the major character’s way on struggle for getting his ex- girl friend’s love, and

   the influence that he gets because of it. Here the researcher uses an individual

   psychological approach.



C. Problem Statement

          Based on the title and the background of the study, the main problem

   in this research is, “How is a struggle for love reflected in F.S Fitzgerald’s The

   Great Gatsby?”
                                                                                    4




D. Objective of the Study

           The aims of the research are follows:

   1. To analyze the novel on the structural elements

   2. To analyze the novel with individual psychological Approach



E. Benefit of the Study

          The benefits of this study are as follows:

   1. Theoretical Benefit

              This study is expected to give contribution to the development of

      the body of knowledge, particularly the literary studies on Fitzgerald’s The

      Great Gatsby.

   2. Practical Benefit

              It is expected to give a condition in literary field as reference to the

      other researcher in analyzing this novel particularly the students of

      Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta.



F. Research Method

          In analyzing The Great Gatsby the writer searches for many data.

    1. Object of the Study

       The object of the study is Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby

    2. Type of the Data and the Data Source

              In doing this study, the writer uses two sources of data, namely

       primary and secondary data sources.
                                                                                5




   a.   Primary Data

        The primary data source is the novel itself, The Great Gatsby by F-

        Scott Fitzgerald

   b.   Secondary Data Source

        The secondary data are taken from other sources which are related to

        the primary data such as the biography of the author, and website

        about The Great Gatsby.

3. Technique of the Data Collection

           The method of collecting data that the writer uses is library

   research. Firstly, the writer reads and comprehends the primary and

   secondary data source. Secondly she notes down of important information

   in both sources. Then, she selects them by accepting the relevant

   information with the problem and rejecting the irrelevant information that

   does not support the topic of the study. Beside that the writer uses internet

   to find the information about the novel and literary theory that she uses.

4. Technique of the Data Analysis

           In analyzing the data, the writer employs descriptive qualitative

   analysis or content analysis. The analysis is started on the author and then

   the structural analysis of the novel and finally the individual analysis of

   the literature.
                                                                                 6




G. Paper Organization

          The paper consists of five chapters and each of them is sub divided into

   sub sequent division. Chapter one is the introduction that consists of

   background of the study, literature review, problem of the study, objective of

   the study, benefit of the study, research method, theoretical approach and

   paper organization. Chapter two is the underlying theory, namely explaining

   about principle theory of personality. Chapter three is structural analysis; the

   researcher explains the structural elements of the story and discussion. Chapter

   four is data analysis; it presents six basic principle of an individual

   psychological approach. This chapter represents the application of the

   underlying theory in which the novel is analyzed by means of Adler’s

   individual psychology. Finally, the last chapter integrates the overall

   discussion and brings to the conclusion of the study.
                                  CHAPTER II

                           UNDERLYING THEORY



       This chapter presents the underlying theory, which supports the discussion

of this thesis. In analyzing the problem, the writer uses Individual Psychological

Approach, especially Adler’s Individual Psychological Theory. It can be used as

theoretical framework to analyze the character’s personality.

       In order to make the theory easier to understand, the writer provides some

aspects of the theory. The elaboration consists of the Notion of Individual

Psychology, the Basic Assumption of Individual Psychology and Theoretical

Application.



A. Notion of Individual Psychology

           According to Adler as quoted by Ryckman (1985: 95) individual

   Psychology is a science that attempts to understand the experiences and

   behavior of each person as an organized entity. He believes further that all

   actions are guided by a person’s fundamental attitudes toward life.

           Adler (in Hjelle and Ziegler, 1982: 141) believes that the major

   purpose of a personality theory should be to serve as an economical and

   fruitful guide for therapists and ultimately for everyone, in effecting change

   toward more psychologically healthy behavior. Adler (in Feist, 1985: 64)

   states as follows:

           Individual Psychology insists on the fundamental unity of personality.
           All Apparent dichotomies and multiplicities of life are organized in



                                         7
                                                                                      8




           one-self consistent totally. No definite division can be made between
           mind and body, between conscious and unconscious, or between
           reason and emotion. All behavior is seen in relation to the final goal of
           superiority of success. This gives direction and unity to the individual.

           Adler’s Individual Psychology depicts the human being as single,

   invisible, self-consistent and unfired (Adler in Hjelle and Ziegler, 1992: 139).

   Adler makes consciousness of the center of personality, which makes him

   pioneer in the development of an ego-oriented psychology. Man conscious

   being, he is ordinarily aware of the reason for his behavior. He is a conscious

   of his inferiorities and conscious of the goals for which he strives. More than

   that, he is a self-conscious individual who is capable of planning and guiding

   his actions with full awarness of their meaning for his own self realization

   (Hall and Lindzey, 1981: 121).

           In his earliest writings, the final goal of our struggle was to be

   aggressive and all-powerful, dominate others. Humans were seen as selfish

   and concerned only with self aggrandizement later, Adler revised his thinking

   and claimed that the final goals is to be superior (Ryckman, 1985: 95).



B. Basic Assumption of Individual Psychology

           The basic assumption of Individual Psychology can be presented under

   six general headings: (1) fiction finalism, (2) inferiority feeling, (3) striving for

   superiority, (4) style of life, (5) social interest, and (6) creative power.

   1. Fiction Finalism

               It deals with individual goal of life, which is unreal in nature or as

       a fiction. According to Adler as quoted by Hjelle and Ziegler (1992: 154)
                                                                               9




   each person’s guest for superiority is guided by the fictional goal that he or

   she has adopted. He also believes that the person’s fictional goal of

   superiority is self-determined; it is formed by the person’s own creative

   power, therefore it makes the individually unique.

          Adler (in Ryckman, 1985: 98) argues that people create ideas that

   guide their behavior and he concluded that, no one’s various striving can

   occur without the perception of goals. Adler (in Hall and Lindzey, 1981:

   122) states as follows:

          Individual psychology insists absolutely on the indispensability
          finalism for the understanding of all psychological phenomena.
          Causes, powers, instincts impulses, and the like cannot serve as
          explanatory principles. The final goal alone can explain man’s
          behavior. Experiences, traumata, sexual development mechanisms
          cannot yield an explanation, but the perspective in which these are
          regarded the individual way of seeing them, which subordinate all
          life to the final goal, can do so.

          Adler’s concept of fiction finalism is the idea the human behavior

   is directed toward a future goal of its own making. Adler (in Hjelle and

   Ziegler, 1992: 153) theorizes that our ultimate goals (those goals which

   give our live direction and purpose) are fictional goals that can neither be

   tested nor confirmed against reality.



2. Inferiority Feeling

          Inferiority means feeling weak and unskilled in the face of tasks

   that need to be completed. It is manifestation of individual consciousness

   due to a condition, which is resulted from inability or imperfection feeling.

   This inferiority feeling is considered as a challenge to strive for the
                                                                            10




   compensation of inferiority until psychological equilibrium is attained

   (Hall and Lindzey, 1985: 147).

          According to Adler as quoted by Hall and Lindzey (1985: 147), the

   feeling of inferiority is quite normal. Throughout life, feelings of

   inferiority arise constantly as we meet new and unfamiliar task that must

   be mustered. Each time we confront a new task our initial awareness of

   inferiority is overcome as we achieve a higher level of functioning.

          Feeling of inferiority can be largely constructive or largely

   destructive. Acknowledging that we all feel inferior at some point in our

   lives could serve as a basis for mutual help and cooperation to overcome

   problems in living. But if we dwell excessively on our inferiority, real, or

   imagined, we are less likely to trust others or selves. As a consequence, we

   are act to operate on the useless side of life, we are more likely to

   overcompensate for our deficiencies and develop an exaggerated sense of

   superiority that others find loathsome (Ryckman, 1985: 99).



