struggle for life in cliff hollingworth's and akiva cinderella man by sichankomik

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									STRUGGLE FOR LIFE IN CLIFF HOLLINGSWORTH’S AND AKIVA
GOLDSMAN’S CINDERELLA MAN DIRECTED BY RON HOWARD:
                 A HUMANISTIC APPROACH




                        RESEARCH PAPER

         Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
               for Getting Bachelor Degree of Education
                        in English Department




                                  by
                    IRFANA MAFTUKHAH
                            A. 320.020.014




   SCHOOL OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
    MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF SURAKARTA
                                 2006
                               APPROVAL



    STRUGGLE FOR LIFE CLIFF HOLLINGSWORTH’S AND AKIVA

   GOLDSMAN’S CINDERELLA MAN DIRECTED BY RON HOWARD:

                         A HUMANISTIC APPROACH




                              Research Paper




                                Written by

                             Irfana Maftukhah
                               A.320.020.014




                               Approved by




  First Consultant                                   Second Consultant




Drs. M. Thoyibi, M. S.                          Drs. Agus Wijayanto, M. A.




                                    ii
                                 ACCEPTANCE




                      Accepted by the Board of Examiners

                    School of Teacher Training and Education

                     Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta




                                Team of Examiners



1. Drs. M. Thoyibi, M. S.                                (……………………..)
   (Chair Person)


2. Drs. Agus Wijayanto, M. A.                            (.…………………….)
   (Member I)


3. Dra. Dwi Hariyanti, M.Hum.                            (……………………..)
   (Member II)




               The Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty




                            Drs. H. Sofyan Anif, M. Si
                                     NIK: 547




                                        iii
                                   MOTTO




Sesungguhnya sesudah kesulitan itu ada kemudahan, maka apabila kamu telah
selesai dari urusan kerjakanlah dengan sungguh-sungguh urusan yang lain
                                                    (QS. Alam Nasyrah: 6-7)


Dengan ilmu hidup menjadi mudah, dengan seni hidup menjadi indah, dan dengan
agama kehidupan menjadi terarah dan bermakna
                                                            (H.A. Mukti Ali)


Hope for the best and prepare for the worst
                                                                 (The Writer)




                                       iv
                             DEDICATION




            This research paper is wholeheartedly dedicated to:

The Greatest Ones in the world Alloh SWT and his Prophet Muhammad SAW

                 My everything pa’e-bu’e, for everything

               My beloved brothers, M’Zacky and D’Luthfi

                      All of my relatives and friends

                            My husband to be




                                    v
                              ACKNOWLEDGEMENT




Assalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb.

         Alhamdulillahirobbil’alamiin. Praise and gratitude to Alloh SWT, The Lord

of Universe, The Merciful and Compassionate, thanks for continuing to guide her

life, His blessing and guidance supports her finishing this paper. Praise and

invocation are presented to Prophet Muhammad SAW, who has led people to the

right way.

         The writer would like to express her sincere gratitude for all of people who

give contribution to make this research paper more completely. Without their

contribution the writer is likely impossible to finish it. The writer is indebted all of

them. Therefore, in this opportunity she would like to express her special and deepest

gratitude and appreciation to:

1. Drs. H. Sofyan Anif, M. Si. as the Dean of the School of Teacher Training and

   Education.

2. Mrs. Koesoemo Ratih, S. Pd., M. Hum. as the Chief of English Departement in

   Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta.

3. Dra. Siti Khuzaimah as the writer Academic Consultant of Teacher Training and

   Education.

4. Drs. M. Thoyibi, M. S. as the First Consultant, for his great helpful guidance and

   attention from the very beginning up to the completion of the research paper.

5. Drs. Agus Wijayanto, M. Hum. as the Second Consultant, for his great helpful

   guidance of this thesis.




                                           vi
6. All of Lectures in Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta.

7. Librarian in Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta.

8. Her beloved greatest Parents in the world for their prayer, and all they have

   done to her, for everything and she loves them so much, ever after.

9. Her beloved elder brother Mas Zacky and young brother De’Luthfi, for having

   fun with her and for being such an outstanding brothers.

10. Her Grandfather and her Grandmothers for giving wise words.

11. Mb. Ida for being her sister that always giving attention and advice to the writer.

12. Her aunts, uncles, cousins, and nieces in Tayu and Solo.

13. Her lovely friends: Ana, Ticka_Chu, and Riza, for everything that makes the

   writer proud to be their friend.

14. Her close friends: Arik, Ci2k, Ayu, Dian, Mey_Mey, and also KJ boarding

   house occupant: Sri, Yani, Wahyok, Lina, Puji, Deni, Ayu, Ika, Tia, Uti, for

   being meaningful.

15. All of the member of English Departement 2002 especially her best friends in

   class A: Ind@h Pruntil, Ern@ Cemplux, Weet@, Rozzie, Sofri, @rik,

   @yu, Uti, Loris, Sefti, Eni, @sih, M@reth@, Eko, H@n@fi, etc.

16. MLP especially Latimojong Team, for the great and unforgetable experiences.

17. All of her close friends in Al-Ma’ruf Kudus 2002: Yanthie, Thee-thiex,

   Thie2x, Ariek, Fajrul (Rip), Bayu, Tangkas, Patkay, Mbah Ulin, Arina,

   for the nice friendship, togetherness, and happiness.



                                          vii
18. All of songs: “stranger by the day”, “the wind of change”, “under the

   same sun”, I’tirofe Uje, Opick “bila waktu tlah berakhir”, Simple Plan

   “Untitled”, “Shut Up” etc for accompanying the writer in the night.

19. All of people that cannot be mentioned one by one, for being part of the writer

   life.

Wassalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb.




                                                      Surakarta, September 2006

                                                              The Writer




                                                                  I.M




                                       viii
                                            TABLE OF CONTENT

                                                                                                                       Page

PAGE OF TITLE ................................................................................................            i

APPROVAL .......................................................................................................         ii

ACCEPTANCE .................................................................................................             iii

MOTTO .............................................................................................................      iv

DEDICATION ...................................................................................................            v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .................................................................................                        vi

TABLE OF CONTENT .....................................................................................                   ix

SUMMARY .......................................................................................................          xi

CHAPTER I                 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................                 1

                          A. Background of Study .......................................................                  4

                          B. Literary Review ...............................................................              4

                          C. Limitation of the Study ....................................................                 4

                          D. Problem Statement ...........................................................                4

                          E. Objective of the Study .....................................................                 4

                          F. Benefit of the Study .........................................................               5

                          G. Research Method .............................................................                5

                          H. Paper Organization ..........................................................                6

CHAPTER II               UNDERLYING THEORY .....................................................                          7

                          A. Notion of Humanistic Psychology ...................................                          7

                          B. Theory of Humanistic Psychology; The Hierarchy of

                               Needs ...............................................................................      8

                                1. Physiological Needs .................................................                  9

                                2. Safety and Security Needs ........................................                     9

                                3. Belongingness and Love Needs ................................                        10


                                                             ix
                    4. Self-esteem Needs ....................................................          11

                    5. Self-actualization Needs ...........................................            11

              C. Structural Elements of the Movie ....................................                 16

                    1. Narrative Elements ...................................................          17

                    2. Technical Elements ...................................................          21

              D. Theoretical Application ....................................................          24

CHAPTER III   STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE MOVIE.....................                                    25

              A. Structural Elements of the Movie ....................................                 25

                    1. Narrative Elements ...................................................          26

                    2. Technical Elements ...................................................          39

              B. Discussion.........................................................................   47

CHAPTER IV    HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS ................                                       51

              A. The Needs of James J. Braddock .....................................                  51

                    1. Physiological Needs .................................................           51

                    2. Security or Safety Needs ..........................................             53

                    3. Belongingness and Love Needs ................................                   55

                    4. Self-esteem Needs ....................................................          57

                    5. Self-actualization Needs ..........................................             58

              B. James J. Braddock as A Self-actualized Person ..............                          60

              C. Discussion.........................................................................   64

CHAPTER V     CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION ..................................                             68

              A. Conlusion .........................................................................   68

              B. Suggestion ........................................................................   69

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX


                                                x
                                   SUMMARY



IRFANA MAFTUKHAH. A.320.020.014. STRUGGLE FOR LIFE IN CLIFF
HOLLINGSWORTH’S AND AKIVA GOLDSMAN’S CINDERELLA MAN
DIRECTED BY RON HOWARD: A HUMANISTIC APPROACH.
RESEARCH PAPER. MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF SURAKARTA.

         This study describes the struggle of James J. Braddock viewed from
humanistic perspective, and analyzes the film Cinderella Man based on its structural
elements.
         The research is conducted by using qualitative method. In this method, the
researcher uses two data sources, namely primary and secondary data source. The
primary data is film Cinderella Man directed by Ron Howard. The secondary data
source are the books about psychology and the other sources, which are related to the
analysis. The methode of collecting data is observation and library review.
         Based on the analysis, the study reveals there are some motives underlying
the struggle of James J. Braddock. The motives are hungry, getting safety in the job,
family, respected by others, and the last motive is to actualize the potential as
professional boxer.



     First Consultan                                       Second Consultan




  Drs. M. Thoyibi, M. S.                              Drs. Agus Wijayanto, M. A.
       NIK. 410                                              NIK. 100 947


                           The Dean of Teacher Training
                              and Education Faculty




                            Drs. H. Sofyan Anif, M.Si.
                                     NIK. 547




                                         xi
                                     CHAPTER I

                                  INTRODUCTION



A. Background of Study

          In real life, a struggle can be seen in a society. Struggle means some

   efforts to reach something. The struggle varies, such as struggle for justice,

   struggle to get a job, struggle to get a higher position on their profession, struggle

   for freedom, struggle for love, struggle to get achievement, and also struggle for

   life. Many ways are used to make necessities come true. They can do everything

   to struggle something they need. Although struggle to get or reach something is

   hard, at least the better condition is able to reach.

          Struggle for life may occur in the household, such as when a father as the

   chief of the family can’t avoid his inability to provide for his wife and his kids.

   He is ceaselessly motivated to work hard and struggle in order his family current

   needs such as psychological, physical, and spiritual discomforts can be fulfilled.

   That is for sure, that there are some motivations why he has to struggle. As a

   chief of the family, he has responsibility to provide enough food for his family. It

   is the first motivation. The other motivation is as a normal person; he wants to

   love somebody else. For him, his family is the most important thing in the world.

   So he will do everything for his family, although his struggle endangers himself.

          Motivation is one of the important ideas in humanistic psychology.

   Motivation means the encouragement to do something. In humanistic

   psychology, people’s behavior determined by motives to fulfill their needs.

   Basically, our actions are motivated by deficiency. That is lack of something.




                                            1
                                                                                  2



May be lack food and look for it, lack safety and look for it, or lack company and

look for it.

       One of the most well known humanistic psychologists is Abraham

Maslow. His theory is called Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow formulated a theory of

human motivation in which the human’s being many varying needs are seen as

arising in a hierarchical fashion. That is, certain basic needs, such as hunger and

thirst, must be satisfied before other needs.

       Maslow (in Hjelle, 1992:448) proposed that all human needs are innate

and that they are systematically arranged in an ascending hierarchy of priority or

prepotency. The needs are, in order of their priority: (1) physiological needs; (2)

safety and security needs; (3) belongingness and love needs; (4) self-esteem

needs; and (5) self-actualization needs, or the needs for personal fulfillment.

       To fulfill those needs human being must be motivated to work hard and

struggle in order they can get everything what they need. These realities often

occur and can be found around us. We can’t imagine how people struggle when

their nation entered the darkest years of the great depression or how people

struggle to stay alive at the time of World War. It is more difficult to reach the

hierarchy of needs than present time. It may be easy for us to know the struggle

at the time in a story or film.

       Film has the same position, as the major genres in textual studies, like

poetry and novel. It is true that film becomes part of daily life, which always

attracts the attention million people in this world.

