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					A STUDY ON THE STUDENT’S COMPETENCE OF USING RELATIVE
PRONOUN AT THE SECOND YEAR OF SMK BATIK 1 SURAKARTA IN
                 THE 2005/2006 ACADEMIC YEAR




                        RESEARCH PAPER

         Submitted as a Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements
    for Getting Bachelor Degree of Education in English Department




                                 by

                           LINDA ASTUTI
                            A. 320 010 149




  SCHOOL OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
   MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF SURAKARTA
                    2006


                                  i
                              ACCEPTANCE




A STUDY ON THE STUDENTS’ COMPETENCE OF USING RELATIVE
PRONOUN AT THE SECOND YEAR OF SMK BATIK 1 SURAKARTA IN
                    THE 2005/2006 ACADEMIC YEAR


                                     by
                                Linda Astuti
                                A. 320010149



   Accepted by the Board of Examiners School of Teacher Training and
          Education Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta
                          on 16 October 2006


Team of Examiners

1. Drs. Djoko Srijono, M.Hum                (                    )
      NIP: 131474078
      ( Chairperson )

2. Drs. Agus Wijayanto, M.A                 (                    )
      NIK: 100.947
      ( Member I )

3. Drs. H. Maryadi, MA.                     (                    )
      NIP: 131602728
      ( Member II )



                                    Dean,



                          Drs. H. Sofyan Anif, M. Si
                                  NIK: 547




                                      ii
                                  TESTIMONY



            Herewith, I testify that in this research paper, there is no plagiarsm of

the previous literary work which has been raised to obtain bachelor degree of a

university, not there are opinions or master piece which has been written or

published or others, except those which the writing are referred in the manuscript

and mentioned in literary review and bibliography.

            Hence, later, if it is proven that there are some untrue statements in

this testimony, hence I will hold fully responsible.




                                                       Surakarta, August 2006



                                                        LINDA ASTUTI




                                         iii
                      MOTTO




v WAHAI MANUSIA, SESUNGGUHNYA DUNIA ADALAH NEGERI
   YANG SEKADAR DILALUI, SEDANGKAN AKHIRAT ADALAH
    TEMPAT KEDIAMAN YANG ABADI. OLEH KARENA ITU,
  AMBILLAH DITEMPAT YANG KALIAN LEWATI INI SEBAGAI
   BEKAL UNTUK TEMPAT KEDIAMAN KALIAN YANG ABADI.
                 ( ALI BIN ABI THALIB )



 v BEKERJALAH DENGAN CINTA KARENA DENGAN BEKERJA
   BERARTI ENGKAU MENCINTAI KEHIDUPAN DAN DENGAN
    MENCINTAI PEKERJAAN BERARTI ENGKAU MENYELAMI
     RAHASIA KEHIDUPAN YANG PALING TERSEMBUNYI.
                   (KAHLIL GIBRAN)



      v SATU-SATUNYA PENJARA YANG SESUNGGUHNYA
      ADALAH KETAKUTAN, DAN SATU-SATUNYA KEBEBASAN
        YANG SESUNGGUHNYA ADALAH KEBEBASAN DARI
                       RASA TAKUT
                      (RESEARCHER)




                        iv
                          DEDICATION




THIS RESEARCH PAPER

IS WHOLEHEARTEDLY DEDICATED TO:

  v The greatest thanks dedicated to ALLAH SWT,

  v My beloved late parents, “EMAK & BAPAK”,

  v My beloved new parents, “AYAH & IBU”,

  v My beloved prospective parents in law,

  v My lovely younger brothers “Galih & Wildan” and younger sisters

     “Susan, Sabrina, & Mela”,

  v My dearest one who will be my husband.




                                 v
                            ACKNOWLEDGEMENT




       Alkhamdulillahirabbil’alamin. All praises to Allah SWT due to His

blessing and mercies given to the researcher, so she can complete her research

paper under the tittle A STUDY ON THE STUDENTS’ COMPETENCE OF

USING RELATIVE PRONOUN AT THE SECOND YEAR OF SMK

BATIK 1 SURAKARTA IN THE 2005/2006 ACADEMIC YEAR.

       The researcher realizes that this researh paper is still far from being

perfect, so all suggestions and criticism for improving this research are accepted

happily.

       In conducting this research, the researcher got some help from many

people. On this best occassion, the researcher wants to give grateful thanks to all

people who have helped her to finish the research paper patiently and wisely. The

researcher would like to express her deep gratitude and appreciation to the

following:

1. The greatest thanks dedicated to Allah SWT, who gives me sadness and

   happiness, thanks for giving me a chance to be YOUR creature, feeling the

   hardest lifetime and finding the better solution on it,

1. Drs. H. Sofyan Anif, M.Si., as the Dean of Teacher Training and Education

   Faculty of Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta,




                                         vi
2. Koesoemo Ratih, S.Pd, M.Hum., as the Head of English Department who

   gave me an agreement for the researcher’s tittle, for the research paper in

   addition to give the suggestion,

3. Drs. Djoko Srijono, M.Hum., as the first consultant, for his guidance,

   support, and valuable advices and suggestion during the process of writing

   this research paper,

4. Drs. Agus Wijayanto, M.A., as the second consultant who has given me

   guidance, motivation and criticism,

5. Drs. H. Maryadi, M.A., as the academic consultant for class C’01, and also

   as the third consultant, for guiding me during my study in UMS,

6. All lecturers in English Department for transfering their knowledge to the

   researcher during her study,

7. My beloved late parents “EMAK SRINAWANG HATI” and “BAPAK

   SAHARI”. Pak, Mak, I accept both you back to our OWNER since I know

   that as a human being I do not have anything, the OWNER of everything in

   this world is Allah. I had tried accepting this reality sincerely and resolutely.

