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					Service Load Measurements
            on
     Ropeway Vehicles

            Mech. Eng. ETH R. Koller

            Swiss Federal Laboratories for
            Materials Testing and Research
            Dübendorf / Switzerland

        LMS Conference Europe
         Munich,
         Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006         Materials Science & Technology

                                                   Slide      1
Contents


 1. Introduction
 2. Risks in Traffic - Safety
 3. Service load measurements
 4. Full scale fatigue test




                 LMS Conference Europe
                   Munich,
                   Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006   Materials Science & Technology

                                                       Slide      2
1.    Introduction

Current installations in Switzerland:

•   59   Funiculars
•  217   Tramways
•  116   Cont. circulating aerial tramways
•  329   Chair lifts
• 1037   Cable lifts (ski lifts)


         Total installations:         1758
         Total track length:          1900 km
         Total difference of altitude: 500 km
         Total capacity:                 2 Mio passengers/h
                                                       Source: Seilbahnen Schweiz SBS 2006



                        LMS Conference Europe
                         Munich,
                         Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006                  Materials Science & Technology

                                                                            Slide      3
Classification of ropeways

                                                ROPEWAYS


            Funiculars                          Aerial cableways                       Cable lifts


                     Haul rope                                                         Grip
   Vehicle (car)
                                                                               Cable
                                                                                              Tow-hanger

   Track




  Principle of a funicular                                                    Principle of a cable lift
                                                                       Rope



                                 Line support
                                   structure
                                                    Vehicle



                                  Principle of an aerial ropeway                                  A.Doppelmayr:
                                                                                                  Denkanstösse, Wolfurt 1997



                                      LMS Conference Europe
                                         Munich,
                                         Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006                                       Materials Science & Technology

                                                                                                                 Slide      4
Examples of common types of ropeways



              Funicular                         Tramway
              Sierre-Crans                      Twin-Linear,
              Montana                           Samnaun
              120 Passengers,                   180 Passengers,
              4.2 km, 8 m/s                     10 m/s




              Cont. circul.
              aerial rope-                      Cable lift
              way                               2 Passengers,
              Flims-Plaun-Nagens                ~ 2 m/s
              8 Passengers,
              6 m/s




                LMS Conference Europe
                  Munich,
                  Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006         Materials Science & Technology

                                                            Slide      5
Main components




      Grip

      Hanger

      Hanger frame

      Cabin




                 LMS Conference Europe
                     Munich,
                     Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006   Materials Science & Technology

                                                         Slide      6
Two types of cont. circulating aerial ropeways




      Permanently
      attached grip
      (e.g. 2-seat chair)




      Detachable grip
      (e.g. 8-seat cabin)




                            LMS Conference Europe
                             Munich,
                             Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006   Materials Science & Technology

                                                                 Slide      7
1. Introduction
2. Risks in Traffic - Safety
3. Service load measurements
4.   Full scale fatigue test




                 LMS Conference Europe
                  Munich,
                  Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006   Materials Science & Technology

                                                      Slide      8
2.   Risks in Traffic


                                              Cases of death per 109 passengers
                                                   (mean values 1990 – 1994 in Switzerland)

                                        800
                                                                                                                710
     Cases of death per 10 passengers




                                        700


                                        600


                                        500
     9




                                        400


                                        300


                                        200                                              127        135


                                        100
                                                     6         12           12

                                          0
                                              Cable lift   Ropeway   Bus / Tramway   Railway   Automobile   Aircraft      Source: Seilbahnen
                                                                                                                          Schweiz SBS 2006



                                                               LMS Conference Europe
                                                                 Munich,
                                                                 Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006                           Materials Science & Technology

                                                                                                                             Slide      9
1. Introduction
2. Risks in Traffic - Safety
3. Service load measurements
4.   Full scale fatigue test




                 LMS Conference Europe
                  Munich,
                  Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006   Materials Science & Technology

                                                     Slide      10
3.     Service load measurements

Valid harmonised European standards exist since 2005.

EN 13796-1: Safety requirements for cableway installations
            designed to carry persons – Carriers
            Part 1: Grips, carrier trucks, on-board brakes, cabins,
            chairs, carriages, maintenance carriers, tow-hangers

EN 13796-2: Safety requirements for cableway installations
            designed to carry persons – Carriers –
            Part 2: Slipping resistance test for grips

EN 13796-3: Safety requirements for cableway installations
            designed to carry persons – Carriers
            Part 3: Fatigue tests

                       LMS Conference Europe
                        Munich,
                        Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006        Materials Science & Technology

                                                                Slide      11
   Approval of ropeway vehicles requires static and fatigue
   strength analysis.

   Stresses and strains used
   for fatigue analyses have
   to be verified by measure-
   ments on the installation.


   An experimental fatigue test has to be passed in order to
   prove the fatigue strength of the vehicle's structure.

Two approaches of service load measurements are used:


                     LMS Conference Europe
                      Munich,
                      Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006     Materials Science & Technology

                                                           Slide      12
Measurement runs under defined conditions according to
EN 13796-1 (speed, loading, position of the loading, distance
between vehicles, etc.)

