STRUGGLE FOR LIFE IN CLIFF HOLLINGSWORTH’S AND AKIVA GOLDSMAN’S CINDERELLA MAN DIRECTED BY RON HOWARD: A HUMANISTIC APPROACH RESEARCH PAPER Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Getting Bachelor Degree of Education in English Department by IRFANA MAFTUKHAH A. 320.020.014 SCHOOL OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF SURAKARTA 2006 APPROVAL STRUGGLE FOR LIFE CLIFF HOLLINGSWORTH’S AND AKIVA GOLDSMAN’S CINDERELLA MAN DIRECTED BY RON HOWARD: A HUMANISTIC APPROACH Research Paper Written by Irfana Maftukhah A.320.020.014 Approved by First Consultant Second Consultant Drs. M. Thoyibi, M. S. Drs. Agus Wijayanto, M. A. ii ACCEPTANCE Accepted by the Board of Examiners School of Teacher Training and Education Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta Team of Examiners 1. Drs. M. Thoyibi, M. S. (……………………..) (Chair Person) 2. Drs. Agus Wijayanto, M. A. (.…………………….) (Member I) 3. Dra. Dwi Hariyanti, M.Hum. (……………………..) (Member II) The Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty Drs. H. Sofyan Anif, M. Si NIK: 547 iii MOTTO Sesungguhnya sesudah kesulitan itu ada kemudahan, maka apabila kamu telah selesai dari urusan kerjakanlah dengan sungguh-sungguh urusan yang lain (QS. Alam Nasyrah: 6-7) Dengan ilmu hidup menjadi mudah, dengan seni hidup menjadi indah, dan dengan agama kehidupan menjadi terarah dan bermakna (H.A. Mukti Ali) Hope for the best and prepare for the worst (The Writer) iv DEDICATION This research paper is wholeheartedly dedicated to: The Greatest Ones in the world Alloh SWT and his Prophet Muhammad SAW My everything pa’e-bu’e, for everything My beloved brothers, M’Zacky and D’Luthfi All of my relatives and friends My husband to be v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Assalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb. Alhamdulillahirobbil’alamiin. Praise and gratitude to Alloh SWT, The Lord of Universe, The Merciful and Compassionate, thanks for continuing to guide her life, His blessing and guidance supports her finishing this paper. Praise and invocation are presented to Prophet Muhammad SAW, who has led people to the right way. The writer would like to express her sincere gratitude for all of people who give contribution to make this research paper more completely. Without their contribution the writer is likely impossible to finish it. The writer is indebted all of them. Therefore, in this opportunity she would like to express her special and deepest gratitude and appreciation to: 1. Drs. H. Sofyan Anif, M. Si. as the Dean of the School of Teacher Training and Education. 2. Mrs. Koesoemo Ratih, S. Pd., M. Hum. as the Chief of English Departement in Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta. 3. Dra. Siti Khuzaimah as the writer Academic Consultant of Teacher Training and Education. 4. Drs. M. Thoyibi, M. S. as the First Consultant, for his great helpful guidance and attention from the very beginning up to the completion of the research paper. 5. Drs. Agus Wijayanto, M. Hum. as the Second Consultant, for his great helpful guidance of this thesis. vi 6. All of Lectures in Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta. 7. Librarian in Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta. 8. Her beloved greatest Parents in the world for their prayer, and all they have done to her, for everything and she loves them so much, ever after. 9. Her beloved elder brother Mas Zacky and young brother De’Luthfi, for having fun with her and for being such an outstanding brothers. 10. Her Grandfather and her Grandmothers for giving wise words. 11. Mb. Ida for being her sister that always giving attention and advice to the writer. 12. Her aunts, uncles, cousins, and nieces in Tayu and Solo. 13. Her lovely friends: Ana, Ticka_Chu, and Riza, for everything that makes the writer proud to be their friend. 14. Her close friends: Arik, Ci2k, Ayu, Dian, Mey_Mey, and also KJ boarding house occupant: Sri, Yani, Wahyok, Lina, Puji, Deni, Ayu, Ika, Tia, Uti, for being meaningful. 15. All of the member of English Departement 2002 especially her best friends in class A: Ind@h Pruntil, Ern@ Cemplux, Weet@, Rozzie, Sofri, @rik, @yu, Uti, Loris, Sefti, Eni, @sih, M@reth@, Eko, H@n@fi, etc. 16. MLP especially Latimojong Team, for the great and unforgetable experiences. 17. All of her close friends in Al-Ma’ruf Kudus 2002: Yanthie, Thee-thiex, Thie2x, Ariek, Fajrul (Rip), Bayu, Tangkas, Patkay, Mbah Ulin, Arina, for the nice friendship, togetherness, and happiness. vii 18. All of songs: “stranger by the day”, “the wind of change”, “under the same sun”, I’tirofe Uje, Opick “bila waktu tlah berakhir”, Simple Plan “Untitled”, “Shut Up” etc for accompanying the writer in the night. 19. All of people that cannot be mentioned one by one, for being part of the writer life. Wassalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb. Surakarta, September 2006 The Writer I.M viii TABLE OF CONTENT Page PAGE OF TITLE ................................................................................................ i APPROVAL ....................................................................................................... ii ACCEPTANCE ................................................................................................. iii MOTTO ............................................................................................................. iv DEDICATION ................................................................................................... v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................................................. vi TABLE OF CONTENT ..................................................................................... ix SUMMARY ....................................................................................................... xi CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION .................................................................. 1 A. Background of Study ....................................................... 4 B. Literary Review ............................................................... 4 C. Limitation of the Study .................................................... 4 D. Problem Statement ........................................................... 4 E. Objective of the Study ..................................................... 4 F. Benefit of the Study ......................................................... 5 G. Research Method ............................................................. 5 H. Paper Organization .......................................................... 6 CHAPTER II UNDERLYING THEORY ..................................................... 7 A. Notion of Humanistic Psychology ................................... 7 B. Theory of Humanistic Psychology; The Hierarchy of Needs ............................................................................... 8 1. Physiological Needs ................................................. 9 2. Safety and Security Needs ........................................ 9 3. Belongingness and Love Needs ................................ 10 ix 4. Self-esteem Needs .................................................... 11 5. Self-actualization Needs ........................................... 11 C. Structural Elements of the Movie .................................... 16 1. Narrative Elements ................................................... 17 2. Technical Elements ................................................... 21 D. Theoretical Application .................................................... 24 CHAPTER III STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE MOVIE..................... 25 A. Structural Elements of the Movie .................................... 25 1. Narrative Elements ................................................... 26 2. Technical Elements ................................................... 39 B. Discussion......................................................................... 47 CHAPTER IV HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS ................ 51 A. The Needs of James J. Braddock ..................................... 51 1. Physiological Needs ................................................. 51 2. Security or Safety Needs .......................................... 53 3. Belongingness and Love Needs ................................ 55 4. Self-esteem Needs .................................................... 57 5. Self-actualization Needs .......................................... 58 B. James J. Braddock as A Self-actualized Person .............. 60 C. Discussion......................................................................... 64 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION .................................. 68 A. Conlusion ......................................................................... 68 B. Suggestion ........................................................................ 69 BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX x SUMMARY IRFANA MAFTUKHAH. A.320.020.014. STRUGGLE FOR LIFE IN CLIFF HOLLINGSWORTH’S AND AKIVA GOLDSMAN’S CINDERELLA MAN DIRECTED BY RON HOWARD: A HUMANISTIC APPROACH. RESEARCH PAPER. MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF SURAKARTA. This study describes the struggle of James J. Braddock viewed from humanistic perspective, and analyzes the film Cinderella Man based on its structural elements. The research is conducted by using qualitative method. In this method, the researcher uses two data sources, namely primary and secondary data source. The primary data is film Cinderella Man directed by Ron Howard. The secondary data source are the books about psychology and the other sources, which are related to the analysis. The methode of collecting data is observation and library review. Based on the analysis, the study reveals there are some motives underlying the struggle of James J. Braddock. The motives are hungry, getting safety in the job, family, respected by others, and the last motive is to actualize the potential as professional boxer. First Consultan Second Consultan Drs. M. Thoyibi, M. S. Drs. Agus Wijayanto, M. A. NIK. 410 NIK. 100 947 The Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty Drs. H. Sofyan Anif, M.Si. NIK. 547 xi CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of Study In real life, a struggle can be seen in a society. Struggle means some efforts to reach something. The struggle varies, such as struggle for justice, struggle to get a job, struggle to get a higher position on their profession, struggle for freedom, struggle for love, struggle to get achievement, and also struggle for life. Many ways are used to make necessities come true. They can do everything to struggle something they need. Although struggle to get or reach something is hard, at least the better condition is able to reach. Struggle for life may occur in the household, such as when a father as the chief of the family can’t avoid his inability to provide for his wife and his kids. He is ceaselessly motivated to work hard and struggle in order his family current needs such as psychological, physical, and spiritual discomforts can be fulfilled. That is for sure, that there are some motivations why he has to struggle. As a chief of the family, he has responsibility to provide enough food for his family. It is the first motivation. The other motivation is as a normal person; he wants to love somebody else. For him, his family is the most important thing in the world. So he will do everything for his family, although his struggle endangers himself. Motivation is one of the important ideas in humanistic psychology. Motivation means the encouragement to do something. In humanistic psychology, people’s behavior determined by motives to fulfill their needs. Basically, our actions are motivated by deficiency. That is lack of something. 1 2 May be lack food and look for it, lack safety and look for it, or lack company and look for it. One of the most well known humanistic psychologists is Abraham Maslow. His theory is called Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow formulated a theory of human motivation in which the human’s being many varying needs are seen as arising in a hierarchical fashion. That is, certain basic needs, such as hunger and thirst, must be satisfied before other needs. Maslow (in Hjelle, 1992:448) proposed that all human needs are innate and that they are systematically arranged in an ascending hierarchy of priority or prepotency. The needs are, in order of their priority: (1) physiological needs; (2) safety and security needs; (3) belongingness and love needs; (4) self-esteem needs; and (5) self-actualization needs, or the needs for personal fulfillment. To fulfill those needs human being must be motivated to work hard and struggle in order they can get everything what they need. These realities often occur and can be found around us. We can’t imagine how people struggle when their nation entered the darkest years of the great depression or how people struggle to stay alive at the time of World War. It is more difficult to reach the hierarchy of needs than present time. It may be easy for us to know the struggle at the time in a story or film. Film has the same position, as the major genres in textual studies, like poetry and novel. It is true that film becomes part of daily life, which always attracts the attention million people in this world. Following the popularity of film in recent years, some directors create their own style in directing a film. They try to serve a good film with different style 3 from other. One of them is Ron Howard. He started his debut 40 years ago, and he has done some films. Howard’s latest film is Cinderella Man. This film is based on actual life experience of ex-prizefighter named James J. Braddock. Cinderella Man was released in June 2005 as theatrical and as DVD/ Video in December 2005. The genre of this film is drama with screenplay written by Cliff Hollingsworth and Akiva Goldsman. Howard’s film is fact-based story of ex-prizefighter named James J. Braddock. At the time, Braddock’s career appeared to be finished, he was unable to pay the bills, the only thing that really mattered to him that his family was in danger, and he was even forced to go on public relief. But deep inside, Jim Braddock never relinquished his determination. Driven by love, honor, and incredible dose of grief, he tries to make an impossible dream come true. (http://www.jamesjbraddock). Based on the explanation above, the writer is interested to observe what motives underlying the struggle of James J. Braddock when his nation entered the darkest years of the Great Depression. The writer proposed humanistic psychology to study about Braddock’s struggle to reach the hierarchy needs and entitled this paper: STRUGGLE FOR LIFE IN CLIFF HOLLINGSWORTH’S AND AKIVA GOLDSMAN’S CINDERELLA MAN DIRECTED BY RON HOWARD: A HUMANISTIC APPROACH. 