   Now I must replace your duty, Insya Allah I will realize all of your desires.

   Pak, Mak, I miss you so much ..... just coming to my dream in order to release

   my yearning. I love you and I proud of being your daughter,

8. My beloved new parents “IBU KETY” and “AYAH MASDUKI” for taking

   care of me and also my sisters and brothers as your own children. I love the

   way both you treat us. Ibu, Ayah, thanks for giving me a cheerful life and




                                         vii
   helping me to release my pain. I do not know what I would be, if you did not

   take me as yours. I love you so much .........,

9. My prospective parents in law “PA’E KAMARI & BU’E SRI LESTARI” for

   accepting me to be the part of their family. Thanks for their prays,

   suggestions, advices and helps both material and spiritual. Thanks a lot PAK,

   BU,

10. My lovely mbah putri Klaten (MBAH BUJO & MBAH BUDI) I love

   having MBAH PUTRI like you BOZ,

11. My lovely brothers GALIH PRIAWAN & AHMAD WILDANU, my

   sisters MULIA SUSANTI, SABRINA NURANI, & YUNI PAMELA.

   Life is strugle guys just facing everything that happen in this life sincerely and

   resolutely. Be patience, through this life in the right way and believe that one

   day we will achieve our better and brighter future. Let’s make our lifetime

   more cheerfull OK???,

12. My lovely prospective brothers in law D’ WAWAN & D’ KODRAT, nice to

   be your only one sister guys......,

13. KANG MAS HASAN, thanks a lot for supporting me to finish this final

   work soon, your patience when you are taking care of me and also everything

   you have given to me. I’m so sorry if I often make u disappointed. I just want

   you to be a better and stronger man,




                                         viii
14. The only one my step brother and his lovely wive, “mas Otnay and mbak

   Atiex”, keep your patience in waiting your little cute and sweety baby come

   in this real world, just believe in GOD that oneday you will get it,

15. My closest, truely and madly friends, NANIK ROSDIANA, TITIS

   HARYANTI, & RAEFINA FEBRIANITA, we had felt and learned many

   things during our togetherness, we had throughed some wonderfull events that

   I will never forget, when we are able to together again? I miss you so much....,

16. The ones who ever colored my life, AA’ Fahrudin & Mas Rudy, thanks for

   giving me unforgetable experience, to love is not always have to own guys,

17. My new closest one “PANDA” who has taught me how to face this reality,

   thanks a lot for your nice and unique advices, it makes me be more realistics

   man. I’m so sorry if finally I can’t realize your want, as a human we do not

   know what will GOD want for our future,

18. Ayah & Mama kost, thanks for giving me the most comfortable place,

19. My house-mate in DAMAI 2 such as WIWIT en her P’NOER, RIENA

   en her Nyet2, happy getting a new soulmate girls he... he... enyak nee.

   APRIL, YOUNI by-An, YOUNIE kla-10, keep your struggle in finishing

   your research paper, INDRI en her Jecko, be mature since we are getting

   older now, NOLIEX & UUM, let’s find your true loves, don’t keep your

   JOMBLO guys, VIVA DAMAI 2 yuuuuuk..........,




                                        ix
21. Yayuk, Dilie, en Dwi, for making Damai 2 more lively,

22. ASPORT teamwork AA’ ARIEF, look for your other job and someone

     special to be your wive. JENG ANNA, finish your study soon girl,

23. My boss (mas Widi, mbak Dian and their little baby girl D’Nawra) in

     Asport sport center, thanks a lot for everything. Without your help I do

     not know whether I can continue my study or not. Thanks a lot mbak and

     mas...,

24. PPL team in SMK Batik 1 Surakarta, CIUM, be faithful and make yourself

     sure that the last one you had gotten is the best for your future life. LILA,

     support yourself to be not lazy so that you can finish your study as soon as

     possible. LIEZA,

25. My lovely compy, thanks for helping me in typing my research paper, my

     lovely radio, thanks for accompanying me when I’m typing my research

     paper, and my grandy for accompanying me wherever I go,

26. All of my friends in English Department 01 such as Rika, Uswah, Dini, Anna,

     Gesang, Aan, Umar, Jojo, Aguz cakep, kang Ali, Aan, etc, thanks for the

     togetherness.

27. My friends in English Department 02 such as Ning-Nong, double-Wie2n,

     Nieta, Jeng Rodli, den ayu Anjar, den ayu Tutik, D’ Upiex imoet, Puput,

     Diana, etc, thanks for accompanying me when I,m feeling lonely,




                                       x
27. Ida and Tyas, thanks a lor for remaining me to finish this final work as soon

     as possible, I love you guys,

28. The headmaster of SMK Batik 1 Surakarta, Drs. Sri Sedya Tentrem, who

     had given me permission in doing an experiment there,

29. The English teacher of class 2 Pj 1 and 2 Pj 2, Mr. Bambang Sri Dayatmo,

     S.Pd, who has helped me in carrying out the research in his class, and

30. All the students of class 2 Pj 1 and 2 Pj 2, for being the subject in this

     research paper.

Those who cannot be mentioned one by one toward their support to her realizing

this study. Finally the researcher hopes in order that this research paper will be

useful for the readers who want to develop the English teaching knowledge.




