Music and Dance Power Point

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					           Opening Agenda
•Things to Get:
  •½ piece of paper for your opener.
  •Handouts on Table: Guided Notes, Music
  Listening Guide, Article (return this one!)
•Things to Do:
  •Notes: Music in the Renaissance
  •Music Listening Guide
  •Exit Slip
           On each of the pictures shown below, complete the following:
                         1) Name the picture and creator
    2) Write one sentence about the picture you see (controversies, facts, etc.)

1                           2                             3

Music in the Renaissance
    Medieval and Renaissance
Renaissance Music: In Elements
• Texture
  – Mostly polyphonic
• Melody
  – Smooth
  – Imitation used
  – Melody equal in all parts
  – Melody lines create chords and dissonances
Renaissance Music: In Elements
• Rhythm
  – Moderate tempos (andante, allegro)
  – Unmetered/unbarred
Renaissance Music: In Elements
• Dynamics
  – Soft with natural accents and flow of text
• Timbre/Tone Color
  – Voice
  – Strings
  – Winds
  – Brass
  – Keyboard
Renaissance Music: In Elements
• Form
   – Motet
      • Sacred or secular vocal composition of 4 different
        vocal parts of equal importance (weezer)
   – Madrigal
      • Secular a cappella song for 3-6 voices
      • usually about love
      • Choruses repeated like pop songs today
   – Mass
      • sacred musical composition
      • choral composition that sets the fixed portions of
        the Catholic communion ceremony to music
• Word-painting
  – Matching a descending melody to words of
    grief or quickened rhythm to an expression of
• Secular – social and non-religious
  – Printing made music more widely available
  – more has survived than from Medieval era
Josquin des Prez
   “Broadcast 43: Des Pres”
• Josquin Des Pres’ greatest contribution
  was in the development of polyphony in
  – What is polyphony in music?
  – How is polyphony different from monophonic
    music and harmony?
• 1440-1521
• French
• Composed for popes for 10+ years
• Greatest composer of High Renaissance
• Blended polyphony and 3 tone chord
• Matched words with music(widespread panic)
• All voice parts composed at one time
   – united parts rhythmically and
• Preferred motet to the strict tradition of the
• complex
• required attentive/educated audience to be
  appreciated  (Ave Maria)
Giovanni da Palestrina
 Read: “Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina: 1525-1594”
and answer the following questions on your notebook

  – Who was the greatest master of Roman Catholic Church
  – Why was Palestrina not hired after 1554?
  – Describe the style of Palestrina’s music.
  – How many works of music did Palestrina create?
  – Why did the religious leaders feel that Palestrina’s music
    interfered with religious texts?
Giovanni Palestrina
          • Giovanni Pierluigi da
            Palestrina (1525 - 1594) was
            an Italian composer of
            Renaissance music. He was
            the most famous sixteenth-
            century representative of the
            Roman School of musical
          • Palestrina had a vast influence
            on the development of Roman
            Catholic church music, and his
            work can be seen as a
            summation of Renaissance
Palestrina: Celebrity of the 1500s
                 •   Palestrina left hundreds of
                     compositions, including 104
                     masses, 68 offertories, more than
                     300 motets, at least 72 hymns, 35
                     magnificats, 11 litanies, 4 or 5 sets
                     of lamentations etc., at least 140
                     madrigals and 9 organ ricercari
                     (however, recent scholarship has
                     classed these ricercari as of
                     doubtful authorship; Palestrina
                     probably wrote no purely
                     instrumental music).

                 •   Palestrina was immensely famous
                     in his day, and his reputation, if
                     anything, increased following his
                     death. Conservative music of the
                     Roman School continued to be
                     written in his style (known as the
                     "prima pratica" in the seventeenth
• 1525-1594
• Italian
• Counter Reformation–renewed focus on
  religion (explain)
• Abandoned secular music style of des
• Directed pope’s Sistine Choir
• high point of sacred music in late
               WAIT! Counter what?
•   The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517,
    though its roots lie further back in time. It began with Martin Luther and may be
    considered to have ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.[1] The movement
    began as an attempt to reform the Catholic Church. Many western Catholics were
    troubled by what they saw as false doctrines and malpractices within the Church,
    particularly involving the teaching and sale of indulgences. Another major contention
    was the practice of buying and selling church positions (simony) and what was seen
    at the time as considerable corruption within the Church's hierarchy. This corruption
    was seen by many at the time as systemic, even reaching the position of the Pope.