4 B. Literary Review Cinderella Man is an interesting film, and as far as the writer knows that there is no such kind of research analyzing this film whether in Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta and Surakarta region. So it is the first research on this film. In this occasion, the researcher takes the humanistic psychological approach to reveal the struggle for life of James J. Braddock as one of the main characters in Cinderella Man film. C. Limitation of the Study The writer will focus on analyzing the motives underlying the struggle of James J. Braddock as the major character in the film based on humanistic psychological perspective. D. Problem Statement Based on the title and the background of the study, the writer formulates the problem as follows; “What are the motives underlying the struggle of James J. Braddock”. E. Objective of the Study Based on the problem stated above, the writer proposes the objectives of the study as follows: 1. To analyze the structural elements of the film. 2. To identify the motives underlying the struggle based on humanistic perspective. 5 F. Benefit of the Study The study is expected to give benefit as follows: 1. To give some contribution on understanding of the film Cinderella Man especially by a Humanistic Approach. 2. To improve the researcher’s understanding and competence in applying a psychological approach to literature. G. Research Method 1. Object of the study The researcher takes Cinderella Man film as the object of the study. The movie is directed by Ron Howard released in June 3rd, 2005. 2. Data source The researcher here uses qualitative. This is a library research, which takes the source of the data from words and other writing. The writer divides the data source into two categories: a. Primary Data Source The primary data is taken from Cinderella Man film and the movie script downloaded from http://www.script-o-rama.com/movie_scripts/c/ ciderella-mans-cript-transcript.html. b. Secondary Sata Source The secondary data source is taken from other sources, which are related to the primary data such as biography of the director, some books of psychology, website about the film and another data related to this research. 6 3. Technique of Data Collection a. Observation The data are taken by watching the movie of Cinderella Man in order to understand about the movie. b. Library Research The data are collected from the books that related to the topic. 4. Technique of Data Analysis The researcher uses two techniques in analyzing the data: a. Analyzing the structural elements of the film includes narrative and technical elements. b. Analyzing the struggle for life of the main character using descriptive qualitative analysis. H. Paper Organization This research paper is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is introduction, which consists of background of the study, problem statement, objective of the study, benefit of study, research method, and paper organization. The second chapter deals with the underlying theory, including the notion of humanistic psychology and theory of humanistic psychology; the hierarchy of needs, structural elements of the film, and theoretical application. The third chapter is structural analysis of the film, including narrative and technical elements. The fourth chapter is dealing with the analysis using humanistic psychology. And the last chapter is conclusion and suggestion. CHAPTER II UNDERLYING THEORY This chapter deals with underlying theory, which is used by the writer in this research. This chapter is divided into four parts. The first part is the notion of humanistic psychology. Second is the theory of humanistic psychology; the hierarchy of needs. It is often depicted as a pyramid, consisting five levels. The third is structural elements of the movie consist of two elements; narrative elements and technical elements. The last part is theoretical application. A. Notion of Humanistic Psychology Humanistic psychology is one of psychological studies. Humanistic psychology emphasizes the important of free will. It means that people have ability to make choices (Coon, 1980: 18). According to Burger (1986: 254) by this free will, people can determine their own destiny and decide their actions. It means that people can do everything that they want and also people can choose everything what they need and what they want. Humanistic psychology is a reaction to the psychoanalysis and the behaviorism. As Coon (1980: 18) stated that “humanistic reject the Freudian idea that the personality is ruled by unconscious forces and behavioristic idea that people are controlled by the environment”. 7 8 Humanistic psychologists argue that psychological needs like the need for love, self-esteem, belonging, and self-expression, and creativity are as important as the biological needs food and water (Coon, 1980: 18). The most well known humanistic psychologists are Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. Carl Rogers emphasizes on person-centered or self-theory. While Maslow emphasizes on self-actualization (www.gerandkeegan.co.uk/ resource/humanistic.htm) B. Theory of Humanistic Psychology; The Hierarchy of Needs The theory of psychology is used by the writer to observe the film presented by Abraham Maslow. Maslow took this idea and created his now famous hierarchy needs. His theory contends that as humans meet ‘basic needs’, they seek to satisfy successively ‘higher needs’ that occupy a set hierarchy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/maslow’s_hierarchy_of_needs). Beyond the details of water, air, food sex, he laid out five broader layers: the psychological needs, the needs for safety and security, the needs for love and belonging, the needs for esteem, the need to actualize the self, in that order (http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/maslow.html). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is often depicted as a pyramid consisting of five levels: the four lower levels are grouped together as deficiency needs, and the top level is termed growth needs. The basic concept is that the higher needs in this hierarchy only come into focus once all the needs that are lower down in the pyramid are mainly or entirely satisfied (http://en.wkipedia.org/ wiki/maslow’s_hierarchy_of_needs). 9 Diagram of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Actualization Esteem Love/Belonging Safety Physiological 1. Physiological Needs The needs are taken as the first point of motivation theory called as physiological needs. Physiological needs are the lowest or most the basics aspect of human motivation. They are also called as primary motives. Briefly, Hjelle stated that “including in this group is the needs for food, drink, oxygen, activity and sleep, sex, protection from extreme temperatures, and sensory stimulation” (1981: 360). Then we can conclude that physiological needs directly concern with the biological maintenance such as clothes and houses for sheltering from temperature, rain, and other condition. 2. Safety and Security Needs Once the physiological needs are fairly well satisfied, the person becomes concerned with a new set. The next set is the security and safety needs. Included here are the needs for structure, stability, law, and order, predictability, and freedom such threatening forces as illness, fear, and chaos. Thus, these needs reflected concern about long term survival (Hjelle and Ziegler, 1992: 450). 10 Feist (1985: 203) stated that “the human expression of these needs is seen most clearly in the infant’s inhibited response-crying, screaming, and jerking convulsively- to being handle roughly, startled by loud noise or bright lights, or just inadequately supported by a parent”. The safety needs in such simple things as desire for job with tenure and benefits, a saving account, and insurance of various kinds. Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 204) stated that science, philosophy, and religion are partially motivated by the safety needs, but as we will see, these phenomena have other motivation as well. Http://www.accel-team.com/maslow_/maslow-nds- 02.html further notice that these needs are essentially the need to be free of the fear of physical danger and deprivation of the basic physiological needs. In other words, this is a need for self-preservation. In addition to the here and now, there is concern for the future. 3. Belongingness and Love Needs When physiological needs and safety needs are, by and large, taken care of, a third layer starts to show up. The third level in Maslow’s pyramid is comprised of belongingness and love needs (Hjelle, 1992: 451). These needs become prominent when the physiological and safety/ security needs have been met. The person operating at this level longs for affectionate relationship with others, for a place in his or her family and/ or reference group. Group affiliation becomes a dominant goal the person. Accordingly, a person will feel keenly the pangs of loneliness, social ostracism friendlessness, and rejection especially when induced by the absence of friends and love ones (Hjelle and Ziegler, 1992: 451). 11 4. Self-esteem Needs When our needs for being loved and for loving others have been reasonably gratified, their motivating force diminishes, paving the way for self-esteem needs. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs, a lower one and a higher one (http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/maslow.html). The lower one is the need for the respect of others, the need for status, fame, glory, recognition, attention, reputation, appreciation, dignity, even dominance. The higher form involves the need for self-respect, including such feeling as confidence, competence, achievement, mastery, independence and freedom (http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/maslow.html). A person needs to know that he or she is worthwhile-capable of mastering tasks and challenges in life. Respect from others entails such concern as desire for prestige, recognition, status, appreciation, and acceptance. In this case the person needs to know what he or she can do is recognized and valued by significant others (Hjelle and Ziegler, 1992: 453). 5. Self-Actualization Needs Finally, if all the foregoing is sufficiently satisfied, the need for actualization comes to the fore (Hjelle, 1992: 453). Maslow (1987) characterized self-actualization as the person’s desire to become everything that he or she is capable of becoming. The person who has achieved this highest level presses toward the full use and exploitation of his or her talents, capacities, and potentialities. In short, to self-actualize is to become the kind person we are capable of becoming-to reach the peak of our potential (Hjelle, 12 1992: 453). In practical way, Maslow (in Hjelle, 1981: 373) gives an example for self-actualization that a musician must make music; an artist must paint; a poet must write, if he is to be at peace with himself. What man can be, he must be. He must be true to his nature. So self-actualization is a person’s desire for self-improvement, his other motivation to make actual his potentiality. There are the characteristics of self-actualization. The characteristics as follows: a. More Efficient Perception of Reality According to Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 387-388), self-actualized people see life clearly, the life is it must be, not what wish it to be. They are able to judge positive and negative natures in others, and they have a clear understanding about right and wrong. Self-actualized people also have ability to detect the others phonines. b. Acceptance of Self, Others, and Nature Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 388) stated that self-actualized people can accept themselves the way they are. They have a good hearty animal appetite for good, sleep and sex, they realize their own shortcoming and not burdened by anxiety and shame, they accept others with all their weaknesses as their nature and they accept nature as it is and accept human nature in general also they realize that people will suffer, grow, old, and die. 13 c. Spontancity, Simplicity, and Naturalness Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 388) mentions that the behavior of self- actualized