                                                           Researcher



                                                             Ma-Nda




                                        xi
                                           TABLE OF CONTENT

                                                                                                                          page
TITTLE . ..................................................................................................................i
APPROVAL .............................................................................................................ii
ACCEPTANCE ...................................................................................................... iii
TESTIMONY . ........................................................................................................ iv
MOTTO ................................................................................................................... v
DEDICATION ........................................................................................................ vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ..................................................................................... vii
TABLE OF CONTENT ........................................................................................xiii
SUMMARY ............................................................................................................ xv
CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION . ........................................................................1
                       A. Background of Study . ..............................................................1
                       B. Previous of Study ....................................................................4
                       C. Problem of Study .....................................................................6
                       D. Limitation of Study . ................................................................6
                       E. Objective of the Study . ............................................................6
                       F. Significance of the Study ........................................................7
                       G. Research Paper Organization ..................................................7
CHAPTER II: UNDERLYING THEORY . ..........................................................9
                       A. Notion of Competence . ..........................................................9
                       B. Notion of Grammar . ...............................................................11
                       C. Definition of Relative Pronoun ..............................................13
                       D. Main Words of Relative Pronoun ..........................................15
                       E. Kinds of Relative Pronoun . ....................................................17
                             1. Defining Relative ...............................................................17
                                   a. The Way of Identifying the Defining Relative Clause 17
                                   b. The Form of Defining Relative Clause ......................18
                                   c. Omitting the Defining Relative ..................................20
                             2. Non-defining Relative .......................................................20
                                   a. The Use of Non-defining Relative .............................21



                                                             xii
                              b. The Form of Non-defining Relative Clause ............. 22
                              c. The Way to Differentiate the Defining and Non-
                                   defining Relative Clause ...........................................23
                             d. The Importance of Commas in Relative Pronoun .....25
                       3. Connective Relative ...........................................................25
                  F. Effective Method to Teach Relative Pronoun ........................26
CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHOD . .............................................................30
                  A. Type of Research .....................................................................30
                  B. Subject of the Study .................................................................31
                  C. Object of the Study ..................................................................31
                  D. Data and Data Source ..............................................................31
                  E. Method of Collecting Data . .....................................................32
                       1. Test ......................................................................................32
                       2. Try Out Instrument ............................................................33
                       3. Validity of the Test ............................................................33
                       4. Reliability of the Test ........................................................34
                  F. Technique for Analyzing the Data ..........................................35
CHAPTER IV: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION .................................. 36
                  A. Data Presentation ..................................................................... 37
                       1. The Validity and Reliability of the Test ........................... 37
                       2. Result of the Experimental Treatment .............................. 41
                       3. Result of Test ..................................................................... 45
                  B. Data Analysis ........................................................................... 47
                  C. The Problem Appearing in Teaching Relative Pronoun in the
                       Scope of SMK Batik 1 Surakarta ........................................... 48
                  D. Discussion of the Finding ........................................................ 49
CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION ........................................ 52
                  A. Conclusion ............................................................................... 52
                  B. Suggestion ................................................................................53
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDICES



                                                      xiii
xiv
                                  CHAPTER I

                               INTRODUCTION




A. Background of Study.

          In facing global era, English becomes very useful and important for

   human life. People will be able to face the over changing world easily if they

   can master it well. With their excellent mastery of English, they will be able to

   expect more than that because English is used as means of communication in

   international contact. English is an international language in that it is the most

   widespread medium of international communication both because of the

   number and geographical spread of speaker who used it for part of at least of

   their international contact (Brumfit, 1982:1)

          Considering the importance of English as an international language

   our government compells all students in Indonesia to learn English as an

   international language. Therefore, in our educational system English is taught

   since the students of elementary school untill they are at university in which it

   has different aims based on the levels of education. For example, in the

   elementary school English is taught as a local content or in Indonesian it is

   called muatan lokal, while in the junior and senior high school it is taught as a

   compulsory subject.

          In learning English students will be taught English skills such as

   reading, writing, listening and speaking. Beside that they also will be taught




                                         1
                                                                              2




about language aspects including pronunciation, vocabulary, structure and

grammar.

        In learning English students face several difficulties since English has

complicated grammatical rules that sometime makes the students feel difficult

and confused in understanding this subject. This problem occurs since the

English grammatical rules are quite different from the grammatical rules of

our language because according to some linguists there are no two languages

in the world owning same rules.

        Based on the researcher’s experiences when she practiced in the field

work, SMK Batik 1 Surakarta, she assumes that almost all of the students are

still confused in understanding English grammar. It can be seen on their

ability in applying some rules of English grammar into the correct sentences

both in written and oral form. They were not able to differentiate the use of to

be in    passive voice for example, in the teaching and learning process

researcher gave them some exercises about the application of passive voice

after giving them its formula. One of the questions was ‘Mr. John buy some

books in the department store’.

        After collecting the students’ answer sheets and correcting them, the

researcher got result that between 42 students, there were only 5 students

owning totally correct answer because almost all of them put to be is after the

word “some books” it means that they also can not differenciate the plural or

singular marker that appear in the sentence, they also had not understood well

about the changing of pronoun as subject or object position.
                                                                               3




       The other problems appear when the researcher taught them are

problems about tenses, after giving them some questions about the use of

tenses the researcher found that most of them could not translate Indonesian

sentence into English based on correct tenses since they did not know when

they should use present, past, future and perfect tenses. Therefore, researcher

spent much time in teaching them about it. The most difficult problem is

found when the researcher taught them about relative pronouns. After

spending one session in explaining them about the material, researcher gave

them exercises, unfortunately, most of them had not understood yet about the

use of main words in relative pronouns. Although, the researcher had

explained it clearly including its simpler formula, they still are not able to

apply it.   As we know that relative pronouns are used to give more

information about things or persons being reffered by using main words of

relative pronouns such as that and wh-form. In Indonesian context usually it

means ‘yang’.    For example: George Washington yang menjadi presiden

Amerika Serikat tidak pernah berkata bohong. In English form this sentence

will become George Washington, who became the president of United States,

never say a lie. In this case students were not able to use types of relative

pronouns in correct position.