3. Striving for Superiority

          Each individual is forced by drivers to be superior, powerful and

   regarded. This is a response to the feeling of inferiority. By inferiority

   feeling, person will make some efforts to cover it. Person will strive to

   cover his or her weaknesses to be perfect, superior and regarded. The one

   dynamic force behind the person activity is the striving for success or
                                                                                11




   superiority (Feist, 1985: 68). Adler (in Fredenburgh, 1971: 219). States as

   follows:

          I should like to emphasize first of all that striving for perfection is
          innate, this is not meant in a concrete way, as there were a driver
          which would later in life be capable of bringing everything to
          completion and which only needed to develop it. The striving for
          perfection is in nate the sense that it is a part of life as striving, an
          urge, a something without which life would be unthinkable….

          Adler (in Hall and Lindzey, 1981: 123) acknowledges that the

   striving for superiority may manifest it self in a thousand different way,

   and that each person has his own concrete mode of achieving or trying to

   achieve perfection. Adler (in Hjelle and Ziegler, 1992: 143) believes that

   the great dynamic force governing human behavior is a striving to be

   aggressive there are three distinct stages in his theorizing on the ultimate

   goal of human life: to be aggressive, to be powerful, and to be superior.



4. Style of Life

          According to Adler (in Hjelle and Ziegler, 1992: 144) the style of

   life encompasses the unique pattern of traits, behaviors and habits which,

   when taken together, defines the flavor of a person’s existence. The style

   of life, originally called “life plan” or “guiding image” refers to the unique

   ways in which people pursue their goal (Ryckman, 1985: 98).

          Style of life is the term Adler uses to refer to the flavor of a

   person’s life. It include not only the person’s goal, but also self-concept,

   feelings toward others, and attitude toward the world. It is the product of

   the interaction of heredity, environment, and goal of success, social
                                                                             12




   interest and creative power (Feist, 1985: 74). The individual’s style of life

   is largely determined by the specific inferiorities, either fancied or real,

   that the person has. The style is a compensation for a particular inferiority

   Adler (in Hall and Lindzey, 1981: 126).



5. Social Interest

          Basically, man is social creature by nature and not by habit. He

   fully realizes his position as a free individual and his bound concerns the

   society. Therefore, in his efforts to develop himself, he must also consider

   the existence and the importance of his society. Thus, a man should live

   among others, and this means that he must interact with others in his

   society so that his behavior is always influenced by his society (Hall and

   Lindzey, 1970: 125).

          According Adler as quoted by Feist (1985:71) social interest can be

   defined as an attitude of relatedness with humanity in general, as well as

   empathy fun each member of human race. It manifest it self as well as

   cooperation with others for social advancement rather than for personal

   gain. It is part of human nature and some amount of its exist in everyone.

   Adler (in Phares, 1988: 93), says that social interest is a predisposition,

   nurtured by experience to contribute to society.

          Since man was born, he has automatically become a member of

   society. If his social feeling can develop naturally, he will be able to make

   an adaptation with his living environments appropriately. Adler states that
                                                                             13




   social interest takes in such matters as co-operation, interpersonal and

   social relations, identification with the group, empathy, and so forth (in

   Hall and Lidzey, 1970: 125).

          According to Hall and Lindzey (1985: 147), Adler’s concept of

   social interest is not easy to define. It can be translated in many different

   ways and the broader meaning of the concept is still debated. For present

   purposes, we will define social interest as caring for and concerning the

   welfare or others that continues, throughout life, to guide a person’s

   behavior. Although the capacity for social interest is in born, Adler (in

   Hall and Lindzey, 1985: 148) says it is too small or weak.



6. Creative Power

          According to Adler as quoted by Hjelle and Ziegler (1992: 150)

   creative power means the influences of heredity any environment toward a

   person in overcoming the problem or life. Each person is empowered with

   the freedom to create his or her own life style. Ultimately, people are

   solely responsible for whom they are, and how they behave. This creative

   of life is responsible for the person’s life goal, and contributes to the

   development of social interest.

          The creative self is the yeast that acts the facts of the world and

   transforms these facts into a personality that as subjective, dynamic,

   unified, personal and uniquely stylized. The creative self gives meaning to
                                                                                    14




       life; it creates the goal as well as the means to the goal. The creative self is

       the active principle of human life (Hall and Lindzey, 1970: 166).

              The concept of the creative self implies what we each create our

       own personality, that we actively construct it out of our experiences and

       heredities (Ryckman, 1985: 98). Adler’s concept of the creative self

       underscored his belief that human beings are the matters of their own fate

       (Adler in Hjelle and Zeigler, 1992: 150).

              Creative power implies freedom, free to be what we will. We may

       choose to experience pain, joy, or anxiety, or to do defend ourselves

       against these experiences by erecting various safeguarding tendencies.

       Creative power is a dynamic concept. It implies movement and this

       movement is the most salient characteristic of life. All psychic life

       involves free movement toward a goal, movement with a direction (Feist,

       1985: 75).



C. Theoretical Application

          In this research, the writer will apply the individual psychological

   theory related to the concept of struggle in psychological aspect. It will be

   begun by analyzing Jay Gatsby’s personality viewed from his fictional

   finalism, inferiority feeling, striving for superiority, and style of life, social

   interest, and creative power. The writer also analyzes the events and conflicts

   that are related to the individual psychological theory based on the

   characterization of Jay Gatsby.
                                   CHAPTER III

                           STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS



       This section deals with structural elements and discussion. A work of

literature has structural elements to form a single unity, those elements are

inevitable. It is better to talk about it separately. Sunaryo (1959:28) states that one

element cannot stand without the others and one has no meaning by itself. The

elements support each other to produce a good story. The researcher would like to

expound the elements that generally consist of character and characterization,

setting, plot, point of view, style and theme.



A. Structural Analysis

   1. Character and Characterization

              A novel as literary work needs character that is person who has

       function to make concrete or dramatize in the term of action. Kennedy

       (1983:450) states that character is an imagined person who inhabits a

       story. There are two kinds of character, namely major character and minor

       character. Major character is the most important, it cannot stand-alone.

       Therefore, it needs minor characters that support and make the major

       character more vivid.

              Generally, characterization is development of the character within a

       particular work. It is the presentation of the qualities of the characters

       physically, mentally and socially.




                                       15
                                                                       16



a. Major Characters

   1) Jay Gatsby or James Gatz

            Gatsby is a protagonist character. Morally, he is a perfect

      gentleman and a good person (Fitzgerald, 1953:73). Physically he

      is handsome, he has tanned skin drawn attractively tight on his face

      and he has short hair looked as thought it were timed everyday.

      (Fitzgerald, 1953:51).

            Later in the novel it is mentioned that his real name is James

      Gatz; he was born in North Dakota, to an impoverished farming

      family (Fitzgerald, 1953:100). Socially, he is also a fantastically

      wealth young man. He gets much money from Dan Cody a product

      of the Nevada silver fields, of the Yukon, of every rush for metal

      since seventy five. He gets much money from Dan Cody $ 25.000.

      From Dan Cody, Gatsby found a taste of elite society (Fitzgerald,

      1953:101-103). Thus, because of his wealth every Saturday in

      West Eggs he makes the site of extravagant parties (Fitzgerald,

      1953:40-43).

            In the other hand, Gatsby is suspected as the murder,

      because he gets his wealthy fantastically. Many people do not

      believe that Gatsby’s wealthy comes from Dan Cody and his

      struggle in work. They believe that he is once killed a man in cold

      blood when he lives in Germany during World War I. Thus, all of

      people say that he is mysterious (Fitzgerald, 1953:45).

            Mentally, he is a hard worker; he works briefly for a

      millionaire, and there he becomes acquainted with the people and
                                                                     17



   customs of high society. He usually manages his time to his work.

   He has a dream to win Daisy’s love (Fitzgerald, 1953:177-178).