       Following the popularity of film in recent years, some directors create their

own style in directing a film. They try to serve a good film with different style
                                                                                 3



from other. One of them is Ron Howard. He started his debut 40 years ago, and

he has done some films. Howard’s latest film is Cinderella Man. This film is

based on actual life experience of ex-prizefighter named James J. Braddock.

Cinderella Man was released in June 2005 as theatrical and as DVD/ Video in

December 2005. The genre of this film is drama with screenplay written by Cliff

Hollingsworth and Akiva Goldsman.

      Howard’s film is fact-based story of ex-prizefighter named James J.

Braddock. At the time, Braddock’s career appeared to be finished, he was unable

to pay the bills, the only thing that really mattered to him that his family was in

danger, and he was even forced to go on public relief. But deep inside, Jim

Braddock never relinquished his determination. Driven by love, honor, and

incredible dose of grief, he tries to make an impossible dream come true.

(http://www.jamesjbraddock).

      Based on the explanation above, the writer is interested to observe what

motives underlying the struggle of James J. Braddock when his nation entered the

darkest years of the Great Depression. The writer proposed humanistic

psychology to study about Braddock’s struggle to reach the hierarchy needs and

entitled this paper: STRUGGLE FOR LIFE IN CLIFF HOLLINGSWORTH’S

AND AKIVA GOLDSMAN’S CINDERELLA MAN DIRECTED BY RON

HOWARD: A HUMANISTIC APPROACH.
                                                                                   4



B. Literary Review

           Cinderella Man is an interesting film, and as far as the writer knows that

   there is no such kind of research analyzing this film whether in Muhammadiyah

   University of Surakarta and Surakarta region. So it is the first research on this

   film.

           In this occasion, the researcher takes the humanistic psychological

   approach to reveal the struggle for life of James J. Braddock as one of the main

   characters in Cinderella Man film.


C. Limitation of the Study

           The writer will focus on analyzing the motives underlying the struggle of

   James J. Braddock as the major character in the film based on humanistic

   psychological perspective.


D. Problem Statement

           Based on the title and the background of the study, the writer formulates

   the problem as follows; “What are the motives underlying the struggle of James

   J. Braddock”.


E. Objective of the Study

           Based on the problem stated above, the writer proposes the objectives of

   the study as follows:

   1. To analyze the structural elements of the film.

   2. To identify the motives underlying the struggle based on humanistic

      perspective.
                                                                                 5



F. Benefit of the Study

          The study is expected to give benefit as follows:

   1. To give some contribution on understanding of the film Cinderella Man

      especially by a Humanistic Approach.

   2. To improve the researcher’s understanding and competence in applying a

      psychological approach to literature.


G. Research Method

   1. Object of the study

      The researcher takes Cinderella Man film as the object of the study. The

      movie is directed by Ron Howard released in June 3rd, 2005.

   2. Data source

      The researcher here uses qualitative. This is a library research, which takes

      the source of the data from words and other writing. The writer divides the

      data source into two categories:

      a. Primary Data Source

          The primary data is taken from Cinderella Man film and the movie script

          downloaded        from     http://www.script-o-rama.com/movie_scripts/c/

          ciderella-mans-cript-transcript.html.

      b. Secondary Sata Source

          The secondary data source is taken from other sources, which are related

          to the primary data such as biography of the director, some books of

          psychology, website about the film and another data related to this

          research.
                                                                                   6



   3. Technique of Data Collection

      a. Observation

          The data are taken by watching the movie of Cinderella Man in order to

          understand about the movie.

      b. Library Research

          The data are collected from the books that related to the topic.

   4. Technique of Data Analysis

      The researcher uses two techniques in analyzing the data:

      a. Analyzing the structural elements of the film includes narrative and

          technical elements.

      b. Analyzing the struggle for life of the main character using descriptive

          qualitative analysis.



H. Paper Organization

         This research paper is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is

   introduction, which consists of background of the study, problem statement,

   objective of the study, benefit of study, research method, and paper organization.

   The second chapter deals with the underlying theory, including the notion of

   humanistic psychology and theory of humanistic psychology; the hierarchy of

   needs, structural elements of the film, and theoretical application. The third

   chapter is structural analysis of the film, including narrative and technical

   elements. The fourth chapter is dealing with the analysis using humanistic

   psychology. And the last chapter is conclusion and suggestion.
                                     CHAPTER II

                             UNDERLYING THEORY



         This chapter deals with underlying theory, which is used by the writer in

this research. This chapter is divided into four parts. The first part is the notion of

humanistic psychology. Second is the theory of humanistic psychology; the hierarchy

of needs. It is often depicted as a pyramid, consisting five levels. The third is

structural elements of the movie consist of two elements; narrative elements and

technical elements. The last part is theoretical application.



A. Notion of Humanistic Psychology

          Humanistic psychology is one of psychological studies. Humanistic

   psychology emphasizes the important of free will. It means that people have

   ability to make choices (Coon, 1980: 18).

          According to Burger (1986: 254) by this free will, people can determine

   their own destiny and decide their actions. It means that people can do everything

   that they want and also people can choose everything what they need and what

   they want.

          Humanistic psychology is a reaction to the psychoanalysis and the

   behaviorism. As Coon (1980: 18) stated that “humanistic reject the Freudian idea

   that the personality is ruled by unconscious forces and behavioristic idea that

   people are controlled by the environment”.




                                            7
                                                                                    8



         Humanistic psychologists argue that psychological needs like the need for

   love, self-esteem, belonging, and self-expression, and creativity are as important

   as the biological needs food and water (Coon, 1980: 18).

         The most well known humanistic psychologists are Carl Rogers and

   Abraham Maslow. Carl Rogers emphasizes on person-centered or self-theory.

   While Maslow emphasizes on self-actualization (www.gerandkeegan.co.uk/

   resource/humanistic.htm)



B. Theory of Humanistic Psychology; The Hierarchy of Needs

         The theory of psychology is used by the writer to observe the film

   presented by Abraham Maslow. Maslow took this idea and created his now

   famous hierarchy needs. His theory contends that as humans meet ‘basic needs’,

   they seek to satisfy successively ‘higher needs’ that occupy a set hierarchy

   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/maslow’s_hierarchy_of_needs). Beyond the details

   of water, air, food sex, he laid out five broader layers: the psychological needs,

   the needs for safety and security, the needs for love and belonging, the needs for

   esteem,    the     need     to    actualize    the    self,    in    that    order

   (http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/maslow.html).

         Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is often depicted as a pyramid consisting of

   five levels: the four lower levels are grouped together as deficiency needs, and

   the top level is termed growth needs. The basic concept is that the higher needs in

   this hierarchy only come into focus once all the needs that are lower down in the

   pyramid     are   mainly     or    entirely   satisfied    (http://en.wkipedia.org/

   wiki/maslow’s_hierarchy_of_needs).
                                                                                 9



Diagram of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs



                                   Actualization

                                      Esteem

                                  Love/Belonging

                                      Safety

                                   Physiological



1. Physiological Needs

          The needs are taken as the first point of motivation theory called as

   physiological needs. Physiological needs are the lowest or most the basics

   aspect of human motivation. They are also called as primary motives. Briefly,

   Hjelle stated that “including in this group is the needs for food, drink,

   oxygen, activity and sleep, sex, protection from extreme temperatures, and

   sensory stimulation” (1981: 360). Then we can conclude that physiological

   needs directly concern with the biological maintenance such as clothes and

   houses for sheltering from temperature, rain, and other condition.

2. Safety and Security Needs

          Once the physiological needs are fairly well satisfied, the person

   becomes concerned with a new set. The next set is the security and safety

   needs. Included here are the needs for structure, stability, law, and order,

   predictability, and freedom such threatening forces as illness, fear, and chaos.

   Thus, these needs reflected concern about long term survival (Hjelle and

   Ziegler, 1992: 450).
                                                                                 10



          Feist (1985: 203) stated that “the human expression of these needs is

   seen most clearly in the infant’s inhibited response-crying, screaming, and

   jerking convulsively- to being handle roughly, startled by loud noise or bright

   lights, or just inadequately supported by a parent”.

          The safety needs in such simple things as desire for job with tenure

   and benefits, a saving account, and insurance of various kinds. Maslow (in

   Feist, 1985: 204) stated that science, philosophy, and religion are partially

   motivated by the safety needs, but as we will see, these phenomena have

   other motivation as well. Http://www.accel-team.com/maslow_/maslow-nds-

   02.html further notice that these needs are essentially the need to be free of

   the fear of physical danger and deprivation of the basic physiological needs.

   In other words, this is a need for self-preservation. In addition to the here and

   now, there is concern for the future.

3. Belongingness and Love Needs

          When physiological needs and safety needs are, by and large, taken

   care of, a third layer starts to show up. The third level in Maslow’s pyramid is

   comprised of belongingness and love needs (Hjelle, 1992: 451). These needs

   become prominent when the physiological and safety/ security needs have

   been met. The person operating at this level longs for affectionate

   relationship with others, for a place in his or her family and/ or reference

   group. Group affiliation becomes a dominant goal the person. Accordingly, a

   person will feel keenly the pangs of loneliness, social ostracism

   friendlessness, and rejection especially when induced by the absence of

   friends and love ones (Hjelle and Ziegler, 1992: 451).
                                                                                 11



4. Self-esteem Needs

          When our needs for being loved and for loving others have been

   reasonably gratified, their motivating force diminishes, paving the way for

   self-esteem needs. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs, a lower one

   and a higher one (http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/maslow.html). The lower

   one is the need for the respect of others, the need for status, fame, glory,

   recognition, attention, reputation, appreciation, dignity, even dominance. The

   higher form involves the need for self-respect, including such feeling as

   confidence, competence, achievement, mastery, independence and freedom

   (http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/maslow.html).

          A person needs to know that he or she is worthwhile-capable of

   mastering tasks and challenges in life. Respect from others entails such

   concern as desire for prestige, recognition, status, appreciation, and

   acceptance. In this case the person needs to know what he or she can do is

   recognized and valued by significant others (Hjelle and Ziegler, 1992: 453).

5. Self-Actualization Needs

          Finally, if all the foregoing is sufficiently satisfied, the need for

   actualization comes to the fore (Hjelle, 1992: 453). Maslow (1987)

   characterized self-actualization as the person’s desire to become everything

   that he or she is capable of becoming. The person who has achieved this

   highest level presses toward the full use and exploitation of his or her talents,

   capacities, and potentialities. In short, to self-actualize is to become the kind

   person we are capable of becoming-to reach the peak of our potential (Hjelle,
                                                                             12



1992: 453). In practical way, Maslow (in Hjelle, 1981: 373) gives an example

for self-actualization that a musician must make music; an artist must paint; a

poet must write, if he is to be at peace with himself. What man can be, he

must be. He must be true to his nature. So self-actualization is a person’s

desire for self-improvement, his other motivation to make actual his

potentiality.