       Based on several problems above the researcher chooses one topic for

her research related to the students’ problem in applying grammatical rules

especially about the use of relative pronouns. She thinks that it is quite

interesting than the other problem since the functions of all main words of it is
                                                                                   4




   rather similar, therefore, it frequently makes students feel that this material is

   very difficult and confusing. By doing this research, the researcher assumes

   that this topic will be very useful both for the teacher and the learners since

   actually the use of relative pronouns are not as simple as we think, therefore,

   this research will gain teachers’ and students’ understanding in using relative

   pronouns.

          From this idea, the researcher will conduct this research paper under

   the tittle: A STUDY ON THE STUDENT’S COMPETENCE OF USING

   RELATIVE PRONOUNS AT THE SECOND YEAR STUDENTS OF SMK

   BATIK 1 SURAKARTA ON THE 2005/2006 ACADEMIC YEAR.



B. Previous Study

          By observing the kinds of analysis in UMS library the researcher finds

   a research paper about the use of all types of pronouns. The writer is Slamet

   Riyadi(99). His research paper is: AN ANALYSIS ON THE ABILITY IN

   USING PRONOUNS AT THE SECOND YEAR STUDENTS OF SMK

   MUHAMMADIYAH 1 BATURETNO, WONOGIRI. In his research the

   writer describes about the student’s present ability in using pronouns in the

   sentence and also knows which types of pronouns are most difficult to be

   learnt by the students of SMK Muhammadiyah 1 Baturetno,Wonogiri. Here,

   the objective of the study is to describe the students’ present ability in using

   pronouns in the sentence and also to know which type of pronoun is the most

   difficult to be learnt by the students of SMK Muhammadiyah 1 Baturetno.
                                                                               5




       In order to collect the data, the writer uses a test as the instrument. In

this research, the writer uses a completion or essay test as an instrument to

measure the students’ ability in using pronouns and finds the most difficult

pronoun for the students. Then, after conducting the analysis, the writer

concluded that students’ ability in using pronouns is categorized as fair.

Among 7 types of pronouns, only interrogative pronoun that mastered by the

students. And there are two types of pronouns that most difficult to be learnt

by the students they are demonstrative and reciprocal pronouns.

       The difference between this study and the previous study is in the

focus of analysis, in which on the previous study the writer emphasizes on the

study on the student’s ability in using all types of pronouns in English

grammatical rules such as the use of personal pronouns, possessive pronouns,

reflexive pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, and relative pronouns. However,

in this research the writer does not study each type of pronouns deeply. On the

other hand, this study is emphasized on analyzing the student’s competence of

using relative pronouns only in which it belongs to a part of pronouns itself. In

this research, researcher will study about the relative pronouns deeply. For

example about the      notion of competency, the nature of grammar, the

definition of relative pronoun, main words of relative pronouns including,

kinds of relative pronouns, the importance of commas in relative clauses and

the method to teach it effectively. The function of this research toward the

previous one is to continue the research before, though, it just discusses
                                                                                6




   relative pronouns, since the previous one does not discuss this material

   deeply.



C. Problem of the Study

             Based on the research background of study, the researcher states the

   problem of study as follows:

   1. How is the students’ competence in using relative pronouns?

   2. What is the problem appearing in teaching relative pronouns in the scope

      of SMK Batik 1 Surakarta?



D. Limitation of Problem

             Considering the fact that there are a lot of students who have not

   understood yet about the use of relative pronouns in practicing it into correct

   sentences, so, in this research the researcher focuses her study on analyzing

   the students’ competence of using relative pronouns, knowing whether they

   can differentiate each type of relative pronouns or not and knowing the

   problem appearing in teaching it at the second year students of SMK Batik 1

   Surakarta in the 2005/2006 academic year especially for class 2 Pj 1.



E. Objective the Study

             Based on the problem of study the writer formulates the objective of

   study for describing the students’ competence of using relative pronouns.
                                                                                  7




F. Benefits of the Study

          The researcher expects that this research will be able to give some

   benefits in the study of English grammar especially about relative pronouns,

   both for reader and the researcher herself. In this research there are two kinds

   of benefits, they are theoretical and practical.

   1. Theoretical benefit.

       Theoretically, this research helps to solve the problem about how to use

       relative pronouns correctly.

   2. Practical benefit.

       Practically, by doing this research, researcher will get a better

       understanding about the use of relative pronouns. The finding of this

       research will be also useful for the teacher and also the learners since it

       will give more informations about relative pronouns. Moreover, indirectly,

       this research will gain people’s understanding about grammar.



G. Research Paper Organization

          Research paper is given in order to the reader could easily understand

   the content of the research paper. In this case, the researcher will organize her

   research paper into five chapters. Chapter I is introduction which covers the

   background of study, previous study, problem of the study, limitation of the

   study, significance of the study, and research paper organization.

          Chapter II is underlying theory which covers              the notion of

   competence, the nature of grammar, the definition of relative pronouns, main
                                                                            8




words of relative pronouns including its simpler formula, kinds of relative

pronouns, the importance of commas in the relative clauses and the effective

method to teach relative pronouns.

       Chapter III is research method which covers type of research, the

subject of the study, object of the study, data and data source, the method of

collecting the data, and techniques for analyzing data.