         Talking about his love story, Gatsby meets Daisy when he

   serves in the Army in World War I; he is a lieutenant. But in the

   reality he has to lose Daisy, because he is the poor man, and Daisy

   must get married to other man (Fitzgerald, 1953: 76-77). Actually,

   Gatsby is very careful about woman. He would never so much as

   look at a friend’s wife (Fitzgerald, 1953:740).

2) Daisy Fay Buchanan

         Daisy Fay Buchanan is Nick’s cousin, Tom’s wife and the

   woman Gatsby loves (Fitzgerald, 1953:6). Physically, she has

   beautiful face, she has the kind voice that the ear follows up and

   down, as if each speech is an arrangement of notes that will never

   be played again. Her face is sad and lovely with bright things in it,

   bright eyes and a bright passionate mouth, but there is an

   excitement in her voice that men who have cared for her find it

   difficult to forget: a singing compulsion, a whispered “Listen” to a

   promise that she had done gay, exiting things just a while since and

   that there were gay, exciting things hovering in the next hour

   (Fitzgerald, 1953: 10).

         Socially, Daisy is a woman in her early twenties coming

   from a faithfully wealthy family in Louisville, Chicago, and she is

   the most popular girl that loves Gatsby, a lieutenant. Because Jay

   Gatsby is not a wealthy lieutenant, after he leaves war, Daisy meets

   another man and gets married to him that is very wealthy and
                                                                 18



  makes Daisy life in luxury, until they have a daughter and live.

  Daisy is well known as the millionaire’s wife in Chicago. Morally,

  she has a perfect reputation, but actually she is a materialistic

  woman; money is her happiness (Fitzgerald, 1953: 79).

        Actually Daisy in her wealth and beauty is the symbol of all

  that Gatsby desires, and in reality she is the woman that kills

  myrtle Wilson, her husband mistress while driving Gatsby’s car

  (Fitzgerald, 1953:140).

3) Tom Buchanan

        Tom Buchanan is Daisy’s husband, a former Yale football

  player at new Haven while completing his education, likes Daisy,

  and he comes from an immensely wealthy Midwestern family.

  Physically, he is a tall, hulking man. He has a cruel body or

  muscular body structure, exactly. Morally, he is a brutal man. His

  speaking voice, a gruff husky tenor, added to emphasize his

  controlling nature and he has contempt in his eyes and exhibits

  extreme arrogance man. He also thinks that he has authority to

  dominate everyone (Fitzgerald, 1953 : 12-13&37).

        After marrying Daisy, they travel to France for a year and

  then they move east to New York. In thirty years old he has a

  daughter (Fitzgerald, 1953: 79). When he comes to Lake Forest

  from Chicago, he brings polo ponies. He spends time with his

  mistress and meets Gatsby (Fitzgerald, 1953: 24).
                                                                    19



4) Nick Carraway

         Nick Carraway is a narrator in this novel. Socially, he is

   Daisy’s nephew who comes from a well-to-do Minnesota family in

   Middle Western. After graduating from Yale in 1915, he

   participates in Great War, World War I. After returning from the

   Great War, he decides to go east to learn the bond business, he

   travels to New York to acquire knowledge and learns the

   profession. There, he meets another student and rents a house, and

   there he also meets Gatsby, Jordan Baker, and Buchanan. Nick

   visits his cousin Daisy (Fitzgerald, 1953:3-6).

         Physically, he is handsome, caring, honest, responsible and

   fair minded; he helps another people. In reality he helps Daisy and

   Gatsby meet each other, therefore, he serves as a link between

   them (Fitzgerald,1953:83-98). But, he is a sensitive man

   (Fitzgerald, 1953:61).

5) Jordan Baker

         Jordan Baker is Daisy’s long-time friend. Socially, she is a

   professional golfer who cheats in order to win her first tournament.

   She is a slender, small-breasted girl with an erect backward at the

   shoulders like a young cadet. She has grey sun-strained eyes with

   polite reciprocal curiosity out of wan, charming, discontented face

   and masculine, icy demeanor that Nick initially finds compelling

   (Fitzgerald, 1953:11).
                                                                           20



            Likes Nick, Jordan is also caring, and fair minded. She helps

      Daisy and Gatsby meet each other and she serves as a link between

      them (Fitzgerald, 1953:83-98).



b. Minor Character

   1) Myrtle Wilson

            She is Tom Buchanan’s mistress, George B. Wilson’s wife.

      She is beautiful, vital and voluptuous woman. She has been having

      a long-term affair with Tom Buchanan and is incredibly jealous of

      Daisy (Fitzgerald, 1953: 26-39).

            After a fight with her husband, she runs out into the street

      and is hit and killed by Gatsby’s car (Fitzgerald, 1953: 140-145).

   2) George B. Wilson

            He is Myrtle’s husband. He is a blond, spiritless man anemic

      and faintly handsome; he has blue eyes (Fitzgerald, 1953: 250).

            He is devastated by myrtle’s affair with Tom. After her diet,

      the magnitude of his grief drives Wilson to murder Jay Gatsby

      before committing suicide himself (Fitzgerald, 1953: 165-166).

   3) Meyer Wolfsheim

            Meyer Wolfsheim is one of Jay Gatsby’s close friends. He is

      fifty years old Jews has a flat nose and small eyes. He is a

      sentimental man but does not wish to show this quality to the

      public (Fitzgerald, 1953: 73-74).

            Wolfsheim is a business associate of Gatsby. After Gatsby’s

      death, he tells Nick about Gatsby. He meets Gatsby after he
                                                                       21



   returned from the Army and gives him a job in the American

   Legion. Meyer has helped him in time of need, but he could not

   afford to come to attend the funeral because of business in The

   Swastika Land Holding Company (Fitzgerald, 1953: 169-171).

4) Henry Gatz

         Henry Gatz is Gatsby’s father. He lives in Minnesota. He is

   very proud of his son. He tells that Gatsby helps him and saves him

   from poverty and he tells Nick that Gatsby has extravagant plans

   and dreams of self-improvement (Fitzgerald, 1953: 171-179).

5) Dan Cody

         He is a somewhat coarse man who becomes immensely

   wealthy during the Gold Rush. He gives Gatsby a taste of elite

   society. Though he leaves Gatsby money after his death, it is later

   seized by Cody’s ex-wife (Fitzgerald, 1953: 101-103).

6) Catherine

         Catherine is Myrtle Wilson’s sister. She lives in New York

   City. She is thirty years old, with a solid, sticky bob of red hair and

   a complexion powdered milky white. Her eyebrows have been

   plucked and then drawn on again at a more rakish angle; the efforts

   of nature toward the restoration of the old alignment gave a blurred

   air to face (Fitzgerald, 1953:30).

7) The McKess

         The McKees are Chaterine’s neighbours. Mr. McKee is a

   pale, feminine man from the flat blow. While Mrs. McKee is shrill,

   languid, handsome and horrible. They are shallows gossips who
                                                                              22



           concern themselves only with status and fashion. They are

           photographer twenty seven times since they had been married

           (Fitzgerald, 1953: 30-31).

      8) Ewing Klipspringer

                  Klipspringer is a shiftless freeloader who almost lives at

           Gatsby’s mansion. Though he takes advantages of Gatsby’s wealth

           and generosity, Klipspringer fails to attend his funeral.

                  He is slightly worn young man with shell rimmed glasses

           and scanty blond hair. He usually plays piano in Gatsby mansion

           (Fitzgerald, 1953:.96).

      9) Owl Eyes

                  Owl Eyes is an eccentric, bespectacled man whom Nick

           meets at one of Gatsby’s parties. He is one of the few people to

           attend Gatsby’s funeral (Fitzgerald, 1953: 55-57).

       10) Pammy

                    Pammy is Daisy’s and Tom’s daughter she is like Daisy,

            beautiful. She has shape or the face and has the same hair with her

            mother. She is a discipline child (Fitzgerald, 1953: 119-120).