       There are the characteristics of self-actualization. The characteristics

as follows:

a. More Efficient Perception of Reality

          According to Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 387-388), self-actualized

   people see life clearly, the life is it must be, not what wish it to be. They

   are able to judge positive and negative natures in others, and they have a

   clear understanding about right and wrong. Self-actualized people also

   have ability to detect the others phonines.

b. Acceptance of Self, Others, and Nature

          Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 388) stated that self-actualized people can

   accept themselves the way they are. They have a good hearty animal

   appetite for good, sleep and sex, they realize their own shortcoming and

   not burdened by anxiety and shame, they accept others with all their

   weaknesses as their nature and they accept nature as it is and accept

   human nature in general also they realize that people will suffer, grow,

   old, and die.
                                                                              13



c. Spontancity, Simplicity, and Naturalness

         Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 388) mentions that the behavior of self-

   actualized is marked by spontancity. They are unconventional, their

   behavior is done naturally, they live an as way and act without artificial

   help and they ordinarily live simple lives in the sense they have no need

   to erect a fancy.

d. Problem-centered

         Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 388) shows that self-actualized people see

   life difficulties as the problem as needs to be solved, not as the troubles to

   be avoided. They are task oriented, it means that they do not only concern

   on their own problem, but also rather concern with others. This dedication

   becomes their mission in life. Their occupation is not merely a job, a

   means to earn a living but a vocation, a calling, and end in itself.

e. Detachment (The Needs for Privacy)

         Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 388) states that self-actualized persons have

   a quality of detachment. Although they feel enjoyable of others

   friendship, but they need privacy, they are comfortable being alone

   without feeling lonely. They have capability to make responsible choices,

   they are self-movers, and resisting society is attempts to make them

   adhere to convention.

f. Autonomy (Independence of Culture and Environment)

         Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 389) informs that self-actualized people

   have ability to be independent of culture and environment. They depend
                                                                              14



   on themselves for growth, self-actualizes have self-confidence, so they are

   unperturbed and serenity not enjoyed by those who live for the approval

   of others.

g. Continued Freshness of Appreciation

         According to Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 389) self-actualized processes

   the capacity to appreciate again and again, freshly and naively or even in

   their life awe, pleasure, wonder, and even ecstasy, the seldom complain

   about a boring and uninteresting experience, unlike the ordinary people.

h. Peak or Mystic Experience

         This peak or mystic experience, according to Maslow (in Feist,

   1985: 389) is the moment of intense excitement. It takes self-actualizes

   out of themselves. It is such feeling out of understanding and experience

   loss of fear, anxiety and conflict; this peak experience changes them for

   the better.

i. Social Interest (Gemeinschaftsgefubl)

         Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 392) states that self-actualized people share

   feeling sympathy and affection for all humanity. They treat others as their

   own family, they also have desire to help people sincerely.

j. Interpersonal Relations

         According to Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 392), self-actualizes are able

   to make relationship with people in general whether less talented or

   neurotic one (less healthy people) (Feist, 1985: 392). They, however, tent

   to have deeper and closer relationship with only few people they loved,
                                                                            15



   that is those who are independent, the same character as well as mentally

   healthy (Feist, 1985: 392).

k. The Democratic Character Structure

         Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 392) shows that the way of thinking and

   behaving self-actualized persons are democratic. They are open to

   everyone belongs to different class, color, age or sex, occupation, or other

   group membership characteristic without being burdened and even to

   treasure or value them highly. Moreover, they had ability to learn from

   anybody in any social background without adopting authorization attitude.

   In fact they seemed to be less aware of superficial differences among

   people than were other people.

l. Descrimination Between Means and Ends

         Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 392) draws that self-actualized people are

   not confused between means and ends. They have clear understanding of

   right and wrong as well as good and bad conducts, they prefer set their

   sight on ends rather than means. They, however, enjoy taking a means to

   reach the ends.

m. Philosophical Sense of Humor

         Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 393) mentions that self-actualized people

   have a sense of humor that is different from the ordinary people. Their

   humor is philosophical rather than hostile; it means that they will never

   make a fun of others frailty both physically and psychologically as a joke.

   They do not laugh at others and mock them because of their weaknesses.
                                                                                     16



         Healthy persons see little humor put down jokes, their jokes usually do

         not hurt other people, but it rather has a certain purpose.

      n. Creativeness

                Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 393) says that self-actualized people are

         creative sense in the word. He shows that they should be creative in their

         own way. They should not be writer or painter to be creative, but their

         creativity is in their own fresh job wether they are teacher, doctor, lawyer,

         and so on. Maslow says that they must show their originality and

         creativity, which has a truth, beauty, and reality-in gradients that form the

         foundation of true creativity.

      o. Resistance and Enculturation

                The last characteristic of self-actualized people is their resistance to

         enculturation. Maslow (in Feist, 1985: 393) sees that they resist the social

         effort to acculturate them, they prefer to maintain their own

         characteristics rather than affected by social pressure.



C. Structural Elements of the Movie

          There are two elements of film, there are narrative and technical elements

   (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 3-95). Narrative elements are the elements, which

   build the story of the film, consisting of characters and characterization, setting,

   plot, point of view, and theme (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 3-95). While the

   technical elements deal with the elements that have close relationship with the

   technique of producing movie. These elements consist of mise en scene,

   cinematography, sound, and editing (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 126).
                                                                                17



1. Narrative Elements

   a. Characters and Characterization

            Characters usually appear as actors in films. It is the most

     interesting part in film production. The filmmaker teams show a person as

     an actor doing something, they have to make decision how much they will

     show what the person is doing and how much we show the personality of

     characters related with other manifestations such as body posture, facial,

     expression, and also their clothing (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 95).

            Characters have close relationship with the traits. Traits are the

     significant things in the character (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 97-102).

     There are three type of traits, namely social, physical, psychological traits.

     Social traits relate to the position of the character in a society, the social

     class, martial status, and etc (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 97-102).

     Physical traits have something to do with the physical performance of

     characters, whether they are fat or thin, tall or short, young or old, and

     others (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 97-102). Psychological traits concern

     with the characters inner traits. The traits can be observed by identifying

     observable attitudes, such as the rhythm of speech, qualities of gestures

     and so on (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 97-102).

   b. Setting

            The filmmaker may control setting in many ways based on the film

     production requirement. One of the ways is selecting an already existing

     locale in which to stage the action. Beside that the filmmaker can also
                                                                              18



  choose the construct the setting of the film which is produced (Bordwell

  and Thompson, 1990: 130).

          The setting can be just appearing by the filmmaker without

  characters in the place of action. In conclusion dynamically can enter into

  the narrative action not only as the place or container of the action

  (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990:130). Beside that the setting can be used

  to reinforce something about characters. At least the environment will tell

  and give description about character’s basic nature (Bordwell and

  Thompson, 1990: 130).

c. Plot

          The term of plot is used to describe everything visibly and audibly

  which present in the film. The plot includes, first all of the story events

  that are directly describing in film performance, secondly, the film’s plot

  may contain material that is no relationship to the story world (Bordwell

  and Thompson, 1990: 57).

          The film’s plot in the totality of film cannot bring in the total world

  of the story action material. It may not be limited to the list of sequence.

  The plot has added material to the story for the story teller effect. As a

  result, story and plot overlap in one respect and diverge in others. The plot

  explicitly presents in certain story events. So these events are common to

  the both of story and plot (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 57).

          The basic elements of dramatic structure found in most productions

  are the exposition of beginning, the middle, and the end (Douglass and

  Harnder, 1996: 48).
                                                                             19



  (1) The Exposition of Beginning

            A beginning or exposition is about one quarter of length in film

      production. The filmmaker wants to explore the story by presenting

      the hero or heroine and other major participants, the setting, the

      problem, and also the theme (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 48).

  (2) The Middle

            The middle of dramatic structure contains the struggle of the

      hero or heroine to achieve the solution of the problem has been

      defined, discovered or created in the beginning (Douglass and

      Harnder, 1996:50).

  (3) The End

            The end or resolution is the last stage of dramatic structure. The

      hero and heroine resolve their problem in a way to satisfactory to the

      audiences (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 40-50).

d. Point of View

         Point of view is the most interesting in the narrative elements. It is

  the basic narrative devices available to the storyteller. For some storyteller

  decide from whose point of view to tell the story is a fundamental

  consideration in making a story (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 31).

         The word point of view according to Douglass and Harnder (1996:

  31-37) has several meaning. First, in the film and video production, the

  term point of view has special meanings, this point of view relates to

  taking camera in each shot, as if the characters see the viewers, but is also
                                                                                   20



     used in drama movies. Second point of view refers to the perspective of

     the storyteller, actually in the literature it refers “person”. It includes first

     person, it is usually represented by the first character according to the story

     teller perspective. Second person however is inherent in many productions,

     but the ‘you’ being addressed are the audience. And the third person, most

     productions are created in the third person but it is impossible in file.

     Video or television production is created with pure third person if it is

     without first person voice over variation. The last definition about point of

     view is the characters as group’s particular perspective that can be seen in

     their interest, attitudes, and also their beliefs.

   e. Theme

             Discovering theme is where the filmmaker certainly begins

     (Douglas and Harnder, 1996: 3). The main point of film production is

     whether the movie can be accepted and enjoyable for the viewers or not,

     thus the filmmaker should find what the most appropriate theme is. In

     discovering the theme, the filmmaker will examine their attitude toward

     the subject, study the material and analyze their knowledge of the audience

     (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 3).


2. Technical Elements

         The technical elements of the film deal with the elements that have

  close relationship with the technique of producing movie. This consists of

  Mise en Scene, Cinematography, Sound, and editing (Bordwell and

  Thompson, 1990: 126).
                                                                             21



a. Mise en Scene

           Douglass and Harnder (1996: 119) state that “mise en scene is all the

  visual elements of set, set dressing, props, costume, make, lighting and

  even physical body posture that are arranged and placed before the camera

  lens”.

           Klarer (1999: 61) states other definition. He assumed that mise en

  scene means ‘to place on stage’, and refers to the arrangement of all visual

  elements in a theater production. Mise en Scene in film production is used

  as an umbrella term for the various elements that constitute the frame,

  including camera distance, camera angles, lenses, lighting, as well as the

  positioning of person and objects in relation each other (Klarer, 1999: 62)

           The term of mise en scene has some aspects such as: costume and

  make up, lighting, and figurative expression and movement (acting).

  1) Costume and Make Up

              Costumes in film production have important function because

     costumes for film usually must be believable in close up, beside that

     costume itself should show the authenticity of film production

     Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 134).

  2) Lighting

              Lighting in the film production is also an important element. It

     helps the viewers to see the action as the function of lighting shaping

     the object by creating high light and shadows and shaping audience

     understanding of the shot’s composition. This aspect can be isolated
                                                                             22



     into four features: quality, direction, source, and color (Bordwell and

     Thompson, 1990: 134)

  3) Figurative Expression and Movement (acting)

           An acting of the film is divided into two: visual and sound

     elements. Visual elements of the movie involve appearance, gesture,

     and facial expression of the character. Sound is in line with acting, it is

     related with voice effect (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 137).

b. Cinematography

       The filmmaker also controls what we call cinematographic qualities

  shot, not only what is filmed but also how it is filmed. This consists of

  control over three features: photograpical qualities shot, the framing of

  shot and the duration of shot (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990:157).

  1) Photographical Qualities of Shot

           Cinematography depends on large extent on photography.

     Sometimes a filmmaker will eliminate the camera and simply work on

     the film itself, but even when drawing, painting or scratching directly

     on film, involved holes on it, or growing to be made on it. The

     filmmaker is drawing patents of light in order it will be easy to transfer

     for the eye of the viewers. In any event, the filmmaker can select the

     range of the tone, manipulate the speed of motion, and change point of

     view (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 156).

  2) The framing of Shot

           Film frame produces a certain vantage point to get the material

     within the image. In cinema the frame is important because it actively
                                                                         23



      defines the image for the audiences (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990:

      167).

  3) The Duration of Shot

              How we can understand the duration of shot is considering

      question that usually appears. We must give a note on the relationship

      of shot duration to the time consumed by the filmed events (Bordwell

      and Thompson, 1990: 195). A complex pattern of events moving

      toward a goal makes a shot duration as important to the image’s effect

      as photographic qualities and farming (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990:

      199).

c. Sound

        There are two advantages of sound in film production. First, it

  engages another sense mode; our visual attention can be accompanied by

  an aural attention. Second, sound can actively shape how we interpret the

  image (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 244).

        Volume, sound, rhythm and pace of the music change according to

  the situation and underscore levels of meaning with acoustic effects, film

  music can also contrast with the plot and create ironic effects (Klarer,

  1999: 65).

d. Editing

        Klarer (1999: 63) stated that “editing is one of the major cinematic

  techniques which have contributed to the flexibility of medium”. Editing

  may be thought of as the coordination of one shot with the next. To

  distinguish how editing is done in production from how editing appears on

  the screen to viewers (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 207).
                                                                                    24



                 Editing is easy to notice. It is not only because of the prevalent

         technique but also because the disjunction of space, time, and graphics

         made by editing step to the eye attention (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990:

         209).