is marked by spontancity. They are unconventional, their behavior is done naturally, they live an as way and act without artificial help and they ordinarily live simple lives in the sense they have no need to erect a fancy. d. Problem-centered Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 388) shows that self-actualized people see life difficulties as the problem as needs to be solved, not as the troubles to be avoided. They are task oriented, it means that they do not only concern on their own problem, but also rather concern with others. This dedication becomes their mission in life. Their occupation is not merely a job, a means to earn a living but a vocation, a calling, and end in itself. e. Detachment (The Needs for Privacy) Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 388) states that self-actualized persons have a quality of detachment. Although they feel enjoyable of others friendship, but they need privacy, they are comfortable being alone without feeling lonely. They have capability to make responsible choices, they are self-movers, and resisting society is attempts to make them adhere to convention. f. Autonomy (Independence of Culture and Environment) Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 389) informs that self-actualized people have ability to be independent of culture and environment. They depend 14 on themselves for growth, self-actualizes have self-confidence, so they are unperturbed and serenity not enjoyed by those who live for the approval of others. g. Continued Freshness of Appreciation According to Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 389) self-actualized processes the capacity to appreciate again and again, freshly and naively or even in their life awe, pleasure, wonder, and even ecstasy, the seldom complain about a boring and uninteresting experience, unlike the ordinary people. h. Peak or Mystic Experience This peak or mystic experience, according to Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 389) is the moment of intense excitement. It takes self-actualizes out of themselves. It is such feeling out of understanding and experience loss of fear, anxiety and conflict; this peak experience changes them for the better. i. Social Interest (Gemeinschaftsgefubl) Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 392) states that self-actualized people share feeling sympathy and affection for all humanity. They treat others as their own family, they also have desire to help people sincerely. j. Interpersonal Relations According to Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 392), self-actualizes are able to make relationship with people in general whether less talented or neurotic one (less healthy people) (Feist, 1985: 392). They, however, tent to have deeper and closer relationship with only few people they loved, 15 that is those who are independent, the same character as well as mentally healthy (Feist, 1985: 392). k. The Democratic Character Structure Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 392) shows that the way of thinking and behaving self-actualized persons are democratic. They are open to everyone belongs to different class, color, age or sex, occupation, or other group membership characteristic without being burdened and even to treasure or value them highly. Moreover, they had ability to learn from anybody in any social background without adopting authorization attitude. In fact they seemed to be less aware of superficial differences among people than were other people. l. Descrimination Between Means and Ends Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 392) draws that self-actualized people are not confused between means and ends. They have clear understanding of right and wrong as well as good and bad conducts, they prefer set their sight on ends rather than means. They, however, enjoy taking a means to reach the ends. m. Philosophical Sense of Humor Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 393) mentions that self-actualized people have a sense of humor that is different from the ordinary people. Their humor is philosophical rather than hostile; it means that they will never make a fun of others frailty both physically and psychologically as a joke. They do not laugh at others and mock them because of their weaknesses. 16 Healthy persons see little humor put down jokes, their jokes usually do not hurt other people, but it rather has a certain purpose. n. Creativeness Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 393) says that self-actualized people are creative sense in the word. He shows that they should be creative in their own way. They should not be writer or painter to be creative, but their creativity is in their own fresh job wether they are teacher, doctor, lawyer, and so on. Maslow says that they must show their originality and creativity, which has a truth, beauty, and reality-in gradients that form the foundation of true creativity. o. Resistance and Enculturation The last characteristic of self-actualized people is their resistance to enculturation. Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 393) sees that they resist the social effort to acculturate them, they prefer to maintain their own characteristics rather than affected by social pressure. C. Structural Elements of the Movie There are two elements of film, there are narrative and technical elements (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 3-95). Narrative elements are the elements, which build the story of the film, consisting of characters and characterization, setting, plot, point of view, and theme (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 3-95). While the technical elements deal with the elements that have close relationship with the technique of producing movie. These elements consist of mise en scene, cinematography, sound, and editing (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 126). 17 1. Narrative Elements a. Characters and Characterization Characters usually appear as actors in films. It is the most interesting part in film production. The filmmaker teams show a person as an actor doing something, they have to make decision how much they will show what the person is doing and how much we show the personality of characters related with other manifestations such as body posture, facial, expression, and also their clothing (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 95). Characters have close relationship with the traits. Traits are the significant things in the character (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 97-102). There are three type of traits, namely social, physical, psychological traits. Social traits relate to the position of the character in a society, the social class, martial status, and etc (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 97-102). Physical traits have something to do with the physical performance of characters, whether they are fat or thin, tall or short, young or old, and others (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 97-102). Psychological traits concern with the characters inner traits. The traits can be observed by identifying observable attitudes, such as the rhythm of speech, qualities of gestures and so on (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 97-102). b. Setting The filmmaker may control setting in many ways based on the film production requirement. One of the ways is selecting an already existing locale in which to stage the action. Beside that the filmmaker can also 18 choose the construct the setting of the film which is produced (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 130). The setting can be just appearing by the filmmaker without characters in the place of action. In conclusion dynamically can enter into the narrative action not only as the place or container of the action (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990:130). Beside that the setting can be used to reinforce something about characters. At least the environment will tell and give description about character’s basic nature (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 130). c. Plot The term of plot is used to describe everything visibly and audibly which present in the film. The plot includes, first all of the story events that are directly describing in film performance, secondly, the film’s plot may contain material that is no relationship to the story world (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 57). The film’s plot in the totality of film cannot bring in the total world of the story action material. It may not be limited to the list of sequence. The plot has added material to the story for the story teller effect. As a result, story and plot overlap in one respect and diverge in others. The plot explicitly presents in certain story events. So these events are common to the both of story and plot (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 57). The basic elements of dramatic structure found in most productions are the exposition of beginning, the middle, and the end (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 48). 19 (1) The Exposition of Beginning A beginning or exposition is about one quarter of length in film production. The filmmaker wants to explore the story by presenting the hero or heroine and other major participants, the setting, the problem, and also the theme (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 48). (2) The Middle The middle of dramatic structure contains the struggle of the hero or heroine to achieve the solution of the problem has been defined, discovered or created in the beginning (Douglass and Harnder, 1996:50). (3) The End The end or resolution is the last stage of dramatic structure. The hero and heroine resolve their problem in a way to satisfactory to the audiences (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 40-50). d. Point of View Point of view is the most interesting in the narrative elements. It is the basic narrative devices available to the storyteller. For some storyteller decide from whose point of view to tell the story is a fundamental consideration in making a story (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 31). The word point of view according to Douglass and Harnder (1996: 31-37) has several meaning. First, in the film and video production, the term point of view has special meanings, this point of view relates to taking camera in each shot, as if the characters see the viewers, but is also 20 used in drama movies. Second point of view refers to the perspective of the storyteller, actually in the literature it refers “person”. It includes first person, it is usually represented by the first character according to the story teller perspective. Second person however is inherent in many productions, but the ‘you’ being addressed are the audience. And the third person, most productions are created in the third person but it is impossible in file. Video or television production is created with pure third person if it is without first person voice over variation. The last definition about point of view is the characters as group’s particular perspective that can be seen in their interest, attitudes, and also their beliefs. e. Theme Discovering theme is where the filmmaker certainly begins (Douglas and Harnder, 1996: 3). The main point of film production is whether the movie can be accepted and enjoyable for the viewers or not, thus the filmmaker should find what the most appropriate theme is. In discovering the theme, the filmmaker will examine their attitude toward the subject, study the material and analyze their knowledge of the audience (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 3). 2. Technical Elements The technical elements of the film deal with the elements that have close relationship with the technique of producing movie. This consists of Mise en Scene, Cinematography, Sound, and editing (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 126). 21 a. Mise en Scene Douglass and Harnder (1996: 119) state that “mise en scene is all the visual elements of set, set dressing, props, costume, make, lighting and even physical body posture that are arranged and placed before the camera lens”. Klarer (1999: 61) states other definition. He assumed that mise en scene means ‘to place on stage’, and refers to the arrangement of all visual elements in a theater production. Mise en Scene in film production is used as an umbrella term for the various elements that constitute the frame, including camera distance, camera angles, lenses, lighting, as well as the positioning of person and objects in relation each other (Klarer, 1999: 62) The term of mise en scene has some aspects such as: costume and make up, lighting, and figurative expression and movement (acting). 1) Costume and Make Up Costumes in film production have important function because costumes for film usually must be believable in close up, beside that costume itself should show the authenticity of film production Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 134). 2) Lighting Lighting in the film production is also an important element. It helps the viewers to see the action as the function of lighting shaping the object by creating high light and shadows and shaping audience understanding of the shot’s composition. This aspect can be isolated 22 into four features: quality, direction, source, and color (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 134) 3) Figurative Expression and Movement (acting) An acting of the film is divided into two: visual and sound elements. Visual elements of the movie involve appearance, gesture, and facial expression of the character. Sound is in line with acting, it is related with voice effect (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 137). b. Cinematography The filmmaker also controls what we call cinematographic qualities shot, not only what is filmed but also how it is filmed. This consists of control over three features: photograpical qualities shot, the framing of shot and the duration of shot (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990:157). 