Historical Evolution of Quality Concepts

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Historical Evolution of Quality Concepts Powered By Docstoc
					 Quality Assurace

Apply Quality System and
 Continuous Improvement
      Foundations of Quality
 Our customers define the quality of our
  products and services.
 Quality is what consistently pleases the
  customer at minimal cost to the
 Need to produce products and services that
  our customers than those of our
        Historical Evolution of Quality
 19th century - factory concept; supervisor responsible for quality
 WWII - mass production required QC approach - statistical
  sampling of end products
 1920‟s - Dr Walter Shewhart developed statistical QC
 Post-WWII: Japan rebuilt its manufacturing industry with
  influenece from ff:
    – W. E. Deming - developed stat QC into a broadly-based mg‟t
    – Juran - Trilogy
         quality planning
         quality control
         quality improvement
    – Feigenbaum - „make it right the first time‟
 1960‟s - development from QC to QA
 1980‟s - TQM concepts
             Deming’s Key Ideas
                      Improve quality
    Costs decrease bec of less rework, fewer mistakes,
fewer delays, snags, better use of machine-time & materials
                   Productivity improves
      Capture market w/ better quality and lower price
                     Stay in business
                Provide jobs and more jobs
ISO: the totality of features and characteristics of a product and
     service which near on its ability to satisfy state or implied
AS1057-1985: Fitness for purpose

Quality values of “non-customers”
1.    Legal - hygiene, additives, residues, contaminants,
      composition sterility etc
2. Method intergraty
3. OHS
4. Technological
5. Ethics
6. Socio-ecological
7. patient confidentiality
A quality system must encompass what customers want, need and
           Quality Assurance
 management commitment to setting up a QA
 describing all operations within the company
 ansuring company complies with all
  regulatory requirements and codes of
 process flow diagrams
 HACCP charts
 staff participation
 QA Manual
                   Quality System

The organisational structure, responsibilities, procedures,
  activities, capabilities and resources that together aim to
  ensure that products, processes or services will satisfy
  stated or implied needs

A QA plan is equivalent to a quality system

   Total Quality Management
   Quality Circle
   Continuous Improvement
   Benchmarking (Best Practice)
   Just-in-Time
   Four Significant Points of TQM
 Total commitment of entire workforce
 Elevates customer requirements to a central pedestal
 Quality can be improved without increasing costs to
 Consistency of quality

3 Main Approaches to TQM
 Inspection
 Quality Control - hands of TQM
 Quality Assurance - central to TQM
          Ten Tools of TQM
   Objectives and strategies
   Quality circles
   Quality manuals
   Planing and problem solving
   Pareto analysis
   Ishikawa Cause-and-Effect diagrams
   Quality cost analysis
   Statistical Quality Control
   Sampling
           Four Phases of TQM
1. Policy levels in determining market level of quality
2. Engineering design stage - quality levels specified
   to achieve market levels
3. Production stage - control over incoming raw
   materials and production operations necessary to
   implement policies and design specifications
4. Use stage - in field, where installation can affect
   final quality and where guarantee of quality and
   conformance must be made effective
Quality Management Organisation
                      Quality Assurance

  QC in Engineering   Quality Equipment   Quality in
                      Engineering         Process Control
                                             Inspection and
         Quality Assurance Dept

 QC Engineering - responsible for overall process
  improvement of the QA system
 Quality Equipment Eng’g - responsible for the
  design and development of testing equipment
 Process Control - responsible for monitoring
  application of the quality system
   – a function to which Inspection and Testing
       Quality Control Department

May be resonsible to any of the following:
 General Manager (or senior executive)
 Chief Engineer
 Sales Manager
       TQM is based on 3 factors
Factor 1: the customers you serve
- their perceptions define quality
- everyone serves one or is one

internal customer - a person within an organisation for
   whom a service is provided
external customer - a person outside an organisation
   for whom a service is provided
extended customer - a person who may at some later
   date be affected by an internal or external service
Factor 2. The system within which you work
-formal or informal
Causes why systems does not work:
a. Common or system causes - 80% of problems
poor training; poor design of goods or services; poor
   work instructions; failure to provide accurate info;
   machine condition
b. Special causes - 20% of problems
machine malfunction, natural disaster, power surge,
   supplier strike, industrial action, absenteeism
Pareto principle application- An organisation should
   concentrate its major efforts on overcoming 80% of
   the problems which result from its system
Quality Costs: How much quality?
Customers must be analysed not only in terms of product quality
  they require but also in terms of the price scales they will pay for
  the various levels of product quality