D. Theoretical Application

          The writer develops this research paper by applying the humanistic

   theory proposed by Abraham Maslow. The writer focuses on analyzing the

   motives underlying struggle of James J. Braddock in Cinderella Man film.

          There are some steps in analyzing the film, which is going to be

   researched. First, the research is started from the structural elements of the film,

   which consist of narrative elements and technical elements. Second, conducting

   research about the relationship between the humanistic theory and the play in the

   film. It can be done toward the action, the dialogue of the character. From the

   steps above, it will answer the problem statements of the research.
                                   CHAPTER III

                   STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE FILM



      The third chapter of this study presents the structural analysis of the Cinderella

Man film, which is directed by Ron Howard and screenplay written by Cliff

Hollingsworth and Akiva Goldsman, released in March 2005. In this chapter the

writer will try to give a brief explanation of the structure elements of the movie

which is divided into two elements: narrative elements and technical elements. The

narrative elements consist of character and characterization, setting, plot, point of

view, and theme. While the technical elements consist of mise en scene,

cinematography, sound, and editing.

      In elaborating this chapter, the writer will analyze both elements for the first

step then discusses it. For that reason this chapter is divided into two: the structure

elements of the movie and the discussion of the structure elements of the movie.



A. Structural Elements of the Movie

          There are two elements of the film: narrative elements and technical

    elements (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 3-95; Bordwell and Thompson, 1990:

    126). Narrative elements are the elements which build the story of the film,

    consist of characters and characterization, setting, plot, point of view, and theme

    (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 3-95). While the technical elements deal with the

    elements that have close relationship with the technique of producing movie.

    These elements consist of mise en scene, cinematography, sound, and editing

    (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 126).



                                          25
                                                                               26



1. Narrative Elements

    a. Character and Characterization

             The most interesting elements of film are the characters and

        characterization, because it refers to the act of the actor who is

        participant in the film production. The filmmakers have to make a

        decision how much they will show what the person is doing and how

        much we show the personality of the characters relate to other

        manifestations such as body posture, facial, expression and also their

        clothing (Douglass and Harnder, 1996: 95).

             After analyzing the Cinderella Man movie, the writer will try to

        elaborate the characters which are divided into two:

        1) Major Characters

            (a) James J. Braddock (acted by Russell Crowe)

                     Braddock is a prizefighter. Christian is his religion. He is

                an Irishman who lives in New Jersey with his wife and his

                three kids (CM, 06:50). Jimmy loses his licenses to fight and

                has to work on the docks.

                     Physically, he is handsome with pointed nose. His hair is

                black and wave. He is strong and powerful. He also has big

                hands. Mae said it when Braddock just goes home from

                fighting (CM, 06:13).

                        Mae   : “Mr. Braddock! You’re strong! And you’re hands;
                                 they’re so big. You’re so powerful! Jimmy, I’m so
                                 proud of you. I’m so proud of” (CM, 06:13).
                                                                    27



        Mentally, he is a wise man. He is always grateful for

    God’s blessings. It is said when He gets a second change to

    back to the ring (CM, 85:54). He is never crying about his fate

    (CM, 24:07). He also has to fight against Griffin without

    training.

        Morally, he is a kind person. He has deep love for his wife

    and his kids. Braddock is a father who would starve himself

    rather sees his children miss a meal. He also teaches his kids

    honesty unselfishness. He is so worried when he knew that he

    couldn’t pay the bill and couldn’t provide comfortable for his

    family. He is doing whatever it took to take care of his family.

        Socially, he is a suave person. He always tries to make a

    good relationship with other. His comeback is giving hope to

    every American. He is being inspiration for many people.

          Mr. Johnston : “…they say the paper’s getting all sort of
                          letters from people saying you’re their
                          inspiration like you saved their lives or
                          something. If you ask me, it’s a lot of crap.
                          But if I’m gonna promote this fight…”.
          Joe Gould    : “You’re all heart” (CM, 88:31).

(b) Mae Braddock (acted by Renee Zellweger)

        She is Braddock’s wife. Christian is her religion. She is

    sewing to get more money (CM, 25:40). She is proud of her

    husband.

        Physically, she is beautiful and tall. She has short dark

    brown and curly hair. She is a delicate mother and wife.
                                                                       28



           Mentally, she is ingenuous. Socially, she always

       encourages the others. It can be seen when Mike is missing,

       she comforts Sara.

           Morally, she is puritanical. She is faithful and kindhearted.

       She is a good wife who always cares to her family. She is

       worried when Howard’s fever is getting worse and then Rosy

       starts to sneeze because Mae can’t keep them warm (CM,

       37:47). She is also worried about Braddock when he decides to

       back to the ring and finally fights against Max Baer, the

       heavyweight champion of the world, renowned for having

       killed two men in the ring.

             Mae            : “You are not gonna make my husband your
                                punching bag all over again. We are just
                                getting by, and you’re taking him from his
                                work…like some blood-sucking little
                                leech! And I will not let you get him hurt
                                again like that… do you hear me? I will
                                not let you!”
             Joe Gould      : “Guess you better come in” (CM, 67:23).

2) Minor Characters

   (a) Joe Gould (acted by Paul Giamatti)

           He is Braddock’s friend. He is also Braddock’s manager

       (CM, 17:55). Physically, he is not too tall and little fat.

       Mentally, he is astute. It is shown when he pleaded Mr.

       Johnston to allow Braddock in order he can boxing again.

           Socially, he is a cooperative person, especially with

       Braddock and his partner in gym. Morally, he is a kind and
                                                                  29



    helpful person especially toward Braddock’s family. He gave

    some money to Braddock in order he could pay the bill and got

    the kids back.

         Braddock    : “ I’m sorry, Joe. I didn’t… I’m sorry”.
         Joe Gould   : “ What in the hell do you have to be sorry
                         about? Jesus Christ, Jimmy. How short are
                         you?”.
         Braddock    : “ About $1,50”.
         Joe Gould   : “ Okay” (CM, 40:43).

        He also sold his furniture in order Braddock could train

    again.

         Joe Gould   : “ Sold the last of it two days ago. So Jimmy
                         could train”.
         Mae         : “ Why?”.
         Joe Gould   : “ Sometimes you have an instinct, Mae” (CM,
                         66:33).

(b) Max Baer (acted by Craig Bierko)

        He is heavyweight champion of the world, renowned for

    having killed two men in the ring (CM, 87:48). Physically, he

    is tall and has wavy hair. Morally, he is arrogant. Socially, he

    always underestimates and never treats other well especially

    toward Braddock.

         Guard         : “ Jimmy Braddock just beat Lasky. They
                           made him the number one contender. Max
                           when we are gonna go to…”
         Max Baer      : “ Shut up!”
         Baer’s hottie : “ Maxie you…”
         Max Baer      : “ Shut up! I’m not gonna fight Jimmy
                           Braddock. He is a chump. You tell Johnston
                           to bring me somebody who can fight back”
                           (CM, 70:21).
                                                                         30



(c) Mike Wilson (acted by Paddy Considine)

        He is Braddock’s friend. They met when they worked as a

    dockworker. Physically, he is not fashionable. Mentally, he is

    narrow-minded. Socially, he cares about the others. It is proved

    by getting involved in protest at ramshackle Hooverville. He

    has been sleeping nights down in the Hooverville (CM, 81:69).

    Finally, he died steamrolled by a runaway horse and buggy.

    Morally, he loves his wife. It is said when he meets Braddock

    in dock.

          Mike        :   “ Hey, Jim”.
          Braddock    :   “ Hey, Mike”.
          Mike        :   “ Good fight”.
          Braddock    :   “ Thanks”.
          Mike        :   “ I wouldn’t hit Sara”.
          Braddock    :   “ I know Mike”.
          Mike        :   “ I couldn’t live with myself if I’d have hit her.
                            I just get so angry with all this shit” (CM,
                            62:10).

(d) Jimmy Johnston (acted by Bruce McGill)

        He is usually called Mr. Johnston. He is a boxing promoter

    Physically, he is a little fat, has grey hair and uses glasses. He

    always brings a cigar.

        Morally, he is stubborn. Socially, he treats somebody well

    if they could give profit for him. He also revoked Braddock’s

    license and didn’t pay up when Braddock played draw against

    Feldman. But then, Mr. Johnston gave second chance to

    Braddock to back to the ring, because Braddock’s back in the

    ring gave him more money.
                                                                     31



         Joe Gould       : “ …with full publicity before Lasky, and
                             what happens? You make more money.
                             Now say on the other hand, by some
                             minute, infinitesimal chance...God forbid,
                             Braddock beats Lewis. Now you got
                             sentimentil favorite go up…and lose
                             against Lasky, and what happens? You’ll
                             make more money. James, either
                             way…you’re richer man with Braddock
                             back in the ring than if he’s not. Come on,
                             don’t be foolish. We both know the name
                             of this game. And it sure as hell ain’t
                             pugilism”.
         Mr. Johnston    : “ They ought to put your mouth in a circus
                             (CM, 69:15).

(e) Sporty Lewis (acted by Nicholas Campbell)

        He is a reporter from New York Herald. In newspaper, he

    wrote that Braddock’s comeback is giving hope to every

    American (CM, 93: 38). He also wrote as Damon Runyon said

    that Braddock is truly the Cinderella Man, Damon Runyon

    gave the nickname.

        Physically, he is a middle-aged man. Socially, the

    relationship between Lewis and Braddock is not good.

         Sporty Lewis  : “ Is that ghost I’m seeing? An apparition? Or
                           is that James J. Braddock, the Bulldog of
                           Bergen? How you feeling Jimmy? How’s
                           that right hand?”
         Joe Gould     : “ Braddock, you’re up!”
         Braddock      : “ Sporty Lewis, how you doing?”
         Sporty Lewis : “ How you doing?”
         Braddock      : “July…New York Herald. Proving he was
                           too young and too green…and rushed to
                           the top… Loughran wiped the ring with
                           the Bulldog’s career. A sad and somber
                           funeral…with the body still breathing”.
         Sporty Lewis : “ I don’t fight the fights, Jimmy. I just write
                           about them, see?”.
         Braddock     : “ Sporty, save the crap for the customers
                           (CM, 50:17).
                                                                32



(f) Lucille Gould (acted by Linda Kash)

        She is Joe Gould’s wife. Physically, she is pretty. She has

    short bloondy and curly hair. Mentally, she is sensible.

    Morally, she is kindhearted even toward Braddock’s family.

    Socially, she is encouraging. She always advises and gives

    understanding to Mae when Braddock decides to comeback to

    the ring anymore.

(g) Sara (acted by Rosemarie DeWitt)

        She is Mike’s wife. She lives with Braddock’s family for a

    while when Mike’s missing for three days. She has a baby.

    Morally, she loves her husband. She worries about Mike

    because he wouldn’t leave her and the baby for this long. At

    last her worry come true, there something happens to Mike.

    Socially, she has a good relationship with Braddock’s family.

(h) Jay Braddock (acted by Connor Price)

        He is Braddock’s older son. He steals from butcher

    because he doesn’t get enough to be eaten in house. He also

    asked his father, Braddock to promise never send him away

    (CM, 15:33).

(i) Howard Braddock (acted by Patrick Louis)

        He is the younger son of James Braddock. In this story he

    is getting fever because his parents can’t keep him warm and

    then Mae send him in Brooklyn.
                                                                          33



        (j) Rosemarie Braddock (acted by Ariel Waller)

                  She is the only daughter of James J. Braddock. Braddock

             always calls her Rosy. She often practices boxing with his

             father, Braddock.

        (k) Alice (acted by Alice Johnston)

                  She is Mae elder sister. When the day of the fight between

             Braddock and Max Baer, Mae and her kids go to Alice’s

             house.

