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					THE COPING BEHAVIOR IN BOOTH TARKINGTON’S
THE MAGNIFICENT AMBERSONS : AN INDIVIDUAL
             PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH




                         RESEACH PAPER




 Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for Getting
       Bachelor Degree of Education in English Department




                           Written by:


                         PARTINI
                     NIM: A. 320 990 245




SCHOOL OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
 MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF SURAKARTA
                              2006
                                APPROVAL


           THE COPING BEHAVIOR IN BOOTH TARKINGTON’S
             THE MAGNIFICENT AMBERSONS: AN INDIVIDUAL
                          PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH




                                 Presented by:

                                  PARTINI
                                A. 320 990 245


                     Approved to be examined by consultants




     Consultant I                                      Consultant II




(Drs. M. Thoyibi, M.S.)                          (Mauly Halwat H, S.Pd., M.Hum)




                                       ii
                                ACCEPTANCE

                                 Research Paper

   THE COPING BEHAVIOR IN BOOTH TARKINGTON’S THE MAGNIFICENT
         AMBERSONS: AN INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH




                                   Presented by:

                                    PARTINI

                                   A320990245

  Accepted and Approved by the Board of Examiners School of Teacher Training and
              Education Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta on 2006
                              The Board of Examiners:
1. Drs. M. Thoyibi, M.S                                 (                 )

     (Chair person)

2. Mauly Halwat H, Spd                                  (                 )

     (Member 1)

3. Dra. Dwi Haryanti, M.Hum                             (                     )

     (Member II)




                                       Dean



                              Drs. Sofyan Anif, M.Si
                                     Nik.543




                                        iii
                                      Declaration
       On this occation, the writer states that there is no prpoposed work before in this

Research to get Bachelor Degree in a certain University and as long as the researcher

knows that there is also no work or idea that has ever been written or published by other

people, except referred written in this Research Paper and mentioned in the bibliography.

       If it is proved that there are mistakes in the writer’s statements above later in the

future, so she will be wholly responsible.

                                                       Surakarta, 10 Noverber 2006

                                                                  The Researcher




                                                                       Partini
                                                                    A. 320990245




                                             iv
                                        MOTTO
Starting with the word Bismillah, looking for ridho of Allah SWT.



Some book are to be tasted, others to be swallowed and some few to be chewed and

digested

                                                                       (Francis Bacon)



It’s not what you don’t know that gets you into trouble,

It’s what you know for sure that ain’t so.

                                                                         (Mark Twain)



He who stops being better stops being goods

                                                                     (Oliver Cromwell)



Nobody is bored when he is trying to make something that is beautiful, or to discover

something that is true.

                                                                    (William Ralp Inge)




                                             v
                                DEDICATION

My deepest gratitude to Allah SWT, and in my happiness, I dedicate this work to:



My beloved’s mother and father who had sacrificed everything for me and always

                             supported me with love.

                           Thanks for the night prayer.



            My beloved brother, sister in law, little sister. I love you.



        My greatest family (Hadi Sudiro) thank you for all your support.



           My beloved niece Nanik “Wiwit” Widyastuti rest in peace.



        My beloved little nieces Dhek Hanna and Dhek Alif. I love you.



          All my best friends that I ever have. Thanks for everything.




                                         vi
                                     SUMMARY

PARTINI. A. 320990245. 99.6 106. 130331. 5. 0245. The Coping Behavior in Booth
Tarkington’s The Magnificent Ambersons: An Individual Psychological Approach.
Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta. Research Paper. 2006.

       The object of the research is a novel The magnificent Ambersons by Newton
Booth Tarkington. The problem of this study is how George Amberson Minafer, the
major character copes with his problem. The objective of this study is to analysis the
novel based on the psychological approach.
       The researcher employs a qualitative method. In this method the researcher uses
two data sources, namely primary and secondary data sources. The primary data source is
the novel itself. The secondary data sources are the books about psychology and other
sources, which are related to the analysis. The method of data collection is documentation
and the technique of data analysis is descriptive technique.
       Based on the analysis, the researcher draws two conclusions: first, George
Amberson Minafer copes his problem through changing his behavior, from negative
behavior to positive one. He becomes more optimistic, independent and caring for his
family. Second, George Amberson Minafer copes his problem through his action. He has
the courage to admit his mistake. He asks forgiveness to the man that he hurt most.




                                           vii
                                 ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Assalamu’ alaikum Wr. Wb.

         Bismillahirrohmanirrohim. Alhamdulilahirobil’alamin. The greatest praise and

grateful to Allah SWT, the merciful and compassionate, and the prophet Muhammad

SAW, the messenger, for blessing and guiding the writer in completing the research paper

as partial fulfillment of the requirement for bachelor degree in the English Department.

         In this research paper, the writer wants to express the deepest gratitude and thanks
to:
1. Drs. H. Sofyan Anif. M.Si, the Dean of School Teacher and Education Faculty of
      Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta.
2. Dra. Koesoema Ratih, S.Pd., M. Hum. The Head of English Department of School
      of Teacher Training and Education of Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta.
3. Dra. Rini Fatmawati. The academic consultant and all lectures in English
      Department who have shared and given their knowledge to the writer in mastering
      English.
4. Drs. M. Thoyibi, M.S., as the first consultant who has guided and advised patiently
      during the arrangement of this research paper.
5. Mauly Halwat H, S.Pd., M. Hum, as second consultant who gives correction and
      guidance in finishing this research papers.
6. Her beloved and respectable mother and father who always give sincerely loves,
      prayers and everlasting spirit for the writer.
7. Her beloved Brother, Mbak Yuli, Dhek Erna, for teaching the writer to become an
      independent girl.
8. Her beloved the great family of Hadi Sudiro for their ultimate support, advice and
      love.
9. Mbak Noey, Mas Yoyok, Mas Yadi, for the ride in Yogya.
10. Her beloved Grandma, uncles and aunts for their love, affection, support, and taking
      care of her.
11. All librarians for giving permission and privilege to obtain the required references.


                                                viii
12. All the collegiate in English Department especially for the E class (1999) such as:
   Lutfi, Nawang, Eti, Trisno, Wawan, and the others for conductive ourselves well in
   our learning process.


           The researcher can present nothing but the deepest thanks. The researcher

   realizes that this research paper is not the most and final perfect one. There will be

   found any weaknesses and incompleteness, and therefore the researcher hopes any

   advice, revise, and constructive criticism, which make this research paper useful and

   helpful to all the reader

   Wassalamualaikum Wr. Wb.



                                                             Surakarta, 12 August, 2006


                                                                        The Writer



                                                                            Pin




                                           ix
                                             TABLE OF CONTENT


TITLE ....................................................................................................       i
APPROVAL ..........................................................................................              ii
ACCEPTANCE .....................................................................................                 iii
MOTTO .................................................................................................          iv
DEDICATION .......................................................................................               v
SUMMARY ...........................................................................................              vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .....................................................................                            vii
TABLE OF CONTENT..........................................................................                       ix


CHAPTER               I      INTRODUCTION                          ......................................... 1
                            A. Background of the Study......................................                     1
                            B. Literature Review ................................................                4
                            C. Problem Statement ..............................................                  5
                            D. Limitation of the Study .......................................                   5
                            E. Objective of the Study .........................................                  5
                            F. Benefit of Study ...................................................              5
                       G. Research Method ...................................................... 6
                            H. Thesis Organization ............................................                  8


CHAPTER               II UNDERLYING THEORY .......................................                               9
                            A. Notion of Individual Psychology ........................                          9
                            B. The Basic Assumption of Individual Psychology                                     10
                            C. Theoretical Application .....................................                     14


CHAPTER               III STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS....................................                                15
                            A. Structural Elements of The Magnificent Ambersons                                  15
                                 1. Character and characterization .....................                         15
                                 2. Setting ..........................................................           26
                                 3. Plot ...............................................................         28


                                                                  x
                    4. Point of View ...............................................         41
                    5. Style .............................................................   42
                    6. Theme ..........................................................      46
               B. Discussion ...........................................................     47


CHAPTER    IV PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS ...........................                             51
               A. Individual Psychological Approach ...................                      51
                    1. Inferiority Feeling and Compensation .........                        51
                    2. Striving for Superiority ................................             52
                    3. Fictional Finalism ........................................           54
                    4. Style of Life .................................................       55
                    5. Social Interest ...............................................       56
                    6. Creative Power .............................................          57
               B. Discussion ...........................................................     58


CHAPTER    V CONCLUSION AND SUGESTION........................                                61
               A. Conclusion .........................................................       61
               B. Suggestion...........................................................      62


BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX




                                                   xi
                                  CHAPTER 1

                   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY



A. Background of the Study



        Every human being cannot avoid the changes that happen in their surrounding.

  It is a problem in the real world and in daily life. But sometimes the changes that

  happen not always make different meaning. People react differently when something

  comes up in their life. They react positively if they can adapt to something new that

  brought in their life. They can also react negatively if they fear of something new.

  They feel that the new changes only destroy their life system.

      We can see the changes that happen in our life, for example culture. Culture itself

  can be divided into several categories, such as: new invention, life style, music, etc.

  The culture brought some effect, positively and negatively.

      When something new introduced into our life, they have various ways to attract

  people attention, such as through advertisement or movie. The societies respond to it.

  They can predict the product can be useful in the long term or short term, for example,

  a car. A car can be useful both in long term and short term. Long term, it can be used

  for years if the caring of the car regularly. Short term, it make the journey can be

  shortened.




                                           1
    In the following discussion, the writer tries to describe how new invention can

make the difference in the society. The new invention that brought in the society is

automobile. In that time, the automobile is the new thing and people respond

positively. It also influences the economic, for example good credit at the bank,

housewives purgatory, etc. When people are so interesting about automobile, there are

few people who are in contradiction with them. They think that the new invention is

only a nuisance. This perception makes some of them left behind and the worst is the

downfall of the family because of the inability to keep up with the progress.

  Nowadays people live in a modern and even a post - modern era when the product

of science and technology give people many kinds of easier in doing their activities.

Therefore, they can enjoy longer spare time, and no need to sacrifice too much power,

which people consider as prosperity indicators. Related with science and technology,

which become the need of the people nowadays and with honor to literary work as a

form of philosophy, it is very interesting to explore such a topic and find out the

philosophical value contained in it. From these facts above there are some authors

telling about science and technology and the effect in their works. One of them is

Newton Booth Tarkington. One of his novel entitled The Magnificent Ambersons tells

about a new invention is introduces to the society and it gives simplicity in doing their

activities. The popular works of the author were his genial novels of life in small

middle class, including The Gentleman from Indiana (1899). And the others such as:

The Conquest of Canaan (1905), Growth (1927), made up Turmoil (1915), The

Magnificent Ambersons (1918), The Midlander (1923) and Alice Adams (1921). He

also wrote several novels of boyhood and adolescence, the most notable being Penrod




                                          2
(1914). His plays include a dramatization of his own historical romance Monsieur

Beaucaire Clarence (1921).

     Newton Booth Tarkington was born on July 29, 1869 and educated at Shortridge

High School, Phillips Exeter Academy, Purdue University and Princeton University.

He was one of the most prolific and successful of All-American writers, the authors of

more than forty novels and over twenty plays. He achieved Pulitzer Prize on The

Magnificent Ambersons (1918) and Alice Adam (1921). The Magnificent Ambersons

published by Doubleday and Co., inc. 1918. Tarkington died at his Indianapolis home

in May 19, 1946. (www.angelfire.com/co/pscst/booth.html).

   The Magnificent Ambersons tells the story of two interwoven romances amid the

changing landscape of the American dream. Using the automobile as the essential icon

for change, Newton Booth Tarkington revel a tragic vision of the downfall of a great

American family as they fail to keep pace in the new world of technological changes.

