Docstoc

middle ages

Document Sample
middle ages Powered By Docstoc
					Elements of Music (continued)




        Musical “Style”
Musical “Style”

 Characteristic way of using melody,
  rhythm, tone, color, dynamics, harmony,
  texture, and form in music
 The distinctive or unique sound of
    – One composer
    – A group of composers
    – A country
    – A period in history
Historical Musical Style Periods

 Middle Ages (450-1450)
 Renaissance (1450-1600)
 Baroque (1600-1750)
 Classical (1750-1820)
 Romantic (1820-1900)
 20th century
Music of the Middle Ages




        Medieval Music (450-1450)
Feudal Society

    Three main social classes
    1. Nobles (Kings, Queens, Knights,
       etc.)
    2. Peasants (Serfs)
    3. Clergy (Church People - priests,
       monks & nuns)
Knights/Nobility
Clergy
Peasants
Medieval Sacred Music (religious)

 Most music in churches
 Churches centers of learning, culture,
  and power
 Most important musicians were priests
     Gregorian Chant
   Prayer music for
    voices
    performed in
    churches;
    melodies set to
    sacred Latin
    texts, sung
    without
    accompaniment
Gregorian Chant (continued)
   Gregorian Chant was the official music of the
    Roman Catholic church - “the” church of
    Medieval Europe

   Named for Pope Gregory (590-604) who was
    reputed to have assembled and standardized
    all basic chants required for church services
    of the time
ANONYMOUS - Alleluia: Vidimus Stellam
(We have seen the star)

 Latin text
 Music has “otherworldly” quality
    – Not in minor or major, but a “church mode”
    – No beat
   Music has “eternal” quality
    – No “catchy” tune; motives don’t seem to
      repeat as expected; seems like it will go on
      forever and forever
 Monophony
 Uses melismas
  Melisma*           (not in textbook glossary)


       Many notes sung to one syllable of text

7 1 3 4 4 3 4 2 2 1 3 4 5 4 71 3 2 3
Al - le- lu-   ia




               Melismas
ANONYMOUS - Alleluia: Vidimus Stellam
(We have seen the star)

   Beginning - Solo, then Choir
    – Alleluia
   Middle (verse) - Choir
    – We have seen his star in the east and are
      come with gifts to worship the Lord
   End - Choir sings beginning phrase
    – Alleluia
HILDEGARD OF BINGEN - O successores
(You successors)
   Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)
    – Abbess of Rupertsberg in Germany
    – Amazingly talented and influential
      woman
       • Religious mystic and philosopher
       • Diplomat
       • Wrote poetry, music,
              and musical drama
       • Scientist and healer
HILDEGARD OF BINGEN - O successores
(You successors)
 Latin text
 Music has “otherworldly” quality
    – Not in minor or major, but a “church mode”
    – No beat
   Music has “eternal” quality
    – No “catchy” tune; motives don’t seem to repeat as
      expected; seems like it will go on forever and
      forever
 Monophony, performed with a drone
 Uses melismas, but less-long that Alleluia
  chant
 Larger pitch range than older Alleluia chant
Drone

   Long, sustained note or notes
    accompanying a melody
HILDEGARD OF BINGEN - O successores
(You successors)
   “You successors of the mightiest lion
    between the temple and the altar- You
    the masters in his household- As the the
    angles sound forth praises and are here
    to help the nations, you are among
    those who accomplish this, forever
    showing your care in the service of the
    lamb.”
Medieval Secular Music (Non-religious)

   Heard outside church in castles,
    taverns, and town squares
    – JONGLEURS
       • travelling minstrels who performed music and
         acrobatics for popular entertainment
ANONYMOUS - Estampie
 Strong, regular BEAT (dance music)
 Fast triple meter
 3 instruments
    – Rebec (bowed string)
    – Pipe (wind)
    – Psaltery (plucked string)
 Monophony (rebec & pipe) with drone
  (psaltery)
 Repetitive sounding; “catchy”
Important Musical Development in
Middle Ages around 900 A.D.



  Birth of Polyphony
Organum (pl. Organa)

   Medieval polyphony that consists of
    Gregorian Chant and one or more
    additional melodic lines
Architectural
Layers =
Layers of
Chant or
Organum
Birth of Polyphony
  700-900         900-1300          1300-1450
  simple      "School" of Notre    ARS NOVA
 organum       Dame (Leonin,       new system
               Perotin); simple    of notating
              rhythmic notation      rhythm
                  invented

monks add a  chant stretched out     used for
2nd melody    and more lines of      complex
above chant organum added above    rhythms and
                    chant          syncopation
Notre Dame Cathedral

Paris, France
GUILLAUME DE MACHAUT -
(1377-1377)

 French composer
 Educated as priest
 Mostly worked as court official
 Wrote sacred and secular music
GUILLAUME DE MACHAUT -
Agnus Dei from Notre Dame Mass
   Agnus Dei part of MASS
    – MASS - sacred choral composition made
      up of five sections
      •   Kyrie (Lord have mercy)
      •   Gloria (Glory to God in the highest)
      •   Credo (I believe in one God)
      •   Sanctus (Holy, holy, holy, Lord of Hosts)
      •   Agnus Dei (Lamb of God)
GUILLAUME DE MACHAUT - Agnus Dei from Notre Dame Mass
    Written for 4 voices
    NON-IMITATIVE POLYPHONY
    3 sections = 3 lines of text each closed by cadences
     – “Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi: miserere nobis” (Lamb
       of God, who take away the sins of the world, have mercy on
       us)
     – “Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi: miserere nobis” (Lamb
       of God, who take away the sins of the world, have mercy on
       us
     – “Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi: dona nobis pacem”
       (Lamb of God, who take away the sins of the world, grant us
       peace)
    Chant stretched out in tenor voice
    Upper voices have faster melodies with syncopation
    Regular BEAT
    Harmony has dissonant parts
 Musical   Early and Mid - Middle          Late Middle Ages
  Style            Ages                       (Machaut)
Elements          (Chant)

Rhythm     no regular beat, free-   has regular beat, more complex,
           flowing, creates         has syncopations
           "floating,"
           "otherworldly" sound
Melody     uses melismas, very      uses melismas, more "jumpy"
           smooth (legato)          and less smooth
Form       sounds non-repetitive    sounds non-repetitive
Dynamics   no changes, all one      no changes, all one level
           level
Texture    monophonic               polyphonic (non-imitative);
                                    produces heavy, dense, thick
                                    sound
Harmony    none                     mixture of consonance and
                                    dissonance; produces serious
                                    sound
BENART DA VENTADORN -
La douza votz (The sweet voice)
 Troubadour song
 Monophony (voice) with improvised drone
  accompaniment (plucked string)
 “I have heard the sweet voice of the
  woodland nightingale and my heart springs
  up so that all the cares and the grievous
  betrayals love has given me are softened and
  sweetened; and I would thus be rewarded, in
  my ordeal, by the joys of others…”
BENART DA VENTADORN -
La douza votz (The sweet voice)
 “In truth, every man leads a base life who
  does not dwell in the land of joy…”
 “One who is false, deceitful, of low breeding,
  a traitress has betrayed me, and betrayed
  herself…”

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:14
posted:1/16/2012
language:English
pages:44