2. Plot

          Klaler (1995:15) states that plot is the logical interaction of the

   various thematic elements of a text which leads to a change of the original

   situation as presented of the narrative. He mentions that an ideal traditional
                                                                         23



plot line encompasses exposition, complications, (including climax) and

resolution and resolution.

a. Exposition

          Exposition is the introductory section of the story that

   introduces the characters problem and situation. The exposition begins

   with Gatsby childhood or young man. He is seventeen years old, was

   born in Nor Dakota with impoverished farmer family. Almost entirely

   of his childhood Gatsby is very poor but his parents love him

   (Fitzgerald, 1953:.100). He ever joined army in World War I. In World

   War, he meets the “golden girl”. Daisy Fay that is very beautiful came

   from the rich family in Louisville, Chicago. Actually, they love each

   other, but when World War I is finished Daisy get married to another

   man because basically she is a materialistic girl. She has married a rich

   man, Tom Buchanan (Fitzgerald, 1953: 76-77).

           While, after the World War I is finished and he cannot win

   Daisy, he has relationship with Dan Cody, a man whom he met while

   working as a fisherman on Lake Superior. Cody is a self-made

   millionaire who has made his fortune during the Yukon gold rush.

   Cody appointed Gatsby as his personal assistant. After Cody died,

   Gatsby inherited $25.000; he is unable to claim it, however, due to the

   malicious intervention of body’s mistress, Ella Kaye. Due to Cody,

   Gatsby finds his dream to lie in successful of life and have social class

   (Fitzgerald, 1953: 101-103). After that, Gatsby is a fantastically

   wealthy young man.
                                                                         24



         But, he usually feels unconscious because he usually has a

   dream to win Daisy’s love. He does not want Daisy to get married to

   another man because she is his passionate lover. He has wishes to win

   Daisy, to posses Daisy. But his dreams make him has mental condition

   in his personality. Because of his wealthy too, Gatsby usually makes

   extravagant parties to meet east Eggers and West Eggers in Saturday,

   and he is very famous as a millionaire, on the other side, because of his

   wealth he is supposed as a killer and having illegal business

   (Fitzgerald, 1953: 40-43).

         In his mansion in West Egg, he meets Nick Caraway. As

   Daisy’s cousin Nick knows that Gatsby is Daisy’s lover from Jordan

   Barker, Daisy’s friend. In Gatsby’s parties, they have plans to invite

   Daisy and Gatsby (Fitzgerald, 1953: 81-82).

b. Complication

         The complication here is when Gatsby and Daisy meet in

   Gatsby’s party. Daisy comes with his husband, Tom Buchanan. Tom

   Buchanan is the man who has an affair with Myrtle Wilson. Gatsby is

   very happy when he meets his passionate love, his true love and his

   dream. Daisy is also very happy because she knows that this party is

   Gatsby’s mine as a millionaire, the man who has the greatest love to

   her. Here, they meet and make the meeting full of happiness; they

   make a beautiful day. But here the conflict is begun; Tom knows that

   Gatsby and his wife have an affair. In addition, Gatsby say to Nick that

   he loves Daisy very much and he wants Nick help him to say to Tom

   that Daisy never loves him and Gatsby wants to marry Daisy after she
                                                                      25



is free and they will go back to Louisville (Fitzgerald, 1953: 112). But

in the reality he has accepted that Daisy does not understand his

willing.

      Someday, on the summer, Daisy invites Gatsby, Nick and

Jordan to have lunch together. Daisy invites her daughter too. Here she

said to Gatsby that she loves him and Tom Buchanan saw it. He is

angry and jealous. He invites Gatsby to go to the city. Tom is desperate

to pick a fight with Gatsby, forces the entire party to drive into New

York. Gatsby and Daisy drive in Tom’s car, while Nick, Jordan and

Tom drive in Gatsby’s car. On the way, Tom furiously tells Nick that

Gatsby never studies in Oxford. They stop for gas at Wilson garage.

Here, Wilson tells them that he does not know about his wife’s affair.

While leaving the garage, they see Myrtle peering down at the car from

her window. She stares at Jordan with an expression of jealousy, since

she has assumed that Jordan is Tom’s wife. Because feeling that both

his wife and his mistress are slipping away from him, Tom grows

panicked and impatient. To escape from the summer heat, the group

(Daisy and Gatsby while Tom with Nick and Jordan) takes a suite at

the Plaza Hotel. There, Tom finally confronts to Gatsby, mocking his

use of the phrase “old sport’. Tom accuses Gatsby of never having

been at oxford; Gatsby replies that he did, in fact, study there for five

months after the end of the war. Tom regards Daisy affair with the

lower class Gatsby as one of the harbingers of the decline of

civilization, here Tom hisses, there will even be intermarriage between
                                                                       26



the races. In other side, Gatsby tells Tom that Daisy does not love him

and has never loved him; he informs him that he is not going to take

care of Daisy anymore. Tom calls Gatsby as a “common swindler” and

reveals that he has made his fortune in boot legging. Here Daisy says

that he loves Gatsby but he also loves Tom. Basically, she is a

materialistic woman, so she just loves them with their wealthy.

Actually in reality she has true love just to Gatsby but she cannot say

that she loves him, because since five years ago she finds the luxury

from Tom and they have a daughter, the true of their happily. Daisy’s

statement makes Gatsby panic and conscious. He wants Daisy; he

wants to win Daisy but in reality he has to loose his passionate loves.

In addition Tom also accuses that Gatsby is the murder when he is in

German and has illegal business in illegal medicine. This makes

Gatsby disappointed and angry.

      As the confrontation draws to close their debates, Nick here

realizes that today is his thirtieth birthday. When they are in the Valley

of ashes, Nick, Jordan and Tom find that someone has been struck and

killed by an automobile. The young Greek, Michaelis who runs the

coffee house next to Wilson’s garage tells them that the victim is

Myrtle Wilson. She ran out into the road during a fight with her

husband; there, an opulent yellow car struck her. Nick, realize that the

fatal car must have been Gatsby’s Roll-Royce. Tom presumes that

Gatsby the driver and he killed Myrtle (Fitzgerald, 1953: 115-149).
                                                                          27



c. Resolution

         Resolution is when the tension drawn into the feeling action.

   The resolution in this story starts when Nick finds himself unable to

   sleep, since the terrible events of the day have greatly unsettled him.

   He is wracked by anxiety; he hurries to Gatsby mansion shortly before

   dawn. He advises Gatsby to leave Long Island until the scandal of

   Myrtle’s death has quitted down because he is accused as the Myrtle’s

   death. Gatsby refuses, as he cannot bring himself to leave Daisy, he

   spent the entire night in front of the Buchanan’s mansion, just to

   ensure that Daisy was safe. He tells Nick that Tom did not try to harm

   her, and Daisy did not come but to meet him, though he was standing

   on her lawn in full moonlight. Gatsby in his misery tells to nick the

   story of his first meeting with Daisy. He does so even though it

   patently gives the lie to his earliest account of his past. Gatsby and

   Daisy first met in Louisville in 1917, Gatsby was instantly smitten

   with her wealth, her beauty and her youthful innocent. Realizing that

   Daisy would spurn him if she new of his poverty, Gatsby determined

   to lie to her about his past and his circumstances. Before he left for the

   World War I, Daisy promised to wait for him. But in reality she was

   married with another man who was social equal and the choice of her

   parents.

         The other story in this section is the event in West Egg to the

   valley Ashes, where George Wilson is very sad because his wife is

   dead. George has sought refuge with Michaelis his neighbor. George

   tells Michaelis that he confronted Myrtle with the evidence of her
                                                                      28



affair and told her that, though she could conceal her sin from her

husband. But in the reality Wilson assumes that the driver of the fatal

car was Myrtle’s lover and he wants to kill myrtle and not caused an

accident. From here, Wilson decides to punish the man for his sins.