In the midland town, the Amberson’s are the most wealthy, revered and envied family

in the entire country. George Amberson Minafer, the main character of The

Magnificent Amberson, is the only son of Wilbur Minafer and Isabel Amberson and

consequently the only grandson of the Major Amberson. George, being the only heir

of the Amberson fortune, is given all the liberties to do whatever he desires without

any discipline. Because he’s an Amberson’s George feels that it’s his right to do

whatever takes his fancy. Foolish in his youth, George Amberson Minafer succumbs

to the blind arrogance of wealth. He prevents his mother from being with her true love

after his father died and he sabotages his own relationship. In the end, George finds

redemption through work, humility and the forgiveness of his one true love.




                                         3
     Based the above phenomena, the writer believes that behind the story of The
  Magnificent Ambersons, there is a certain event and it makes the author write the
  story.
           Therefore, the writer is interested in the novel The Magnificent Ambersons

  because it presents the fate, the failure, and possibility for happiness of the main

  character. Beside, it gives educational aspect to the readers if they are able to

  understand the content of the novel. In analyzing the novel, the writer uses individual

  psychology theory because this theory presents style of life and social interest. So,

  there is a relation between the story of the novel and the theory of individual

  psychology. Both the story and the theory talk about human being are social being. So

  they must consider about their relationship to other and fully understand their self.



B. Literature Review

      As far as the writer is concerned, there has been no particular study on Newton

  Booth Tarkinton’s The Magnificent Ambersons, at least among university students in

  Surakarta. The Magnificent Ambersons is one of the author masterpieces and the

  winner of Pulitzer Price. The writer found several data sources focussing on the novel

  The Magnificent Ambersons in Internet through www.google.com.

      She has found a review written by Damien Cannon, entitled The Magnificent

  Ambersons. In this, Newton Booth Tarkington’s novel, which uses the passing of one

  era into a harder one, more, pressed age as a backdrop, is a fine choice. Second, a

  review by James Naremore, Indiana University, USA. He said: The Magnificent

  Ambersons shows clear evidence of pride, disappointment, loveless marriage and

  spoiled childhood. Booth reviews are provided in www.reviews/magnificent



                                            4
  Ambersons.                                   Html                                   and

  www.nottingham.ac.uk/journal/bookrev/magnificent_ambersons.html.

      But, the writer has not yet found such study or writing on Booth Tarkington’s

  conducted and arranged by using and individual psychological approach. That’s way

  the researcher in this occasion attempt to study the psychological of the main character

  of Newton Booth Tarkington’s in his novel The Magnificent Ambersons.



C. Problem Statement.

     The problem that will be analyzed in this thesis is based on the background

  explained before. In order to reach the goal the researcher chooses the problem

  statement as follow: How George Ambersons Minafer, the major character, copes

  with his problem.



D. Limitation of the Study.

     To carry out the study, the researcher needs to limits the study. The researcher is

  going to analyze George Amberson Minafer as one of the major character in novel The

  Magnificent Ambersons by Newton Booth Tarkington based on the individual

  approach.



E. Objective of the Study.

   The objectives of the study are:

      1. To analyze the structural elements of the novel.

      2. To analyze the novel based on an individual psychological approach.




                                           5
F. Benefit of Study.

       This research is expected to be able to give some benefits, namely:

   1. Practically it fulfills requirements in getting bachelor degree of education in

       English department.

   2. Theoretically it contributes to the development of the body knowledge,

       particularly the literary studies on Tarkington’s The Magnificent Ambersons.



G. Research Method.

               Research methodology is a strategy used by the researcher to find out the

    answer and the solution to the problem statement. The researcher has used to choose

    a method, which is considered the most suitable with the study object to be analyzed.

    It will be discussed as follow:

   1. Object of the study.

      The researcher takes Booth Tarkington as the object of her study.

   2. Source of data.

       The data employed in this research are classified into two groups. The first is the

       primary source and the second is secondary source.

       A. Primary source.

           Primary data sources are those which are closest to the source of the answers

           for a research. The data are taken from the novel The Magnificent Ambersons

           published in 1918 by Booth Tarkington. The primary source involves the

           dialogues between or among the characters, ideas, ways of thinking, attitudes




                                            6
         and the whole narration of the novel, which is relevant to the subject matter of

         this research.



    B. Secondary Source.

                The secondary data sources are from any information related to the

        novel and the references of some books of psychology and theory of literary

        books. The data are not obtained from the novel but they are taken from others

        sources like criticism, essay, the author biography, theory of literature and

        other information which are relevant to the subject matters in the research

        problem.

3. The method of collecting data.

       The method the writer uses to collect data is both documentation by collecting

  and recording the primary and secondary source, library research by summarizing,

  paraphrasing and wording. The researcher uses documentation as technique of data

  collecting. The writer takes some steps such are:

  1.        Reading the novel repeatedly after for material of criticism.

  2.        Taking notes of the important part in primary and secondary data.

  3.        Classifying the data into some categories.

  4.        Selecting them by rejecting the irrelevant information, which does not

            support the topic of the study.




                                          7
   4. Technique of data analysis.

          In analyzing the data, the writer employs descriptive qualitative analysis of

      content analysis. The analysis is started from the structural analysis of the work

      and finally the Individual Psychology analysis of the literary work.



H. Thesis Organization.

     This thesis is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is introduction which

  explains the background of the study, literature review, problem statement, limitation

  of the study, objective of the study, benefit of study, research methodology and thesis

  organization. The second chapter is dealing with review of underlying theory, in this

  chapter the writer explains the basic principle theory of individual psychology. The

  third chapter is structural analysis, in this chapter the writer explains the structural

  elements of the novel and discussion. The fourth chapter is psychological analysis of

  the novel, and the last chapter is conclusion and suggestion.




                                            8
                                         CHAPTER II

                                 UNDERLYING THEORY



           This chapter deals with underlying theory which is employed in the study

namely psychology. The theory of psychology, which the researcher uses to describe the

psychological aspect is individual psychology presented by Alfred Adler and developed

by Hall, Hjelle, and Schultz. The underlying theory will discussed the notion, the basic

assumption of individual psychology, and theoretical application.



A. Notion of Individual psychology.

       Individual psychology, a theory of personality was found by Alfred Adler.

   According to him (in Hjelle; 1981: 71), individual psychology is to express his holistic

   conception of the human being as a single, indivisible, self-consistent and unified

   entity. He believed that no person can be viewed in isolation, but must always be seen

   as embedded in a larger context, the social ecological system of which she or he is an

   integral part.

           Schultz (1990:120) also stated that individual psychology focused on the

uniqueness of each person, denying the universality of biological motives and goals. Each

person, in Adler’s opinion is primarily social, not biological being.




                                             9
B. The Basic Assumption of individual psychology.

       Adler’s theory is used to analyze the novel The Magnificent Ambersons. It presents

    several basic concepts of individual psychology. This theory will be explained as

    follows:

1. The basic concepts of individual psychology.

        There are six basic concepts of individual psychology. The concepts are (a)

inferiority feeling and compensation, (b) striving for superiority, (c) fictional finalism, (d)

style of life, (e) social interest, and (f) creative power.



a. Inferiority Feeling and compensation.

        Every person has inferiority feeling whether he will or can admit it. It is not

   surprising that we often receive a negative reply when we ask person whether they

   have a feeling of inferiority. Adler (in Hjelle, 1981:78) viewed inferiority feeling as

   the motivational basic for essentially all human striving. All individual progress,

   growth, and development result from the attempt to overcome one’s inferiority’s, be

   they imagined or real.

        Compensation is a motivation to overcome inferiority, to strive for higher levels

   of development (Schultz, 1990: 123). The negative responses to these feelings of

   inferiority become inferiority complex or the superiority complex. Individuals with

   this symptom are more concerned with attaining selfish goal than with social interest.

   They may express this selfishness in a need to dominate, refusal to cooperate, or they

   want to take and not to give.




                                                10
       Of course, inferiority feeling may be exaggerated by special conditions such as

   pampering or rejecting the child, in which case certain abnormal manifestations may

   ensue, such as the development of an inferiority complex or a compensatory

   superiority complex (Hall, 1970: 124).

       Adler identified three childhood handicaps as contributing to an inferiority

   complex: inferior organs, overindulgence, and neglect. First, children born with

   inferior physical organs may develop feeling of psychological inferiority.

   Overindulged children, grow up lacking confidence in their abilities because others

   have always done things for them. Finally, parental neglect can cause an inferiority

   complex because neglected children basically feel unwanted (Hall, 1981: 142).



B. Striving for superiority.

       From birth to death, the striving for superiority carries the person from one stage

   of development to the next higher stage. Adler acknowledges that the striving for

   superiority may manifest itself in a thousand different way, and that is person has his

   own concrete mode of achieving or trying to achieve perfection (Hall, 1970: 123).

       In sum, striving for superiority’s the urge toward perfection or completion, the

   ultimate goal that motivates the individual.




                                             11
C. Fictional Finalism.

        Adler (in Hall, 1981:153-154) adopted Hans Vaihinger idea in a book entitled the

   philosophy of “As If” (1911). He theorized that our ultimate goals (those goals which

   gives our lives direction and purpose are fictional goal). Adler concepts of fictional

   finalism reveals the extent to which he emphasized a goal directed, view of human

   motivation. Personality is influenced by subjective expectations about what might

   happen in the future than by experiences of the past. Our behavior is guided by our

   perception of our fictional goals in life.

        In sum, we see man as a unity and as goal oriented; all his spiritual powers are in

   the service of the guiding idea, the perception of the goal. Just to maintain his

   existence, man has to establish goals.



D. Style of life.

        Hjelle (1981:81) stated style of life refers to the unique pattern of trait, behavior,

   and habit which when taken together, define the particular route we have charted for

   ourselves in order to reach our life goal.

        According to Adler (in Feist, 1985: 74) style of life refer to the flavor of a

   person’s life. It includes not only the person’s goal, but also self-concept, feeling

   toward others, and attitude toward the world. It is the product of the interaction of

   heredity, environment, goal of success, social interest, and creative power.




                                                12
        Some individuals react to their inferiority by developing a faulty style of living,

   while others distinguish themselves by superior achievements. The pampered child

   may find that he can rule his parents by making demands conspicuously felt (Dicaprio,

   1974: 262)

E. Social Interest.

           Social interest or social feeling (originally called Gemeinschaftsgefuhl or

   “community feeling”) is a caring and concern for the welfare of others that continues,

   throughout life, to guide a person’s behavior (Hall, 1985: 148).

   In sum, social interest is caring for family, for community, for society, for humanity,

   even for all life. Adler felt that social interest was not simply inborn, nor just learned,

   but a combination of both. It is based on an innate disposition, but it has to be nurtured

   to survive.



F. Creative Power

        Hjelle (1981:87) stated that each person is empowered with the freedom to create

   his or her own life style. Ultimately, people are solely responsible for who they are

   and how they behave. This creative power is responsible for the person’s life goal,

   determines the method of striving for the goal, and contributes to the development of

   social interest. This same creative force also influences perception, memory,

   imagination, fantasy, and dreams. It makes each person a free (self determined)

   individual.




                                             13
       Hall (1970: 127) stated that the creative power of the self is hard to describe. We

   can see its effects, but we cannot see it. In essence, the doctrine of a creative self

   asserts that man makes his own personality. He constructs it out of the raw material of

   heredity and experience.



C. Theoretical application

       The researcher develops this research paper by applying the Individual

psychological theory proposed by Alfred Adler. By understanding the Individual

Psychology of the character, the researcher tries to explain how the George Amberson

Minafer, the main character of the novel copes his problem. There are some steps in

analyzing the novel. Firstly, the research begins from the intrinsic of literature work.