1) Photographical Qualities of Shot Cinematography depends on large extent on photography. Sometimes a filmmaker will eliminate the camera and simply work on the film itself, but even when drawing, painting or scratching directly on film, involved holes on it, or growing to be made on it. The filmmaker is drawing patents of light in order it will be easy to transfer for the eye of the viewers. In any event, the filmmaker can select the range of the tone, manipulate the speed of motion, and change point of view (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 156). 2) The framing of Shot Film frame produces a certain vantage point to get the material within the image. In cinema the frame is important because it actively 23 defines the image for the audiences (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 167). 3) The Duration of Shot How we can understand the duration of shot is considering question that usually appears. We must give a note on the relationship of shot duration to the time consumed by the filmed events (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 195). A complex pattern of events moving toward a goal makes a shot duration as important to the image’s effect as photographic qualities and farming (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 199). c. Sound There are two advantages of sound in film production. First, it engages another sense mode; our visual attention can be accompanied by an aural attention. Second, sound can actively shape how we interpret the image (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 244). Volume, sound, rhythm and pace of the music change according to the situation and underscore levels of meaning with acoustic effects, film music can also contrast with the plot and create ironic effects (Klarer, 1999: 65). d. Editing Klarer (1999: 63) stated that “editing is one of the major cinematic techniques which have contributed to the flexibility of medium”. Editing may be thought of as the coordination of one shot with the next. To distinguish how editing is done in production from how editing appears on the screen to viewers (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 207). 24 Editing is easy to notice. It is not only because of the prevalent technique but also because the disjunction of space, time, and graphics made by editing step to the eye attention (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 209). D. Theoretical Application The writer develops this research paper by applying the humanistic theory proposed by Abraham Maslow. The writer focuses on analyzing the motives underlying struggle of James J. Braddock in Cinderella Man film. There are some steps in analyzing the film, which is going to be researched. First, the research is started from the structural elements of the film, which consist of narrative elements and technical elements. Second, conducting research about the relationship between the humanistic theory and the play in the film. It can be done toward the action, the dialogue of the character. From the steps above, it will answer the problem statements of the research. CHAPTER III STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE FILM The third chapter of this study presents the structural analysis of the Cinderella Man film, which is directed by Ron Howard and screenplay written by Cliff Hollingsworth and Akiva Goldsman, released in March 2005. In this chapter the writer will try to give a brief explanation of the structure elements of the movie which is divided into two elements: narrative elements and technical elements. The narrative elements consist of character and characterization, setting, plot, point of view, and theme. While the technical elements consist of mise en scene, cinematography, sound, and editing. In elaborating this chapter, the writer will analyze both elements for the first step then discusses it. For that reason this chapter is divided into two: the structure elements of the movie and the discussion of the structure elements of the movie. A. Structural Elements of the Movie There are two elements of the film: narrative elements and technical elements (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 3-95; Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 126). Narrative elements are the elements which build the story of the film, consist of characters and characterization, setting, plot, point of view, and theme (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 3-95). While the technical elements deal with the elements that have close relationship with the technique of producing movie. These elements consist of mise en scene, cinematography, sound, and editing (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 126). 25 26 1. Narrative Elements a. Character and Characterization The most interesting elements of film are the characters and characterization, because it refers to the act of the actor who is participant in the film production. The filmmakers have to make a decision how much they will show what the person is doing and how much we show the personality of the characters relate to other manifestations such as body posture, facial, expression and also their clothing (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 95). After analyzing the Cinderella Man movie, the writer will try to elaborate the characters which are divided into two: 1) Major Characters (a) James J. Braddock (acted by Russell Crowe) Braddock is a prizefighter. Christian is his religion. He is an Irishman who lives in New Jersey with his wife and his three kids (CM, 06:50). Jimmy loses his licenses to fight and has to work on the docks. Physically, he is handsome with pointed nose. His hair is black and wave. He is strong and powerful. He also has big hands. Mae said it when Braddock just goes home from fighting (CM, 06:13). Mae : “Mr. Braddock! You’re strong! And you’re hands; they’re so big. You’re so powerful! Jimmy, I’m so proud of you. I’m so proud of” (CM, 06:13). 27 Mentally, he is a wise man. He is always grateful for God’s blessings. It is said when He gets a second change to back to the ring (CM, 85:54). He is never crying about his fate (CM, 24:07). He also has to fight against Griffin without training. Morally, he is a kind person. He has deep love for his wife and his kids. Braddock is a father who would starve himself rather sees his children miss a meal. He also teaches his kids honesty unselfishness. He is so worried when he knew that he couldn’t pay the bill and couldn’t provide comfortable for his family. He is doing whatever it took to take care of his family. Socially, he is a suave person. He always tries to make a good relationship with other. His comeback is giving hope to every American. He is being inspiration for many people. Mr. Johnston : “…they say the paper’s getting all sort of letters from people saying you’re their inspiration like you saved their lives or something. If you ask me, it’s a lot of crap. But if I’m gonna promote this fight…”. Joe Gould : “You’re all heart” (CM, 88:31). (b) Mae Braddock (acted by Renee Zellweger) She is Braddock’s wife. Christian is her religion. She is sewing to get more money (CM, 25:40). She is proud of her husband. Physically, she is beautiful and tall. She has short dark brown and curly hair. She is a delicate mother and wife. 28 Mentally, she is ingenuous. Socially, she always encourages the others. It can be seen when Mike is missing, she comforts Sara. Morally, she is puritanical. She is faithful and kindhearted. She is a good wife who always cares to her family. She is worried when Howard’s fever is getting worse and then Rosy starts to sneeze because Mae can’t keep them warm (CM, 37:47). She is also worried about Braddock when he decides to back to the ring and finally fights against Max Baer, the heavyweight champion of the world, renowned for having killed two men in the ring. Mae : “You are not gonna make my husband your punching bag all over again. We are just getting by, and you’re taking him from his work…like some blood-sucking little leech! And I will not let you get him hurt again like that… do you hear me? I will not let you!” Joe Gould : “Guess you better come in” (CM, 67:23). 2) Minor Characters (a) Joe Gould (acted by Paul Giamatti) He is Braddock’s friend. He is also Braddock’s manager (CM, 17:55). Physically, he is not too tall and little fat. Mentally, he is astute. It is shown when he pleaded Mr. Johnston to allow Braddock in order he can boxing again. Socially, he is a cooperative person, especially with Braddock and his partner in gym. Morally, he is a kind and 29 helpful person especially toward Braddock’s family. He gave some money to Braddock in order he could pay the bill and got the kids back. Braddock : “ I’m sorry, Joe. I didn’t… I’m sorry”. Joe Gould : “ What in the hell do you have to be sorry about? Jesus Christ, Jimmy. How short are you?”. Braddock : “ About $1,50”. Joe Gould : “ Okay” (CM, 40:43). He also sold his furniture in order Braddock could train again. Joe Gould : “ Sold the last of it two days ago. So Jimmy could train”. Mae : “ Why?”. Joe Gould : “ Sometimes you have an instinct, Mae” (CM, 66:33). (b) Max Baer (acted by Craig Bierko) He is heavyweight champion of the world, renowned for having killed two men in the ring (CM, 87:48). Physically, he is tall and has wavy hair. Morally, he is arrogant. Socially, he always underestimates and never treats other well especially toward Braddock. Guard : “ Jimmy Braddock just beat Lasky. They made him the number one contender. Max when we are gonna go to…” Max Baer : “ Shut up!” Baer’s hottie : “ Maxie you…” Max Baer : “ Shut up! I’m not gonna fight Jimmy Braddock. He is a chump. You tell Johnston to bring me somebody who can fight back” (CM, 70:21). 30 (c) Mike Wilson (acted by Paddy Considine) He is Braddock’s friend. They met when they worked as a dockworker. Physically, he is not fashionable. Mentally, he is narrow-minded. Socially, he cares about the others. It is proved by getting involved in protest at ramshackle Hooverville. He has been sleeping nights down in the Hooverville (CM, 81:69). Finally, he died steamrolled by a runaway horse and buggy. Morally, he loves his wife. It is said when he meets Braddock in dock. Mike : “ Hey, Jim”. Braddock : “ Hey, Mike”. Mike : “ Good fight”. Braddock : “ Thanks”. Mike : “ I wouldn’t hit Sara”. Braddock : “ I know Mike”. Mike : “ I couldn’t live with myself if I’d have hit her. I just get so angry with all this shit” (CM, 62:10). (d) Jimmy Johnston (acted by Bruce McGill) He is usually called Mr. Johnston. He is a boxing promoter Physically, he is a little fat, has grey hair and uses glasses. He always brings a cigar. Morally, he is stubborn. Socially, he treats somebody well if they could give profit for him. He also revoked Braddock’s license and didn’t pay up when Braddock played draw against Feldman. But then, Mr. Johnston gave second chance to Braddock to back to the ring, because Braddock’s back in the ring gave him more money. 31 Joe Gould : “ …with full publicity before Lasky, and what happens? You make more money. Now say on the other hand, by some minute, infinitesimal chance...God forbid, Braddock beats Lewis. Now you got sentimentil favorite go up…and lose against Lasky, and what happens? You’ll make more money. James, either way…you’re richer man with Braddock back in the ring than if he’s not. Come on, don’t be foolish. We both know the name of this game. And it sure as hell ain’t pugilism”. Mr. Johnston : “ They ought to put your mouth in a circus (CM, 69:15). (e) Sporty Lewis (acted by Nicholas Campbell) He is a reporter from New York Herald. In newspaper, he wrote that Braddock’s comeback is giving hope to every American (CM, 93: 38). He also wrote as Damon Runyon said that Braddock is truly the Cinderella Man, Damon Runyon gave the nickname. Physically, he is a middle-aged man. Socially, the relationship between Lewis and Braddock is not good. Sporty Lewis : “ Is that ghost I’m seeing? An apparition? Or is that James J. Braddock, the Bulldog of Bergen? How you feeling Jimmy? How’s that right hand?” Joe Gould : “ Braddock, you’re up!” Braddock : “ Sporty Lewis, how you doing?” Sporty Lewis : “ How you doing?” Braddock : “July…New York Herald. Proving he was too young and too green…and rushed to the top… Loughran wiped the ring with the Bulldog’s career. A sad and somber funeral…with the body still breathing”. Sporty Lewis : “ I don’t fight the fights, Jimmy. I just write about them, see?”. Braddock : “ Sporty, save the crap for the customers (CM, 50:17). 