        (l) Jake (acted by Gene Pyrz)

                  He is a man who gives a job to Braddock as a dockworker.

        (m) Joe Jeanette (acted by Ron Canada)

                  He is Braddock’s instructor in gym. Physically, he is a

             man with dark skin.

b. Setting

          The setting can appear without characters in the place of action.

    In conclusion setting dynamically can enter into the narrative action not

    only as the place or container of the action (Bordwell and Thompson,

    1990: 130). Beside that the setting can be used to reinforce something

    about characters. At least the environment will tell and give description

    about character’s basic nature (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 130).

    Setting itself will be divided into two:

    1) Setting of time

               There are some clues that indicate the time of Cinderella

        Man:
                                                                     34



           “…..November 30, 1928”
           “September 25, 1933 4 years into great depression”
           “December 1933…..”
           “Day of the fight June 13, 1935”

          The filmmaker Cinderella Man takes the setting in the time

    of great depression. From the quotation above the writer considers

    that setting of time in this film starts on November 1928 and ends

    in June 1935. When the winter comes on December, all activities

    are in indoors. It can be seen in this film when Mae and her kids

    usually spend their time in the apartment. They just go out when

    looking for firewood.

          Everything is not easy at great depression. Unemployed hits

    record 15.000.000.

2) Setting of place

    (a) New Jersey

        New Jersey is the city where James J. Braddock comes from.

    (b) Mount Vernon, New York

        The place where Braddock is against Abraham Feldman.

    (c) Emergency Relief Administration

        The office where Braddock borrows some money.

    (d) Madison Square Garden Bowl

        The place where Braddock fights against Griffin, Lewis, and

        Max Baer.

    (e) Basement Apartment

        Bradock lived in this place during great depression with his

        family.
                                                                           35



          (f) Hooverville Central Park

             An area in Central Park where the homeless set up temporary

             housing. It’s also the place where Mike died steamrolled by

             runaway horse and buggy.

          (g) Restaurant

             The place where Braddock, Mae, Joe Gould, and his wife have

             dinner.

          (h) Dock

             The place where Braddock works as rough laborer and has to

             works with his left hand, because his right hand is broken.

          (i) Church

             It’s place where Mae come to pray for Braddock. There are

             many people in there to do the same thing with Mae.

          (j) Gym

             The place where Braddock train with his instructor.

c. Plot

           The writer describes that the director of Cinderella Man uses

   traditional plot. The elements of traditional plot refer to the basic

   elements of dramatic structure found in many productions such as the

   exposition of beginning, the middle and the end (Douglass and Harnder,

   1996:48).

   1) The Exposition of Beginning

               A beginning or exposition is about one quarter of length in

          film production. The filmmaker wants to explore the story by
                                                                   36



   presenting the hero or heroine and other major participants, the

   setting, the problem and also the theme (Douglass and Harnder,

   1996: 48).

        The film opens with Braddock winning a fight in 1928 and

   becoming a contender for a championship bout (CM, 00:50). This

   is continued with his arrival to his house and meets his wife (CM,

   06:09). The film then quickly jumps four years into the future. The

   depression is on and Braddock has had a series of defeats. Fighting

   injured, including with a broken hand, made him less of a fighter.

   Like many others in that era, Braddock lost everything in the stock

   market and scrimping by on the small fights he can get. Moreover,

   he often gives his meal to his kids (CM, 09:29).

2) The Middle

        The middle of dramatic structure contains the struggle of the

   hero or heroine to achieve the solution of the problem has been

   defined, discovered or created in the beginning (Douglass and

   Harnder, 1996:50).

        It is divided into two sections. This is the early conflict,

   which leads to the other conflicts in the story. The first part of

   complication began when he was forced by a damage right hand

   into retirement and a string of losses in the ring. When Braddock

   fought hurt against Abe Feldman, they played to draw. It caused

   Braddock was not paid, even his promoter revoking his license

   (CM, 23:30).
                                                                      37



           The second part of the middle is when Braddock worked as a

   dockworker and meets Mike Wilson. These dock jobs few and far

   between though and every day Jim went to line up where men were

   selected for one day’s work. It also caused he couldn’t pay the

   electric or the heat. Oneday, Mae had to send his kids in her

   relative’s house because she couldn’t keep them warm. It made

   Braddock worked harder to get money. Jim had a broken hand but

   he worked anyway. It was the only way to fed his family. Then he

   went to Emergency Relief Administration to borrow some money

   (CM, 37:53). He also begged for money from his former boxing

   association at a Madison Square Garden hangout to get his

   electricity back on and get the kids back.

           The third part appearing when his former manager, Joe Gould

   gave Braddock second chance and offered him a one-time fought

   against an opponent. Because of Braddock won fight against

   Griffin, Gould offered him the other fight. Slowly but sure,

   Braddock continued to fought and won.

           Finally, climax appears when Braddock faced his toughest

   challenge, a fight against Max Baer, and the heavyweight

   champion of the world, renowned for had killed two men in the

   ring.

3) The End

           The end or resolution is the last stage of dramatic structure.

   In this stage, the hero or heroine resolves their problems in a way
                                                                            38



       satisfactory to audiences; it usually involves some growth either in

       the characters, audiences, or maybe both of them (Douglass and

       Harnder, 1996:50). The resolution in Cinderella Man has begun

       when Braddock won fight against Max Baer. He could prove to

       everyone that he was true boxer. Beside that his household life

       back to normal again.

d. Point of View

         The word point of view has several meanings (Douglass and

   Harnder, 1996: 31-32). First, in the film video production, the term

   point of view has special meanings. This point of view relates to taking

   camera in each shot, as if the characters see the viewers, but is also used

   in drama movies (Douglass and Harnder, 1996:31-32). Seconds point of

   view refers of the perspective of the storyteller, actually in literature it

   refers “person” (Douglass and Harnder, 1996:32). The last definition

   about point of view is the characters as a group’s particular perspective

   it can be seen in their beliefs (Douglass and Harnder, 1996:37).

         Cliff Hollingsworth and Akiva Goldsman as the screenwriter of

   Cinderella Man use point of view in the film production as follows:

     1) Point of view related to the taking camera of each shot as if the

        characters saw the viewers. It is shown in the events: the point of

        view of Braddock can be seen when he fell because of Baer’s hit

        in his head. Then he saw Baer and realized that Baer walked to

        head for him (CM, 58:15).
                                                                                39



         2) Point of view refers to the storyteller. This film uses third person

            as the narrator.

         3) The last thing of point of view is the group’s particular

                perspective. The point of view of group in this story is mostly

                people guess that family is the important thing in the world.

   e. Theme

                A filmmaker should determine first the theme in a story before

       stepping a head into the next part. Discovering theme is where the

       filmmaker certainly begins (Douglass and Harnder, 1996:3).

                The theme in Cinderella Man is “someone can do anything and

       get what he wants by the power of love and remarkable endurance".

2. Technical Elements

   a. Mise en Scene

                Douglass and Harnder (1996: 119) state that “mise en scene is all

       the visual elements of set, set dressing, props, costume, make up, lightin

       and even physical body posture arranged and placed before the camera

       lens”.

       1) Set dressing

                    The set dressing which shown in Cinderella Man are as

           follows:

           (a) Watch, jewelry box, table, picture, lamp in Braddock’s

                  bedroom.

           (b) Table, some chairs, fireplace, lamp in Joe’s apartment.
                                                                     40



   (c) Glasses, table, candles in Braddock’s house yard.

   (d) Fireplace, bed, lamp in kid’s room.

   (e) Sofa, chairs, table, cupboard in Braddock’s living room.

   (f) Projector, lamps, some paintings, desk, chairs in Mr. Johnston

      office.

2) Props

   (a) A cigar is usually brought by Mr. Johnston.

   (b) Needle and threat usually used by Mae to sewing.

   (c) Boxing gloves used by Braddock to boxing.

   (d) Shoe polishes used by Braddock to covers his broken hand.

   (e) A hook used by Braddock and the dockworkers to work in

      dock.

3) Costume and Make up

           Cinderella Man uses a certain costume to identify the era

   when the scene takes place. Cinderella Man takes place in America

   on 19th century exactly in 1935. So it is the duty for Daniel Orlandi

   as the costume designer to create costumes as the American wear

   of that time. The styles of costume at the time are hat, open jacket,

   a heavy overcoat or cardigan and scarf.

           Daniel Orlandi divides the style into two categories, low-

   class and high-class. The low-class wears the dirty clothes and

   more simple. It can be seen at Braddock and the other

   dockworkers. They usually wear hat, open jacket with lapels and
                                                                    41



   suspender when they work. Meanwhile, the high-class wears

   elegant clothes completely with shoes, hat, and cardigan. It can be

   seen when Max Baer comes to dinner party, he wears elegant

   cardigan, and jacket.

         Besides the costume, make up is also important in the film.

   All these point about costumes apply equally to a closely related

   area of mise en scene, the actors make up. Make up is originally

   necessary because actor’s face would not register well on early film

   stocks. And, up to the present, it has been used in various ways to

   enhance the appearance of actors on the screen (Bordwell and

   Thompson, 1990: 133). David LeRoy Anderson and Lance

   Anderson as the make up director in Cinderella Man have big role

   in making the actor’s face looks different. Make up for all of the

   characters are so natural. The most interesting here for creating

   same atmosphere on 1930s when the curly hair is so famous, so in

   this film all woman characters have curly hair.

4) Lighting

         Lighting in cinema production is also important, it helps the

   viewers to see the action as the function of lighting shaping the

   objects by creating high light and shadows and shaping audience

   understanding the shot’s composition. This aspect can be isolated

   into four features: quality, direction, source and color (Bordwell

   and Thompson, 1990: 134).
                                                                    42



a) Quality

        Lighting quality here means the relative interesting of the

    illuminations. It is divided into two, hard and soft lighting

    (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 134). After watching the film

    the writer concludes that this film uses hard and soft lighting

    qualities. By using both qualities the dramatic situation can be

    seen in the frame. This happened because hard lighting creates

    clearly defined shadows. This lighting quality causes the

    viewers catch the object clearly. While the soft lighting creates

    the diffused illumination. Soft lighting makes the audience see

    the object not so clear.

b) Direction

        It deals to the light from its source to the object literature.

    It can be distinguished among frontal lighting, side lighting,

    back lighting, under lighting, and top lighting (Bordwell and

    Thompson, 1990: 134). It is impossible of a film just uses one

    lighting. So the movie of Cinderella Man combines all of the

    lighting direction to enhance the expressive potential of this

    film or just make the image perfectly.

c) Source

        Cinderella Man film production combines two sources of

    the light; the key and the fill light. The key light is the primary

    lighting source of the image, providing the dominant
                                                                        43



        illumination and casting the dominant shadows. Fill light in

        this film has function to fill or soften and also eliminate the

        shadows from casting by the key light. By combining these

        two sources, the exact degree of lighting in this film can be

        controlled easily.

    d) Color

             Color in lighting can be manipulated by shinning motion

        lamps through a transparent colored filter (Bordwell and

        Thompson, 1990: 136). The film lighting team in Cinderella

        Man uses realistic sources than non realistic sources to

        motivate the coloration of the light. The white in this film

        comes from sunlight, whereas the soft yellow comes from light

        of the candle and lamp. The film lighting team decided to use

        realistic source because the genre of this film is dramatic

        situation and the setting of the film is about the middle of

        twentieth centuries so it is better to use realistic sources.

5) Figure expression and movement (acting)

         In this film the actors and actress can act naturally. It can be

    seen in many characters such as James J. Bradock (Russell Crowe).

    In this film Crowe has to act as a boxer. How is fell, the way he

    gives uppercut, the way he gives punch must looked like a real

    boxer. Crowe did a wonderful job of imitating Braddock’s ring

    style. It is also caused of his boxing trainer’s help, Angelo Dundee.