Secondly, it makes a study about the theory of Individual psychology, particularly Alfred

Adler’s theory. Thirdly, it makes a research about the relationship between the Individual

psychology theory and the novel itself. It can be done toward the action, the dialogues,

and the thought of the character. From those three steps, it will answer the problem

statement of the research.




                                           14
                                         CHAPTER III

                                  STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS



          This chapter will discuss the structural element of Booth Tarkington’s The

Magnificent Ambersons. The writer will try to expound those elements systematically and

easy to understand, because the chapter will provide information that the writer needs to

analyze the novel by individual psychological approach. This chapter is divided into two

parts, the first part will give explanation about the structural elements of The Magnificent

Ambersons, meanwhile the last part will be ended by a brief discussion to see how far the

correlation each structural element with its theme.

A. Structural Elements of TMA.

   1. Character and characterization.

         According to Lukens, she defines character as the term is generally used means

      the aggregate of mental, emotional, and social qualities that distiquish a person

      (Lukens, 1995: 40). Bergman states that the performers of the action are called

      character. The performer maybe a person or a thing (Bergman, 1987:115). While

      characterization is a way to present character. It can be seen through the manner

      and the action of the character in the story. There are two kinds of character in the

      story, major and minor character. Major character usually has undergone the

      conflicts and challenges through the happening in the story, while minor characters

      are the characters that support the characterization of the major character. After

      studying the novel The




                                            15
  Magnificent Ambersons, the writer finds these characters and their characterizations

  as follows:

a. Major character.

1) George Amberson Minafer

       Physically, he is around twenty-thirty years old. He is the only son of Wilbur

   Minafer and Isabel Amberson. Being the only grandson of the Amberson, George

   is given all the liberties to do whatever he desires without any discipline. He has a

   good look and no one can denies that.

                    …, and his grandson were of a type all Amberson: tall, straight,
           and regular, with dark eyes short noses, good chin,…(TMA: 31)


       Mentally, he is the most arrogant, corrupt, and shallow character. George

   Amberson Minafer is a young boy who grows up with wealth, spoiled son and

   immature. At the age of nine-sixteen years old he always makes terror and

   continues with intimacies. This thing makes him to become a person who can rule

   somebody else to please him.

                      Fights often led to intimacies,… (TMA: 19)

                  …, and you quit hammering it that way or you’ll break it, and I’ll
          have to knock your head of.” (TMA: 28)


       George Amberson as the only child of the family receives undivided loves and

   attention. He does not have others sibling to compete. In daily life, he wants to be

   center of attention, does not fear to compete with others.

                  “All right, “said Georgie. “You’re president. Now we’ll hold another
          election. (TMA: 28)




                                         16
       Socially, he is arrogant and thinks that everyone is lower than he is.

Although George Amberson Minafer is caring little about human relationship, as

we see in his attitude toward Fred Kinney (TMA: 20), he does not mean to hurt

anyone feeling. Aunt Fanny is one of his victims.

             “Good heavens!” George cried. “I was only teasing. I didn’t mean –
       “ (TMA: 116)


   In his life, George Amberson does not really close to his father. But after his

father died there is a regret feeling upon him.

                …, so quiet a part that George had seldom been consciously aware
       that his father was indeed a part of his life. (TMA: 106-107).


   Being the only son, he gives all the liberties to do whatever he desires without

any discipline. He becomes a pampered child. His parents give him everything

such as material wealth, time, attention, etc. As the result he becomes self-critical,

perfectionism, and poor social adjustment (TMA: 58).

   Morally, he has the ambiguous morality. George Amberson Minafer is a very

complex and self-contradictory character. When he was a young boy he did not

care much about his future. He believes that his family wealth will support him in

everything. He does not have to look for a job or go into a profession but only

invests his money to the things, which is causes a double profit.

               George waved his hand impatiently. “I don’t expect to go into any
       ’business or profession.”(TMA: 44)


   But after his family loses their fortune, he concerns about the future and takes

care of his aunt. It happens when the city has changed and the




                                     17
  economic has grown fast. People from other city come to town looking for a job

  (TMA: 194). Meanwhile the Ambersons family is loosing their fortune. It’s

  because George fails in bad investment. So, to support his life, he has to look for a

  job. He asks old Frank to offer him a job (TMA: 231). George also has to take

  care of his aunt by place her in the apartment with him.

               …, and I’m sure the little apartment will be just what you like,…
         (TMA: 225-226)


2) Isabel Amberson

      Physically, she is elegant and beautiful. Everyone adores her. She is George’s

  mother, her age, just under forty. (TMA: 31). Isabel Amberson is a Major

  Amberson’s only daughter. In the last years of her life she travels abroad with her

  son and becomes ill, and wants desperately to come home, but she is not allowed

  by her son. She eventually does return home and dies soon afterwards without

  having the opportunity to see Eugene Morgan again (TMA: 204). Her appearance

  is described as follows:

                    …I couldn’t look anything except her wavy brown and the
         wonderful back of her neck.” (TMA: 17)

                  …The Major, his daughter, and his grandson were of a type all
         Amberson: tall, straight, and regular, with dark eyes, short noses, good
         chins…(TMA: 31)


      Mentally, she has a wonderful life but also makes a little mistake by marrying

  Wilbur Minafer, eventhough she is in love with Eugene Morgan. She does not

  marry Eugene Morgan because he is not a steady man. It is also because of

  Eugene action in the serenade. He breaks a bass viol (TMA: 18). Because she

  could not love Wilbur, all of her affection would


                                       18
  be lavished on her son George. This affection makes her become a weak person

  and the end she feels that anything that has done by Amberson is right, whatever it

  takes.

                    …It was Isabel great failing that whatever an Amberson did seemed
           right to her, especially if the Amberson was either her brother George, or
           her son George. (TMA: 22)

                   …, his mother just fell down and worshipped him from the day he
           was born (TMA: 51).


      Socially, she has a good heart. Isabel comes from a background of great

   privilege. She is probably someone that people in town like her become dislike

   her, but they can not hate her because she’s innately kind. When Isabel was a

   young lady, she gave a big attention to the man in town, who wanted to marry her

   by the ritual of the serenade.

                     The sparkling gentleman “led Germans” with her, and sent
           sonnets to her with his bouquets – sonnets lacking neither music nor wit.
           (TMA: 16-17)


       Morally, she is the kind person who always thinks about morality in whatever

   she does. It is clear that Isabel is a person who has a high morality. She concerns

   about George feeling about her relationship with Eugene.

                      I think what makes me most ready to cry now is the thought of the
           terrible suffering in your poor face,... (TMA: 84)

3) Eugene Morgan

      Physically, he is around forty years old. Eugene is an inventor and a pioneer in

   the automobile industry. He is rich, dashing and elegant (TMA: 47). He is well

   liked by everyone except George Amberson Minafer. He




                                          19
returns to town after twenty years he left it. He is also a widower bring Lucy, his

daughters with him.

               “Twenty years said Mr. Kinney. “It makes some difference in faces,
       but more in behavior. (TMA: 50)


   Mentally, he is a careful man. As a young man, Eugene is a guy who has

trouble controlling his passions. After Isabel marrying Wilbur Minafer, he leaves

the city and comes back twenty years later. He eventually focuses his energy into

investing things. He bring a new invention to the city which is automobile.

               …; bicycles and trolleys have been dong their share, but the
       automobile is gong to carry city streets clear out to the country line. (TMA:
       137)



   Socially, he is an optimistic person and a kind of person who always looks

ahead and also sees the future. He makes people believe that automobile will

change the old city to become a city which has good prosperity.

             …, they call it ‘the country.’ It will be city in two or three years
       (TMA: 138).


   Morally, he is kind of man who always opens his heart to forgive anyone’s

faults especially George Amberson Minafer. He comes to the hospital when

George gets an accident.

                 …, and that through him she brought her boy under shelter
       again. (TMA: 256)




                                      20
B. Minor Character

1) Fanny Minafer

       Physically, she is sort of an aging spinster. Fanny is Wilbur Minafer’s sister.

   She’s really fun to play because she has a lot of humor in her and spirit and

   sometimes she causes a lot of problem. But she also has that sort of desperation,

   trying hard to make an impression. Her appearance is described as follows:

                 …, took her to be about twenty; they were others times when at the
          same distance they took her to be about sixty, instead of forty, as she was.
          (TMA: 41)


      Mentally, she is not a wise girl. Fanny is unhappy and has unfilled dreams. She

   wastes her time to think that someday Eugene will pursue her, bur this does not

   happen.

                      Eugene never would have looked at me, anyhow, and, oh, why
          couldn’t I have seen that before! (TMA: 173)


      She really would like to have her own family and her own husband, but it

   does not happen because the way she interact with Eugene. She‘s throwing

   herself at Eugene. But ironically, she’s the main survivor in this story.

      Socially, she is very self involved, and says things without thinking. Fanny’s

   so manipulative and she causes so much trouble

                 …, except the report that Lucy Morgan and Fred Kinney are
          engaged – and that quite old, by this time.” (TMA: 87).

                   You must know that everybody in town thinks they’re going to
          married very soon.” (TMA: 154)




                                         21
      When people die, people have broken hearts, and she ends up in an

   apartment, but she does not care too much because she’s happy (TMA: 228). She

   can play her bridge and be with her friends and George takes cares of her. It’s

   not as tragic of an end for her to end up in the apartment and destitute because

   she’ s never really had her own money anyway (TMA: 231).

      Morally, she cannot be included to be a kind girl. When she’s hurting, she

   wants other people to hurt too. And then she tries to take it back, but she cannot

   do that.

                    I was suffering so that I wanted to let out a little – I didn’t mean
          any real harm. (TMA: 173-174)


2) Lucy Morgan



      Pretty Lucy Morgan appears in town with her father Eugene Morgan and

   immediately attracted to George. She is independent, masterful, self reliant and

   little American (TMA: 186). Her appearance is described as follows:

                        …; her hair was almost as dark as the fur; a great boa of black
              fur was about her shoulders; her hands were vanished into a black
              muff;… (TMA: 53)


      Mentally, she is smart and a careful girl. She knows there is a conflict in the

   relationship with George and she doubt whether she continue her relationship or

   not. She knows she wills not happy if she stay with him or if she marries him.

   Even after they break up, she always refuses any purpose of any other people.

                        …, without marrying any of them, but she still danced – and
              still did not marry. (TMA: 239)




                                          22
3) Wilbur Minafer

      He is Isabel’s husband. He is a steady young business man and a good church

   – goer (TMA: 18). He’s quit sort of man, but he’s a good man and a kind man

   (TMA: 80). In the story he died after he is not able to struggle his disease.

4) Uncle George

      He is Isabel’s brother. He is a congressman who leads cotillions and Eugene

   friends (TMA: 69). Although he is very fond of his nephew George, he is not

   agreeing what George has done to Eugene (TMA: 161). Like the rest of the

   Amberson, however, he suffers financial ruin. He leaves George and goes to

   Washington.

                 He added something to this praise of his nephew on the day he left
          for Washington. He was not to return,… (TMA: 216)


5) Major Amberson.

      Major Amberson is the patriarch of the family (TMA: 7). He ‘s very wealthy

   and defers to Isabel’s wishes (TMA: 16). He is much admired by the town, but

   ends up losing his fortune. His appearance is described as follows:

                  It was a handsome, worldly old face, conscious of its importance,
          but persuasive rather than arrogant, and not without tokens of suffering
          withstood (TMA: 31).


      Major Amberson in his life has built several buildings for himself and his

   daughter. This to show that the Amberson is a rich family. It can be described as

   follows:

                     …, Major Amberson reserved for acres for himself, and built his
              new house… (TMA: 14).




                                         23
                   …to indicate the house Major Amberson had built for Isabel as a
            wedding gift (TMA: 55).