Long time measurements under unattended conditions in
service (not required by the standard).




                  LMS Conference Europe
                   Munich,
                   Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006       Materials Science & Technology

                                                          Slide      13
Load cases according to EN 13796-1


Installations with detachable grips

    Entry into station guide systems:
    Vehicles with 50% payload positioned eccentrically on the
    line support side and opposite side respectively (without
    lateral oscillation), the most unfavourable situation is
    applicable.

    Entry into station guide systems:
    Vehicles with 100% payload uniformly distributed
    (without lateral oscillation).

    On the line:
    Vehicles with 100% payload uniformly distributed.

                      LMS Conference Europe
                       Munich,
                       Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006      Materials Science & Technology

                                                             Slide      14
Installations with permanently attached grips

The same load cases apply for installations with detachable
grips, but additionally

    Passing around sheaves:
    Vehicles with 0% payload                                        sheave

                                             hauling rope




                     LMS Conference Europe
                       Munich,
                       Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006          Materials Science & Technology

                                                                 Slide      15
Measurement devices

                                                             Wheatstone bridge

                8-channel,
                battery powered                                          Gauge 1                  Gauge 4




                                          Input voltage UB
                data acquisition
                system


                                                                         Gauge 2                  Gauge 3




                Bridge
                                                                              Output voltage UA
                amplifier
                                                             U A 1  ∆R1 ∆R2 ∆R3 ∆R4 
                                                                = ⋅    −    +    −    
                                                             U B 4  R1
                                                                         R2   R3   R4 
                                                                                       
                                                                   k
                                                               =     ⋅ (ε 1 − ε 2 + ε 3 − ε 4 )
                                                                   4


               LMS Conference Europe
                Munich,
                Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006                                                       Materials Science & Technology

                                                                                                       Slide      16
Application examples


Long time measurements on a 12-passenger cabin (6 month)




                    LMS Conference Europe
                     Munich,
                     Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006   Materials Science & Technology

                                                        Slide      17
Typical signal behaviour in the hanger during upward travel




                     LMS Conference Europe
                      Munich,
                      Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006     Materials Science & Technology

                                                           Slide      18
Measurement setups according to
EN 13796-1




   50% payload positioned eccen-                     Payload distribution on
   trically on the line support side                 seats (⅔) and floor (⅓)

                         LMS Conference Europe
                           Munich,
                           Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006                   Materials Science & Technology

                                                                              Slide      19
Evaluation of measured strain signals

                                                8 strain channels of
                                                a complete run
                                                loaded into TEC-
                                                Ware TimeEdit
                                                (upper station entry
                                                marked as evalua-
                                                tion event).

                                                Statistics for each
                                                event (maximum
                                                range) provided
                                                easily by TimeEdit.

                                                Missing load cycle
                                                on the plots:
                                                Loading - Unloading


                 LMS Conference Europe
                  Munich,
                  Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006             Materials Science & Technology

                                                               Slide      20
Measurement of exceptional station entries


Strains occurring in grips caused by impact of the guiding
pulley of a lateral oscillating cabin at the station guide system

                                     oscil-
                                     lation
                                                                                     station guide system
               guiding
                pulley

                                                                       oscillation




                     Rest position
  left crest                                  right crest
                                                                              guiding pulley
  phase: 90°                                  phase: 270°
                  Phase: 0°   Phase: 180°




                                      LMS Conference Europe
                                         Munich,
                                         Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006                           Materials Science & Technology

                                                                                                    Slide      21
Location of
strain gauges




     LMS Conference Europe
      Munich,
      Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006   Materials Science & Technology

                                         Slide      22
1. Introduction
2. Risks in Traffic - Safety
3. Service load measurements
4. Full scale fatigue test




                LMS Conference Europe
                  Munich,
                  Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006   Materials Science & Technology

                                                     Slide      23
4.     Full scale fatigue test

As a part of the approval procedure, every new vehicle design
as well as structural modifications have to be verified by a full
scale fatigue test (EN 13796-3).
                 Parameters for detachable continuously circulating aerial
                 ropeways:
      F
                                      1. Step                  2. Step

                 Upper load:          Fo = 2.75 · g · mtotal   Fo = 3.0 · g · mtotal
      F          Lower load:          Fu = 0.75 · g · mtotal   Fu = 0.5 · g · mtotal
                 Load range:          ∆F = 2.0 · g · mtotal    ∆F = 2.5 · g · mtotal
                 No. of cycles:       4.5 · 106                0.5 · 106

                 mtotal = mgrip + mhanger + mvehicle + mpayload + maccessories
                 g = 9.81 m/s2
                 test frequency:      2 - 5 Hz


                         LMS Conference Europe
                           Munich,
                           Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006                           Materials Science & Technology

                                                                                      Slide      24
Example of a full scale fatigue test at Empa




                 LMS Conference Europe
                  Munich,
                  Munich, March 22 & 23, 2006   Materials Science & Technology

                                                     Slide      25

				
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