Introduction to Mother Board Motherboard is the heart, soul, and brain of a computer, this PCB resembles a miniature city, its buildings are actually chips for processing, memory and storage. A motherboard is a core part of a computer, containing the circuitry for the central processing unit, keyboard, mouse, monitor, system buses, sockets, memory modules, plug-in cards, peripheral devices and other boards. A motherboard, also known as a main board, logic board or system board. Parts Casing: Every system needs a casing which physically houses all the CPU components and joints. Power Supply: The power supply connects to nearly every device in the PC to provide power. It is located at the rear of the case. Power from the power supply is delivered to motherboard components via cables. Expansion Slots: All the personal computers except portables contain expansion slots for adding more memory, graphics capabilities, and support for special devices. Expansion Cards: Motherboards support number of peripheral cards like modem, network card, video cards and sound cards to fit in expansion slots. Processor socket: It is the place or layout of processor, socket contains a unique place and interface with other components of motherboard. Memory Sockets: The memory sockets or slots are the platform of main memory or RAM it connects directly to the motherboard. Storage Drive Connectors: Storage devices such as floppy drive, hard drive or optical drive are connected via cables to the motherboard, called IDE connectors. CPU The CPU is the brains of the computer, the CPU performs operations and most other computations. Modern CPUs are small and square and contain multiple metallic connectors or pins on the underside. The CPU attaches directly to a CPU socket on the motherboard. CPU Heat sink Each motherboard will support only a specific type or range of processor and check specifications before replace or upgrade. CPUs also have an attached heat sink and small fan that go directly on top of the CPU to help dissipate heat. Memory The memory is also known as physical memory, which refers to the actual chips capable of holding temporary data. Every computer comes with a certain amount of physical memory, usually referred to as main memory or RAM. ROM chips Read-Only Memory (ROM): Computers almost always contain a small amount of read-only memory that holds instructions for starting up the computer. BIOS is the example of ROM. Programmable Read-Only Memory: A PROM is a memory chip on which you can store a program, But once the PROM has been used, you cannot wipe it clean and use it to store something else. Like ROMs, PROMs are non-volatile. Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory: An EPROM is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to ultraviolet light. Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory): An EEPROM is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to an electrical charge. BIOS Basic Input/Output System is the program that boot-up (starts up) your computer, it first determines whether all of the components or peripherals are in place and operational and then it loads the operating system. Mass Storage - (Disks) Mass Storage devices used for storing large amounts of data. Modern mass storage devices include all types of disk drives and Optical drives. Mass storage is sometimes called secondary storage. Mass Storage - (Disks) The main types of mass storage are: Floppy Disks : Relatively slow and have a small capacity, but they are portable, inexpensive, and universal. Hard Disks: Very fast and with more capacity than floppy disks, but also more expensive. Some hard disk system are portable (Removable). Optical disks : CDs, DVDs are optical media, that use Laser light scheme to store data, optical disk systems use a laser to read and write data. PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is used to attach peripheral devices to motherboard. It is the most popular local I/O bus. PCI provides a shared data path between the CPU and peripheral controllers in every computer models. PCI first appeared in computers in 1993 & co-existed with the ISA bus for several years. ISA Slots Industry Standard Architecture (ISA): This type of slot is the oldest still in use today. Slot is used for adding ISA expansion cards. PCI slots are newer and faster than ISA slots AGP Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) or Advanced Graphics Port or AGP card is a high-speed Graphics enhance card, with the help of this card number of pixels increase display resolution would qualitative and image would be further sharp . Its core purpose to boost graphics acceleration and 3D graphic applications. WNIC & NIC Wireless Network Card: A wireless network Interface card (WNIC) is a network card which connects to a radio-based computer network, This connects your computer to wireless Internet signals. Wireless LAN or WiFi systems enables you to access the wireless Internet. Network Interface Card (NIC): A network interface card is a computer circuit board provides network communication capabilities to and from a computer. Modem Modem is a combination of MOdulation and DEModulation process. An electronic device used to connect computers by a telephone line is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such. Modem A device that encodes digital computer signals into analog telephone signals and vice versa. Video Card A video card, video adapter, graphics-accelerator card, display adapter, or graphics card are the names of video card whose function is to generate and output fine video signals on display. Many video cards offer added functions, such as accelerated 3D scenes, video capture, TV-tuner adapter, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 decoding, FireWire, TV output, streaming and PC games. Sound Card A sound card also known as an audio card is a that facilitates the input and output of audio signals to and from a computer. It is a computer hardware device used for generating, capturing sounds and provides audio output to external amplification devices, such as speakers or headphones. Chipset A number of integrated circuits designed to perform one or more related functions. For example, one chipset may provide the basic functions of a modem while another provides the CPU functions for a computer. chipsets that required two or more physical chips can be replaced with a new one chip. Real Time Clock Battery RTC also known as a button cell or battery cell. Battery cell is a battery contained on the motherboard that allows to save important system settings and remember time and date while the computer is off. Cables Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA): A computer bus technology primarily designed for transfer of data to and from a hard disk, ATA is also known as IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics). SATA Cables: Serial ATA is new data transfer cabling system, SATA cable provides faster speed to hard drive access. Controllers A device that controls the transfer of data from a computer to a peripheral device and vice versa. For example, disk drives, display screens, keyboards and printers all require controllers. In other words these are chips of drivers-set for any device which make enable device to work properly. Buses Buses are the electronic interface between the motherboard and the smaller boards, components, ICs and expansion slots. It is also called the system bus. System bus contain the three types of buses. Address Bus Data Bus Control Bus Front Panel Connectors These connect to the lights on the front of your system case to notify you of hard disk access, power and a slots of USB, Audio and microphone. If you have an ATX style case then a power connector also fits here. Back Panel Connectors The back panel connectors extend out the back of the case for connection to external peripherals. PS/2 Ports: Standard keyboard and mouse often connect to the computer via the PS/2 ports. Serial Ports: One by one or serial data transfer refers to transmitting data one bit at a time. Back Panel Connectors Parallel Ports: A parallel interface for connecting an external device such as a printer and scanner. Parallel ports support are bi-directional communication and transfer rates is fast. USB Ports: Devices like digital cameras, scanners and printers often connect to the motherboard via the USB ports. Back Panel Connectors LAN Port: The LAN port is used to connect the PC to a local network or to high speed Internet services. VGA & Audio Ports: On this particular motherboard, the VGA port provides access to integrated video while the line-out, microphone and line-in ports provide access to integrated audio meaning there is no need for video cards or sound cards.
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