      After Isabel died, it takes several months for Major Amberson to pass

   away (TMA: 215).

6) Mrs. Johnson

      She is a mother of Charlie Johnson (TMA: 155). She is the town snoop, and

   the town gossip. She always gossips with Fanny, meets her, looks around, and

   sees what everybody is doing (TMA: 135). But she died about six weeks after

   George Amberson Minafer left the town with his mother (TMA: 208).

7) Old Alex Minafer

      He is Fanny’s father who would give her anything to please her (TMA: 16).

8) Ms. Henry Franklin Foster

      The foremost literary authority and intellectual leader of the community

   (TMA: 16). Like Mrs. Johnson, she also likes make a gossip about the

   Ambersons (TMA: 18).

9) Charlie Johnson

       One of George friend.

                …and affected to converse with his friend, Mr. Charlie Johnson.
          (TMA: 71)


       In the end of the story, when he sees Georgie he just had looked away. It

   means that he does not like what Georgie does to his mother and only wants

   recognition (TMA: 221).




                                       24
10) Fred Kinney.

       He is also George Amberson’s friend but he has a little disagreement. It

   happens when they were young. George Amberson is domineering in everything.

   So, Fred confronts George alone. It makes George angry (TMA: 28). Fred also

   has a feeling toward Lucy. But after having failed to pursue Lucy, he married to

   Janie Sharon (TMA: 221).

11) Fred Kinney fathers.

       Eugene friend twenty years ago when he left the town (TMA: 50).

12) John Minafer

       He is George’s great-uncle. Old John Minafer’s has been troubled with

   deafness for twenty-five years (TMA: 33-34). He died in the previous autumn

   before Wilbur Minafer died (TMA: 107)

13) Uncle Sydney Amberson and his wife Amelia.

       They have no children and without a business or a profession (TMA: 37).

   In the end, they live in Rome; Amelia becomes a catholic and uncle

   Sydney’s ailing and lives in a wheel chair most of the time (TMA: 200).

14) Old Frank

       He is the old friend of Major Amberson. His appearance is described as

   follows:

                        He was a hale, thin old man, six feet three inches, and without a
                stoop (TMA: 97).


           He is also the person who helps George looks for a job. (TMA: 232)




                                            25
15) The Policeman.

       He is the person who sends George Amberson to the hospital after the

   accident. (TMA: 244)

16) Mrs. Horner.

       Mrs. Horner speaks of herself as a “psychic”. Eugene Morgan is twice met

   her to find out about Isabel after she dies. (TMA: 251)

17) Old Sam.

       He is one of Major’s servants. He is the first person who found Major

   passed away (TMA: 215).



2. Setting.

       Setting, a term that encompasses both the physical locales that frames the

   action and the time of day or year, the climatic condition, and the historical period

   during which the action takes place (Kennedy, 1991: 37). There are two kinds of

   setting, setting of time and setting of place.

   a. Setting of place

   This novel takes place in Indianapolis at the beginning of 20th century

   (www.angelfire.com). But the writer also finds that the story takes place in two

   location the Midland Town and Paris.

   1.Midland town

    It is the place where the story begins to end. It begins with the life in the city.

    “Everybody knew everybody else’s family by horse and carriage they drive in”

    (TMA: 7). These are some words, which refer to Midland town in the story.




                                          26
                        …most of the houses of the midland town were of a pleasant
                   architecture. (TMA: 8)

                               There, in the highway, the evening of life of the Midland
                   City had begun. (TMA: 131)


       2.Paris.

               It is the place where George Amberson Minafer and his mother go abroad.

                                Amberson went over, the next summer, and joined his sister
                  and nephew in Paris, …(TMA: 199)


a. Setting of time.

       In TMA, the setting of time is not clear enough. But Tarkington gives some clues

    to make it easy for the reader to find when the story takes place.

   1. From the beginning of the story, it starts when the Amberson had “made a

       fortune” in 1878. The story does not tell how the Amberson get the fortune and

       how much their fortune. Everybody in town knew everybody else’s family by

       horse-and-carriage they drive in (TMA: 7).

   2. The city has changed. The industry of automobile has taken over the old city. A

       new Midlander was beginning dimly to emerge (TMA: 194)

              From the statements above, the writer finds that the story takes place

       during the late 1800s/early 1900, doesn’t go very far.



b. Social Circumstances.

       From setting of place and setting of time, the writer infers that a social

    circumstance in The Magnificent Amberons is the American Society at the beginning

    of 20th century.



                                               27
3. Plot.

           Plot, is an author’s choice and arrangements or events in a story

   (Bergman’1987: 72). In addition, plot is the sequence of events showing character

   in actions (Lukens, 1995:63). After examining The Magnificent Ambersons, the

   writer concludes that the plot in The Magnificent Amberson is progressive.

   Progressive means the events which are being told arranged chronologically; the

   first event follow by (or: caused the happening) the later events (Burhan, 2000:

   153). The arrangement of the story is like traditional / conventional plot. The plot

   in the novel is divided into four parts, namely: exposition, complication, climax,

   and resolution.

a. Exposition.

       The exposition is the beginning section in which the author provides the

    necessary background information, sets the scene, establishes the situation, and

    dates the action (Kennedy, 1991:21). In The Magnificent Ambersons the

    exposition is reflected in chapter I – chapter IV. The first chapter tells the life in

    the Midland City especially the life of the Ambersons family. It starts from the

    Ambersons house. It is said that the house has a front hall, side hall and a back

    hall. They also have festival called the serenade. Serenade means young men bring

    an orchestra under a pretty girl’s window or something else. (TMA: 7-16).

       Chapter two tells Isabel’s life when she was a young girl and married to the

    man that she did not love. Later, she birth a baby namely George




                                          28
   Amberson Minafer. In here George as the only son is given all the liberties to do

   whatever he desires without any discipline. (TMA: 16-24).

      Chapter three tells about the life of George Amberson Minafer, that is. How he

   get everything without a hard effort and the relationship with his friend. Actually

   he is a kind person but sometimes he act according to his will without considering

   his friends will. As result he become arrogant, selfish, and shallow character.

   (TMA: 24-29).

              Chapter four tells about the first meeting between George and Lucy

   Morgan. And also Isabel and Eugene Morgan after twenty years they do not see

   each other. (TMA: 30-37).

b. Complication.

      This is the early conflict, which leads to the others conflicts in the story.

   The conflicts are divided into two. First: external conflict. External conflicts

   are conflicts between major character, which is George Amberson Minafer

   and others characters.

     The first conflicts happen between George Amberson and Aunt Fanny. The

   relationship between George and his aunt is fun. Sometimes she tries to act

   all maternal with George and the other times they’re just going at it like sister

   and brother. Both of them are very immature. For example, George is

   continuously cruel and teasing her about being a spinster and the contrary

   Fanny is very self involved and she says thing without thinking. Actually

   there is not any conflicts between George and Aunt Fanny. But what Fanny

   said make George




                                         29
have a conflicts with other. It happens when she said that Lucy Morgan and

Fred kinney are engaged. It makes George upset and decides to go to the

Lucy house. But Lucy said that she will not engage to Fred (TMA: 87-91).

Second, Aunt Fanny is the first person who tells George that Eugene is in

love with Isabel and the people in town is talking about it (TMA: 154). So,

George confronts the people who spread the rumor about his mother and

Eugene Morgan is getting married. He goes to Mrs. Johnson’s house that he

thinks she spreads the rumor. But she denies that (TMA: 158). If Fanny just

keep silent or she is not interfere maybe it will be end up differently.

   The second conflicts happen between George and his mother. When

Wilbur Minafer dies, Eugene and Isabel begin planning a possible marriage.

George knows it and makes a plan to destroy their relationship. It happens

when Eugene Morgan comes to the Isabel house and George tells that Eugene

is not wanted in their house. Eugene fells that there is something wrong in

George mind. So, he writes a letter to Isabel. The letter itself is brought by

Isabel brother. The letter itself tells about what happened when Eugene

comes to the Isabel house. After reading the letter, Isabel demands the

explanation to his son. George tells her, not to see Eugene Morgan anymore.

Because if she continues seeing him and planning to marry him, it makes the

name of the Amberson no longer important and proudest anymore. Isabel

cries and makes a decision not to see Eugene Morgan




                                      30
anymore. So, she write a letter to him that she can not be with him. To make

sure that the relationship between his mother and Eugene is over, George

manages a trip around the world with his mother. He does not concern about

his mother health (TMA: 168-190).

   The third conflict happens between George and Eugene Morgan. From the

start, George Amberson hates the idea of automobiles. He thinks that the car

is nuisance (TMA: 138). The hatred toward Eugene becomes more serious

when Aunt Fanny tells him that there is a gossip that his mother and Eugene

Morgan are getting married (TMA: 154). So, he said to Eugene that he does

not welcome to his house anymore (TMA: 168). It means that Eugene must

stop seeing his mother.

   The fourth conflicts happen between George and Lucy Morgan. Lucy

immediately attracted to George from the first day they met. After a while she

knows George’s personality, she ask him what profession he chooses to

support his financial. George answers the question that he will not go to work

because he thinks that the family will support his financial. This makes Lucy

thinks twice to receive George proposal. First, when George hears Aunt

Fanny said that Lucy and Fred Kinney are engaged. So, George goes to Lucy

house and demands an explanation (TMA: 87). He wants to know whether

Lucy is engaged to Fred Kinney or not. Lucy said that she and her father have

been twice going to dinner with Fred family. She has been three




                                    31
times to church with Fred and once to the circus. But Lucy denies that she is

engaged to Fred Kinney. George suddenly asks Lucy to be engaged to him.

But Lucy said that George is too young and she will not speak of it again

until she tells George to (TMA: 87-92). Second, when George asks Lucy to

marry him again. Lucy gives an answer that she has a feeling that it’s never

going to be. She knows that George will not have any regular business or

profession. It means that he is not a steady man. George thinks that Lucy

refuses to marry him because of Eugene Morgan influence. It makes the

relationship between them are getting worse (TMA: 130). Lucy refuses to

marry him however because of George’s low opinion about her father.



   The other conflict is internal conflicts. Internal conflict is conflict between

George Amberson Minafer and himself. When Aunt Fanny said that people in

town are gossiping about his mother and Eugene Morgan is getting married,

he thinks that one of Aunt Fanny friends spreads the rumor. He predicts Mrs.

Johnson who takes the responsibility. So, George goes to her house and

demands the explanation. But Mrs. Johnson denies that she and other people

spread the rumor (TMA: 154-160). After he goes to Mrs. Johnson house, he

asks the opinion to his uncle. Uncle George said that there’s nothing wrong if

Isabel and Eugene Morgan are getting married. Both of them




                                      32
   are free and care each other. But for Georgie, it’s a horrible thing even if this

   rumor does not happen (TMA: 163).

              A month after Isabel died, he walks to Aunt Fanny room and talks

   about the action that he has done. He thinks that he is doing the right thing,

   which makes the rumor ends by taking his mother abroad. But for Aunt

   Fanny there’s nobody could have stopped George, whatever he wants to. And

   the important thing is that Isabel loved George more than anything in the

   worlds (TMA: 210). The answer given by his uncle and his Aunt makes

   conflicts inside George deeper. For him, he has done the right thing but on

   the contrary he feels that he makes his mother suffer. When he enters his

   mother’s room, he is haunted by feeling guilty. Suddenly he is kneeling, his

   is body shaking and crying hope that God and his mother would forgive him.

   He realizes that he is nothing without his family around him especially his

   mother. He wishes he could make his mother more happily (TMA: 225).



c. Climax.