    Crowe also embodies a man torn by changing of life and frustrated
                                                                          44



       by his inability to provide comfortable for his wife and his three

       kids. Beside that, Paul Giamatti, which acts as Braddock’s

       manager, can act his character well. It can be proved by becoming

       favorite for a Best Supporting Actor Oscar nomination. In the end,

       all characters can do their job appropriately. It means that they can

       do two type of acting: facial expression and pantomimic gesture.

b. Cinematography

         The filmmaker also controls what we call cinematographic

   qualities shot, not only what is filmed but also how it is filmed. This

   consists of control over three features: photographical qualities of shot,

   the framing of shot and the duration of shot (Bordwell and Thompson,

   1990: 157).

   1) Photographical qualities of shot

                There is the variation on speed motion that gives effect on

       film; it can be slow, ordinary, and fast motion or maybe freeze on

       frame (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 160). Slow motion can be

       seen when Braddock beats the head of Abe Feldman (CM, 20:29).

       The other slow motion is when Lasky beats Braddock’s rib (CM,

       76:29), and when Braddock gives uppercut to Baer (CM, 115:27).

       Ron Howard, as a director shot a lot of slow motion at 48 or 60

       frames per second because Russell Crowe and the other boxers

       couldn’t go full speed all the time and land punches without hurting

       each other. One of the appearing the speed motion of this film

       shows when Braddock fights against Max Baer. They beat each

       other.
                                                                          45



   2) The framing of shot

               Here, the way of framing can be powerfully to the image of

       the size and shape of the frame: it controls the distance angle and

       the way framing can be mobile in relationship with mise en scene

       (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 168).

               Framing in this film appears when the camera makes a zoom

       of the eye of James J. Braddock. It happened when he fights against

       Lasky and almost loses, then he imagined his kids (CM, 77:21).

   3) The duration of shot

               The movie of Ron Howard’s Cinderella Man duration is in

       144 minutes or 2 hours 24 minutes.

c. Sound

           There are two advantages of sound in film production. First, it

   engages another sense mode: our visual attention can be accompanied

   by an aural attention. Second, sound can actively shape how we

   interpret the image (Bordwell and Thompson, 1990: 244).

           The character of this movie uses dialog and monologue to make

   conversation with others. Cinderella Man has genre as drama, it can be

   shown when Mike’s funeral. In the other side, when Braddock leaves

   his apartment to fight against Max Baer and Howard says good bye to

   him.

           This film not only involves language and music, but also sound

   effects. It produces a real sound of door closed, human step, the noise in

   harbor and in the bowl, horse step, car, etc. Beside that supervising
                                                                             46



   sound editor, Chic Cocollini recreated sound themes unique to each

   location. For example, a riot in Hooverville, an area in Central Park

   where the homeless set up temporary, required echo effects added to

   animal sounds, human shouts, and old sirens to yield the desired

   haunting environment.

         The quality of sound in Cinderella Man is Dolby Digital makes

   the sound can be heard from many sides surrounding the audiences.

d. Editing

         The movie of Cinderella Man uses the continuity principles in

   editing such as: the view direction, movement, and position

   continuities. the briefly explanation as follows:

   1) The view direction can be found in this movie, it relates to the

       picture, which creates impression as if the actors faced each other.

       For instance, when Jim Braddock and Mae discuss about something

       in their room is the appropriate section to be editing (CM, 30:43).

   2) Movement continuity also can be found when the carriage walks

       along the road. Usually movement continuity concerns with the

       unity of subject or actor’s movement. It can be seen in this film such

       as when Braddock walks along the road from Emergency Relief

       Administration for Madison Square Garden to begging money (CM,

       39:00).

   3) Position continuities are related to the position of actor in shot.

       Position continuity of this film can be found when Joe Gould and

       her wife accept Mae in their apartment.
                                                                                      47



               All of the explanation above is the situation that should be edited. This

               is job for Daniel P. Hanley and Mike Hill as the editor of Cinderella

               Man. Their editing is to give the appropriated movie for the audience.

               Their job is almost perfect; it can be proved with the rating of this film

               in USA.PG-13 from MPAA (The Motion Picture Association of

               America) classification for intense boxing violence and some language.

               The MPAA provides the Internet Movie Database with their ratings

               reasons. This rating is made from the guest voting of MPAA Web Side

               in      writing      their      comment        about      the      movie

               (http://www.imdbpro.com/mpaa).



B. Discussion

             After analyzing the structural elements of the film, the writer will discuss

   the relation between the elements and putting them back into unity.

             A film is usually inspired by life experience, which is manipulated

   dramatically to gain the special psychological effect on its spectators. Cinderella

   Man is based on James J. Braddock’s experienced during great depression. This

   film is directed by Ron Howard. The screenplay is written by Cliff

   Hollingsworth and Akiva Goldsman. The theme of this movie is “someone can

   do anything and get what he wants by the power of love and remarkable

   endurance”. It is not easy and simple way to do anything for someone he loves

   and to get what he wants. Therefore, he has to struggle and make a great effort

   for it.
                                                                               48



        In Cinderella Man, Howard creates the central character of this film,

James J. Braddock. He is created as a boxer and dockworker, because Howard

wants this character to support and build the theme of the film and make it more

interesting. Through James Braddock, the director explores bravely the real

people condition in great depression. James J. Braddock in Cinderella Man is

described as a man who struggles for his family and his career as a boxer. When

his career appeared to be finished, he was unable to pay the bills, the only thing

that really mattered to him that his family was in danger. But deep inside, Jim

Braddock never relinquished his determination. Driven by love, honor, and

incredible dose of grief, he tried to make an impossible dream come true.

        To support the major character more alive, Howard creates the other

character called minor character. He describes the struggle in each character and

has same purposes with the major character. Braddock as one of the major

characters is the effective figure as part of the director’s message in Howard’s

film.

        Howard puts the character in appropriate time and place. The setting of

place are New York and New Jersey, and setting of time in great depression in

1928 to 1935. New York was chosen as one of the setting of place, because at

that time all of activities concentrate on New York. Likewise with boxing

competition. Mostly, boxing competition was held in New York such as in

Madison Square Garden and Mount Vernon. The other setting of place is New

Jersey. Braddock lived there with his family. It’s also the place where Braddock

worked as a dockworker and had to struggle in order his family necessities could

be fulfilled.
                                                                                49



      To organize the story of Cinderella Man, the film director Ron Howard

uses traditional plot. The beginning begins the story or exposition, followed the

next stages the middle that is derived into two parts. The first part or

complication and the second part or climax. The last stages is the end or

resolution. It will make the audience easy to understand about the story of film.

      Film production has three meanings of point of view. First, it relates the

taking of the camera in each shot as if the characters see the viewers. It can be

seen in the events such as the point of view of Braddock can be seen when he

saw Max Baer after Braddock fell because of Baer’s punch. Second, it means the

perspective of the storyteller. In Cinderella Man, the point of view used by the

narrator is the third person narrator. The last point of view is group’s

perspective. The point of view of group in this story is mostly people think that

family is the important thing in the world.

      The successful of film depends on narrative elements and is also supported

by the technical of film. The mise en scene, cinematography, sound, and editing

are the parts of technical elements of film. Mise en scene in this film consists of

set dressing, props, costume and make up, lighting, and figure expression and

movement. The costume and make up in Cinderella Man use a certain costume

to identify the era when the scene takes place. Lighting in this film is indirectly

connected to the film stock for certain light conditions have to be fulfilled

according to the sensitivity of the film. The figure expression or acting of each

actors and actress has big role in creating and giving image in a story. They have

responsibility to carry out the story more lifelike. The other elements of film

production are cinematography, divided into three; photographical qualities shot,
                                                                               50



the framing of shot, and the duration of shot. While sound of Cinderella Man is

used to make the film more enjoyable to audiences. This is divided into two;

music and sound effect. The last, editing is the important part of the technical

elements of the film. The view direction, movement, and position continuities

are appeared and have editing well by Daniel P. Hanley and Mike Hill.

     From the explanation above, the writer summaries that the structural

elements of film are tied each other. It makes a unity from that can separate each

other. For work hard of the teamwork and all the people who get involved in this

film, Cinderella Man getting USA.PG-13 from MPAA (The Motion Picture

Association of America) classification for intense boxing violence and some

language. Beside that, Cinderella Man succeeds in bringing some awards.
                                   CHAPTER IV

                HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS



     The theme of Cinderella Man film is “someone can do anything and get what

he wants by the power of love and remarkable endurance”. It is reflected in the major

character. The aim of chapter IV is to analyze the motives underlying the struggle of

James J. Braddock based on humanistic psychological perspective.



A. The Needs of James J. Braddock

           In Cinderella Man film can be seen many kinds of Braddock’s needs.

    They are the need to breathe, the need for water, the need to eat, the need for

    sleep, the need to regulate body temperature, the need for sex, the need for

    clothes, friendship, having a family, security of employment, security of

    revenues and resources, familial security, security of health, religious groups,

    respected by others, recognition, fame, glory, reputation, appreciation, dignity,

    actualize his potential as a boxer. Based on Maslow’s theory, all of the

    Braddock’s needs can be categorized as the hierarchy of needs.

           In Hierarchy of needs, there are five elements, which are (1)

    physiological needs, (2) security or safety needs, (3) belongingness and love

    needs, (4) self-esteem needs, and (5) self-actualization needs.

    1. Physiological Needs

              The needs of Braddock included as physiological needs are the need to

        breathe, the need for water, the need to eat, the need for clothes, the need for

        sleep, the need to regulate body temperature, the need for sex.


                                          51
                                                                                  52



       The need to breathe, the need for clothes, and the need for sex can be

fulfilled easily by the major character, Braddock. It is proved by Braddock

can breathe without any disruption such as disruption of air pollution. When

Braddock attends dinner party with his wife, he uses clean and good clothes.

Braddock also doesn’t face any difficulties with his sex. Braddock and Mae

have love relations as a husband and wife. He is able to fulfill his sex with

Mae.

       The need for water, the need for sleep, and the need to regulate body

temperature also can be fulfilled by Braddock although he faces some

difficulties. It can be shown when Braddock has to drink leftovers from milk

that mixed with water in order that milk enough for all of his family. Beside

that Braddock has to sleep and live without any heat in his basement

apartment. But at the last he can get his electricity back.

       The need to eat is the most difficult needs to be fulfilled. When the

nation enters the darkest years of the great depression, Braddock has a series

of defeats. Fighting injured, including with a broken hand, makes him less of

a fighter. Braddock, like many others in that era, loses everything in the

stock market. So that he and his family can eat, Braddock has to take a job

which is offered for him. That is a fight against one guy named Abe Feldman

although recovery his broken hand still a few weeks.

       Joe Gould   :   “Now, you see, that break’s still a few weeks”.
       Braddock    :   “I know”.
       Joe Gould   :   “Yeah. And you were gonna tell me about this when?”.
       Braddock    :   “It’s gonna be fine”.
       Joe Gould   :   “It’s not fine. No it’s not. What the hell? You don’t tell me?
                         What the hell kind a crap is that?
                                                                                       53



           Braddock    : “I owe everybody money, Joe. I can’t get any shifts. We ain’t
                           got any cash”.
           Joe Gould   : “I got it. Screw them. I’ll tape it double”.
           Braddock    : “Thanks” (CM, 17:39).

           In the situation of great depression, every people will do everything to

   get food. The problem also faced by Braddock’s family. One day, Braddock

   has to give his breakfast to his daughter because she is still hungry.

           The other struggle of James J. Braddock also can be seen when he

   loses his license to fight and has to work on the docks. These dock jobs are

   few and far between though and everyday Braddock goes to line up where

   men are selected for one day’s work.

           Jake        : “I need nine men and only nine. One. Two. Three. Four. Five.
                           Six. Seven. Eight. Nine. That’s it! All right, let’s get a move
                           on! Go on, get going! Got a lot of work today” (CM, 12:49).