When he meets Tom, he hopes that Tom will know the driver’s

identify, from Tom he knows that Gatsby was the driver because the

“death car’ is yellow that is Gatsby’s car. Although in the reality the

yellow car is driven by Tom, Nick and Jordan. So actually they are bad

driver. Michaelis also said that when Myrtle runs for her car,       she

wants to stop the yellow car driver but the yellow car driver did not

stop and becomes accident.

      After Wilson knows the identity of the “death car” he drives to

Gatsby Mansion. There he finds Gatsby floating in his pool. Storing

contemplatively at the sky, Wilson shoots Gatsby and then turn the gun

on himself. It is the final of Gatsby’s dream. He has to die when he

wants to possess his dream to win his love. After him dead reporters

and gossipmongers swarm around Gatsby’s mansion, the spreading

grotesquely exaggerated stories about his murder, his life and his

relationship. Nick as his friends tries to give Gatsby a funeral as grand

as his parties. But in reality Tom and Daisy do not come to Gatsby’s

funeral. Daisy forgets Gatsby and his wish fittingly she goes to New

York with Tom. While Tom, actually he is the man that must be

responsible for Myrtle’s death. Not only Daisy and Gatsby that do not

came to Gatsby funeral but also Meyer Wolfsheim. He can come to

funeral because he has to finish his company organization problems.
                                                                        29



   But, in Gatsby’s funeral Nicks tells about Henry C. Gatz, Gatsby’s

   father. From the story of Henry Gatz, Nick knows that Gatsby is a hard

   worker and he does not join in an illegal business, but he works with

   Mr. Wolsheim.

         From the story, Gatsby fails to realize that the American Dream

   is already dead when he begins to dream of it and solve his anxiety to

   his problems, his goals, the pursuit of wealth and status because he has

   died bringing his dream and his anxiety (Fitzgerald, 1953: 150-180).

d. Causality

         In this novel, the writer sees that the story has relation to each

   other, because one event causes another event or makes a cause effect

   relation. Gatsby as the major character in this novel feels anxious with

   his problem. He has a lover, Daisy Fay. He loves Daisy more than

   everything. He loves Daisy since in the World War I, five years long

   time ago. They meet in the situation that is not a good time. Daisy is a

   wealthy woman. She comes from the wealthy family in Louisville,

   Chicago, while Gatsby is a poor man. He comes from the poor farmer

   family in North Dakota. Actually, he knows that he cans posses Daisy

   in his life because Daisy loves him and promises him to wait for him.

   However, he is worried because he knows that Daisy is a materialistic

   woman and very famous in Louisville. In the reality, Daisy has been

   married to a rich man, Tom Buchanan.

         After the World War I finished, he works in Lake Superior.

   There, he meets Dan Cody. By their meeting, Gatsby gets luxury.

         When Cody died, Gatsby gets much money $25 000. Because

   he has a lot of money, he becomes a fantastically wealthy young man.
                                                                       30



          In West Egg, Gatsby is famous because of his wealth. He

   usually conducts extravagant parties. However, some people suppose

   that Gatsby is a killer when he lives in Germany and they think that

   Gatsby has an illegal business. In his party, he meets Nick and Jordan

   Baker. Nick is Daisy’s cousin, while Jordan is Daisy’s friend. They

   know that Gatsby is Daisy’s lover. When Gatsby meets Jordan, he

   wants to meet Daisy. Jordan tells Nick about it. They have planned to

   unite Gatsby and Daisy.

          When Daisy and Gatsby meet, their love grows up again. Gatsby

   loves her with his ambition to posses Daisy but he cannot get Daisy

   again because she is married to other man, although he knows that she

   also loves him, but she can not leave Tom.

          The events that happen will cause the other events occur.

   Therefore, this novel shows causality.

e. Plausability

          The story in this novel changes the major character. The change

   is plausible because it is influenced from the out side. Before Gatsby

   gets wealth, he has no problem that makes him anxious, but after he

   gets wealth and meets Daisy again, he has many problems. He just

   feels how to get Daisy and marry her. But his “dream” always makes

   him anxious if Daisy cannot receive his desire because he knows that

   Daisy is married. He begs Daisy although he has to sacrifice for Daisy.

   It shows that the major character changes from a man who has no

   problem into a man who has many problems. Therefore, the plot has

   plausibility.
                                                                              31



3. Setting

        Setting is given to create the story as real and concrete as possible. It

   is really important to create a real impression of the story for the readers

   will be able to create circumstance as if the story really happens. Setting

   may help the readers in developing their imagination about the story.

        Setting of a literary work consists of two broader setting. Firstly,

   setting of time. In many works of fiction, the time is very important,

   especially in the historical fiction. Secondly, is setting of place Work of

   fiction, the place is classified by the example of locale color region

   (Kennedy, 1983:32).

        A number of writers have devoted all parts of their work to the

   duplication of life in a particular region, for instance, Fitzgerald is one of

   the writers who devoted life in America.

   a. Setting of Place

             Generally, setting of place in Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby

      takes some places in New York and Chicago. In New York it takes

      place in West Egg, East Egg in Long Island, and Lake Superior. In

      Chicago, it takes place in Lousville.

      1) New York City

                  New York is the place where Tom Buchanan, Daisy’s

          husband met his mistress, named Myrtle Wilson.

                  So, Tom Buchanan and his girl and I went up together to
                  New York – or not quite together, for Mrs. Wilson sat
                  discreetly in another car. Tom deferred that much to the
                  sensibilities of those East Eggers who might be on the train
                  (Fitzgerald, 1953:27).
                                                                     32



2) Lake Superior

          It is the place where Gatsby works as a fisherman and the

   place where he meets Dan Cody, a man who gives him a taste of

   elite society.

          For over a year he had been beating his way along the south
          shore of Lake Superior as a clam digger and a salmon –
          fisher or in any other capacity that brought him food and
          bed. His brown, hardening body lived naturally through the
          half fierce, half – lazy work of the bracing days (Fitzgerald,
          1953: 100).

3) West Egg

          West Egg is the place where Gatsby lives and meets Daisy

   again after five years and the place where Gatsby must accept

   many problems in his life that makes him anxious.

          Well about six weeks ago, she heard the name Gatsby for
          the first time in years. It was when I asked you – do you
          remember? – if you knew Gatsby in West Egg. After you
          had gone home she came into my room and woke me up,
          and said: “what Gatsby?” and when I described him – I was
          half asleep – she said in the strangest voice that it must be
          the man she used to know. It wasn’t until then that I
          connected this Gatsby with the officer in her white car
          (Fitzgerald, 1953: 80).

4) East Egg, Long Island

          East Egg is the place where Daisy and Tom Buchanan live

   after they had spent a year in France.

          Across the courtesy bay the white palaces fashionable East
          Egg glittered along the water, and the history of the summer
          really begins on the evening. I drove over there to have
          dinner with the Tom Buchanans. Daisy was my cousin once
          removed, and I’d known Tom in college. And just after the
          war I spent two days with them in Chicago.
          Why the came East I don’t know. They had spent a year in
          France for no particular reason and then drifted here and
          there unrest fully where people played polo and were rich
          together (Fitzgerald, 1953: 6).
                                                                               33



      5) Louisville, Chicago

                  It is the place where Gatsby meets Daisy for the first time,

          and falls in love to her.

                  The largest of the banners and largest of the lawns belonged
                  to Daisy Fay’s house. She was just eighteen, two years
                  older than me, and by far the most popular of all the young
                  girls in Louisville. She dressed in white, and had a little
                  roadster, and all day long the telephone rang in her house
                  and excited young officer from Champ Taylor demanded
                  the privilege of monopolizing her that night. When I came
                  opposite her house that morning her wide roadster was
                  beside the curb, and she was sitting in it with a lieutenant,
                  his name was Jay Gatsby (Fitzgerald, 1953: 76-77).


   b. Setting of Time

             The Great Gatsby         is a novel about what happened to the

      American dream in the 1920s, a period when the old values that gave

      substance to the dream had been corrupted by the vulgar pursuit of

      wealth. The characters are Midwesterners who have come East in

      pursuit of this new dream of money, fame, success, glamour and

      excitement. Thus, setting of time in this story is happened in 1920s.