           Climax is that moment at which the plot reaches its points of greatest

  emotional intensity. It is the turning points of the plot, directly precipitating its

  resolution (Kennedy, 1991: 22). The climax of this novel is presented when

  Isabel Ambersons dying and want to see Eugene for the last time. But George

  prevents Eugene from seeing his mother. When George Amberson and his

  dying mother return from




                                          33
Paris, Eugene Morgan comes to see Isabel. But when Aunt Fanny tells George,

he makes a decision that his mother must be in a peaceful condition. She can

not be disturbed by anybody except her family or the doctor. So, Fanny tells

Eugene that Isabel must rest.

                   Fanny acquiesced tearfully. “I’ll tell him. I’ll tell him the doctor
           said she was to be kept very quiet. (TMA: 203)


        Hearing the condition of Isabel, Eugene Morgan is back to his house

 without seeing her. After Eugene has left, George goes to his mother’s room

 because his mother wants to see him. Isabel is wondering if Eugene and Lucy

 know that they have come home. George answers that they know and Eugene

 comes but he already left. Isabel hopes if she can see Eugene Morgan for the last

 time. But Georgie just accompanies his mother until she falls asleep.

           After his mother falls asleep, George’s back to his own room. At dawn,

 he hears from Aunt Fanny that his mother has already left them (TMA: 206). He

 does not have anybody any longer..

          But after his mother passed away, he also faces another situation. In the

 other words, George is slowly over powered. In the novel, this begins to happen

 when the Ambersons are loosing their edge in town and for the first time George

 looking for a job. It starts when young George believes that if someone puts his

 money into a great many enterprises, one of them is sure to turn out to be a

 fortune. Instead of spending his money into automobiles, George, Aunt Fanny and

 Uncle George choose headlight company. But




                                        34
their investments are not working well. From there, the Amberson starts loosing

their fortune.

           It can be seen from the their economic condition. The first condition,

when Uncle George is worrying about Isabel’s estate. He asks Major Amberson

whether he ever gives Isabel the deed of the house. But Major Amberson never

gives an answer. George tells his Uncle that his mother did not have any deed.

Major Amberson still grieve about his daughter death, he cannot think the

important thing out. The Major health is getting worse. It only takes eleven-

months after his daughter died, the Major also passed away (TMA: 213-215).

           The second is Uncle George must leave the Midland City and goes to

Washington. He has to go because he bankrupts in the headlight investment. To

start it he borrows money from George six hundred dollar. Uncle George also

suggested to George to work in Eugene office. But George rejects it. After

accompanying his uncle to the train station, he takes a walk to go home. He

realizes that the city has changed. In this novel, the story is not tell how long

Isabel and George left the Midland City. When he returns from Paris the city looks

different. George sees strangers and no face that he remembers. House has become

a boarding house (TMA: 216-219).

           Thirdly, George has to move out because his house would be

demolished. For the first time he begins his work at Bronson’s office. But the

worse from all is George must sell everything from his house to the




                                    35
auction. Aunt Fanny only keeps valuable goods from Isabel room. From the sale

they get six hundred and twelve dollars. But it only left one hundred and sixty

because George lends the money to Uncle George two hundred and the rest to the

servants. Now, he has to live with Aunt Fanny in the apartment. Considering that

now he must live with his aunt, George makes a commitment that he has to work

with a big salary. So, he asks Frank Bronson to introduce him to the man who will

probably know jobs with big salary. Finally, George gets the job that is nitro-

glycerin expert (TMA: 220-232).

          Forth, all his life, George believes that his family belongs to the

aristocratic. He presumes that because his family always makes a party and only

an important family that is invited. But when he comes home after works, he finds

a book with the rubric is Biography of the 500 Most Prominent Citizens and

families in the history of the city. George suddenly looks up in the index where the

name of prominent citizen and family written in alphabetical order, but George

does not find his family’s name. Before the city changes, many of the

neighborhoods or friends of George hope that someday George will get his

comeuppance. George Amberson get his comeuppance. The Amberson name is no

longer important and lost from history. But the people who died are not there to

see it and people who are still alive probably have forgotten all about it and of

course about George Amberson Minafer (TMA: 235-236).




                                     36
d. Resolution.

               It happens when the story comes to ends. The resolution is started when

   George is hospitalized after his car accidents. Eugene forgives the faults of George

   when he visits him in the hospital. Then Georgie completes the transference of this

   love by taking the hands of Eugene, and providing both shelter and protection for

   Georgie, who will probably marry his daughter, Lucy.

                         “You must have thought my mother wanted you to come, “he
               said, “so that I could ask you – to forgive me. “
                        (TMA: 256)

               By examining this plot, the writer concludes that the events in The

   Magnificent Ambersons are arranged systematically. In this story, the main

   character experiences the change of his life. George Amberson Minafer

   experiences the maturity process from the spoiled son and immature into a man

   who has maturity.

e. Causality

      Causality is the relationship between cause and effect (Hornby, 1995:

   177). The novel tells about the Ambersons family. The Ambersons have

   always been wealthy but times are changing. Eugene Morgan comes back to

   town after twenty years he left the city. He’s a widower and successful

   automobiles maker. He also father of a beautiful young girl, Lucy. The only

   son of Isabel Amberson is handsome and spoiled, George Amberson

   Minafer. The young George falls in love with Lucy and wants to marry her.

   Meanwhile,




                                        37
Isabel husband dies and Eugene Morgan, who had never forgotten her, begins

to pursue her. George object if his mother socializes with Morgan anymore

and organizes a trip around the world for his mother and himself. The effects

are George must come back with his dying mothers who passed away before

having seen Eugene Morgan for the last time. It hurts Morgan because he

misses the change to love Isabel and for Lucy, she refuses George proposal

because George lows opinion about her father. The important thing is Lucy

wants George to choose a job before thinking of marriage. Because for Lucy,

man with a job is a steady man.

       When Eugene Morgan comes back to the city with his invention,

George is not interested in it. He thinks that automobiles are useless and it is

not a good idea if someone invests his money to the automobiles. But George

is wrong. Many people invests their money into automobiles. Instead of

investing his money into automobiles, George, Uncle George, And Aunt

Fanny invest their money into new electric headlight. The effects are the

Automobiles Company is growing faster that electric headlight. George must

accept that he gets bankrupt at this time. But it just the beginning. George

must move out from his house because Major Amberson does not have the

deed of the house and the other estate that he has.

    Third, when George still a young boy, he act as if the town is belonging

to him. He grows up with wealth, spoiled son and




                                     38
     immature. He acts arrogant, selfish person and thinks that everyone is lower

     than he is. It because he’s an Amberson. The effect is many people wait that

     some day George will get his comeuppance. It happens when George reads a

     book entitled A Civics History. That books contains several names, which

     are considered being important to the city history. George searches the

     Amberson name, but he does not find his family name written in that book.

     The Amberson name just ordinary name and only history for people who

     know them. From here George get his comeuppance.

f.    Plausibility

             Plausibility is a statement, an excuse, etc seeming to be right or

     reasonable that can be believed (Hornby, 1995: 884). The novel tells the

     story of the fall of the Magnificent Amberson from royal like status to

     common people. The main character is George Amberson Minafer, the only

     child of Isabel Amberson and Wilbur Minafer. As the only grandson, he is

     loved by his entire family, including his uncle, his Aunt and his grandfather.

     He becomes spoiled and egoistically young man. The Amberson have always

     been wealthy but times are changing and Eugene is the first person who

     brought technology into the city. He establishes Automobiles Company. In

     that moment George thinks that automobiles are useless things. But time can

     prove that George’s opinion is wrong. Eugene becomes richer than before. In

     the meantime, the Amberson are loosing their




                                         39
fortune. It is because George Amberson is involved in bad investment,

careless spending and the worse is the inability of the family to keep up with

progress rob them of their fortune. The writer concludes that the main

character makes a change in his life. It can be viewed from the economic

aspect and social aspect.

       From the economic aspect, the Amberson has always been wealthy.

Since Isabel is still a young girl, her family always makes a party. For

example, when Isabel has to make a choice which one the lucky man who

will probably marry her. In that party Isabel has decided to choose Wilbur

Minafer as her husband although Isabel loves Eugene Morgan. Eugene leaves

the city and comes back twenty years later. It is the appropriate time because

the Amberson arranges a ball. Eugene and Lucy are invited to the party. This

is the first time George Amberson meets Lucy Morgan. But the luxury that

the Amberson has ends up when this family starts loosing their fortune. In

the others words they get bankrupt. It is on contrary with Eugene Morgan. By

bringing technological advances, Eugene gains prestige and wealth like the

Amberson, who are unwilling to face the changes that happen in their

surrounding caused by modern innovation (automobiles)

       From social aspect, the Amberson family is always considered as an

aristocratic. But when George reads a book about the history of the city, he

does not find the name of his family, Amberson. It means he has to face that

the Amberson name just a common name. If someone’s name written down

in the book, it means that he or she is very important person. It might happen




                                    40
    because he/she supports the development that makes the city become greater.

    It is on contrary with the Amberson.

            The changes from social aspect and the economic aspect, in the

    Ambersons family are plausible. First, from social aspect. The Amberson

    family always regarded as an aristocratic. They belong to the upper class

    family. But times are change. They can not keep up with the progress and in

    the end they are loosing their fortune. Now they bankrupts so automatically

    they becomes common people. Second, from economic aspect. The

    Ambersons are a wealthy family. But the Amberson involved with bad

    investment and careless spending and the inability to keep up with the

    progress makes this family start loosing their fortune. So from a wealthy

    family becomes poor family.

4. Point of View.

    Points of view is the method of narration that determines the position, or angle of

   vision, from which the story is told (Kennedy, 1991: 41). Further, Barnet (1998:

   714) classifies narrator into two terms:

   a) Participants (first person). This is also known as the “I” narrator.

    1) Narrator as a major character.

    2) Narrator as a minor character.

  b) Non participants (third person).

    1) Omniscient (knows everything).

    2) Selective omniscient through a major character.

    3) Selective omniscient through a minor character.




                                           41
      4) Objective omniscient, which is not seeing into any character.

        In The Magnificent Ambersons, the writer finds that the novel uses the first person

narrator who acts as the minor character. It can be identified by the word “I” and the

narrator does not introduce himself as the character of the story.

                           …I guess they got every new kind of fancy rig in there that’s
                  been invented…(TMA: 14).

5. Style.

        Style is basically words, how an author says something as opposed to what he or

   she says (Lukens, 1995: 151). In The Magnificent Ambersons, Tarkington uses a

   standard grammatical structure in this novel. It can been seen in the sentence as

   follow: “this house was the pride of the town” (TMA: 7). A little black American

   language (e.g. “Mus’ been some white lady use Mist’ Jawge mighty bad! White lady

   say, ‘No, suh, I ain’ go’n out ridin’ ‘ith Mist’ Jawge no mo’!’ Mist’ Jawge drive in.

   (TMA: 146)). Tarkington also uses a combination between long and short sentences in

   the story. This paragraph shows how long sentences are used as a narrative model.