Ð Prevention Costs

Ð Appraisal Costs

Ð Failure Costs
                 Prevention Costs

 Costs associated with personnel engaged in
  designing, implementing, and maintaining the quality
   – Training
   – Planning
   – Auditing
   – Process control engineering
   – Design of test system
   – Reporting system
   – Recall insurance premiums
   – Recall plan
               Appraisal Costs
 Costs associated with the measuring, evaluating
  or auditing of product, components and purchased
  materials to assure conformance with standards
  and performance requirements
  –   Design appraisal
  –   Receival inspection costs
  –   Process control
  –   Depreciation of test equipment
  –   Consumables for testing
  –   Reporting
  –   End-product testing
  –   Quarantined product testing
                  Failure Costs

 Costs associated with defective products, components, and
  materials that fail to meet quality requirements and result in
  manufacturing losses
   – Scrap
   – Rework of out-of-spec materials
   – Reinspection and retesting
   – Defect diagnosis
   – Disposal costs
   – Downtime from disruption of schedules
   – Downgrading
   – Replacement of out-of-spec materials
           Cost Graph:
Quality of Conformance vs Costs
                        Quality Circles

 A small formally organised group of up to 10 volunteers from the
  same work area who regularly meet in paid time with their area
  supervisor to identify, analyse, solve and recommend answers
  and then follow up solutions to specific problems from their work
 Problems - relate to quality, productivity, and other issues
  including those involving employee morale and motivation
Major purposes of Quality Circles
     – to improve the leadership and management
       abilities of supervisors in the workshop and
       encourage improvement by self-development
     – to increase employee morale and
       simultaneously create an environment in which
       everyone is more conscious of quality problems
       and the need for improvement
     – to function as a nucleus for company wide
       quality control at the workshop level
Requirements for Q Circle Members

     – well-educated and have good understanding of
       the organisation beyond work area
     – trained to use problem-solving techniques &
Continuous Incremental Improvement
  Kaizen - “..continuous improvement in personal life, home life, social
    life and working life. When applied to the workplace, kaizen
    means continuous improvement involving everyone - managers
    and workers alike.”
     Continuous Improvement
Shewhart Cycle: result of constantly planning, doing,
  checking, and acting
Deming Cycle : never-ending upward spiral of
  continuous improvement of products and services
  and of the processes required to provide them
Plan - to make decisions about what is required to be
  done; to set an objective and standard
Do - to act or put the plan into effect using worker‟s
Check - to see that the results of doing match what was
Act - to build on the successful changes so that
  continuous improvement occurs
          PDCA Cycle

 DO


     Benchmarking (Best Practice)
- a point of reference
- something against which other things are measured

Also: best practice, world competitive manufacturing, ten percenting

Internal benchmarking - an organisation measures parts of its
   own performance and establishes goals for each department
   selected to be benchmarked, e.g., storing and recording goods,
   customer services

External benchmarking - ...against an external standard, e.g.,
  competitor‟s performance, industry standard, customer‟s
  expectations, best practices
        5 Steps in Benchmarking
1. Defining areas for improvement - processes,
   equipment, customer-service, training, etc.
2. Identifying the benchmark - internal, external,
   international standards
3. Measurement and collection of data - inventory
   accuracy, unit cost and defect rate, number of
4. Adapting the data to the organisation - in which areas
   are they better? Why?
5. Follow-up
 Called Toyota Production System
 Parts are provided when and only when they are
  required for assembly or use
 Stockless production or zero inventory system
 Kanban system - “card” or “signal”
   – a specific number of parts or components moves through
     stages of manufacturing process in small containers with
 Order-driven process; an order from the customer
  pulls an item through the production process.
 Need for storage is eliminated

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