4. Point of View

         Point of view is way the author tells the readers about his story by

   using narrator. The narrator may and may not participate in the story. The

   narrator who is a participant in the story is called first person narrator. The

   first narrator is the major character; the narrator tells himself or his own

   story and the story is chiefly about him but if the narrator is the minor

   character; the narrator focuses on someone rather than himself telling the

   other character.
                                                                               34



           After analyzing and investigating the text of the of the novel, further

   the writer considers that Fitzgerald’s employs the participants point of

   view or the first person narrator; it means the narrator is involved in the

   story or recognized his self as character yet.

           Then, Fitzgerald’s chooses the selective omniscient point of view,

   because he knows not only the certain character, particularly the major but,

   he knows the minor character too. In this characters Fitzgerald’s seems to

   know everything about the character’s thought, feeling and action from the

   beginning to the end of the story.



5. Style

   a. Grammatical Structure

              Grammatical structure is informal both in narration and dialogue

      the point of his style and using the easy word because Fitzgerald’s

      sentences are never very long or flowery, so it is easy to understand.

              Fitzgerald's also uses modern English, so the readers can catch

      the meaning of the word easily. He also uses standard sentences; it

      means that the messages sent are not implicated but simple and easy to

      understand.

      For example:

              I told her how I had stopped of in Chicago for a day on my Way
              East, and how a dozen people had sent their love through me.
              “Do they miss me?” she cried ecstatically.
              ‘The whole town is desolate. All the cars have the left rear
              wheel painted back as a mourning wreath, and there’s persistent
              wail all night along the north shore.”
              “How gorgeous!Let’s go back, Tom.Tomorrow!” Then she
              added irrelevantly: “you aught to see the baby.”
              “I’d like to.”
              “She’s sleep. She’s three years old. Haven’t you ever seen her?”
              “Never”
                                                                         35



         “Well you ought to see her. She’s ___”

         Tom Buchanan, who had been hovering restlessly about the
         room, stopped and rested his hand on my shoulder.
         “What are you doing, Nick?”
         “I’m a bond man.”
         “Who with.” (Fitzgerald, 1953:10)

b. Sentence Construction

         The sentence construction in The Great Gatsby tends to be long

   and short sentence, usually, Fitzgerald's uses language sentence

   construction in narration, when he describes some detailed

   information.

   1) Long sentence

      For example:

             But above the gray land and the spasms of bleak dust which
             drift endlessly over it, you perceive, after a moment, the
             eyes of Doctor T.J. Eckleburg. The eyes of Doctor T.J.
             Eckleburg are blue and gigantic – their retinas are one yard
             high. They lood out of no face, but instead, from a pair of
             enormous yellow spectacles which pass over a non-existent
             nose ……( Fitzgerald, 1953: 23-24).

   2) Short sentence

             Daisy went up stairs to wash her face – too late. I thought
             with humiliation of my towels, while Gatsby and I waited on
             the lawn (Fitzgerald, 1953: 92).

c. Diction

         Diction is a style of manner of speaking. It refers to the writer’s

   choice of the character words. The diction of Fitzgerald's is simple so

   that the reader can understand the story.
                                                                         36



         Fitzgerald uses an American dialect in order to show that the

   story take place in America.

   For example:

         “I don’t”
         “Why-‘she said hesitantly,...“Tom’s got some woman in New
         York.”
         “Got some woman /” I repeated blankly” (Fitzgerald, 1953:16).

d. Figurative Language

         In The Great Gatsby, the researcher finds several figurative

   languages, which are used by the author. He does not use as much

   figurative language as some other authors do, but he does use some.

  1) Personification

         It is used to give an attribute to animate things to behave as

   human beings do.

   For example:

         “I had just left a country of wide lawns and friendly trees.”(
         Fitzgerald, 1953: 3)
         “Did you have a nice ride?” (Fitzgerald, 1953: 104).

  2) Hyperbole

         According to Short (1997:100) hyperbole is “exaggerates for the

   purpose of emphasize or heightened effect.

   For example:

          “High in a white palace the king’s daughter the golden girl …”
         (Fitzgerald, 1953:123).
         “Her voice is full of money.” He said suddenly (Fitzgerald,
         1953: 123).

  3) Simile

         According to Short (1997:97) simile is directly states a

   comparison between two things of different nature that nevertheless
                                                                      37



 have something in common. Usually, simile indicated by some

 connective words such, as, like, and than.

 For example:

       At his lips touch she blossomed for him like a flower and the
       interaction was complete (Fitzgerald, 1953: 114).

4) Irony

       According to Short (1997:101) irony is a word intended to

 convey

 For example:

       “Even alone I can’t say I never loved Tom,” she admitted in a
       pitiful voice.” It wouldn’t be true.” (Fitzgerald, 1953:136).

5)   Symbolism

       Symbolism is an object, character, figure or color used to

 represent abstract idea or concept. Fitzgerald's uses some symbolism in

 The Great Gatsby.

 For example:

 (a) The Green Light

          Green is continuously stated in the novel. Green is the color

     of light coming from Daisy’s dock which Gatsby stares at everyday

     day dreaming about her. It also represents greet, jealousy and envy.

     In other word the green light symbolizes the as – yet – nameless

     object for which Gatsby is hopelessly striving and as a symbolism

     for a number of things; among them are Gatsby’s dauntless

     romantic optimism Daisy herself and the American dream as a

     whole (Fitzgerald, 1953: 186).
                                                                             38



     (b) The Eyes of T.J. Eckleburg

                The eyes of T.J. Eckleburg seem to be a monstrous parody of

           the eyes of God: they watch, but they do not see; they are heartless,

           and entirely unknowing (Fitzgerald, 1953: 23).

     (c) The Image of the East and West Egg

                East and West Egg acts as a symbol of class and standing. It

           is a barrier for almost every character. East and West Egg acts as a

           symbol of this in its physical make up. In other word East and

           West Egg explains the symbol of the obsessive care that Gatsby

           takes in his reunion with Daisy (Fitzgerald, 1953: 4-5).

     (d) Imagery

                In The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald's uses vivid and detailed

           description of the surrounding area in order to make the reader feel

           as if they were involved in the story and when it take place as if

           they were presented at the events in the story.

     For example:

             In this story, water imagery in description of the rain, Long
             Island Sound and the swimming pool
             There is religious imagery in the Godlike eyes of Dr. Eckleburg
             and in wards such as incarnation, and grail (Fitzgerald,
             1953:23).
             There is color imagery: pink for Gatsby, yellow and white for
             Daisy.


6. Theme

       Perrine (1959:15) states that theme is the controlling ideas of central

  insight he further states that it is the unifying generalization about life

  stated or implied by the author. She proposes some principles to look for a

  theme. First theme must be expressible in the form of statement with a
                                                                                39



      subject and predicate and second the theme must be stated as

      generalization about life. Generally, the author does not state the theme

      explicitly. He just gives some clues, so the readers have to comprehend

      and predict through the whole story of the novel to get the message. The

      theme of The Great Gatsby is “when we have some desire, it is necessary

      for us to sacrifice everything that we have as a struggle to reach our goal”.

      Gatsby loves Daisy but in the other side, Daisy realizes that she is a

      married woman. She still chooses her husband. Gatsby sacrifices his love,

      to posses his passionate lover Daisy Fay. But in reality, he died before he

      can win his love.

            This theme is suitable with the approach because life needs

      sacrifices. It means if we want to get a better life or we need something to

      own we have to struggle for it.


B. Discussion

        After analyzing the structural elements of the novel, the next step to

   complete this study is relating all of the elements to one another and putting

   them back into a unity.

