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06 - Motherboard

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06 - Motherboard Powered By Docstoc
					Introduction
to


               Mother Board
  Motherboard is the heart, soul, and brain of a
computer, this PCB resembles a miniature city, its
   buildings are actually chips for processing,
              memory and storage.

      A motherboard is a core part of a computer,
containing the circuitry for the central processing
 unit, keyboard, mouse, monitor, system buses,
    sockets, memory modules, plug-in cards,
       peripheral devices and other boards.

      A motherboard, also known as a main
     board, logic board or system board.
            Parts
Casing:
Every system needs a casing which
physically houses all the CPU
components and joints.

Power Supply:
The power supply connects to nearly
every device in the PC to provide power.
It is located at the rear of the case.
Power from the power supply is
delivered to motherboard components
via cables.
Expansion Slots:
All the personal computers
except portables contain
expansion slots for adding more
memory, graphics capabilities,
and support for special devices.

Expansion Cards:
Motherboards support number
of peripheral cards like modem,
network card, video cards and
sound cards to fit in expansion
slots.
Processor socket:
It is the place or layout of processor,
socket contains a unique place and interface
with other components of motherboard.

Memory Sockets:
The memory sockets or slots are the
platform of main memory or RAM
it connects directly to the motherboard.


Storage Drive Connectors:
Storage devices such as floppy drive, hard
drive or optical drive are connected via
cables to the motherboard,
called IDE connectors.
             CPU
The CPU is the brains of the
computer, the CPU performs
operations and most other
computations.

Modern CPUs are small and square
and contain multiple metallic
connectors or pins on the underside.
The CPU attaches directly to a CPU
socket on the motherboard.
      CPU Heat sink
Each motherboard will support only
a specific type or range of
processor and check specifications
before replace or upgrade.

CPUs also have an attached heat
sink and small fan that go directly
on top of the CPU to help dissipate
heat.
          Memory
The memory is also known as
physical memory, which refers to
the actual chips capable of
holding temporary data.

Every computer comes with a
certain amount of physical
memory, usually referred to as
main memory or RAM.
           ROM chips
Read-Only Memory (ROM): Computers almost
always contain a small amount of read-only
memory that holds instructions for starting up the
computer. BIOS is the example of ROM.

Programmable Read-Only Memory: A PROM is
a memory chip on which you can store a program,
But once the PROM has been used, you cannot
wipe it clean and use it to store something else.
Like ROMs, PROMs are non-volatile.

Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory:
An EPROM is a special type of PROM that can be
erased by exposing it to ultraviolet light.

Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only
Memory): An EEPROM is a special type of PROM
that can be erased by exposing it to an electrical
charge.
             BIOS
Basic Input/Output System is the
program that boot-up (starts up)
your computer, it first determines
whether all of the components or
peripherals are in place and
operational and then it loads the
operating system.
 Mass Storage - (Disks)
Mass Storage devices used for
storing large amounts of data.

Modern mass storage devices
include all types of disk drives
and Optical drives.

Mass storage is sometimes
called secondary storage.
 Mass Storage - (Disks)
The main types of mass storage are:

Floppy Disks :
Relatively slow and have a small capacity, but they are
portable, inexpensive, and universal.

Hard Disks:
Very fast and with more capacity than floppy disks, but
also more expensive. Some hard disk system are
portable (Removable).

Optical disks :
CDs, DVDs are optical media, that use Laser light
scheme to store data, optical disk systems use a laser to
read and write data.
              PCI
Peripheral Component
Interconnect (PCI) is used to
attach peripheral devices to
motherboard. It is the most popular
local I/O bus. PCI provides a
shared data path between the CPU
and peripheral controllers in every
computer models.