       Chapter IV is the data analysis and discussion which constitutes the

discription of the result of study and classification student’s competence in

using relative pronouns and Chapter V is closing that provides conclussion

and suggession.
                                                                                 9




                                 CHAPTER II

                          UNDERLYING THEORY




          In this chapter, the research would like to explore the underlying

   theories which are relevant to the research objective. It is important for the

   researcher and the readers to know about the meaning of this research in order

   to make the researcher easy in analyzing and understanding relative pronouns

   deeply. The theories that will be discussed in this research are: the notion of

   competence, the notion of grammar, the definition of relative pronouns, main

   words of relative pronouns, kinds of relative pronouns, the importance of

   commas in relative clauses, and the effective method in teaching this material.



A. The Notion of Competence

          Competence refers to human’s ability to do something, it means that

   they master certain thing. According to Mulyasa (2002:37) competency

   represents the mixture of knowledge, skill and attitude reflecting in the habit

   of thinking and acting. Competency also means as knowledge, skill and ability

   mastered by people who have become the part of them. So, they can conduct

   the cognitive, affective and psychomotoric behaviours as good as possible. It

   indicates that competency covers the duty, skill, attitude and appreciation

   which must be owned by learners to be able to execute the learning tasks




                                       9
                                                                              10




suitable to certain job. Thus, there is a link between tasks studied by the

learners at school and the ability or skill needed by the workfield.

       According to Gordon (in Mulyasa,2002:38) several aspects implied in

  the concept of competency as follow: (1) Knowledge: that is awareness on

  cognitive field, for example a teacher knows the way to identify the leaning

  needs and conduct the lesson. (2) Understanding: that is cognitive and

  affective deepness had by each individual. For example a teacher who will

  conduct the lesson have to have the good understanding about the

  characteristics and condition of the learners so he or she can execute the

  teaching-learning process effectively and efficiently. (3)      Skill: that is

  something owned by individual to conduct the duty or work changed upon.

  For example teacher’s ability to choose and make a simple teaching aid in

  order to give ease on study for students. (4)     Value: that is behaviour’s

  standard of someone that has been believed and has been united,

  psychologically. For example teacher’s behaviour standard in teaching

  (sincerity, opennes, democratize and others). (5)     Attitude: that is feeling

  (like in ill part, happy, unhappy, comfortable and uncomfortable) or reaction

  to an incoming stimulation from outside. (6)      Interest: that is someone’s

  tendency to condudt an action or activity, for example enthusiasm to study

  or do something.
                                                                             11




B. The Nature of Grammar

          Formerly, the emphasis of teaching English was on grammar,

   nevertheles,   recently the emphasis has sifted away from the teaching of

   grammar to the teaching of communication ( Harmer, 1997:4 ). The teaching

   of English is focussed on communication ability. It means the communicative

   competence of the students is the main stress.

          Then, the problem that students faced is that the sentences they

   produce must be grammatically correct. When one wants to say something,

   one needs to know the words that express one’s meanings and how to put

   those words together in grammar so that they make sense. There is no doubt

   that a knowledge of grammatical rules is essential for the mastery of a

   language.

          However, the facts show that to most people, grammar is the rule of

   language set out in terminology which is hard to remember, without any

   exception appended to each rule (Rivers,1994:56). Thus, it can be said that

   grammar is one of difficulties in learning English, some research evidences

   show that grammar is a language element they do not like much. Grammar

   actually helps them most. The learning of grammar is one of the means to

   master a language as a whole. Besides, through grammar one can make words

   effective and master a communication. Thus, it cannot be denied that learning

   grammar is necessary when one learns a language.

          Therefore a student who learns English shall know and understand

   both English grammatical categories and English grammatical rules. English
                                                                              12




grammar is different with Indonesian grammar, there are no tenses, but

English has a lot of tenses to identify the time of the sentences that they said.

Almost all of the students are confused about the use of tenses. The tense

means any of the form of a verb that may be used to indicate whether an

action is in the past, present or future. Looking at the verb form one can

recognize the time when the action happens:

   For example: (1) Mela goes to school.

                  (2) Mela went to school.

                  (3) Mela will go to school

       From the first example, the verb goes show that the action is done at

present. The second example, the verb went indicates that the action is done in

the past. And the example, the verb will go indicates that the action will be

done in the future.

       Harmer (1999:1) states that grammar is partly the study of what forms

(or structure) are possible in a language. Traditionally, grammar has been

concerned almost exclussively with analysis at the level of the sentences.

Thus, a grammar is a description of the rules that govern how a language’s

sentences are formed.

       Grammar although describes the rules of language form, it does not

only focus on how to make a sentence but also convey the meaning of the

sentence. Grammar communicates meaning, meaning of very precise kind

(Harmer, 1999:3). It, therefore, needs rules to combine words into sentences
                                                                               13




  or to make words become plural or negative or what order is used when one

  makes a question.

         In brief, grammar consists of principles or rules that arrange somebody

  to create infinite number sentences. By using them somebody can specify the

  form of words and combine the words into sentences if somebody can master

  and can apply the principles or rules in expressing himself or herself in what

  would be considered acceptable language form, it means that the learners have

  known what grammar is.



C. The Definition of Relative Pronouns.

         Some linguists give different description about the definition of

  relative pronouns in their book. Some of them called relative pronouns as

  adjective clause, while the others still use the term of “relative pronouns”.

  Sometimes it will make the reader confused and think that which one is

  correct. In this research the researcher tries to differentiate between relative

  pronouns and adjective clause.

         Relative pronouns and adjective clause are quite different since they

  have different functions in English sentences, though they have similar types

  in the grammatical rules. According to Mas’ud (1996:85), relative pronoun is

  a word that is used for substituting a subject called before. It functions as

  conjunction between noun and adverb. In Indonesian context it means ‘yang’.