                       This house was the pride of the town. Faced with stone as far back
                  as the dining-room windows, it was a house of acres and turrets and
                  girdling stone porches: it had the first porte-cochere seen in that town.
                  There was a central “front hall” with a great black walnut stairway, and
                  open to a green glass skylight called the “dome”, three stories above the
                  ground floor. A ballroom occupied most of the third story; and at one of
                  it was a carved walnut gallery for the musicians. Citizens told strangers
                  that the cost of all this black walnut and wood-carving was sixty
                  thousand dollars. “Sixty thousand dollars for the woodwork alone! Yes,
                  sir, and hardwood floors all over the house! Turkish




                                              42
          rugs and no carpets at all, except a Brussels carpet in the front parlour --
          I hear they call it the ‘reception room.’ Hot and cold water upstairs and
          down, and stationary washstands in every last bedroom in the place!
          Their sideboard’s build right into the house and goes all the way across
          one end of the dining room. It isn’t walnut, it’s solid mahogany! Not
          veneering -- solid mahogany! Well, sir, I presume the President of the
          United States would be tickled to swap the white house for the new
          Amberson Mansion, if the Major’d give him the change – but by the
          Almighty Dollar, you bet your sweet life of the Major wouldn’t!”(TMA:
          14)
            Meanwhile the short sentences are used in the dialogue among the

major character, for example:

          “He’s an ole liar!”
         “Georgie, you mustn’t say ‘liar. ‘Isn’t this letter the truth?”
          “Well, said Georgie, “how old am I?”
         “Ten.”
                 (TMA: 21)
              The sentences used in The Magnificent Ambersons are matched with

the characters, for George Amberson Minafer and his family. Tarkington uses the

formal language in pleasant manner. For example:

                    George looked hurt. “I beg your pardon. Of course if the idea
         doesn’t appeal to you – “ And he rose to go. (TMA: 121)
  Beside those all, the writer also finds others Tarkington’ s techniques in the

story such as:

a. Figurative language.

                 The writer uses words in non-literal way, giving them meaning

beyond their usual, everyday definitions, and thereby adding an extra dimension to

meaning (Lukens, 1995: 155). They are:

        1) Personification, the giving of human traits to non human beings or

inanimate objects (Lukens, 1995: 155).




                                         43
                   Chickens scratched the metallic earth with an air of protest, and a
           masterless ragged colt looked up in sudden horror at the mild tinkle of the
           passing bells, …(TMA: 59).


         2) Simile, it is a comparison of one thing with another (Hornby, 1995:

1102).

                   He continued the ascent, barking and coughing among the
           gleaming young heads, white shoulders, jewel, and chiffon, like an old dog
           slowly swimming up the rapids of a sparkling rivers, …(TMA: 35).

                    Gleaming wanly through the whitish vapour that kept rising from
           the trotter’s body and flanks, they were like tiny fog-bells, and make the
           only sounds in a great winter silence (TMA: 59).

                   Bloom does actually come upon these mothers; it is a visible
           thing; and they run like girls, walk like athletes, laugh like sycophants
           (TMA: 73).

                   If Sydney and Amelia were behaving like pigs, things might not
           be so simple as at first they seemed to be (TMA: 96).

                   It seemed to George that he felt emanating from the outwardly
           imperturbable person of his mother’s old friend a hate that was like a hot
           wind (TMA: 237)


         3) Apostrophe, a figure of speech in which someone absent or dead or

something non human is addressed as if it were alive and present

(www.frostfriends.org/figurative.html#apostrophe).

                   “Mother, forgive me! God, forgive me!” (TMA: 255)



b. Irony.

      Irony is a word, phrase, situation, or condition that comes to mean the

opposite of what was intended (Bergman, 1987: 51). Tarkington’s uses irony as

follows:




                                         44
   1) Tarkington’s describe Georgie, believing he is an Amberson instead of a

      Minafer. Irony is described in Georgie’s belief in his identity as an Amberson

      when he is not an Amberson. When Georgie hears that some of the town

      people are gossiping about his mother and Eugene Morgan, he is angry and

      decides to confront the people. Georgie goes to Mrs. Johnson house and

      demands her the names of the others gossipers (TMA: 159). When Georgie’s

      mother finds out what has happened, she wants to know why Georgie is so

      interested about this topic. Georgie replies that there is “never an Amberson

      that would let the Amberson name go trailing in the dust like that”(TMA: 181).

      This habit of calling himself an Amberson is ironic, because Georgie is a

      Minafer and not an Amberson. This is a verbal irony in which it is the opposite

      what of Georgie says.

   2) Georgie further describes himself as part of the three generations of Ambersons

      that would put him in category of such a man. He means that his future

      occupation is to be a person without an occupation (TMA: 129). This is ironic,

      because Georgie is actually a part of the generation of Minafers instead of the

      three generations of Ambersons.

2) Georgie’s relationship with Lucy Morgan is ironic, because of the relationship of

   Georgie’s mother and Lucy’s father in the past. Before Georgie and Lucy were

   born, their parents have a relationship of their own. Isabel has decided to choose

   Wilbur instead of Eugene because of Eugene’s lack of stability at that time (TMA:

   17). Tarkington’s




                                        45
   switches the role of the younger generations by having Lucy. She rejects Georgie

   in her courtship, because of his lack of stability (TMA: 130). This reversal role is

   ironic, because it is the complete opposite of what is expected.



4) Georgie is desperate after Lucy rejects him. When Isabel sees Georgie, she asks

   what is wrong with him. Isabel is shown caressing him in a loving way. This is

   ironic, because Georgie’s father dies and Isabel is kept from marrying her true

   love by her son. It is because Georgie hates Eugene Morgan.



5) Another reason why Georgie hates him is because of Eugene’s profession, car

   making. This new invention comes in a time when the horse draws carriages are

   most likely by the society. With his hatred for Eugene, Georgie refuses to

   acknowledge the advent of this new machine. While most people are switching

   over to the automobiles, Georgie expresses the opinion that the cars are nuisance

   and refuses to ride in them (TMA: 138). However, it is” Fate’s ironic choice” that

   Georgie almost meets his death when a car hits him (TMA: 244)



6. Theme.

       Theme is the idea that holds the story together such as a comment about

   society, human nature, or the human condition (Lukens, 1995:93). Generally, the

   theme of The Magnificent Ambersons is related to love.




                                        46
Love is unpredictable, unbreakable and with love someone can forgives

everything.

           George Amberson’s love for Lucy is unpredictable. He falls in love with

   her from the first day they meet. Eugene Morgan’s love for Isabel is

   unbreakable eventhough he does not see she her almost twenty years and also

   Eugene’s love for her forgives the faults of Georgie when he visits him in the

   hospital. Although Georgie has acted hatefully toward Eugene, Eugene offers

   his hands to Georgie. This symbolizes Eugene’s forgiveness of Georgie past.

   While Eugene’s love for Isabel has brought forgiveness, Isabel love for George

   bring about a different affect, spoiling him.



B. Discussion.

          After analyzing the structural elements of the novel, the next step to

   complete this study is relating all of the elements to one another and putting

   back into the unity.

          The magnificent Amberson tells the family (Amberson) which live in the

   middle of change period, where the car (automobiles) is introduced in the daily

   life. It is also telling the social condition of the rise and fall of three generations

   of the Amberson. They are Major Amberson, his daughter, Isabel Amberson

   and his son, George Amberson. They arrogantly always keep in their mind as

   an aristocratic and considered that their status will be last forever. They do not

   care




                                       47
about the changes which have been developed in their society. The Magnificent

Amberson is a story which describe changes that happen in the society where

some of community from the society in that town support the changes. But for

the Ambersons, they refuse to acknowledge the new invention.

    In The Magnificent Ambersons, Booth Tarkington creates the main

characters, such as, George Amberson Minafer, Isabel Minafer, and Eugene

Morgan. He puts George in a setting, which permits him to interact with other.

In his novel, George has conflicts with other characters. The conflict itself

makes the changes of George view about family, love and friendship. In this

story, George Amberson Minafer does not like the changes brought by Eugene

Morgan. Instead of investing his money into automobile company, he puts his

money into another investment. That decision affects the life of the Amberson

family.

    In this novel, Tarkington only mentions the years, but the events show

that the time is between the late 1800s / early 1900. While the setting of place

is in midland town in the American society. In that time the vehicle that people

have only horse carriage. It is a suitable moment for Eugene Morgan to bring a

new change, which are automobiles.

           From the interaction between the characters, Tarkington creates

conflicts, which build the plot. It is started with the exposition, which is

divided into two parts, external conflicts and internal conflict. Then it is




                                   48
followed by the complication that provides some conflicts that makes the story

become complicated. Climax is the next part of plot, which provides the

moments of greatest tension that the outcome is to be decided. And the last part

of plot is closed by resolution as the cooling down of the climax. All the

conflicts and the resolution in this novel fit the theme. But in the end of the

story, there is a blur condition between George Amberson and Lucy Morgan.

Even though Eugene Morgan has forgiven George’s faults, the story does not

tell whether George and Lucy continue their relationship in the next level.

    The use of the first narrator as the minor character makes the story easy to

follow. It can be seen when Tarkington tries to describe the character’s look,

mind, and feeling. Through minor character’ narration, the readers can imagine

and see the events in the story vividly. The first narrator holds the important

role in describing situation from the start until the end of the story.

    Tarkington’s style also functions to sharpen the characterization. The

language is simple; it can be seen from the grammatical structure and the other

elements.

    From the discussion above, the writer makes conclusion. It shows the way

in which one life can ruin and upset so many others, both purpose or

unpurpose. But when the writer has finished reading the novel, the story has a

bad aura to it. It can be said that, because the writer feels part pitying the

Amberson, part disagree about the




                                   49
redeemed hero/villain, and part wishing, that it could have ended differently.




                                  50
                                              CHAPTER IV

                                    PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS



      In this chapter, the writer will conduct the individual psychological analysis of the

novel based on the underlying theory, which has been explained in chapter two. In

analyzing the novel, the writer applies Adler’s individual psychology theory.

   This theory has some basic concepts: (1) inferiority and compensation, (2) striving for

superiority, (3) fictional finalism, (4) style of life, (5) social interest, and (6) creative

power.



A. Individual Psychological Approach

1. Inferiority Feeling and Compensation.

         In this discussion, we are going to see a family who spoiled their only son. Isabel

    Amberson only has one child, George Amberson Minafer. Inferiority feeling may

    develop in children who are very spoiled, if they get too much attention and affection

    without doing anything useful. It becomes an inability to overcome inferiority

    feelings heightens and intensifies these feeling and leads to the development of an

    inferiority complex.

         George Amberson Minafer treats by his mother with too much kindness,

    attention, and comfort. So, he does not learn to do for himself and discover later that

    he is truly inferior and secondly he does not learn any other way to deal with other

    than insulting other people.




                                             51
        While Georgie is seen as a ‘devil’, Isabel only sees the angel in him. This is seen

    in an accident when Georgie uses abusive language toward Reverend Malloch Smith.

    Reverend Malloch Smith writes a letter to Georgie’s mother urging her to correct

    Georgie’s behavior, but Isabel refuses to punish Georgie and instead sends him off

    with a mere warning (TMA: 19-22).

       Knowing that his mother always caresses him in a loving way, Georgie never tries

    to grow up. Whenever he makes a mistake other people will help him solve it. Here

    the inferiority complex of Georgie begins. The result is George compensate it with

    being rude with other. He often uses words “riffraff” to mock other people.

                    “He’s just riffraff, “ said Georgie.
                    “You mustn’t say so,” his mother gently agreed. (TMA: 22)

                  …, he unconsciously put his emotion into a muttered word:
                    “Riffraff!”(TMA: 220)


        Other people with physical disabilities often strive to compensate for their

weakness or defects. Again, some compensation by becoming good at what they feel

inferior about. More compensation by becoming good at something else, but otherwise

retaining their sense of inferiority. And some just never develop any self esteem at all. In

here, George Amberson Minafer compensates his inferiority complex with a poor way.

He never develops any self esteem at all nor with other people.



2. Striving for Superiority.

       Striving for superiority’s the urge toward perfection or completion, the ultimate

    goal that motivates the individual. In here, striving for superiority




                                             52
 happens when George Amberson hears Aunt Amelia said that there is a less ‘talk’ if

 Isabel meets Eugene accompanied by his brother and Fanny. George assumes there is

 a talk between his mother and Eugene Morgan, so he asks to his uncle about it. Uncle

 George said that Fanny is always attracted by Eugene Morgan. So, she always keeps

 Isabel’s friendship with Eugene. Fanny hopes that if Isabel meets Eugene, she will be

 asked to accompany her. So, there is a change for Fanny to be closer to Eugene

 Morgan. With that explanation George is still doubtful whether there is a talk or not

 (TMA: 100-101).