•   Counter Reformation, 16th-century reformation that arose largely in answer to the
    Protestant Reformation; sometimes called the Catholic Reformation. Although the
    Roman Catholic reformers shared the Protestants' revulsion at the corrupt conditions
    in the church, there was present none of the tradition breaking that characterized
    Protestantism. The Counter Reformation was led by conservative forces whose aim
    was both to reform the church and to secure the its traditions against the innovations
    of Protestant theology and against the more liberalizing effects of the Renaissance.
• Restrained dissonance
  – 6 voices showed complex polyphony
    could still be pleasing to the ear
• Pope Marcellus Mass
  – Song style for catholic mass
  – balanced upward movement of melodic
    line with immediate downward
  – strict style created music that was
    always full and fluid
             Palestrina’s Music
• His compositions are
  typified as very clear, with
  voice parts well-balanced
  and beautifully
• Among the works
  counted as his
  masterpieces is the Missa
  Papae Marcelli (Pope
  Marcellus Mass).
• Kyrie             • Kyrie eleison;
                      Christe eleison;
• Palestrina          Kyrie eleison
• 1557              • Lord have mercy;
• Renaissance and     Christ, have mercy;
                      Lord, have mercy.
• Voices 6 parts
    Mass Musical Structure – 6 parts
       Missa Papae Marcelli (Pope Marcellus Mass).

•   Kyrie
•   Gloria
•   Credo
•   Sanctus
•   Benedictus
•   Agnus Dei

(Discuss next two slides)
Kyrie - The Kyrie is the first movement of a setting of the
  Ordinary of the Mass:
• Kyrie eleison; Christe eleison; Kyrie eleison
• Lord have mercy; Christ, have mercy; Lord, have
Gloria - The Gloria is a celebratory passage praising
  God and Christ:
• Gloria in excelsis Deo
• Glory to God in the highest
Credo - The longest text of the Mass, this is a setting of
  the Nicene Creed: Credo in unum Deum, Patrem
  omnipotentem, factorem caeli et terrae, visibilium
  omnium et invisibilium.
• I believe in one God, the Father Almighty
  Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible
  and invisible
Sanctus - a doxology praising the Trinity:
• Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus, Domine Deus Sabaoth;
  pleni sunt coeli et terra gloria tua
  Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Hosts; Heaven and
  earth are full of Your glory.
  Hosanna in excelsis
  Hosanna in the highest.
Benedictus – a continuation of the Sanctus:
• Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini.
• Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord
Agnus Dei - a setting of the "Lamb of God" litany:
• Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis
• Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world,
  have mercy upon us.
  Renaissance Music- Exit Slip
• Describe the similarity
  between Des Pres and
• Discuss how historical
  events influence the
  difference between Des
  Pres and Palestrina.

• Give clear and concise
  explanations for the
  questions above.
Renaissance Court Dances
Ballet first developed in Europe in the Renaissance period.
        -In Italy and France, dancing masters taught royalty and
        choreographed entertainments for the courts
        -Italian intermezzi (late 1400s) were interludes between
        acts of plays (operas) that combined dance, music, and drama
        -In the 1500 & 1600s, dancing masters began recording
        their choreography.

  Catherine de Medici was a great patron of
  the arts, and commissioned many dance
  Works, including Ballet Comique de la
  Reine, a six-hour dance/drama involving
  both the Greek gods and the Queen of
                         Renaissance Dance
• Renaissance court spectacles were
  often ornate
• They emphasized geometrical
• They used steps that were taken
  from the popular ballroom dances
  of the day, including the pavane
  galliard, volta, and others
• Women and men did these dances
  together in the ballroom, but
  onstage, the women’s parts were
  danced by men
• Steps became increasingly
  complex, and dancing masters
  asked their pupils to practice them
  holding onto the backs of chairs
  for balance; this is how the ballet
  barre developed
                                        • Dancing became stylish at all
                                          Renaissance courts in Europe,
                                          including those of Queen
                                          Elizabeth I and Henry VIII
Thoinot Arbeau, a French canon in the
Roman Catholic church, wrote one of the
first dance books, Orchesography, in
1589. It was a collection of the standard
social dances of the time, and included
correct social behavior and positions of
the feet.
Clothing was bulky and tight in the torso,
restricting movement mostly to the feet.
Renaissance Court Dances
       Exit Slip
Today, you have learned how to dance like it was
1575. The dances of this time developed because of
certain aspects of Renaissance society. On your own
paper, you need to describe the Renaissance court
dances while explaining why certain portions of the
dance listed below developed:

The kiss with the bow
The emphasis of foot movement
The lack of physical contact between dancers

Write your answer on your own paper. You answer
must be half a page long and must be written in
complete sentences. Anything less will receive no

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