PCI first appeared in computers in
1993 & co-existed with the ISA bus
for several years.
           ISA Slots
Industry Standard Architecture
(ISA):
This type of slot is the oldest still in
use today. Slot is used for adding
ISA expansion cards.
PCI slots are newer and faster than
ISA slots
               AGP
Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) or
Advanced Graphics Port or AGP
card is a high-speed Graphics
enhance card, with the help of this
card number of pixels increase
display resolution would qualitative
and image would be further sharp .

Its core purpose to boost graphics
acceleration and 3D graphic
applications.
        WNIC & NIC
Wireless Network Card:
A wireless network Interface card
(WNIC) is a network card which connects
to a radio-based computer network, This
connects your computer to wireless
Internet signals. Wireless LAN or WiFi
systems enables you to access the
wireless Internet.

Network Interface Card (NIC):
A network interface card is a computer
circuit board provides network
communication capabilities to and from a
computer.
             Modem
Modem is a combination of MOdulation
and DEModulation process.

An electronic device used to connect
computers by a telephone line is a device
that modulates an analog carrier signal to
encode digital information, and also
demodulates such.

Modem A device that encodes digital
computer signals into analog telephone
signals and vice versa.
        Video Card
A video card, video adapter,
graphics-accelerator card, display
adapter, or graphics card are the
names of video card whose function
is to generate and output fine video
signals on display.

Many video cards offer added
functions, such as accelerated 3D
scenes, video capture, TV-tuner
adapter, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4
decoding, FireWire, TV output,
streaming and PC games.
       Sound Card
A sound card also known as an
audio card is a that facilitates
the input and output of audio
signals to and from a
computer.

It is a computer hardware
device used for generating,
capturing sounds and provides
audio output to external
amplification devices, such as
speakers or headphones.
            Chipset
A number of integrated circuits
designed to perform one or more
related functions.

For example, one chipset may provide
the basic functions of a modem while
another provides the CPU functions for
a computer.

chipsets that required two or more
physical chips can be replaced with a
new one chip.
Real Time Clock Battery
  RTC also known as a button cell
  or battery cell.

  Battery cell is a battery contained
  on the motherboard that allows to
  save important system settings
  and remember time and date
  while the computer is off.
             Cables
Advanced Technology Attachment
(ATA):
A computer bus technology primarily
designed for transfer of data to and
from a hard disk,
ATA is also known as IDE (Integrated
Drive Electronics).

SATA Cables:
Serial ATA is new data transfer cabling
system, SATA cable provides faster
speed to hard drive access.
     Controllers
A device that controls the transfer
of data from a computer to a
peripheral device and vice versa.

For example, disk drives, display
screens, keyboards and printers
all require controllers.

In other words these are chips of
drivers-set for any device which
make enable device to work
properly.
              Buses
Buses are the electronic interface
between the motherboard and the
smaller boards, components, ICs and
expansion slots. It is also called the
system bus.

System bus contain the three types of
buses.
     Address Bus
     Data Bus
     Control Bus
    Front Panel Connectors
These connect to the lights on
the front of your system case to
notify you of hard disk access,
power and a slots of USB, Audio
and microphone.

If you have an ATX style case
then a power connector also fits
here.
    Back Panel Connectors
The back panel connectors
extend out the back of the
case for connection to
external peripherals.

PS/2 Ports:
Standard keyboard and
mouse often connect to the
computer via the PS/2
ports.
Serial Ports:
One by one or serial data
transfer refers to
transmitting data one bit at
a time.
    Back Panel Connectors
Parallel Ports:
A parallel interface for
connecting an external
device such as a printer and
scanner.

Parallel ports support are
bi-directional communication
and transfer rates is fast.

USB Ports:
Devices like digital cameras,
scanners and printers often
connect to the motherboard
via the USB ports.
    Back Panel Connectors
LAN Port:
The LAN port is used to
connect the PC to a local
network or to high speed
Internet services.


VGA & Audio Ports:
On this particular
motherboard, the VGA port
provides access to integrated
video while the line-out,
microphone and line-in ports
provide access to integrated
audio meaning there is no
need for video cards or sound
cards.

				
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