           From all the explanation above it can be concluded that hungry is the

   primary motive why Braddock has to struggle. A hungry person is motivated

   to eat, not to make friends or gain self-esteem. He will do everything in order

   be able to eat. He doesn’t see beyond food, and so long as this need remains

   unsatisfied, his primary motivation is to obtain something to eat.

2. Security or Safety Needs

           Security of employment, security of revenues and resources, familial

   security, security of health is the needs that concern with security and safety

   need.

           For the familial security needs, Braddock feels easy to satisfy this need

   because people around him care for him. When his right hand is broken, Mae

   cares him until his hand is recovered.
                                                                               54



      In the great depression situation the interest for safety and security

needs is translated into concern for safety on the job. To get safety on the

job, Braddock has to hide his broken right hand in order he can work on the

docks. For that reason he covers his broken right hand with shoe polish.

      Mae Braddock : “Jimmy, you can’t work. Your hand is broken”.
      Braddock     : “They see me lugging this around, you’re right, they won’t
                       pick me. Not down the docks, not anywhere. So we’re
                       gonna cover it up…with shoe polish. Okay? I’m sorry”.
      Mae Braddock : “No. No. No” (CM, 26:19).

      Braddock has to work with his left hand in dock. Although he has

covers his broken hand with shoe polish, his supervisor in dock, Jake find

out about it. Then he asks Braddock what has happened to his hand. His

friend, Mike helps him to give reason. So Jake doesn’t fire him from his job.

      Mike            : “That hand ain’t gonna work. You can’t slow me down. I
                          need this job”.
      Braddock        : “I need this job too”.
      Jake            : “What’s wrong with goddamn hand?”
      Mike            : “You see us falling behind, Jake?”
      Braddock        : “He’s all right. Appreciate it” (CM, 29:50).

      The other struggle of Braddock to get safety on his job as a boxer is by

hard training in gym although his rib is hurt. In gym, Braddock is helped by

his partners such as Joe Jeanette. He also leaves his job on the docks as a

laborer in order he can focus with his training.

      Joe Gould       : “Is he all right? So how’s he doing?”
      Jeanette        : “He’s old. He’s arthritic. And his rib haven’t been right
                          since the lasky fight”.
      Joe Gould       : “What’s the bad news, sunshine?”
      Cornerman       : “Joe!”
      Joe Gould       : “What?”
      Cornerman       : “The reporters are here”.
      Joe Gould       : “Jesus. Right. Get rid of that goddamn rib protector.
                          Jimmy! Press is here, boy-o! get bounching around in
                          that ring! Showtime! Big smiles! You’re the belle of the
                          ball! Baer don’t need to know about no goddamn ribs”
                          (CM, 100:41).
                                                                                    55



         All of the things that have been stated above are Braddock’s efforts to

   get safety on his job. He wants to work in calm and quite. There is no

   anxiety, fear, and pressure. He wants to do his job, as a boxer or as

   dockworker with safe.

3. Belongingness and Love Needs

         The needs of James J. Braddock that can be categorized in this need

   are friendship, having a family, and religious group. Braddock is surrounded

   by his friends that always help him whenever he needs. Beside that Braddock

   becomes the member of the church.

         Having a family means that someone has responsibility for his family.

   In Cinderella Man film it can be seen that Braddock marries with Mae and

   they get three kids; Jay, Howard, and Rosy. For Braddock, his family is the

   important thing in the world, so he will do anything for his family.

         Braddock’s struggle for love and belongingness need in this film can

   be seen such as when Braddock has to work on docks although his right hand

   is broken.

         Mae Braddock : “Jimmy, if you can’t work…we’re not gonna be able to
                          pay the electric, or the heat. And we’re out of credit at the
                          grocery. So I think we need to pack the kids. They could
                          stay at my sister’s for a little while…and I’ll take in more
                          sewing”.
         Braddock     : “That way we could make two, three breadlines a day. I’ll
                          get doubles, triples, whatever I can find”.
         Mae Braddock : “Jimmy, you can’t work”.
         Braddock     : “Mae, I can still work”.
         Mae Braddock : “Jimmy, you can’t work. Your hand is broken” (CM,
                          26:15).

         Since Braddock loses his licenses to fight and has to work on docks, he

   just gets few money and it made he can’t pay the electricity, or the heat.

   Oneday, Mae has to send her kids in her relative’s house because Mae can’t
                                                                                56



keep them warm. It makes Braddock very sad. To get the kids back,

Braddock goes to Emergency Relief Administration to borrow some money,

because the money gotten by Braddock is not enough to pay the electricity or

the heat, then he goes to Madison Square Garden hangout and begging

money from his former boxing associates.

      Promoter 1     : “There’s Jimmy Braddock”.
      Braddock       : “The thing is, I can’t afford to…I can’t afford to pay the
                         heat. I’ve had to farm out my kids. You know, they keep
                         cutting shifts down at the docks…and you just don’t get
                         picked everyday. I sold everything I’ve got that anybody
                         would buy. I went on public assistance. I signed on at the
                         relief office. They gave me $ 19. I need another $ 18,38
                         so I can pay the bill and get the kids back. You know me
                         well enough to know if I had anywhere else to go…I
                         wouldn’t be here. If you could help me through this time,
                         I sure would be grateful”.
      Promoter 2     : “Sure, Jim. Sure. Good luck”.
      Promoter 3     : “Jim”.
      Promoter 4     : “Hey, Jimmy. Here you go, Jim. Good luck, Jim” (CM,
                         65:18).

     Braddock loves his family so much. When he has a broken hand, he is

not too sad because he is surrounded by people that love and always support

him, such as his family and his friends. In the other hand, when his family is

in danger such as lack of food and his kids is sick, he is so sad and worried,

even almost desperated. His sadness can be seen clearly in his face

expression when he walks head to Madison Square Garden. Family becomes

one of the motives underlying his struggle. Braddock has a broken hand but

he works anyway. It is the only way to feed his family and provides comfort

for his family. He will do everything for his family, although his struggle

endangers himself.
                                                                                    57



4. Self-esteem Needs

           The self-esteem appears in Braddock’s life. There are Braddock’s

   needs included in this category. They are respected by others, recognition,

   fame, glory, reputation, appreciation, and dignity. To realize all of those

   needs, Braddock has to make great effort for it.

           He wants to be respected by others, at least he has ability and uses his

   ability to work as boxer and get money. It can help his family in order they

   eat everyday. In contrast, his opponent Max Baer doesn’t respect with his

   work. He even mocks Braddock for what he has done to his family and his

   career. It makes Mae, Braddock’s wife angry and then pour water on Baer’s

   face.

           Max Baer       : “Yeah. I think the smart thing would be for you to take a
                              fall. Circus act’s over, old man”.
           Reporter       : “Right here, Max. there you go”.
           Braddock       : “I think I’ll go a few rounds with the dancing Baer”.
           Joe Gould      : “Yeah, there you go. Come on, Jim. Very good. Okay.
                              Come on. Okay. Hey, we’ll see you in the ring”.
           Braddock       : “Max, my wife, Mae”.
           Max Baer       : “You ought to talk him, Mae. You are far too pretty to be a
                              widow”.
           Joe Gould      : “That’s not nice, Max. Not nice. Come on”.
           Max Baer       : “On second thought, maybe I can comfort you after he’s
                              gone”.
           Joe gould      : “Hey, I said shut your goddamn mouth, you punk!”
           Braddock       : “Sorry. Send me the cleaning bill”.
           Max Baer       : “Get that, boys? Now he’s got his wife doing his fighting
                              for him”.
           Braddock       : “Yeah. Ain’t she something?” (CM, 95:73).

           Braddock also needs recognition and appreciation from others.

   Braddock feels inferiority, disappointed, weak when his promoter, Mr.

   Johnston regards Braddock’s fight as “no contest”. Mr. Johnston thinks that

   fight like keeps people away. He even revokes Braddock’s license to fight.
                                                                                    58



   Braddock’s expression can be seen clearly, he is annoyed because people

   don’t respect his work.

         Braddock       : “Mr. Johnston!”
         Mr. Johnston   : “Jim. What’s going on? You didn’t tell him?”
         Jou Gould      : “Yeah, of course I told him. He wanted to hear it from
                            you”.
         Braddock       : “Come on, Mr. Johnston, no contest? I broke my hand.
                            Okay? It’s legit. You don’t see me crying about it. I don’t
                            see what you got to complain about. I still went out there.
                            I still put on a show. I did what I could do. You know, we
                            did that boondocks circuit for you…me and Joe.
                            Remember? I didn’t quite on you. And I didn’t quite
                            tonight. I didn’t always lose. I won’t always lose again. I
                            can still fight ”.
         Mr. Johnston   : “Go home”.
         Braddock       : “I can still fight”
         Mr. Johnston   : “Go home to Mae and the kids, Jim”.
         Braddock       : “Go home? Go home with what? Go home with what? A
                            broken hand from Mount Vernon? Mr. Johnston!” (CM,
                            25:30).

         Need to be respected for his ability and for what he has done is the

   motive why Braddock has to struggle. If someone is respected for what he

   has done, he will have value and be important in the world. It makes

   Braddock happier. It can be seen when Braddock goes home from fight and

   win. He expresses his happiness by bringing a red rose bouquet for his wife.

         In the end of this story this need can be fulfilled by Braddock. He gets

   s fame, glory, reputation, and dignity because of his hard struggles.

5. Self-actualization Needs

         Braddock wants to actualize his potential by boxing under the good

   condition. But it is very hard for him to make his passion comes true. The

   situation and his environment don’t support him. Even his potentiality and

   his bravery is doubted by people especially his promoter
                                                                                  59



         Mr. Johnston   : “You want to think about it?”
         Braddock       : “You think you’re telling me something? What, like,
                           boxing is dangerous, something like that? You don’t
                           think triple shifts or working nights on the scaffolds…is
                           just as likely to get a guy killed? How many guys died
                           the other night living in cardboard shacks…trying to get
                           save on rent money? Guys who were trying to feed their
                           family. ‘Cause men like you…have not yet quite figured
                           out a way to make money…out of watching that guy die.
                           In my profession, and it’s my profession…I’m little more
                           fortune” (CM, 91:75).

         Braddock’s actualization happens when he is under good condition. It

can be seen when his manager, Joe Gould offers him one fight. That is a

though fight but Jim win. Then Joe Gould gets another fight to Braddock. He

keeps wining. Eventually, he has to fight the heavyweight champion of the

world, Max Baer.

         When Braddock gets a fight against Max Baer, his wife doesn’t

support his decision to take the fight. Her reason is she worries with

Braddock’s safety.

         Mae Braddock : “He’s killed two men, Jimmy! What’s worth it?”
         Braddock     : “I have to believe I got some kind of say over our lives.
                          Okay? You know, that if things are bad, that we can
                          change them…we can make things better for our family”.
         Mae Braddock : “But I need you to be safe…”.
         Braddock     : “Nothing safe anymore, Mae…so much. And without
                          that…”.
         Mae Braddock : “I need you to be safe!…nothing’s safe at all. All right. I
                          have stood by for all of it. Until now. Not for this Jimmy.
                          I just can’t. so you train all you want. Make a show of it
                          for your self, for the papers. But you find a way out of
                          that fight. Break your hand again if you have to” (CM,
                          95:70).

         Then Braddock gives understanding to Mae about his decision. That is

not simple thing for Mae to agree with Braddock’s decision, but finally Mae

takes it and gives her support to her husband in order that he can win the

fight.
                                                                                  60



              Mae Braddock : “You can’t win without me behind you. That’s what I’ve
                              been trying to tell you. Maybe I understand some. About
                              having to fight. So you just remember who you are.
                              You’re the Bulldog from Bergen…and the pride of New
                              Jersey. You’re everybody’s hope. And you’re your kids
                              hero. And you are the champion of my heart…James J.
                              Braddock”.
              Braddock     : “You know, you better get home. You know, boxers hang
                              around places like this…and you don’t want to get
                              tangled up with that kind of crowd. Nice girl like you.
              Mae Braddock : “Yeah, okay. I’ll see you at home. Please Jimmy” (CM,
                              106:73).