32 (f) Lucille Gould (acted by Linda Kash) She is Joe Gould’s wife. Physically, she is pretty. She has short bloondy and curly hair. Mentally, she is sensible. Morally, she is kindhearted even toward Braddock’s family. Socially, she is encouraging. She always advises and gives understanding to Mae when Braddock decides to comeback to the ring anymore. (g) Sara (acted by Rosemarie DeWitt) She is Mike’s wife. She lives with Braddock’s family for a while when Mike’s missing for three days. She has a baby. Morally, she loves her husband. She worries about Mike because he wouldn’t leave her and the baby for this long. At last her worry come true, there something happens to Mike. Socially, she has a good relationship with Braddock’s family. (h) Jay Braddock (acted by Connor Price) He is Braddock’s older son. He steals from butcher because he doesn’t get enough to be eaten in house. He also asked his father, Braddock to promise never send him away (CM, 15:33). (i) Howard Braddock (acted by Patrick Louis) He is the younger son of James Braddock. In this story he is getting fever because his parents can’t keep him warm and then Mae send him in Brooklyn. 33 (j) Rosemarie Braddock (acted by Ariel Waller) She is the only daughter of James J. Braddock. Braddock always calls her Rosy. She often practices boxing with his father, Braddock. (k) Alice (acted by Alice Johnston) She is Mae elder sister. When the day of the fight between Braddock and Max Baer, Mae and her kids go to Alice’s house. (l) Jake (acted by Gene Pyrz) He is a man who gives a job to Braddock as a dockworker. (m) Joe Jeanette (acted by Ron Canada) He is Braddock’s instructor in gym. Physically, he is a man with dark skin. b. Setting The setting can appear without characters in the place of action. In conclusion setting dynamically can enter into the narrative action not only as the place or container of the action (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 130). Beside that the setting can be used to reinforce something about characters. At least the environment will tell and give description about character’s basic nature (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 130). Setting itself will be divided into two: 1) Setting of time There are some clues that indicate the time of Cinderella Man: 34 “…..November 30, 1928” “September 25, 1933 4 years into great depression” “December 1933…..” “Day of the fight June 13, 1935” The filmmaker Cinderella Man takes the setting in the time of great depression. From the quotation above the writer considers that setting of time in this film starts on November 1928 and ends in June 1935. When the winter comes on December, all activities are in indoors. It can be seen in this film when Mae and her kids usually spend their time in the apartment. They just go out when looking for firewood. Everything is not easy at great depression. Unemployed hits record 15.000.000. 2) Setting of place (a) New Jersey New Jersey is the city where James J. Braddock comes from. (b) Mount Vernon, New York The place where Braddock is against Abraham Feldman. (c) Emergency Relief Administration The office where Braddock borrows some money. (d) Madison Square Garden Bowl The place where Braddock fights against Griffin, Lewis, and Max Baer. (e) Basement Apartment Bradock lived in this place during great depression with his family. 35 (f) Hooverville Central Park An area in Central Park where the homeless set up temporary housing. It’s also the place where Mike died steamrolled by runaway horse and buggy. (g) Restaurant The place where Braddock, Mae, Joe Gould, and his wife have dinner. (h) Dock The place where Braddock works as rough laborer and has to works with his left hand, because his right hand is broken. (i) Church It’s place where Mae come to pray for Braddock. There are many people in there to do the same thing with Mae. (j) Gym The place where Braddock train with his instructor. c. Plot The writer describes that the director of Cinderella Man uses traditional plot. The elements of traditional plot refer to the basic elements of dramatic structure found in many productions such as the exposition of beginning, the middle and the end (Douglass and Harnder, 1996:48). 1) The Exposition of Beginning A beginning or exposition is about one quarter of length in film production. The filmmaker wants to explore the story by 36 presenting the hero or heroine and other major participants, the setting, the problem and also the theme (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 48). The film opens with Braddock winning a fight in 1928 and becoming a contender for a championship bout (CM, 00:50). This is continued with his arrival to his house and meets his wife (CM, 06:09). The film then quickly jumps four years into the future. The depression is on and Braddock has had a series of defeats. Fighting injured, including with a broken hand, made him less of a fighter. Like many others in that era, Braddock lost everything in the stock market and scrimping by on the small fights he can get. Moreover, he often gives his meal to his kids (CM, 09:29). 2) The Middle The middle of dramatic structure contains the struggle of the hero or heroine to achieve the solution of the problem has been defined, discovered or created in the beginning (Douglass and Harnder, 1996:50). It is divided into two sections. This is the early conflict, which leads to the other conflicts in the story. The first part of complication began when he was forced by a damage right hand into retirement and a string of losses in the ring. When Braddock fought hurt against Abe Feldman, they played to draw. It caused Braddock was not paid, even his promoter revoking his license (CM, 23:30). 37 The second part of the middle is when Braddock worked as a dockworker and meets Mike Wilson. These dock jobs few and far between though and every day Jim went to line up where men were selected for one day’s work. It also caused he couldn’t pay the electric or the heat. Oneday, Mae had to send his kids in her relative’s house because she couldn’t keep them warm. It made Braddock worked harder to get money. Jim had a broken hand but he worked anyway. It was the only way to fed his family. Then he went to Emergency Relief Administration to borrow some money (CM, 37:53). He also begged for money from his former boxing association at a Madison Square Garden hangout to get his electricity back on and get the kids back. The third part appearing when his former manager, Joe Gould gave Braddock second chance and offered him a one-time fought against an opponent. Because of Braddock won fight against Griffin, Gould offered him the other fight. Slowly but sure, Braddock continued to fought and won. Finally, climax appears when Braddock faced his toughest challenge, a fight against Max Baer, and the heavyweight champion of the world, renowned for had killed two men in the ring. 3) The End The end or resolution is the last stage of dramatic structure. In this stage, the hero or heroine resolves their problems in a way 38 satisfactory to audiences; it usually involves some growth either in the characters, audiences, or maybe both of them (Douglass and Harnder, 1996:50). The resolution in Cinderella Man has begun when Braddock won fight against Max Baer. He could prove to everyone that he was true boxer. Beside that his household life back to normal again. d. Point of View The word point of view has several meanings (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 31-32). First, in the film video production, the term point of view has special meanings. This point of view relates to taking camera in each shot, as if the characters see the viewers, but is also used in drama movies (Douglass and Harnder, 1996:31-32). Seconds point of view refers of the perspective of the storyteller, actually in literature it refers “person” (Douglass and Harnder, 1996:32). The last definition about point of view is the characters as a group’s particular perspective it can be seen in their beliefs (Douglass and Harnder, 1996:37). Cliff Hollingsworth and Akiva Goldsman as the screenwriter of Cinderella Man use point of view in the film production as follows: 1) Point of view related to the taking camera of each shot as if the characters saw the viewers. It is shown in the events: the point of view of Braddock can be seen when he fell because of Baer’s hit in his head. Then he saw Baer and realized that Baer walked to head for him (CM, 58:15). 39 2) Point of view refers to the storyteller. This film uses third person as the narrator. 3) The last thing of point of view is the group’s particular perspective. The point of view of group in this story is mostly people guess that family is the important thing in the world. e. Theme A filmmaker should determine first the theme in a story before stepping a head into the next part. Discovering theme is where the filmmaker certainly begins (Douglass and Harnder, 1996:3). The theme in Cinderella Man is “someone can do anything and get what he wants by the power of love and remarkable endurance". 2. Technical Elements a. Mise en Scene Douglass and Harnder (1996: 119) state that “mise en scene is all the visual elements of set, set dressing, props, costume, make up, lightin and even physical body posture arranged and placed before the camera lens”. 1) Set dressing The set dressing which shown in Cinderella Man are as follows: (a) Watch, jewelry box, table, picture, lamp in Braddock’s bedroom. (b) Table, some chairs, fireplace, lamp in Joe’s apartment. 40 (c) Glasses, table, candles in Braddock’s house yard. (d) Fireplace, bed, lamp in kid’s room. (e) Sofa, chairs, table, cupboard in Braddock’s living room. (f) Projector, lamps, some paintings, desk, chairs in Mr. Johnston office. 2) Props (a) A cigar is usually brought by Mr. Johnston. (b) Needle and threat usually used by Mae to sewing. (c) Boxing gloves used by Braddock to boxing. (d) Shoe polishes used by Braddock to covers his broken hand. (e) A hook used by Braddock and the dockworkers to work in dock. 3) Costume and Make up Cinderella Man uses a certain costume to identify the era when the scene takes place. Cinderella Man takes place in America on 19th century exactly in 1935. So it is the duty for Daniel Orlandi as the costume designer to create costumes as the American wear of that time. The styles of costume at the time are hat, open jacket, a heavy overcoat or cardigan and scarf. Daniel Orlandi divides the style into two categories, low- class and high-class. The low-class wears the dirty clothes and more simple. It can be seen at Braddock and the other dockworkers. They usually wear hat, open jacket with lapels and 41 suspender when they work. Meanwhile, the high-class wears elegant clothes completely with shoes, hat, and cardigan. It can be seen when Max Baer comes to dinner party, he wears elegant cardigan, and jacket. Besides the costume, make up is also important in the film. All these point about costumes apply equally to a closely related area of mise en scene, the actors make up. Make up is originally necessary because actor’s face would not register well on early film stocks. And, up to the present, it has been used in various ways to enhance the appearance of actors on the screen (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 133). David LeRoy Anderson and Lance Anderson as the make up director in Cinderella Man have big role in making the actor’s face looks different. Make up for all of the characters are so natural. The most interesting here for creating same atmosphere on 1930s when the curly hair is so famous, so in this film all woman characters have curly hair. 4) Lighting Lighting in cinema production is also important, it helps the viewers to see the action as the function of lighting shaping the objects by creating high light and shadows and shaping audience understanding the shot’s composition. This aspect can be isolated into four features: quality, direction, source and color (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 134). 42 a) Quality Lighting quality here means the relative interesting of the illuminations. It is divided into two, hard and soft lighting (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 134). After watching the film the writer concludes that this film uses hard and soft lighting qualities. By using both qualities the dramatic situation can be seen in the frame. This happened because hard lighting creates clearly defined shadows. This lighting quality causes the viewers catch the object clearly. While the soft lighting creates the diffused illumination. Soft lighting makes the audience see the object not so clear. b) Direction It deals to the light from its source to the object literature. It can be distinguished among frontal lighting, side lighting, back lighting, under lighting, and top lighting (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 134). It is impossible of a film just uses one lighting. So the movie of Cinderella Man combines all of the lighting direction to enhance the expressive potential of this film or just make the image perfectly. c) Source Cinderella Man film production combines two sources of the light; the key and the fill light. The key light is the primary lighting source of the image, providing the dominant 43 illumination and casting the dominant shadows. Fill light in this film has function to fill or soften and also eliminate the shadows from casting by the key light. By combining these two sources, the exact degree of lighting in this film can be controlled easily. d) Color Color in lighting can be manipulated by shinning motion lamps through a transparent colored filter (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 136). The film lighting team in Cinderella Man uses realistic sources than non realistic sources to motivate the coloration of the light. The white in this film comes from sunlight, whereas the soft yellow comes from light of the candle and lamp. The film lighting team decided to use realistic source because the genre of this film is dramatic situation and the setting of the film is about the middle of twentieth centuries so it is better to use realistic sources. 