  On the other hand, adjective clause is a part of sentence functions as

  dependent clause that explain the noun. In which, in this case, every sentence
                                                                              14




usually consists of independent clause that means a part of sentence that can

stand up itself and has subject and verb, and the dependent clause that means a

part of sentence that cannot stand up iself and has to be linked to the

independent clause (Lado, 1993:153). According to Allsop (1990:290) states

that relative pronoun functions to join ideas and it is like adjectives in what

they give information about a noun or pronoun. In his book he describes that

relative pronoun has general pattern as follow:


         Noun/Pronoun + Relative Pronoun + S + V + Complement


        Kuncoro (1996:77), states that relative pronoun is not only as an

indication of a noun or thing that have been called before, but also as

connecting two sentences into one sentence. Therefore, the conjunction words

in this relative pronoun can be called as conjunction pronoun, too.

       Moreover, after browsing the internet on www.google.com, the

researcher gets the article which states that relative pronouns relate to another

noun preceding it in the sentence. In doing so, they connect the dependent

clause to an antecedant (a noun that precedes the pronoun). Therefore, relative

pronouns act as the subject or object of the dependent clause.

       From the definitions above, in brief the researcher concludes that

relative pronoun is certain words (that and wh-forms) that function to give

more information about things, persons or ideas that have been discussed

before in the descriptive sentence. It also functions to join two sentences into

one sentence.
                                                                               15




   For example: 1) I thanked to the woman.

                   2) She helped me.

                      From these two sentences by using type of relative pronoun

                      ‘who’ we can join these sentences become one sentences

                      like this ‘I thanked to the woman who helped me’.

D. The Main Words of Relative Pronouns.

           Historically, words belonging to relative pronoun are that and wh-

   forms (who, whom, whose and which). Though, the wh-forms were purely

   interrogative. Gradually, however, the wh-forms came to be used side by side

   with that, that is used as conjunction pronouns to join two sentences into one

   sentence (Allen, 1985:225).

           Most linguists divide the main type of relative pronoun into five, they

   are that, who, whom, whose and which. However, some of them state that the

   variety of those words such as whoever, whomever, whicever, whosever also

   belong to relative pronoun. Then, the other states that when also belongs to

   relative pronoun as the reference of adverb of time, while, where is as the

   reference of adverb of place.

           The following are the main of relative pronouns including their

   functions:

   1. Who: is used for describing humans in subject position.

      Example: The girls who serve in the shop are the owner’s daughter.

   2. Whom: is used for describing humans in the object position, in which

      in   this sentence usually there are more than one people.
                                                                            16




   For example: The man whom I saw told me to come back today.

   This form is considered very formal. In spoken English we normally use

    who or that, and it still common to omit the object pronoun, so, the

    example above will become:

   “ The man I saw told me to come back today “ ( relative pronoun omitted).

3. Which: is used for describing things and animals in subject or object

   position.

   For example: This is the picture which caused such a sensation.

                   The car which I hired broke down.

4. That: is used for describing humans, animals and things in subject or

   object position.

   For example: here’s the book that lost last week.

   In English context the function of which and that are similar.

5. Whose: is used for expressing possessive.

   For example: The woman whose husband died yesterday is my aunt.

       Allson (1990: 292) states that if you are not sure which pronoun to

choose, the safest course is to follow the traditional rule as follows:

                                         People                   Thing

 Subject                                  Who                     Which

 Object                                  Whom                     Which

 Possessive                              Whose                  Of which
                                                                                  17




E. Kinds of Relative Pronouns.

          In English there are three kinds of relative pronouns, such as:

   1. Defining Relative.

           Thompson and        Martinet (1985:81) state that defining relative

     describes the preceding noun in such a way as to distinguish it from other

     nouns of the same class. A clause of this kind is essential to the clear

     understanding of the noun. In the sentence “ The man who told me this

     refused to give me his name”. The relative clause of this sentence is ‘who

     told me this’, if we omit it, it is not clear what man we are talking about.

     Notice that there is no comma between a noun and the a defining relative

     clause.

          In other word, defining relative gives essential information about the

     noun since it is an essential part of the idea being expressed, in that it

     defines or limits its antecedants to one particular selected type, since without

     it we can not define which persons or things are being referred to (Allen,

     1985:212).

     a. The Way of Identifying the Defining Relative Clause

               Allsop (1990:291) explains the way to identify defining relative

       clause. He states that we can use adjectival forms to help us to identify or

       to define which particular person or thing we are talking about.

               For example:

       - A dress, this is not enough and we need to identify the dress. To get the

         further information about that dress we must create a question as follow:
                                                                               18




  Q: which dress?

  A: The blue one                                        Adj

     The one with the pretty ribbons                     Adj. phrase

     The one which I bought in Paris                     Def. Relative

- A man, we need more information. As the above one we also must create

  some question to get the information.

  Q: which man?

  A: An old man.                                               Adj

       This is still not enough to identify him. So we must create one more

       question.

    Q: Which old man?

   A: The old man sitting in the corner.                       Adj,P

      The old man whom you met in the park.                    Def. Relative

 Where: Q = question

         A = Answer

b. The Form of Defining Relative Clause

       We can analyze the form of defining relative clause as follows:

 - A dress             ||    I bought it in Paris

   The dress                 I bought it in Paris



   The dress        which    I bought         in Paris



   ð The dress which I bought it in Paris
                                                              19




-   The old man   ||   You met in the park

    The old man                     You met in the park



    The old man        whom     You met         in the park
                                                                          20




2. Non-defining Relative.

       Actually, it is not very common in speech, but occurs more frequently

 in the written language. The reason is that speech prefers simple sentences,

 and non-defining relative is a deliberate inclusion of additional matter

 within the sentence. Often the non-defining clause comes from a stylistic

 combination af two distinct statements. Notice this example ‘My brother
                                                                         21




Dick, whom you saw yesterday, is coming to tea’. The relative clause in this

example can be left out without any material damage to the sense. This

example can be changed become a normal conversation like: ‘My brother

Dick’s coming to tea. You saw yesterday, you know’, or, ‘You remember you

saw my brother Dick yesterday? Well, he is coming to tea.’The non-defining

relative is always preceded by comma in writing (Allen, 1985:216).