        In The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald wants to explore human’s struggle of

   life every time, human being always encounters the problem of life. It

   probably occurs, because what he wants and he gets is not compatible with

   what he wishes. This problem will grow to be more complicated ones. He

   attempts to handle it, although is not always successful. When human fails to

   overcome the problem, he feels anxiety. Thus, he will do some ways to block

   these feelings, such as avoiding the problem without doing anything or

   overcoming it. If he just avoids it, it influences his mental condition in The
                                                                                40



Great Gatsby, major character overcomes the problem by struggling hard to

win his love.

     In The Great Gatsby F Scott Fitzgerald, creates the major character of

the novel namely, Gatsby. From the beginning to the end of the story, he

represents Gatsby as human being who tries to make his life better by struggle.

He also shows Gatsby’s effort getting her lover by changing his life. Scott

Fitzgerald also adds other characters to support the major character to be more

vivid. He puts them together with their own background, in a setting, which

permits them to support each other. Fitzgerald creates those characters as the

means of expressing what he wants to say and think although the content of

the story is almost dominated by the major character story in facing his life,

but other characters have a lot of roles.

     In this novel Fitzgerald takes the setting of place, generally in the

America, particularly in New York. He describes New York as a ‘dream of an

American. American found the successful life, the dream of money, glamour

life and excitement. The character should be accustomed to the environment

and also be ready to encounter the new problem of life causing the changing

of their mental condition. He also takes the setting of time nineteenth century.

It is time when all of people in America pursuits their dreams to find the

successful life, the dream of money, social class, and certainly the dreams

about the woman. While the woman as the one of the dream likes to the man

that are wealthier and having social class more. So, life in this condition is full

of complex problem and people are responsible to overcome it. Then

Fitzgerald concern to these people, especially the changing of his mental

conditions and is interested in reflecting it or supporting the theme of the
                                                                             41



novel. Furthermore, he creates the character of The Great Gatsby as the

symbol of American dream in nineteenth century long time ago.

     In The Great Gatsby Fitzgerald develops modern plot. In the opening

chapter, he puts the exposition by introducing to the readers the narrator while

introducing about the setting of place and the situation of the story begins.

Then it does through the complication. It is the moment when Gatsby problem

with Daisy begin to appears. His love has begun and then leads to the action or

climax. It comes when the major character meets his lover as one of his

dreams, in West Egg. Fitzgerald's gives the resolution is portraying about the

end of the major character, Gatsby in his struggle of life and his love. He has

to die before he poses his dreams to win the struggle of love.

     The author also considers that he uses the selective omniscient point of

view, because the author centers the story as a character, and he knows

everything about the character. Fitzgerald here is as participant because he is

involved in the story or recognized himself as characters yet. He explains all

of the character in this novel.

     From the explanation above, it can be seen clearly that the structural

elements of the novel are interrelated together in building the story whereas

they support each other.
                                   CHAPTER IV

                         PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS



A. Individual Psychology

           In this chapter the researcher is going to analyze the psychological

   aspect of the novel The Great Gatsby by using the data in the previous chapter

   and applying the individual psychological theory proposed by Alfred. The

   theory consists of six basic principles of individual psychology, namely fiction

   finalism, inferiority feeling; striving for superiority, style of life, social interest

   and creative power.


   1. Fiction Finalism

               Fiction finalism relates to an individual expectation or dreams of

       life future life. In The Great Gatsby, the major character has the dream to

       get wealth to attract Daisy’s attention.

                “He was a son of good a phrase which, if it means anything,
                means just that and he must be about his father’s business. The
                service of a vast, vulgar, and meretricious beauty. So, he invented
                just the sort of Jay Gatsby that a seventeen year. Old boy would
                be like to invent, and this conception he was faithful to the end”
                (Fitzgerald, 1953: 100).

                Gatsby wanted to meet Daisy and asked the help of Nick and

       Baker, because they are people that are close to Daisy. Meeting Daisy is

       Gatsby’s deepest dream. Daisy accepted Gatsby invitation.

                “I certainly or awfully gad to see you again. We haven’t met for
                 many years, said Daisy her voice as matter of fact as it could
                 ever be.
                “Five years next November.”


                                            42
                                                                               43




           The automatic quality of Gatsby answer set us all back at least
           another minute. (Fitzgerald, 1953: 88-89).

          When meeting Daisy, Gatsby expressed his wish to Daisy. He did

   not want to lose her. He wanted her to leave Tom and marry him.

          “He wanted nothing less of Daisy than that she should go to Tom
          and say: “I never loved you.” After she had obliterated four years
          with that sentence they could decide upon the more practical
          measures to taken. One of them was that, after she was free, they
          were to go back to Louisville and be married from her house just as
          if it were five years a go. (Fitzgerald, 1953:112).

          Based on the information above, the writer concludes that Gatsby

   try hard to get his dreams.



2. Inferiority Feeling

          Inferiority feeling arises when someone confronts he task of life

   that should be mastered. It leads to action on solve the problem of life.

          Gatsby’s inferiority feeling arises because he is aware he is not

   rich. In fact, Gatsby could not marry Daisy because he was a poor man. In

   the end, Daisy married with a rich man Tom Buchanan. One day, Gatsby

   met Daisy’s husband, he told him that Daisy only loved Gatsby and no one

   else. Gatsby sprang to his feet, vivid with excitement.

          “She never loved you; do you hear? “He cried.” She only married
          you because I was poor and she was tired of waiting for me. It was
          a terrible mistake, but in her heart she never loved any one except
          me!” (Fitzgerald, 1953: 133)

          The above information shows that Gatsby felt inferior when he was

   a poor man and could not marry Daisy.
                                                                              44




3. Striving for Superiority

           Striving for superiority constitutes one’s effort to become better

   and achieve ideas goal. The major character Gatsby, shows his striving for

   superiority by becoming a lieutenant and in his country he also builds a

   business activity by selling a medicine and oil. With his wealthy every

   Saturday in West Eggs he threw parties.

           “Then came the war, old sport. It was a great relief and I tried very
             hard to die, but I seemed to bear an enchanted life. I accepted a
             commission as first lieutenant when it began.
           “I’ve been in several things he corrected him self.” I was in the
             drug business and then I was in the oil business (Fitzgerald, 1953:
             67-92).
            Every Saturday night in west eggs he makes the site of
            extravagant parties.

           “In his blue gardens men and girls came and went like moths
            among the whisperings and the champagne and the stars. On week
            ends his Rolls Royce became an omnibus, beating parties to and
            from the city between nine in the morning and long past
            midnight” (Fitzgerald, 1953: 40).

           Gatsby showed his success. All his life, he strived to be an elite

   society.



4. Style of Life

           Style of life is a unique way in facing the task of life and achieving

   the goal of life.

           In The Great Gatsby, Jay Gatsby had a luxurious life in his

   luxurious house. He also wore luxurious clothes. This shows that he is a

   high class gentlemen who proudly shows his wealth:
                                                                           45




          “We went upstairs though period bedrooms swathed in rose and
           lavender silk and vivid with new flowers, though dressing rooms
           and poolrooms, and bathrooms, with sunken bath intruding into
           one chamber where a disheveled man in pajamas was doing Inver
           exercise on the floor (Fitzgerald, 1953: 93).

          “Finally we came to Gatsby’s own apartment, a bedroom an a bath,
           and an Adam study. His bedroom was the simplest room of all
           except where the dresser was garnished with a toilet set of pure
           dull gold (Fitzgerald, 1953: 93-94).

          Gatsby headed to his wardrobe and showed Daisy his fine clothes.

          “I’ve got a man in England who buys me clothes he sends over a
          selection of things of the beginning of each season, spring and fall
          (Fitzgerald, 1953: 94).

          Suddenly, with a strained sound Daisy bent her head into the shirts

   and began to scream stormily.

          “They’re such beautiful shirts “she sobbed her voice muffled in the
           thick folds.” It makes me sad because I’ve never seen such-such
           beautiful shirts before.” (Fitzgerald, 1953: 97).