5) Figure expression and movement (acting) In this film the actors and actress can act naturally. It can be seen in many characters such as James J. Bradock (Russell Crowe). In this film Crowe has to act as a boxer. How is fell, the way he gives uppercut, the way he gives punch must looked like a real boxer. Crowe did a wonderful job of imitating Braddock’s ring style. It is also caused of his boxing trainer’s help, Angelo Dundee. Crowe also embodies a man torn by changing of life and frustrated 44 by his inability to provide comfortable for his wife and his three kids. Beside that, Paul Giamatti, which acts as Braddock’s manager, can act his character well. It can be proved by becoming favorite for a Best Supporting Actor Oscar nomination. In the end, all characters can do their job appropriately. It means that they can do two type of acting: facial expression and pantomimic gesture. b. Cinematography The filmmaker also controls what we call cinematographic qualities shot, not only what is filmed but also how it is filmed. This consists of control over three features: photographical qualities of shot, the framing of shot and the duration of shot (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 157). 1) Photographical qualities of shot There is the variation on speed motion that gives effect on film; it can be slow, ordinary, and fast motion or maybe freeze on frame (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 160). Slow motion can be seen when Braddock beats the head of Abe Feldman (CM, 20:29). The other slow motion is when Lasky beats Braddock’s rib (CM, 76:29), and when Braddock gives uppercut to Baer (CM, 115:27). Ron Howard, as a director shot a lot of slow motion at 48 or 60 frames per second because Russell Crowe and the other boxers couldn’t go full speed all the time and land punches without hurting each other. One of the appearing the speed motion of this film shows when Braddock fights against Max Baer. They beat each other. 45 2) The framing of shot Here, the way of framing can be powerfully to the image of the size and shape of the frame: it controls the distance angle and the way framing can be mobile in relationship with mise en scene (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 168). Framing in this film appears when the camera makes a zoom of the eye of James J. Braddock. It happened when he fights against Lasky and almost loses, then he imagined his kids (CM, 77:21). 3) The duration of shot The movie of Ron Howard’s Cinderella Man duration is in 144 minutes or 2 hours 24 minutes. c. Sound There are two advantages of sound in film production. First, it engages another sense mode: our visual attention can be accompanied by an aural attention. Second, sound can actively shape how we interpret the image (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 244). The character of this movie uses dialog and monologue to make conversation with others. Cinderella Man has genre as drama, it can be shown when Mike’s funeral. In the other side, when Braddock leaves his apartment to fight against Max Baer and Howard says good bye to him. This film not only involves language and music, but also sound effects. It produces a real sound of door closed, human step, the noise in harbor and in the bowl, horse step, car, etc. Beside that supervising 46 sound editor, Chic Cocollini recreated sound themes unique to each location. For example, a riot in Hooverville, an area in Central Park where the homeless set up temporary, required echo effects added to animal sounds, human shouts, and old sirens to yield the desired haunting environment. The quality of sound in Cinderella Man is Dolby Digital makes the sound can be heard from many sides surrounding the audiences. d. Editing The movie of Cinderella Man uses the continuity principles in editing such as: the view direction, movement, and position continuities. the briefly explanation as follows: 1) The view direction can be found in this movie, it relates to the picture, which creates impression as if the actors faced each other. For instance, when Jim Braddock and Mae discuss about something in their room is the appropriate section to be editing (CM, 30:43). 2) Movement continuity also can be found when the carriage walks along the road. Usually movement continuity concerns with the unity of subject or actor’s movement. It can be seen in this film such as when Braddock walks along the road from Emergency Relief Administration for Madison Square Garden to begging money (CM, 39:00). 3) Position continuities are related to the position of actor in shot. Position continuity of this film can be found when Joe Gould and her wife accept Mae in their apartment. 47 All of the explanation above is the situation that should be edited. This is job for Daniel P. Hanley and Mike Hill as the editor of Cinderella Man. Their editing is to give the appropriated movie for the audience. Their job is almost perfect; it can be proved with the rating of this film in USA.PG-13 from MPAA (The Motion Picture Association of America) classification for intense boxing violence and some language. The MPAA provides the Internet Movie Database with their ratings reasons. This rating is made from the guest voting of MPAA Web Side in writing their comment about the movie (http://www.imdbpro.com/mpaa). B. Discussion After analyzing the structural elements of the film, the writer will discuss the relation between the elements and putting them back into unity. A film is usually inspired by life experience, which is manipulated dramatically to gain the special psychological effect on its spectators. Cinderella Man is based on James J. Braddock’s experienced during great depression. This film is directed by Ron Howard. The screenplay is written by Cliff Hollingsworth and Akiva Goldsman. The theme of this movie is “someone can do anything and get what he wants by the power of love and remarkable endurance”. It is not easy and simple way to do anything for someone he loves and to get what he wants. Therefore, he has to struggle and make a great effort for it. 48 In Cinderella Man, Howard creates the central character of this film, James J. Braddock. He is created as a boxer and dockworker, because Howard wants this character to support and build the theme of the film and make it more interesting. Through James Braddock, the director explores bravely the real people condition in great depression. James J. Braddock in Cinderella Man is described as a man who struggles for his family and his career as a boxer. When his career appeared to be finished, he was unable to pay the bills, the only thing that really mattered to him that his family was in danger. But deep inside, Jim Braddock never relinquished his determination. Driven by love, honor, and incredible dose of grief, he tried to make an impossible dream come true. To support the major character more alive, Howard creates the other character called minor character. He describes the struggle in each character and has same purposes with the major character. Braddock as one of the major characters is the effective figure as part of the director’s message in Howard’s film. Howard puts the character in appropriate time and place. The setting of place are New York and New Jersey, and setting of time in great depression in 1928 to 1935. New York was chosen as one of the setting of place, because at that time all of activities concentrate on New York. Likewise with boxing competition. Mostly, boxing competition was held in New York such as in Madison Square Garden and Mount Vernon. The other setting of place is New Jersey. Braddock lived there with his family. It’s also the place where Braddock worked as a dockworker and had to struggle in order his family necessities could be fulfilled. 49 To organize the story of Cinderella Man, the film director Ron Howard uses traditional plot. The beginning begins the story or exposition, followed the next stages the middle that is derived into two parts. The first part or complication and the second part or climax. The last stages is the end or resolution. It will make the audience easy to understand about the story of film. Film production has three meanings of point of view. First, it relates the taking of the camera in each shot as if the characters see the viewers. It can be seen in the events such as the point of view of Braddock can be seen when he saw Max Baer after Braddock fell because of Baer’s punch. Second, it means the perspective of the storyteller. In Cinderella Man, the point of view used by the narrator is the third person narrator. The last point of view is group’s perspective. The point of view of group in this story is mostly people think that family is the important thing in the world. The successful of film depends on narrative elements and is also supported by the technical of film. The mise en scene, cinematography, sound, and editing are the parts of technical elements of film. Mise en scene in this film consists of set dressing, props, costume and make up, lighting, and figure expression and movement. The costume and make up in Cinderella Man use a certain costume to identify the era when the scene takes place. Lighting in this film is indirectly connected to the film stock for certain light conditions have to be fulfilled according to the sensitivity of the film. The figure expression or acting of each actors and actress has big role in creating and giving image in a story. They have responsibility to carry out the story more lifelike. The other elements of film production are cinematography, divided into three; photographical qualities shot, 50 the framing of shot, and the duration of shot. While sound of Cinderella Man is used to make the film more enjoyable to audiences. This is divided into two; music and sound effect. The last, editing is the important part of the technical elements of the film. The view direction, movement, and position continuities are appeared and have editing well by Daniel P. Hanley and Mike Hill. From the explanation above, the writer summaries that the structural elements of film are tied each other. It makes a unity from that can separate each other. For work hard of the teamwork and all the people who get involved in this film, Cinderella Man getting USA.PG-13 from MPAA (The Motion Picture Association of America) classification for intense boxing violence and some language. Beside that, Cinderella Man succeeds in bringing some awards. CHAPTER IV HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS The theme of Cinderella Man film is “someone can do anything and get what he wants by the power of love and remarkable endurance”. It is reflected in the major character. The aim of chapter IV is to analyze the motives underlying the struggle of James J. Braddock based on humanistic psychological perspective. A. The Needs of James J. Braddock In Cinderella Man film can be seen many kinds of Braddock’s needs. They are the need to breathe, the need for water, the need to eat, the need for sleep, the need to regulate body temperature, the need for sex, the need for clothes, friendship, having a family, security of employment, security of revenues and resources, familial security, security of health, religious groups, respected by others, recognition, fame, glory, reputation, appreciation, dignity, actualize his potential as a boxer. Based on Maslow’s theory, all of the Braddock’s needs can be categorized as the hierarchy of needs. In Hierarchy of needs, there are five elements, which are (1) physiological needs, (2) security or safety needs, (3) belongingness and love needs, (4) self-esteem needs, and (5) self-actualization needs. 1. Physiological Needs The needs of Braddock included as physiological needs are the need to breathe, the need for water, the need to eat, the need for clothes, the need for sleep, the need to regulate body temperature, the need for sex. 51 52 The need to breathe, the need for clothes, and the need for sex can be fulfilled easily by the major character, Braddock. It is proved by Braddock can breathe without any disruption such as disruption of air pollution. When Braddock attends dinner party with his wife, he uses clean and good clothes. Braddock also doesn’t face any difficulties with his sex. Braddock and Mae have love relations as a husband and wife. He is able to fulfill his sex with Mae. The need for water, the need for sleep, and the need to regulate body temperature also can be fulfilled by Braddock although he faces some difficulties. It can be shown when Braddock has to drink leftovers from milk that mixed with water in order that milk enough for all of his family. Beside that Braddock has to sleep and live without any heat in his basement apartment. But at the last he can get his electricity back. The need to eat is the most difficult needs to be fulfilled. When the nation enters the darkest years of the great depression, Braddock has a series of defeats. Fighting injured, including with a broken hand, makes him less of a fighter. Braddock, like many others in that era, loses everything in the stock market. So that he and his family can eat, Braddock has to take a job which is offered for him. That is a fight against one guy named Abe Feldman although recovery his broken hand still a few weeks. Joe Gould : “Now, you see, that break’s still a few weeks”. Braddock : “I know”. Joe Gould : “Yeah. And you were gonna tell me about this when?”