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					Hydrocarbon Derivatives
   halocarbons           functional groups
   alcohols              general formulas
   ethers
   aldehydes
   ketones
   carboxylic acids
   esters
   amines
   amides
Halocarbons
   R--X                       CFCs
   halogen functional         DDT
    groups
   IUPAC naming
   either nonpolar or
    slightly polar
   low boiling points
   insoluble in water
   properties similar to
    alkanes
Alcohols
   Hydroxyl group      diols
   R-OH                triols
   Primary             polar
   Secondary           hydrogen bonds
   Tertiary            higher melting and
   IUPAC naming         boiling points than
   suffix--ol           alkanes
   number              some are water soluble
                        methanol
                        ethanol
Ethers
                                    slightly polar
   R-O-R’                          no hydrogen bonds
   IUPAC Naming
                                    small ethers are water
   name both groups as alkyl
                                     soluble.
    groups
   Put these names in              boiling points are
    alphabetic order. Separate       lower than alcohols
    the names with a space.          but higher than
    The name should end with         hydrocarbons
    the word ether.
                                    diethyl ether
   common names
                                    anesthetics
                                    deisel engines
Aldehydes
   carbonyl group               polar
   R-CHO                        no hydrogen bonds
   functional group at the      methanal
    end of hydrocarbon           formaldehyde
    chain                        tastes and fragrances
   IUPAC naming
   root + ---al suffix
   no number is
    necessary
Ketones
   carbonyl group           propanone
   interior of              acetone
    hydrocarbon chain        Uses
   R-COR’                   fragrances
   IUPAC Naming             flavors
   root + --one suffix
   Must use number
   polar
   no hydrogen bonds
Carboxylic Acids
   carboxyl group        fatty acids
   R-COOH                ethanoic acid
   polar                 acetic acid
   hydrogen bonds        methanoic acid
   acidic hydrogens      formic acid
   organic acids
   IUPAC naming
   suffix --oic
   word acid
Esters
   R-COO-R’                  polar
   results from the          no hydrogen bonds
    combination of an         odors
    alcohol + carboxylic      fruity odors
    acid
   IUPAC Naming
   Name alcohol first
   end name in --yl
   Name acid
   End name in --oate
Amines
   amino group              polar
   R-NH2                    weak bases
   primary, secondary,      amino acids
    and tertiary are         DNA
    possible.                Vitamins
   IUPAC Naming             Addictive drugs
   Name hydrocarbon         odors
   Use suffix --amine       cadaverine
                             ptomaines
Amides
   Results from the            amino acids
    reaction between an         peptide bonds
    amine and a                 synthetic polymers
    carboxylic acid.
                                nylon
   R-CONH2
   IUPAC Naming
   Name root
   Use --amide suffix
   biologically important

				
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