     Furthermore, non-defining relative clauses are placed after nouns

which are definite already. They do not therefore define the noun,, but

merely add something to it by giving some more informations about it.

Unlike defining relative clauses, they are not essential in the sentence and

can be omitted without causing confusion. Also unlike defining relatives,

they are separated from their noun by commas. The pronoun can never be

omitted in a non-defining relative clause. The construction is fairly formal

and more common in written than in spoken English (Thompson and

Martinet,1985:87).
22
23
24
                                                                               25




   3. Connective Relative.

          The pronouns are who, whom, whose and which. Commas are used as

     with non-defining clauses. Connective clauses do not describe their nouns

     but continue the story. They are usually placed after the object of the main

     verb. Sometimes it may be difficult to say whether a clause in this position

     is non-defining or connective, but there is no need for students to make this

     distinction, as the two forms are the same. For example ‘He drank beer,

     which made him fat’, by using connective relative that example is similar to

     this one ‘He drank beer and it made him fat’ (Thompson and Martinet,

     1985:88).



F. The Effective Method to Teach These Relative Pronouns

          Based on the competency-based curriculum, it is better to teach all of

     subject materials by using inductive method or direct method especially for

     teaching grammar. Fauziati (2002:13) states that advocates of active

     classroom methods continued to make themselves heard in various countries

     throughout the nineteenth century, and by the end of the century some of
                                                                           26




them had had considerable influence on foreign language teachers. These

theories shared a common belief that students learn to understand a

language by listening to a great deal of it and that they learn to speak it by

speaking it, associating speech with appropriate action.

     A direct method class provided a clear contrast with the prevailing

grammar translation classes. The course began with the learning of the

foreign words and phrases for objects and actions in the classroom. When

these could be used readily and appropriately, the learning moved to the

common situation and setting of everyday life, the lesson often developing

around specially constructed pictures of life in the country where the

language was spoken.

     Fauziati (2002:19) states that the major principle of direct method, are

(a) the spoken language is primary and that this should be reflected in an

oral based methodology. (b) The finding of phonetics should be applied to

teaching and teacher training. (c) Learners should hear the language first,

before seeing it in written form. (d) Grammar should be taught inductively.

(e) Words should be presented in sentences, and sentences should be

practiced in meaningful contexts and not be taught as isolated, disconnected

elements. (f) Translation should be avoided, although the mother tounge

could be used in order to explain new words or to check comprehension.

     Considering the newest curriculum that is used by our educational

system in which all of subject materials should be taught by using inductive

method that through several steps such as BKOF (Building Knowledge of
                                                                          27




Field), MCOT (Modelling of the Text), JCOT (Joint Construction of Text)

and ICOT (Independent Connstruction of Text). It is done in order to

students become more independent while role of teacher in the teaching and

learning process is just as a facilitator.

      The inductive method is problably preferred because it encourages the

learners to start out from his observation and to discover the principle or

rule for themselves rather than being told what the rule is. The grammar

point is shown on the board only after extensive practice (Cross, 1995:28).

Meanwhile Harmer (1999:49) states that in the form of inductive method,

without having met the rule, the learners study examples and from these

examples they derive an understanding of the rule.

      In inductive method, the teacher induces the learners to realize

grammar rules without any form of prior explanation. This teacher believes

that the rule will become evident if learners are given enough appropriate

examples. Larsen (1986:25) states that grammar is taught inductively, the

students are given examples and they figure out the rule or generalization

from the examples. An explisit grammar rule may never be given.

      From the statement above, we can conclude that in teaching-learning

process using inductive method, the teacher asks the students to find out the

grammatical rules by themselves. The teacher asks the students to analyze

the grammar using their experiment by giving some sentences or dialogues.

Then, they are expected to be able to practice exercise related to the

grammar.
                                                                                28




     In this method, the students are the center of teaching and learning

process. The teacher is only facilitating the students with questions in order

to help the students to find out the rule. It means that the teacher is only as a

facilitator, but it does not mean that the teacher is passive. The teacher

guides the students to find out the conclussion of the data or grammar, not

gives the rules.

     There are several benefits and drawbacks in teaching grammar using

this method. The benefits are: the students are to be the center of teaching

and learning process, they are more actively involved in the learning

process, they are likely to be more attentive and more motivated, and they

are more independent and they are not depending in their teacher only. On

the other hand, the drawbacks are: first, it needs much more time. Second, it

is rather hard to control the class especially if the class is too large and

noisy. Third, if the teacher cannot direct the situation, the teaching-learning

process will be confused, and the last, it can place heavy demands on

teacher in planning a lesson because she needs to selects and organize.

     In inductive method, there are some steps that will be done by a

teacher such as first, the students are given the use or examples of certain

rule by using reading or dialogue. Second, they are encouraged to use the

rules oncosciously without explaining before, they use the rule because they

have to answer the questions on the text. Third, they are asked to analyze the

rule and the teacher helps them in finding the rule by giving questions,

because this activity is difficult. And the last, after they find out the rule, the
                                                                         29




teacher is checking their answer and she can reinforce, add and revise their

mistake.