    Secondly, it also happens when Aunt Fanny says everybody in town is gossiping

 that Isabel and Eugene will be married very soon. Hearing all about this, George asks

 his aunt the name of the gossipers. He assumes that the person who spreads the

 rumors is the intimate friend of his aunt who is Mrs. Johnson (TMA: 154-155). So,

 without thinking clearly George Amberson goes to Mrs. Johnson’s house to ask her

 explanation about the rumor.

                     …George’s shoulders suddenly heaved uncontrollably; but he
              went fiercely on: “You were discussing a scandal that involved my
              mother’s name. (TMA: 158)


    Mrs. Johnson utters his answer with a diplomatic answer. She and Fanny

have discussed a topic of comment about town. If she talks about Isabel, she will

be speaking in the most charitable spirit and without sharing with other people

(TMA: 159). Georgie are not satisfied with the answer so he goes to the Uncle

George’s house and asks the opinion about it. His uncle says that there is nothing

to be done about it (TMA: 160). Hearing the answer of his uncle, George

Amberson feels that there is



                                        53
   something happens between his mother and Eugene Morgan. So, he asks Eugene

   Morgan not to see his mother again (TMA: 168). To make his plan successfully

   he also makes a planning to go abroad with his mother to stop the rumor. But he

   does not realize that his mother is in the bad condition.

                   “I don’t know when I’m coming back. Mother and I are starting
                tomorrow night for a trip around the world (TMA: 189).


   In here, superior means George only wants to preserve his mother’s good name. He

won’t let the Amberson’s name go trailing in the dust like that. But it is difficult to stop

gossiping so he is brought his mother abroad.



3. Fictional Finalism.

   Fictional finalism applies clearer direction to decisions that are to be making

concerning one self. The fictional final goal functions as the organizing principle in the

personality. Finalism deals with individual goal of life. In here, the life goal of George is

merely to protect his mother’s good name. When Eugene wants to see Isabel, George

says that Eugene is not wanted in his house (TMA: 168). It also happens when Eugene

wants to see Isabel for the last time, George still does not allow him to see her until the

end of her day (TMA: 203). Although he falls in love with Lucy, Eugene Morgan’s

daughter, he does not have a willing to proceed his relationship.

                      “I have already given up all idea of Lucy,” he said. “Naturally, I
                  couldn’t have treated her father as I deliberately did treat him…(TMA:
                  179)




                                             54
   It is clear that George’s goal of life is to care for his mother good name, until the ends

of her life. He does not also have a will to continue his relationship toward Lucy. He

chooses those things to show everybody that the Amberson’s name is the proudest name

in the city. He will do anything to preserve his family’s name whatever it takes.



4. Style of Life.

       Style of life is the movement towards the goal. Some individuals react to their

    inferiority by developing a faulty style of living, while others distinguish themselves

    by superior achievements. The pampered child may find that he can rule his parents

    by making demands conspicuously felt (Dicaprio, 1974: 262).

       In the frame of George’s style of life, it can be viewed for his effort to overcome

    his inferiority’s and establish a sense of superiority by asking his mother not see

    Eugene Morgan anymore.

                        “How could you?” George cried. “Mother, it seems to me that if he
                    ever set foot in this house again – oh! I can’t speak of it! Could you see
                    him, knowing what talk it makes every time he turns into this
                    street,…(TMA: 182).


     George Amberson Minafer’s style of life is clear that it is to overcome his feeling of

inferiority complex of frightening losing his mother love and achieve some measure of

inner superiority in conduct his life by expanding his influence toward his mother. The

consequences of his action also influence the relationship to Lucy. He thinks that it’s the

perfect worth to pay.




                                                55
5. Social Interest.

       Social interest is caring for family, for community, for society, for humanity, even

    for all life. There is a time for George to act like a man. It happens when the city has

    changed and also the Ambersons as well. When Eugene Morgan bring new invention

    to the city, it develops very fast. He makes some changes in that city. For example:

    he establishes new factory districts, good credit at the bank, and housewives

    purgatory comes to the city. But for the Ambersons, it’s a bad time. They sell their

    house, or rent them to apartment keeper, and the tenants of the multitude of small

    houses move into apartment houses (TMA: 196). Realizing this, George Amberson

    has to look for a job.

       Meanwhile Uncle George and Aunt Fanny also have financial problem. They

    spend their money into electric headlight investment and do not work well. Uncle

    George has to borrow George money to go to Washington to start his new life and

    probably he never goes back to the Midland City (TMA: 216).

       George Amberson earns big money from his work, which is nitro-glycerin expert

    (TMA: 241). Although now, he has money, it does not mean that he does not care

    about his aunt. Aunt Fanny thinks that George never cares about her because George

    always teases her in everything situation. But she is wrong, Isabel and George always

    make her feel comfortable and want her to live with them in their house. This

    affection can be seen clearly through their action. When Wilbur Minafer, aunt Fanny

    brother passes away George




                                            56
       Amberson thinks that’s a good idea if his aunt still stays with him and his mother.

                               I’m afraid poor Aunt Fanny might think now father’s gone
                  we won’t want her to live with us any longer and because I always teased
                  her so much she might think I’d be for turning her out., … (TMA: 108).

       Secondly, when George has to sell their house, he asks Aunt Fanny to choose an

    apartment to live in. He gives a big attention to his aunt. He realizes that Aunt Fanny

    is the last of the family and the only one who can really understand him. He does not

    want Aunt Fanny too feel lonely and not to be wanted anymore.

                           …, let’s see where we stand,” he said feebly. “Let’s see if we
                  can afford this place you’ve selected.” (TMA: 228).


   From the explanation above, it can be seen that George Amberson has high social

interest as he cares and concerns for the others.



6. Creative Power.

   Creative power of George Amberson Minafer occurs when he tries to overcome his

inferiority feeling by establishing his arrogant toward other. He comes from a wealthy

family and spoiling son, so he can do anything whatever he likes without takes

responsibility. His creative power drives him to show to everybody that he can be

regarded because of his family name, Amberson. He knows how to conduct his style of

life by behaving like a king.

                       They were really his henchmen: Georgie was a lord among boys. In
                  fact, he was a personage among certain sorts of grown people,… (TMA:
                  23).




                                              57
                     Did I tell you the nickname they gave me – 'King’? That was what
                  they called me at that school, ‘king Minafer.” (TMA: 29)



        In the ends he fails to learn how to be a good son and citizen. If he learns

   something, he will learn it with the hard way. It happens when the Amberson loses his

   fortune and George must work for the first time. He gets an accident after he takes a

   walk on Sunday morning (TMA: 243). When he is in hospital, Eugene comes and

   George feels that it’s the right moment for him to say sorry to him.

                           “You must have thought my mother wanted you to come, “he
                  said, “so that I could ask you – to forgive me. “(TMA: 256)




B. Discussion.

   Based on the study above, it can be made a general point that George Amberson

Minafer’s inferiority feeling influences changing of his personality development. George

is lofty and arrogant, expecting much out of life just by virtual of being an Amberson.

The inferiority feeling of George becomes inferiority complex because of love

surrounding him. Everybody love him too well, especially his mother. As the only son of

Isabel Amberson, he is an educated young man. It’s because his family sends him to a

private school in the town.

   George’s inferiority complex occurs just by wondering what happens to him if his

mother does not love him anymore and the important thing is he carries the name of

Amberson. He then, tries to compensate his inferiority complex by bad attitude to others.

By doing this action, he believes that his mother and the family will love him more,

because they cannot do anything



                                              58
about it. The family name also influences the way of his thinking. He feels inferior about

it and covers up his sense of inferiority by focusing on his status, wealth, and power.

   When Eugene comes to town after twenty years break, he pursues Isabel Amberson

after her husband dies. George knows from Aunt Fanny that people in town are gossiping

his mother is being engaged to Eugene Morgan. George tries to stop the rumor by doing

the action that no one can stop him. He came to the Mrs. Johnson house, which he

considers spread the rumor. He demands the other name who also doing the same. He

knows that he has done right with his decision.

   George does not care what his family may think of his action; his final goal is to keep

his mother’s good name. To convince the society, he organizes a trip around the world for

his mother and himself.

   After he comes home from his trip with the dying mother, he does not make any

changes in his behavior. It can be seen from his style of life. Even though his mother is

dying and wants to see Eugene Morgan for the last time, George does not do what his

mother asks. He does such terrible thing to overcome his inferiority of losing his mother

affection.

   Even though George has a several bad attitude, it does not mean that he does not have

a good heart. It can be viewed from his behavior toward Aunt Fanny. Aunt Fanny has no

one to love her except George. After her father dies, George asks Aunt Fanny to stay with

him and his mother. It also happens when the Amberson family loses their fortune. Still,

George has a willing to




                                             59
take care of her. Although it is not easy for George, he chooses to take a risky job to

make a big salary. One day he gets a car accident when he takes a walk on Sunday

morning. When he is hospitalized, he meets Lucy and her father. In that occasion he feels

that he makes a terrible thing and he wants Eugene to forgive him.




                                           60
                                         CHAPTER V

                          CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION



A. CONCLUSION.

     Based on the analysis in the previous chapter and the single problem formulation

  of the research namely How George Ambersons Minafer, the major character copes

  with his problem, the writer attempts to draw two conclusions:

     First, George Amberson Minafer copes his problem through changing his

  behavior, from negative behavior to positive one. He became more optimistic,

  independent and caring for his family. When George Amberson still a young man, he

  spoiled and loved by his entire family. He has been trained to take rather than to give

  and has not learned how to face and overcome problems by himself. As a result, he

  has become very dependent on others. He demands attention from others and

  expressed through command. From those facts, the inferiority feeling of George

  Amberson Minafer occur just by wondering what happen to him if his family does

  not love him, especially his mother. So, he covers up his sense of inferiority by

  focussing on his status, wealth, and power. After his father passed away, he heard

  gossip that his mother engage to Eugene Morgan. George feels inferior about it. He

  does not like if the Amberson name become the talk of the town. He thinks that the

  Ambersons name is the proudest name in the city. So to stop the gossip, he ask his

  mother to go abroad with him. The ultimate goal and his final goal are to protect his

  mother good name. When he comes back with his dying mother, still the style of life

  of George does not make any changes. He does not allow his mother to see Eugene



                                          61
  Morgan. But the economical situation has changed. The Ambersons are losing their

  edge in town. With the downfall of his family, he became an optimistic, independent

  and caring his family. Optimistic means expecting the best and confident. Although

  his financial is no longer support by his family, he is confident that he gets a better

  new life. Independent and caring his family means George looking for a job for the

  first time although he took a risky job. The social interest occurs when his uncle left

  him, his mother and grandfather passed away, George only have his Aunt. He lived

  with her in the apartment and takes the responsibility to care of her.



     Second, George Amberson Minafer copes his problem through his action. He has

  the courage to admit his mistake. He asks forgiveness to the man that he hurt most.

  When Wilbur dies, Eugene and Isabel begin planning a marriage. George doesn’t

  accept it, so he organizes a trip around the world. A few months later, he comes back

  with his dying mother who passes away before having seen again Eugene. In the

  ending, George lying in the hospital after a car hit him. Eugene comes to the hospital

  and the creative powers of George Amberson arise. It is the right moment for him to

  asking forgiveness. He realizes that he hurt other peoples both his mother and

  Eugene Morgan.



B. SUGGESTION.

     In The Magnificent Ambersons, there are many aspects of life, which need to be

  analyzed in more detail. The writer accordingly wishes that, there are others

  researcher who analyzes this novel by using different approach, such as behaviorist




                                          62
approach or structural analysis. Behaviorist approach can be used because it contains

about the family influences toward the developmental of the psychological of the

children. Structural analysis; it can be used to compare between the novel and the

movie version, either similarities or the differences.