. Braddock : “It’s gonna be fine”. Joe Gould : “It’s not fine. No it’s not. What the hell? You don’t tell me? What the hell kind a crap is that? 53 Braddock : “I owe everybody money, Joe. I can’t get any shifts. We ain’t got any cash”. Joe Gould : “I got it. Screw them. I’ll tape it double”. Braddock : “Thanks” (CM, 17:39). In the situation of great depression, every people will do everything to get food. The problem also faced by Braddock’s family. One day, Braddock has to give his breakfast to his daughter because she is still hungry. The other struggle of James J. Braddock also can be seen when he loses his license to fight and has to work on the docks. These dock jobs are few and far between though and everyday Braddock goes to line up where men are selected for one day’s work. Jake : “I need nine men and only nine. One. Two. Three. Four. Five. Six. Seven. Eight. Nine. That’s it! All right, let’s get a move on! Go on, get going! Got a lot of work today” (CM, 12:49). From all the explanation above it can be concluded that hungry is the primary motive why Braddock has to struggle. A hungry person is motivated to eat, not to make friends or gain self-esteem. He will do everything in order be able to eat. He doesn’t see beyond food, and so long as this need remains unsatisfied, his primary motivation is to obtain something to eat. 2. Security or Safety Needs Security of employment, security of revenues and resources, familial security, security of health is the needs that concern with security and safety need. For the familial security needs, Braddock feels easy to satisfy this need because people around him care for him. When his right hand is broken, Mae cares him until his hand is recovered. 54 In the great depression situation the interest for safety and security needs is translated into concern for safety on the job. To get safety on the job, Braddock has to hide his broken right hand in order he can work on the docks. For that reason he covers his broken right hand with shoe polish. Mae Braddock : “Jimmy, you can’t work. Your hand is broken”. Braddock : “They see me lugging this around, you’re right, they won’t pick me. Not down the docks, not anywhere. So we’re gonna cover it up…with shoe polish. Okay? I’m sorry”. Mae Braddock : “No. No. No” (CM, 26:19). Braddock has to work with his left hand in dock. Although he has covers his broken hand with shoe polish, his supervisor in dock, Jake find out about it. Then he asks Braddock what has happened to his hand. His friend, Mike helps him to give reason. So Jake doesn’t fire him from his job. Mike : “That hand ain’t gonna work. You can’t slow me down. I need this job”. Braddock : “I need this job too”. Jake : “What’s wrong with goddamn hand?” Mike : “You see us falling behind, Jake?” Braddock : “He’s all right. Appreciate it” (CM, 29:50). The other struggle of Braddock to get safety on his job as a boxer is by hard training in gym although his rib is hurt. In gym, Braddock is helped by his partners such as Joe Jeanette. He also leaves his job on the docks as a laborer in order he can focus with his training. Joe Gould : “Is he all right? So how’s he doing?” Jeanette : “He’s old. He’s arthritic. And his rib haven’t been right since the lasky fight”. Joe Gould : “What’s the bad news, sunshine?” Cornerman : “Joe!” Joe Gould : “What?” Cornerman : “The reporters are here”. Joe Gould : “Jesus. Right. Get rid of that goddamn rib protector. Jimmy! Press is here, boy-o! get bounching around in that ring! Showtime! Big smiles! You’re the belle of the ball! Baer don’t need to know about no goddamn ribs” (CM, 100:41). 55 All of the things that have been stated above are Braddock’s efforts to get safety on his job. He wants to work in calm and quite. There is no anxiety, fear, and pressure. He wants to do his job, as a boxer or as dockworker with safe. 3. Belongingness and Love Needs The needs of James J. Braddock that can be categorized in this need are friendship, having a family, and religious group. Braddock is surrounded by his friends that always help him whenever he needs. Beside that Braddock becomes the member of the church. Having a family means that someone has responsibility for his family. In Cinderella Man film it can be seen that Braddock marries with Mae and they get three kids; Jay, Howard, and Rosy. For Braddock, his family is the important thing in the world, so he will do anything for his family. Braddock’s struggle for love and belongingness need in this film can be seen such as when Braddock has to work on docks although his right hand is broken. Mae Braddock : “Jimmy, if you can’t work…we’re not gonna be able to pay the electric, or the heat. And we’re out of credit at the grocery. So I think we need to pack the kids. They could stay at my sister’s for a little while…and I’ll take in more sewing”. Braddock : “That way we could make two, three breadlines a day. I’ll get doubles, triples, whatever I can find”. Mae Braddock : “Jimmy, you can’t work”. Braddock : “Mae, I can still work”. Mae Braddock : “Jimmy, you can’t work. Your hand is broken” (CM, 26:15). Since Braddock loses his licenses to fight and has to work on docks, he just gets few money and it made he can’t pay the electricity, or the heat. Oneday, Mae has to send her kids in her relative’s house because Mae can’t 56 keep them warm. It makes Braddock very sad. To get the kids back, Braddock goes to Emergency Relief Administration to borrow some money, because the money gotten by Braddock is not enough to pay the electricity or the heat, then he goes to Madison Square Garden hangout and begging money from his former boxing associates. Promoter 1 : “There’s Jimmy Braddock”. Braddock : “The thing is, I can’t afford to…I can’t afford to pay the heat. I’ve had to farm out my kids. You know, they keep cutting shifts down at the docks…and you just don’t get picked everyday. I sold everything I’ve got that anybody would buy. I went on public assistance. I signed on at the relief office. They gave me $ 19. I need another $ 18,38 so I can pay the bill and get the kids back. You know me well enough to know if I had anywhere else to go…I wouldn’t be here. If you could help me through this time, I sure would be grateful”. Promoter 2 : “Sure, Jim. Sure. Good luck”. Promoter 3 : “Jim”. Promoter 4 : “Hey, Jimmy. Here you go, Jim. Good luck, Jim” (CM, 65:18). Braddock loves his family so much. When he has a broken hand, he is not too sad because he is surrounded by people that love and always support him, such as his family and his friends. In the other hand, when his family is in danger such as lack of food and his kids is sick, he is so sad and worried, even almost desperated. His sadness can be seen clearly in his face expression when he walks head to Madison Square Garden. Family becomes one of the motives underlying his struggle. Braddock has a broken hand but he works anyway. It is the only way to feed his family and provides comfort for his family. He will do everything for his family, although his struggle endangers himself. 57 4. Self-esteem Needs The self-esteem appears in Braddock’s life. There are Braddock’s needs included in this category. They are respected by others, recognition, fame, glory, reputation, appreciation, and dignity. To realize all of those needs, Braddock has to make great effort for it. He wants to be respected by others, at least he has ability and uses his ability to work as boxer and get money. It can help his family in order they eat everyday. In contrast, his opponent Max Baer doesn’t respect with his work. He even mocks Braddock for what he has done to his family and his career. It makes Mae, Braddock’s wife angry and then pour water on Baer’s face. Max Baer : “Yeah. I think the smart thing would be for you to take a fall. Circus act’s over, old man”. Reporter : “Right here, Max. there you go”. Braddock : “I think I’ll go a few rounds with the dancing Baer”. Joe Gould : “Yeah, there you go. Come on, Jim. Very good. Okay. Come on. Okay. Hey, we’ll see you in the ring”. Braddock : “Max, my wife, Mae”. Max Baer : “You ought to talk him, Mae. You are far too pretty to be a widow”. Joe Gould : “That’s not nice, Max. Not nice. Come on”. Max Baer : “On second thought, maybe I can comfort you after he’s gone”. Joe gould : “Hey, I said shut your goddamn mouth, you punk!” Braddock : “Sorry. Send me the cleaning bill”. Max Baer : “Get that, boys? Now he’s got his wife doing his fighting for him”. Braddock : “Yeah. Ain’t she something?” (CM, 95:73). Braddock also needs recognition and appreciation from others. Braddock feels inferiority, disappointed, weak when his promoter, Mr. Johnston regards Braddock’s fight as “no contest”. Mr. Johnston thinks that fight like keeps people away. He even revokes Braddock’s license to fight. 58 Braddock’s expression can be seen clearly, he is annoyed because people don’t respect his work. Braddock : “Mr. Johnston!” Mr. Johnston : “Jim. What’s going on? You didn’t tell him?” Jou Gould : “Yeah, of course I told him. He wanted to hear it from you”. Braddock : “Come on, Mr. Johnston, no contest? I broke my hand. Okay? It’s legit. You don’t see me crying about it. I don’t see what you got to complain about. I still went out there. I still put on a show. I did what I could do. You know, we did that boondocks circuit for you…me and Joe. Remember? I didn’t quite on you. And I didn’t quite tonight. I didn’t always lose. I won’t always lose again. I can still fight ”. Mr. Johnston : “Go home”. Braddock : “I can still fight” Mr. Johnston : “Go home to Mae and the kids, Jim”. Braddock : “Go home? Go home with what? Go home with what? A broken hand from Mount Vernon? Mr. Johnston!” (CM, 25:30). Need to be respected for his ability and for what he has done is the motive why Braddock has to struggle. If someone is respected for what he has done, he will have value and be important in the world. It makes Braddock happier. It can be seen when Braddock goes home from fight and win. He expresses his happiness by bringing a red rose bouquet for his wife. In the end of this story this need can be fulfilled by Braddock. He gets s fame, glory, reputation, and dignity because of his hard struggles. 5. Self-actualization Needs Braddock wants to actualize his potential by boxing under the good condition. But it is very hard for him to make his passion comes true. The situation and his environment don’t support him. Even his potentiality and his bravery is doubted by people especially his promoter 59 Mr. Johnston : “You want to think about it?” Braddock : “You think you’re telling me something? What, like, boxing is dangerous, something like that? You don’t think triple shifts or working nights on the scaffolds…is just as likely to get a guy killed? How many guys died the other night living in cardboard shacks…trying to get save on rent money? Guys who were trying to feed their family. ‘Cause men like you…have not yet quite figured out a way to make money…out of watching that guy die. In my profession, and it’s my profession…I’m little more fortune” (CM, 91:75). Braddock’s actualization happens when he is under good condition. It can be seen when his manager, Joe Gould offers him one fight. That is a though fight but Jim win. Then Joe Gould gets another fight to Braddock. He keeps wining. Eventually, he has to fight the heavyweight champion of the world, Max Baer. When Braddock gets a fight against Max Baer, his wife doesn’t support his decision to take the fight. Her reason is she worries with Braddock’s safety. Mae Braddock : “He’s killed two men, Jimmy! What’s worth it?” Braddock : “I have to believe I got some kind of say over our lives. Okay? You know, that if things are bad, that we can change them…we can make things better for our family”. Mae Braddock : “But I need you to be safe…”. Braddock : “Nothing safe anymore, Mae…so much. And without that…”. Mae Braddock : “I need you to be safe!…nothing’s safe at all. All right. I have stood by for all of it. Until now. Not for this Jimmy. I just can’t. so you train all you want. Make a show of it for your self, for the papers. But you find a way out of that fight. Break your hand again if you have to” (CM, 95:70). Then Braddock gives understanding to Mae about his decision. That is not simple thing for Mae to agree with Braddock’s decision, but finally Mae takes it and gives her support to her husband in order that he can win the fight. 60 Mae Braddock : “You can’t win without me behind you. That’s what I’ve been trying to tell you. Maybe I understand some. About having to fight. So you just remember who you are. You’re the Bulldog from Bergen…and the pride of New Jersey. You’re everybody’s hope. And you’re your kids hero. And you are the champion of my heart…James J. Braddock”. Braddock : “You know, you better get home. You know, boxers hang around places like this…and you don’t want to get tangled up with that kind of crowd. Nice girl like you. Mae Braddock : “Yeah, okay. I’ll see you at home. Please Jimmy” (CM, 106:73). That is the last Braddock’s struggle. Although his career almost finishes and he has to work as a dockworker on docks, his interest in boxing never ends. He always tries to get the second chance in order he can do boxing again. Finally, his dream to fight comes true. His struggles make him becomes the New World heavyweight champion. Beside that he can actualize his ability as a boxer. Futhermore, knowing one has reached this level or not it can be recognized by the presence of the characteristics of self-actualization person by Maslow as conveyed in the major character’s personality. B. Braddock as A Self-actualized Person Braddock can be said as a self-actualized person because he has mostly the characteristics of self-actualization. The characteristics can be drawn as follows: 1. More Efficient Perception of Reality This film reflects the characteristic of more efficient perception of reality. This characteristics demands Braddock to appreciate what is talking from what is real of being alive and Braddock has a clear understanding 61 about right and wrong. He knows that what is done by his son, Jay is wrong. When his son steals a salami from the butcher, Braddock makes the children return it. Braddock always teaches his kids honesty. Furthermore, it can be said that Braddock has an ability to have a clear understanding about right and wrong. 