          Gatsby’s life style shows that he was a man living with his wealth.


5. Social Interest

          According to Adler as quoted by Feist (1985: 71) social interest

   can be defined as an attitude of relatedness with humanity in general, as

   well as empathy for each member of human race.

          In The Great Gatsby, Jay Gatsby was known as a soldier by the

   West Egg society. He was also considered as a mysterious man because

   there was ever a rumor that Gatsby as a murderer.

          “There’s something funny about a fellow that’ll do a thing like that
           said the other girl eagerly. “He doesn’t want any trouble with any
           body.”
          “Who doesn’t? I inquired.”
                                                                            46




           “Gatsby. Somebody told me.”
            The two girls and Jordan learned together confidentially
           “Somebody told me they thought he killed a man once.”
           “I heard that prom a man who knew all about him, grew up with in
            Germany. “He assured us positively.”
           “Oh no”, said the first girl, “it couldn’t be that because he was in
            the American Army during the war.”
           As our credulity switched back to her she leaned forward with
           enthusiasm. “You look at him sometimes when he shirks nobody’s
           looking at him I’ll get he killed a man.” (Fitzgerald, 1953: 45).

           From the information above, we can conclude that Gatsby was an

   introvert and a mysterious person.



6. Creative Power

           Creative power is responsible for the person’s life goal and

   contributes to the development of social interest.

           The major character Gatsby used his creative power to strike for

   his dream. To meet Daisy, Gatsby tried to approach Daisy’s cousin, Nick

   and also her friends. Gatsby invited Daisy to his house to have a drink of

   tea. Nick and Baker, Daisy’s friend supported Gatsby’s plan to met Daisy

   because they new that Gatsby really loved Daisy.

           “I talked with Miss Baker” Said after a moment.
           “I’m going to call up Daisy tomorrow and invite her over here to
           tea. (Fitzgerald, 1953: 84).

           Daisy finally accepted Gatsby’s invitation although she came late

   Gatsby and Daisy met and had a little chat about the past. After that,

   Gatsby invited Daisy and Nick a grand four around his house. Gatsby did

   this to attract Daisy’s attention to his wealth.
                                                                         47




       “I want you and Daisy, to come over to my house said. I’d like to
       show her around. “You’re sure you want me to come?
       “Absolutely, old sport.” (Fitzgerald, 1953: 91).
       Daisy went upstairs to wash her face too late I thought with

       humiliation of my towels while Gatsby and I waited on the lawn.

       “My house looks well, doesn’t it? “He demanded.
       “She how the whole front of it catches the light.”
       “That huge place there? “she cried painting.
       “Do you like it?”
       “I love it, but I don’t see how you live there all alone (Fitzgerald,
       1953: 92).
 Gatsby took Daisy to see some pictures.

       “Who’s this?”
       “That? That’s Mr. Dan Cody, old sport. “The name sounded faintly
       familiar.
       “He’s dead now. She used to be my best friend years ago.”
       ( Fitzgerald, 1953: 95).

       There was a small pictures of Gatsby, also in Yachting costume on

the Burneau Gatsby with his head thrown back dentinal taken apparently

when he was about eighteen.

       “I a dore it.” Exclaimed Daisy. The pompadour you never told me
       you had a pompadour or a yatch (Fitzgerald, 1953: 95).

       After seeing some pictures, Gatsby showed Daisy clipping about

Daisy as a proof that Gatsby is faithful to Daisy. Gatsby always followed

news on Daisy that was published in newspaper.

       “Look at this.” Said Gatsby quickly.” Here’s a lot of clippings
       about you.” (Fitzgerald, 1953: 96).

       From the information above we know that Gatsby’s strive to have

Daisy is so strong. As a proof to that, Gatsby collected a clipping on Daisy

because he did not want to lose track on her.
                                                                              48




B. Discussion

          Individual psychological analysis shows that the major character

   strives for his dream. His strive for his dream is the fiction finalism of Jay

   Gatsby. In order to make his dream came true he strives to be wealthy

   especially to attract Daisy’s attention to marry him.

          Jay Gatsby feels inferior because he is just a poor soldier so that his

   wish to marry Daisy could not come true. He is just a lieutenant and does not

   have wealthy. Her try to get wealthy to marry Daisy. His inferiority does not

   make him give up in many ways.

          After reaching his success, Gatsby’s life style changes. He likes to

   wear fine clothes. He also owns expensive things and expensive house. He

   throws parties all day long for the rich people in his Town. Gatsby has a

   luxurious life in his house. In Wess Egg Gatsby is very famous with his

   wealthy.

          In social interaction, he is not sociable; he is considered as a

   mysterious person, because he never interaction with another people although

   he often throw parties in his house. He never joins in the parties Gatsby just

   sees them from the upstairs. The rich people in Wess Egg come in Gatsby’s

   parties but they never meet Gatsby and the people in Wess Egg also gossip

   him as a murderer.

          Creative power on the major character is shown when Gatsby

   persuaded Nick and Baker to make a plan for have a meeting with Daisy. He
                                                                           49




invited Daisy to his house to have a drink of tea he also invited Daisy in his

Parties. He showed around his luxuries house and luxuries things
                                  CHAPTER V

                     CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION


       Chapter five deals with conclusion and suggestion for the analysis of the

novel. The conclusion is drawn based on the analyzing all the facts dealing with

the major character ambition and his individuality. While, the suggestion for the

analysis of the novel offers some suggestion to the other researcher to make a

deeper research about the story from other approaches.

A. Conclusion

          After analyzing the whole novel and analyzing all the facts dealing

   with Gatsby’s effort and his personality, the researcher comes to the

   conclusion that The Great Gatsby is the reflection of the human trying to get

   his desire. The author wants to describe how human beings have many ways

   making his dream come true. He also wants to show that humans are full of

   imagination and desire. It is Shown when Gatsby has a desire and works hard

   in fulfilling it. In this novel, F. Scott Fitzgerald describes Gatsby as a person

   who always tries to fulfill his wish by struggling and striving to make all

   dreams become true.

          Fitzgerald seems to give a description that life will not be wonderful

   without love. Because of love, people can change and do anything. It means

   that without love people will feel sad and lovely. But love also can make

   people become confused when one of their wish of love is not fulfilled.

          In The Great Gatsby Fitzgerald reflects the major character’s effort on

   struggling for his love. Here, F. Scott Fitzgerald in the story tells about he


                                       50
                                                                                 51




   become Army in World War I, he builds business medicine and sell oil. He

   does like that because he wants to get his love back. He tries to get an

   information about Daisy lived, and his feeling forces him to make himself

   creative and he struggles to be rich.



B. Suggestion

          The Great Gatsby is an interesting novel that gives many worthy

   insights to the readers. It helps the reader contemplate their life and with the

   novel the reader can find the moral message from the story of major character

   so they can imitate or unimitate about the story.

          After analyzing this novel, the researcher suggests the other researchers

   to make a deeper research about the story from other approaches, for example

   by analyzing the different social status by using Sociological Approach.

   Because, the differences status between rich and poor people are very

   important at that time. It shows that a man who come from a poor family

   cannot marry with a girl from a rich family. This novel reflects the reality life

   of America.
                                                                                 52




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Fitzgerald, F Scott. 1953. The Great Gatsby. Bantan Books Company. New York.

Fredenbrugh, Franz A. 1971. The Psychology of Personality and Adjusment.
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Kennedy, William. 1966. How to Analyze Fiction. New York: Monarch Press.

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Perrine, Laurence. 1959. Story and Structure. New York: Hard Court: Brace and
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Phares, E. Jery. 1988. Introduction to Personality. Columbus: Charles E. Merrill.

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                                                                         54




                        VIRTUAL REFERENCE
Study World: Symbolism in The Great Gatsby Fitzgerald. hhtp//www.Psycentral.
      con/psychelp/chap G/chap 5i.htm.May 2th.

				
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