The writer realizes that, this study is far from being perfect because of her limited

knowledge. Finally, the writer hopes that that this study can be useful to the readers

and other researcher in widening the knowledge of literary study.




                                         63
                                 Bibliography

Barnet, Sylvan and Berman Morton. 1988. Literature for Composition. Essay,
           Fiction, Poetry and Drama. Scott, Foreman/Little Brown College
           Division.

Berman, David and Daniel Mark Epstein. 1987. The Heath Guide to Literature.
         Toronto: D.C. Heath and Company Lexington.

Feist, Jess. 1985. Theories of Personality. Japan: Holt, Rinehart and Winston Holt-
              Saunders.

Dicaprio, Nicholas. 1974. Personality Theories. Guides to living. New York: W.B
           Sounders Company.

Hall, Calvin S and Lindzey Gardner. 1970. Theories of Personality Eds. 2. New
           York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Hall, Calvin S and Lindzey Garner. 1981. Theories of Personality Eds. 3. New
           York: John Wiley and sons, Inc.

Hall, Calvin S and Lindzey Garner. 1985. Introduction Theories of Personality.
           California: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Hjelle, Larry A and Daniel J Zieglar. 1981. Personality Theories. Basic
           assumptions, research, and application. McGraw-Hill International
           Edition.

Hornby, AS. 1995. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English.
         Oxford University Press.

Kennedy, X J. 1991. Literature. An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry and Drama.
          Harper Collins Publisher.

Lukens, Rebecca J. 1995. Critical Handbook of Children’s Literature. Harper
          Collins Publisher.

Schultz, Duane. 1990. Theories of Personality. California: Brook/Cole Publishing
           Company Pacific Groove.

Tarkington, Booth. 1918. The Magnificent Amberson. Double day & Co., Inc.




                                    64
              Virtual References

www. Angelfire.com/co/Psct/booth.html. March 21, 2002. 10:20

Www. Reviews/magnificent ambersons.html. May 12, 2002. 09:00

www.nottingham ac.uk/journal/bookrev/m.a.html. May 12, 2002. 09:00

Www. Frosfriends.org/figurative.html#apostrophe. July 17, 2002. 11:23




                                   65
APPENDIX




    66
                      UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH SURAKARTA
                      FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN
                  JL.A.Yani Tromol Pos 1 – Pabelan, Kartasura Telp. (0271) 717417 Fax: 715548
                                       Surakarta 57102



                        PENGAJUAN JUDUL SKRIPSI

Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini saya:

Nama                          : PARTINI
NIM / NIRM                    : A. 320.990.245
JUR / Progdi                  : Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Inggris

Mengajukan judul skripsi sebagai berikut:

The Coping Behavior in Booth Tarkington’s The Magnificent Ambersons: An Individual
 Psychological Approach



                                                                            S a y a,


                                                                          PARTINI

Disetujui oleh Pimpinan Jurusan dan ditentukan Pembimbing I maupun II adalah sebagai
berikut:

Pembimbing I : Drs. M. Thoyibi, M. S                              (                    )
Pembimbing II: Dra. Mauly Halwat H                                (                    )

                                                                      Pimpinan Jurusan


                                                                Dra. Endang Fauziati, M.hum


Telah didaftarkan :
Di jurusan: No.______Tgl_________
Di Biro SkripsiNo.__________Tgl_____




                                              67
                  UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH SURAKARTA
                    FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN
                JL.A.Yani Tromol Pos 1 – Pabelan, Kartasura Telp. (0271) 717417 Fax: 715548
                                     Surakarta 57102




                          PERSETUJUAN JUDUL SKRIPSI

Dengan ini kami,
Nama                 : Drs. M. Thoyibi, M.S
Jab/Pangkat/Gol      : IIIc / Lektor Muda
Sebagai dosen FKIP – UMS


Menyatakan bersedia menjadi pembimbing penyusunan Skripsi Mahasiswa:
Nama                 : PARTINI
NIM                 : A.320 990 245
NIRM                : 99.6.106.13031.5.0245
Jur/Progdi          : Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Inggris
Judul Skripsi: (di isi setelah disetujui)
THE COPING BEHAVIOR IN BOOTH TARKINGTON’S THE MAGNIFICENTS

AMBERSONS: AN INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH



Demikian harap menjadi maklum

                                                                  Surakarta, 15 Maret 2003




Pembimbing 1: Drs. M. Thoyibi, M.S                                        (                   )

Pembimbing 11: Dra. Mauly Halwat                                          (                   )




                                            68
                   UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH SURAKARTA
                     FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN
                 JL.A.Yani Tromol Pos 1 – Pabelan, Kartasura Telp. (0271) 717417 Fax: 715548
                                      Surakarta 57102



                      BERITA ACARA BIMBINGAN SKRIPSI
Pada hari ini : Kamis Tanggal 15 Maret 2003 Berdasarkan surat keputusan Dekan
Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta. Perihal
menunjukkan Dosen Pembimbing Utama dan Pembimbing Pembantu.
                      1. Nama              :Drs. M. Thoyibi, M.s
                          Pangkat/Gol      :Lektor/Iva
                          Jabatan          :Pembimbing Utama
                       2. Nama             :Mauly HalwatH, S.Pd., M.Hum
                          Pangkat/Gol      :Ass.Ahli/IIIa
                          Jabatan          :Pembimbing Pembantu
Dengan ini menyatakan bahwa mahasiswa tersebut dibawah ini sedang dalam proses
pembimbingan skripsi.
                          Nama             :PARTINI
                          NIM/NIRM         :A320 990 245
                          Jur/Progdi       :Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris
                          Judul             : THE COPING BEHAVIOR IN BOOTH
                           TARKINGTON’S THE MAGNIFICENTS AMBERSONS:
                           AN INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH
NO TAHAPAN                                  TANGGAL              KETERANGAN
1      Penunjukkan Dosen Pembimbing         15 Maret2003         Lancar
2      Proposal                             7 April 2003         Lancar
3      Rencana Penelitian                   8 Mei 2003           Lancar
4      Kerangka Penelitian                  14 Juni2003          Lancar
5      Pengumpulan Data                     18 Mei 2004          Lancar
6      Analisa Data                         21 Juni 2004         Lancar
7      Penyusun/Penulisan skripsi           26 September 2006    Lancar
Demikian Berita Acara Bimbingan Skripsi ini dibuat untuk diketahui dan dipergunakan
seperlunya oleh pihak yang berkepentingan.
                                                             Surakarta,5 Oktober 2006

Pembimbing Pembantu                                       Pembimbing Utama


Mauly Halwat H,S.Pd.,M.Hum                                 Drs. M.Thoyibi,M.S
NIK.727                                                    NIK.410
                                   Mengetahui
                                   a.n. Dekan,
                        Ketua Jurusan FKIP Bahasa Inggris
                          Koesoema Ratih,S.Ps.,M.Hum
                                    NIK.765


                                             69
                     UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH SURAKARTA
                     FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN
                 JL.A.Yani Tromol Pos 1 – Pabelan, Kartasura Telp. (0271) 717417 Fax: 715548
                                      Surakarta 57102



                         BERITA ACARA UJIAN SKRIPSI
Pada hari ini : Rabu Tanggal 11 oktober Jam: 12.30 WIB Berdasarkan surat keputusan
Dekan Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta
No.1897/FKIP/A3-II/X/2006 Tanggal 4oktober 2006 perihal susunan Team Penguji
Skripsi Sarjana S.1.
                      A. ketua      :Nama          :Drs. M. Thoyibi, M.s
                                     Pangkat/Gol :Lektor/Iva
                                    Jabatan        :Pembimbing Utama
                      B. Sekretaris :Nama          :Mauly HalwatH, S.Pd., M.Hum
                                    Pangkat/Gol :Ass.Ahli/IIIa
                                    Jabatan        :Pembimbing Pembantu
Dengan ini menyatakan bahwa mahasiswa tersebut dibawah ini telah menempuh ujian
skripsi:
                         Nama               :PARTINI
                         NIM/NIRM          :A320 990 245
                         Jur/Progdi         :Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris
                         Judul               : THE COPING BEHAVIOR IN BOOTH
                          TARKINGTON’S THE MAGNIFICENTS AMBERSONS:
                          AN INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH
LULUS dengan nilai: 3,6 / A (Tiga koma enam )
Demikian Berita Acara Ujian Skripsi ini dibuat untuk diketahui dan dipergunakan
seperlunya oleh pihak yang berkepentingan.

      Anggota                                 Sekretaris                       Ketua



Dra. Dwi Haryanti,M.hum         Mauly HalwatH,S.Pd.,M.Hum                Drs.M.Thoyibi,M.S
   NIK. 477                            NIK.727                                NIK 410

                                       Mengetahui


             Dekan                                            Ketua Jurusan


    Drs. H. Sofyan anif, M.Si                         Koesoema Ratih, S.Pd.,M.hum
         NIK.547                                            NIK.765



                                             70
                                       Synopsis

       The novel tells of the fall from position of a turn of century (19th to 20)

landowning Midwestern family as a bad investment, careless spending, and an inability to

keep up with progress rob them of their fortune. The Ambersons, with their grand

mansion and courtly manners, represent the landed gentry. Contrasted against them are

Eugene Morgan and his daughter, Lucy, who are the “new money. By embracing

technological advances, they gain prestige and wealth at the expense of families like the

Ambersons, who are unwilling to face the upheaval being caused by modern innovations

(automobile)

       The main character is George Amberson Minafer, the only child of the loveless

but respectful union between Isabel Amberson and Wilbur Minafer. As the only

Amberson heir, George is loved by his entire family, including his uncle (George

Amberson), his Aunt (Fanny Minafer), and his grandfather (Major Amberson). He

becomes spoiled and spiteful a nasty, egotistical young man who will do anything and

hurt anyone to get his way. He continuously is cruel and mercenary to his Aunt Fanny,

teasing her about a spinster. One winter evening, during a grand party, two new comers

arrive at the Ambersons Mansion. They are Eugene and Lucy Morgan, a widowed

inventor and his 18-year-old daughter. Eugene is Isabel’s true love, and if not for a

youthful error on his part, they would have been married two decades age. The young

George Amberson falls in love with Lucy who would like him to choose a job before

thinking of marriage.




                                           71
       When Wilbur dies, Eugene and Isabel begin planning a possible marriage. George

does not accept that his mother socializes with Morgan anymore, so he organizes a trip

around the world for his mother and himself, at the cost of his mother’s health,. In the

process, he loses Lucy. It because he treats Lucy as if she’s a possession. He is rude and

unfeeling toward Eugene and he manipulates his mother, who always sees him as an

“angel”, a point, which is brought up by Fanny. A few months later, George must come

back with his dying mother who passes away before having seen again Morgan.

       In the meantime, the Ambersons are loosing their edge in town. The economical

situation has changed and the Ambersons are ruined while Eugene Morgan has become

even richer. Amberson once ruled the distinct with a fine hand, making millions off the

land and property district, but the town’s boundaries are shifting and land in the old part

of town is becoming less desirable. With George determination never to enter a

profession, the future of the Amberso-Minafer family seems strangely uncertain. George

must work for the first time in his life. In the ending, George almost meets his death when

a car hits him. When George Amberson is lying in the hospital after his car accident,

Eugene Morgan offer his hand and forgave him for keeping he and Isabel apart. The

reversal of fortune in Tarkington’s novel, finally put the Morgan as the magnificent to

replace the Ambersons. Eugene also sees it as fulfillment of his love to Isabel, his only

true love, in the union of Lucy and George.




                                              72

				
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