2. Acceptance of Self, Others, and Nature Cinderella Man reflects the characteristic of the quality of acceptance of self, others, and nature. Self-acceptance means that Braddock accepts his condition of life patiently. His condition is weak and sickly. He realizes that life has its ups and downs. He lives in basement apartment and there is a simple life. Braddock can accept others without being burdened by shortcoming. He can make friendship with others with all their weaknesses. He is also able to accept nature as it is. He doesn’t complain when he is sick and getting old. He accepts it as nature cycles. 3. Spontancity, Simplicity, and Naturalness This film reflects the characteristic of spontancity, simplicity, and naturalness. Braddock’s attitude shows spontaneous action, even he gets sympathy from his partners because of his spontaneously. He decides to beg money from his former boxing associates to pay the electricity and gets his kids back. In his jobs he always receives challenge in order to better his life. In this case, he becomes more expressive and creative in facing life. 62 4. Problem-centered This film reflects the characteristic of problem-centered. When Braddock’s wife has to send their kids in the relative’s house, Braddock wants to get his kids back because he has promise that he never sends them away. So Braddock decides to borrow some money from Emergency Relief Administration. Then he has to be ashamed of himself of begging money from his former boxing associates in order he can pay the electricity and get his kids back. Furthermore, it can be said that Braddock is able to solve his problem to get his kids back. 5. Autonomy (Independence of Culture and Environment) Braddock depends on himself for growth, self-actualizes have self- confidence. It has an understanding that Braddock also has capability to develop himself and to reach the goal in his life without depending on his environment and culture. For Braddock, providing comfort for his family and getting his career back as a boxer is his obsession. He has a big motivation to realize his dream. In reaching his goal life, he has to work hard in different environments. 6. Social Interest (Gemeinschoftsgefubl) This film, major character reflects the characteristic of social interest. In his life, Braddock shares feeling of sympathy and affection for all humanity. He treats others as his own family, he also has desire to help people sincerely. When there is an accident happen in Hoovervilles, Central 63 Park, he tries to help his friend, Mike who is steamrolled by a runaway horse and buggy. 7. Interpersonal Relation In Cinderella Man film it can be seen that Braddock enjoys making relationship with everyone even he has a lot of friends. But he tends to be intimate with his friend named Joe Gould, because he feels comfort with him. Beside that Joe Gould always helps him when Braddock faces problems. 8. The Democratic Character Structure The main character of Braddock shows a person who is able to make relationship with people in general whether less talented one without burdened by individual variety and ethnic. He is open to people from different class, race, religion, sex, occupation etc. Braddock meets different people in his life although he comes from Irish. He makes a good relationship with them. 9. Philosophical Sense of Humor This film, the major character reflects the characteristic of philosophical sense of humor. Braddock’s jokes usually do not hurt other people, but it rather has a certain purpose because joke can make the body healthy, fresh, and makes feeling enjoy. It can be seen when press conference, Braddock makes a joke about his kids. Beside that his train is full of joke. However, Braddock makes a joke without mocking and hurting other. Then, it is said that Braddock possesses the philosophical sense of humor. 64 10. Creativeness People in the world must be creative to survive. In Cinderella Man, the major character reflects the characteristic of creativeness. Braddock shows his creativity in his job. People should be creative in their own way. This kind of creativity will bring freshness to their need or job. From the explanation above can be conclude that there are 15 characteristics of self-actualization and only 10 characteristics that can be satisfied by the major character. C. Discussion Howard’s latest film is Cinderella Man. This film tells about the phenomenon that happened in the great depression. Ron Howard gives attention in the needs and the motives especially in James J. Braddock as one of the major characters in this movie. Braddock is a boxer who has a series of defeats when the nation enters the great depression. He has to struggle to fulfill his necessaries. When the nation enters the great depression, Braddock has a series of defeats. Fighting injured, including with a broken hand, makes him less of a fighter. Braddock, like many others in that era, loses of physiological needs, security or safety needs, love and belongingness needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. He has to make great effort in order his necessaries can be fulfilled. There are some levels of Braddock’s needs. Braddock must struggle hard in step by step to fulfill his needs from the lowest to the highest needs. Braddock demands to fulfill the basic needs first. His struggle to get basic needs 65 is not easy especially his struggle to fulfill his need to eat. It is the most difficult needs to be fulfilled. In great depression era, Braddock loses everything in the stock market. So he has to struggle in order he and his family can eat. His struggle can be seen when he must work on docks although he has a broken right hand. Hungry becomes his motive to struggle. Hungry person is motivated to eat. As long as this need remains unsatisfied, his primary motivation is to obtain something to eat. After the basic need is fulfilled, he tries to get safety in the job. We know that Braddock is a boxer, and boxer is risky job. Beside that he has a broken right hand when he must work on docks. So to get safety on his job, he has to find the way in order it can minimize the risk, such as by hard training before he fight and covers his broken right hand with shoe polish. Thus he can work calm and quite. The next level is belongingness and love needs. Braddock’s needs that can be categorized in this need is friendship, having a family, and religious group. Braddock is surrounded by his friends that always help him whenever he needs. Beside that, Braddock becomes the member of the church. Family becomes the next motive, why Braddock has to struggle. Family is the important thing in his life. He has to struggle to provides comfortable for his family. He can so sad, worried, and even desperated when his family is in danger. He has a broken right hand, but he will do everything for his family, although his struggle endangers himself. After his family necessaries can be fulfilled, the self-esteem needs appear in Braddock’s life. This need will make someone feel more useful, viewed, and 66 respected by other. At the time of great depression this needs narrowly disappears. They just think of themselves and do not respect with other. Need to be respected by others also becomes Braddock’s motive. Although Braddock plays draw against Abe Feldman, his promoter, Mr. Johnston doesn’t respect him and regards Braddock’s fight as no contest. Even he revokes Braddock’s license to fight. It makes him feel inferiority, disappointed, and weak. In the end of this story, Braddock gets fame, glory, reputation, and dignity because of his hard struggles. The next level is self-actualization needs. It is the highest level needs. The motive why Braddock has to struggle is he wants to actualize his potential as a boxer. Actually, Braddock wants to actualize his potential by boxing under the good condition. But it is very difficult for him to make his passion come true. Although his career almost finish and he must work on docks, his interest in boxing never end. He always makes some efforts in order he can do boxing again. It makes him becoming the New World Heavyweight champion. Family and boxing becomes part in his life. Ron Howard gives the resolution of this film is that Braddock’s life is changing from lack and desperate life into a man with all of his superiority. Beside that Braddock can be said as a self-actualized person, because the characteristics of self-actualization have been portrayed in Braddock’s personality. It can be seen that there are 10 characteristics can be satisfied by the major character from 15 characteristics of self-actualization. The characteristics are (1) more efficient perception of reality, (2) acceptance of self, others, and 67 nature, (3) spontancity, simplicity, and naturalness, (4) problem-centered, (5) autonomy (independence of culture and environment), (6) social interest, (7) interpersonal relation, (8) democratic character structure, (9) philosophical sense of humor, and the last (10) creativeness. Based on the analysis above, it is obvious for the writer to state the structural elements on Cinderella Man are matched with the main idea of Howard viewed by humanistic perspective. CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION After analyzing Ron Howard’s Cinderella Man, conclusion and suggestion are drawn. This chapter is divided into two parts. The first part states about the conclusion that can be drawn in order to answer the problem of the study, and the second one offers some suggestions, which are considered to be useful for all. A. Conclusion Reffering to the problem statement and the analysis in the previous chapter, the writer finally take some conclusions. First, Ron Howard as the director reveals that all of human beings have different needs and some motives why they have to do something. Like Braddock, he also has some needs. He has to struggle in order his needs canbe fulfilled. Second, there are some motives underlying Braddock’s struggle. First, the motive concerns with physiological needs, that is hungry. Braddock has to hard work to get money in order he and his family can eat. Second motive is he wants to get safety in his job. It relates with safety and security needs. The next motive relates to belongingness and love needs, that is family. He loves his family so much. So he will do everything for his family. Fourth, the motive is he wants to be respected for what he has done. This motive included in self-esteem needs. The last motive underlying Braddock’s struggle is he wants to actualize his potential as a boxer. 68 69 Third, Braddock can be said as a self-actualized person because the characteristics of self-actualization have been portrayed in Braddock’s personality. The characteristics are more efficient perception of reality, acceptance of self, others, and nature, spontancity, simplicity, and naturalness, problem-centered, autonomy (independence of culture and environment), social interest, interpersonal relation, democratic character structure, philosophical sense of humor, and the last creativeness. B. Suggestion The writer has chosen humanistic psychological approach; hierarchy of needs to deal with this film. This study can still be improved. It is widely possible for other writers to apply different approach such as sociological approach. This approach toward the same film will bring new perspective in gaining more understanding about the film and ideas beyond it. BIBLIOGRAPHY Bordwell, David and Kristin Thompson. 1990. Film Art and Introduction. New York: McGraw-Hill. Burger, Jerry M. 1986. Personality: Theory and Research. California: Wardsworth Publishing Company. Coon, Dennis. 1980. Introduction of Psychology Exploration and Application. (2nd Ed). New York: West Publishing. Co. Douglass, John S. and Glenn P. Harnder. 1996. The Art of Technique an Aesthethic Approach to Film and Video Production. Boston: Allyn and Bocan. Feist, Jest. 1985. Theories of Personality. Canada: CBS College Publishing. Hjelle, L. and Ziegler, D. 1981. Personalities Theories: Basic Assumption, Research and Application. New York: McGraw-Hill. Hjelle, L. and Ziegler, D. 1992. Personalities Theories: Basic Assumption, Research and Application. Third Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. Hornby, As. 1985. Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Klarer, Mario. 1999. An Introduction to Literature Studies. London: Routledge. http://www.script-o-rama.com/movie_scripts/c/cinderella-mans-script- transcript.html. Accessed on March 7th, 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/maslow’s_hierarchy_of_needs. Accessed on March 7th, 2006. http://www.accel-team.com/maslow_/maslow-nds-02.html. Accessed on March 7th, 2006. http://www.jamesjbraddock.com/movie. Accessed on March 3rd, 2006. http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/maslow.html. Accessed on March 7th, 2006. http://www.imdbpro.com/mpaa. Accessed on June 9th, 2006. http://www.gerandkeegan.co.uk/source/humanistic.htm. Accessed on June 9th, 2006.
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