              That is the last Braddock’s struggle. Although his career almost

       finishes and he has to work as a dockworker on docks, his interest in boxing

       never ends. He always tries to get the second chance in order he can do

       boxing again. Finally, his dream to fight comes true. His struggles make him

       becomes the New World heavyweight champion. Beside that he can

       actualize his ability as a boxer.

              Futhermore, knowing one has reached this level or not it can be

       recognized by the presence of the characteristics of self-actualization person

       by Maslow as conveyed in the major character’s personality.


B. Braddock as A Self-actualized Person

          Braddock can be said as a self-actualized person because he has mostly

   the characteristics of self-actualization. The characteristics can be drawn as

   follows:

   1. More Efficient Perception of Reality

              This film reflects the characteristic of more efficient perception of

       reality. This characteristics demands Braddock to appreciate what is talking

       from what is real of being alive and Braddock has a clear understanding
                                                                                 61



   about right and wrong. He knows that what is done by his son, Jay is wrong.

   When his son steals a salami from the butcher, Braddock makes the children

   return it. Braddock always teaches his kids honesty.

         Furthermore, it can be said that Braddock has an ability to have a clear

   understanding about right and wrong.

2. Acceptance of Self, Others, and Nature

         Cinderella Man reflects the characteristic of the quality of acceptance

   of self, others, and nature. Self-acceptance means that Braddock accepts his

   condition of life patiently. His condition is weak and sickly. He realizes that

   life has its ups and downs. He lives in basement apartment and there is a

   simple life.

         Braddock can accept others without being burdened by shortcoming.

   He can make friendship with others with all their weaknesses. He is also able

   to accept nature as it is. He doesn’t complain when he is sick and getting old.

   He accepts it as nature cycles.

3. Spontancity, Simplicity, and Naturalness

         This film reflects the characteristic of spontancity, simplicity, and

   naturalness. Braddock’s attitude shows spontaneous action, even he gets

   sympathy from his partners because of his spontaneously. He decides to beg

   money from his former boxing associates to pay the electricity and gets his

   kids back. In his jobs he always receives challenge in order to better his life.

         In this case, he becomes more expressive and creative in facing life.
                                                                                62



4. Problem-centered

         This film reflects the characteristic of problem-centered. When

   Braddock’s wife has to send their kids in the relative’s house, Braddock

   wants to get his kids back because he has promise that he never sends them

   away. So Braddock decides to borrow some money from Emergency Relief

   Administration. Then he has to be ashamed of himself of begging money

   from his former boxing associates in order he can pay the electricity and get

   his kids back.

         Furthermore, it can be said that Braddock is able to solve his problem

   to get his kids back.

5. Autonomy (Independence of Culture and Environment)

         Braddock depends on himself for growth, self-actualizes have self-

   confidence. It has an understanding that Braddock also has capability to

   develop himself and to reach the goal in his life without depending on his

   environment and culture. For Braddock, providing comfort for his family

   and getting his career back as a boxer is his obsession. He has a big

   motivation to realize his dream. In reaching his goal life, he has to work hard

   in different environments.

6. Social Interest (Gemeinschoftsgefubl)

         This film, major character reflects the characteristic of social interest.

   In his life, Braddock shares feeling of sympathy and affection for all

   humanity. He treats others as his own family, he also has desire to help

   people sincerely. When there is an accident happen in Hoovervilles, Central
                                                                                 63



   Park, he tries to help his friend, Mike who is steamrolled by a runaway horse

   and buggy.

7. Interpersonal Relation

         In Cinderella Man film it can be seen that Braddock enjoys making

   relationship with everyone even he has a lot of friends. But he tends to be

   intimate with his friend named Joe Gould, because he feels comfort with

   him. Beside that Joe Gould always helps him when Braddock faces

   problems.

8. The Democratic Character Structure

         The main character of Braddock shows a person who is able to make

   relationship with people in general whether less talented one without

   burdened by individual variety and ethnic. He is open to people from

   different class, race, religion, sex, occupation etc.

         Braddock meets different people in his life although he comes from

   Irish. He makes a good relationship with them.

9. Philosophical Sense of Humor

         This film, the major character reflects the characteristic of

   philosophical sense of humor. Braddock’s jokes usually do not hurt other

   people, but it rather has a certain purpose because joke can make the body

   healthy, fresh, and makes feeling enjoy. It can be seen when press

   conference, Braddock makes a joke about his kids. Beside that his train is

   full of joke.

          However, Braddock makes a joke without mocking and hurting other.

    Then, it is said that Braddock possesses the philosophical sense of humor.
                                                                                      64



   10. Creativeness

              People in the world must be creative to survive. In Cinderella Man,

        the major character reflects the characteristic of creativeness. Braddock

        shows his creativity in his job. People should be creative in their own way.

        This kind of creativity will bring freshness to their need or job.

         From the explanation above can be conclude that there are 15

   characteristics of self-actualization and only 10 characteristics that can be

   satisfied by the major character.



C. Discussion

          Howard’s latest film is Cinderella Man. This film tells about the

   phenomenon that happened in the great depression. Ron Howard gives attention

   in the needs and the motives especially in James J. Braddock as one of the major

   characters in this movie. Braddock is a boxer who has a series of defeats when

   the nation enters the great depression. He has to struggle to fulfill his necessaries.

          When the nation enters the great depression, Braddock has a series of

   defeats. Fighting injured, including with a broken hand, makes him less of a

   fighter. Braddock, like many others in that era, loses of physiological needs,

   security or safety needs, love and belongingness needs, self-esteem needs, and

   self-actualization needs. He has to make great effort in order his necessaries can

   be fulfilled. There are some levels of Braddock’s needs. Braddock must struggle

   hard in step by step to fulfill his needs from the lowest to the highest needs.

   Braddock demands to fulfill the basic needs first. His struggle to get basic needs
                                                                                     65



is not easy especially his struggle to fulfill his need to eat. It is the most difficult

needs to be fulfilled. In great depression era, Braddock loses everything in the

stock market. So he has to struggle in order he and his family can eat. His

struggle can be seen when he must work on docks although he has a broken right

hand. Hungry becomes his motive to struggle. Hungry person is motivated to eat.

As long as this need remains unsatisfied, his primary motivation is to obtain

something to eat.

       After the basic need is fulfilled, he tries to get safety in the job. We know

that Braddock is a boxer, and boxer is risky job. Beside that he has a broken right

hand when he must work on docks. So to get safety on his job, he has to find the

way in order it can minimize the risk, such as by hard training before he fight and

covers his broken right hand with shoe polish. Thus he can work calm and quite.

       The next level is belongingness and love needs. Braddock’s needs that

can be categorized in this need is friendship, having a family, and religious

group. Braddock is surrounded by his friends that always help him whenever he

needs. Beside that, Braddock becomes the member of the church. Family

becomes the next motive, why Braddock has to struggle. Family is the important

thing in his life. He has to struggle to provides comfortable for his family. He can

so sad, worried, and even desperated when his family is in danger. He has a

broken right hand, but he will do everything for his family, although his struggle

endangers himself.

       After his family necessaries can be fulfilled, the self-esteem needs appear

in Braddock’s life. This need will make someone feel more useful, viewed, and
                                                                                  66



respected by other. At the time of great depression this needs narrowly

disappears. They just think of themselves and do not respect with other. Need to

be respected by others also becomes Braddock’s motive. Although Braddock

plays draw against Abe Feldman, his promoter, Mr. Johnston doesn’t respect him

and regards Braddock’s fight as no contest. Even he revokes Braddock’s license

to fight. It makes him feel inferiority, disappointed, and weak. In the end of this

story, Braddock gets fame, glory, reputation, and dignity because of his hard

struggles.

       The next level is self-actualization needs. It is the highest level needs. The

motive why Braddock has to struggle is he wants to actualize his potential as a

boxer. Actually, Braddock wants to actualize his potential by boxing under the

good condition. But it is very difficult for him to make his passion come true.

Although his career almost finish and he must work on docks, his interest in

boxing never end. He always makes some efforts in order he can do boxing

again. It makes him becoming the New World Heavyweight champion. Family

and boxing becomes part in his life.

       Ron Howard gives the resolution of this film is that Braddock’s life is

changing from lack and desperate life into a man with all of his superiority.

Beside that Braddock can be said as a self-actualized person, because the

characteristics of self-actualization have been portrayed in Braddock’s

personality. It can be seen that there are 10 characteristics can be satisfied by the

major character from 15 characteristics of self-actualization. The characteristics

are (1) more efficient perception of reality, (2) acceptance of self, others, and
                                                                                67



nature, (3) spontancity, simplicity, and naturalness, (4) problem-centered, (5)

autonomy (independence of culture and environment), (6) social interest, (7)

interpersonal relation, (8) democratic character structure, (9) philosophical sense

of humor, and the last (10) creativeness.

       Based on the analysis above, it is obvious for the writer to state the

structural elements on Cinderella Man are matched with the main idea of

Howard viewed by humanistic perspective.
                                   CHAPTER V

                       CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION



         After analyzing Ron Howard’s Cinderella Man, conclusion and suggestion

are drawn. This chapter is divided into two parts. The first part states about the

conclusion that can be drawn in order to answer the problem of the study, and the

second one offers some suggestions, which are considered to be useful for all.


A. Conclusion

            Reffering to the problem statement and the analysis in the previous

    chapter, the writer finally take some conclusions.

            First, Ron Howard as the director reveals that all of human beings have

    different needs and some motives why they have to do something. Like

    Braddock, he also has some needs. He has to struggle in order his needs canbe

    fulfilled.

            Second, there are some motives underlying Braddock’s struggle. First,

    the motive concerns with physiological needs, that is hungry. Braddock has to

    hard work to get money in order he and his family can eat. Second motive is he

    wants to get safety in his job. It relates with safety and security needs. The next

    motive relates to belongingness and love needs, that is family. He loves his

    family so much. So he will do everything for his family. Fourth, the motive is he

    wants to be respected for what he has done. This motive included in self-esteem

    needs. The last motive underlying Braddock’s struggle is he wants to actualize

    his potential as a boxer.



                                         68
                                                                                 69



          Third, Braddock can be said as a self-actualized person because the

   characteristics of self-actualization have been portrayed in Braddock’s

   personality. The characteristics are more efficient perception of reality,

   acceptance of self, others, and nature, spontancity, simplicity, and naturalness,

   problem-centered, autonomy (independence of culture and environment), social

   interest, interpersonal relation, democratic character structure, philosophical

   sense of humor, and the last creativeness.



B. Suggestion

          The writer has chosen humanistic psychological approach; hierarchy of

   needs to deal with this film. This study can still be improved. It is widely

   possible for other writers to apply different approach such as sociological

   approach. This approach toward the same film will bring new perspective in

   gaining more understanding about the film and ideas beyond it.
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Coon, Dennis. 1980. Introduction of Psychology Exploration and Application. (2nd
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Douglass, John S. and Glenn P. Harnder. 1996. The Art of Technique an Aesthethic
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Feist, Jest. 1985. Theories of Personality. Canada: CBS College Publishing.

Hjelle, L. and Ziegler, D. 1981. Personalities Theories: Basic Assumption, Research
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Hjelle, L. and Ziegler, D. 1992. Personalities Theories: Basic Assumption, Research
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Hornby, As. 1985. Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary of Current English.
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Klarer, Mario. 1999. An Introduction to Literature Studies. London: Routledge.

http://www.script-o-rama.com/movie_scripts/c/cinderella-mans-script-
         transcript.html. Accessed on March 7th, 2006.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/maslow’s_hierarchy_of_needs. Accessed on March 7th,
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http://www.accel-team.com/maslow_/maslow-nds-02.html. Accessed on March 7th,
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http://www.jamesjbraddock.com/movie. Accessed on March 3rd, 2006.

http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/maslow.html. Accessed on March 7th, 2006.

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