     From the steps above Stern (1996:150) makes sketch related to

inductive method as follows:

           Examples            Practices               Rules

     From the description above the researcher concludes that the method

of teaching has an important role in teaching-learning process. By using

appropriate method, at least the teacher can make the students understand

well the rule given. In addition, the teacher will be easy to explain and

convey the lesson to the students especially when she explains about

grammar.
                                                                                30




                                 CHAPTER III

                           RESEARCH METHOD




           Research method is very important in conducting a research. It is

   necessary for researcher to apply an appropriate method. It is needed to reduce

   the possible mistake in carrying out a research. Hadi (1983:9) states that a

   research is a phenomenon effort to develop and to verify the truth of

   knowledge. In other words, research is an overall plan to investigate all the

   problems. Therefore, by research all the problem can be solved. Based on the

   deffinition above, research method is needed by the researcher and it plays

   significant role.

A. Type of Research.

           It is important to determine the method of the research in order to keep

   the research done effectively. The method that is used in this research is

   quantitative research, the researcher uses numeral forms for analyzing the data

   (Arikunto, 2002:10). The data of this result come from the result of pre-test

   and post-test. In this research the researcher also uses experimental study. An

   experimental is a scientific investigation in which the researcher manipulates

   one or more independent variables and observes the effect of the manipulation

   on the dependent variable (Ari, Jacob and Razavieh, 2002:276). Arikunto

   (1998:83) states that there are two kinds of experimental design, they are pre-

   experimental design and true experimental design. In this case, the researcher



                                       30
                                                                                  31




   prefers to use pre-experimental design to the other one. Pre-experimental

   design is unreal experiment therefore sometimes it is called as “quasi

   experiment” or pretend experiment since this experiment has not fulfilled the

   requirements of the common experiment. Here, the writer does a grammar

   experiment using relative pronoun.



B. Subject of the Study.

           The subject used in this research is the second year students of SMK

   Batik I Surakarta in the 2005/2006 academic year and the writter just takes

   one class as the subject of the study, this class is 2 Pj 1.



C. Object of the Study

           The object of this study is the result of students’ assignment or test

   related to the use of relative pronouns produced by the second grade students

   of SMK Batik I Surakarta in the 2005/2006 academic year.



D. Data and Data Source

           There are two types of data, primary and secondary. The primary data

   are taken from the first resource through the direct observation, while the

   secondary data are taken from the result of test in the form of essey test that is

   held by researcher to know how far the students are able to apply the rule of

   relative pronouns into the correct English sentences.
                                                                                   32




E. Method of Collecting Data.

               Data collecting, as one of the process in reseach, plays an

      important role in a research. It is a process obtaining the primary data in

      research. The accuracy the data will determine the quality of the research

      result. The data collected must be as objective as possible. For obtaining

      the data needed in the study, the researcher uses a test as the instrument

      for collecting the data.

       1.   Test.
                    A test is a systematic procedure for observing one’s behaviour

            and describing it with the aid of numerical device or category system

            (Syakur, 1999:5). Testing is an important part of every teaching and

            learning process. A teaching and learning process without testing is

            nothing because the result of the teaching and learning process can not

            be known directly without testing. A test is useful to help the teacher

            to measure the students progress, to motivate and direct the students in

            learning, etc. A test is also useful to evaluate the teaching process,

            whether it is good or not.

                    For this study, researcher uses three tests as the instruments for

            collecting the data, they are pre-test and post-test. Pre-test is

            administered before the experimentel treatment and the post-test is

            administered after the experimental treatment. However before doing

            pre-test and post-test the researcher does a try out first.

                    In this research the researcher uses a completion test to

            measure the students competence in using relative pronouns and to
                                                                              33




     know whether they are able to differenciate the use of each type of it

     or not.

2.   Try Out Instrument
               Before the test is used, it was tried out. It was intended to find

     the level of validity and reliabilityof the instrument. From these

     processes, the writer can take the good test which is valid and reliable.

     The test of this research is grammar mastery test. The test is given to

     the students joining the try out. The researcher takes one class to

     follow the try out.

3. Validity of the Test
               A test is valid if it measures what (the researcher) are going to

     measure (Arikunto,2002:145). It deals with the appropriateness of a

     given test or any of its componen parts as a measure of what is

     purposed to measure. Then Arikunto explains that there are two kinds

     of validity according to the way it is measured, they are internal and

     external validity. In this study the researcher uses internal validity

     since the researcher analyzes the items of the instruments whether they

     are appropriate to use or not. Arikunto (2002:147) states that an

     internal validity can be reached if there is correlation between every

     part of the instrument support its mission in opening the data from the

     variable being studied.

               After administering the try out, the result are computed to find

     out their validity. They are computed by using Pearson Product

     Moment Correlation Formula since there are 50 items of grammar
                                                                         34




   mastery test, there are 50 product moment computations for it.

   According to Arikunto (2002:146) the Pearson Product Moment

   Correlation Formula is as follows:

                                  N ∑ xy − (∑ x )(∑ y )
             rxy =
                      {N ∑ x      2
                                                    }{
                                      − (∑ x ) N ∑ y 2 − (∑ y )
                                                2                2
                                                                     }
    rxy       = the efficient correlation between x and y

   N          = the number of the students

   ∑x         = sum of the scores of each item

   ∑y         = sum of the scores of each student

4. Reliability of the Test
          Reliability refers to the consistency of score obtained by the

   same persons when they are reexamined with the same test on

   different occasions or with different sets of equivalent items

   (Annastasi and Urbina, 1997:84). Reliability deals with consistency

   and accuracy of test score (Mclntire and Milles, 2000:108).

          To know the reliability of the instruments the researcher uses

   split half technique, in which the researcher scores the odd and even

   items separately, and then she correlates the two scores by means of

   Product Moment Correlation Technique. The coefficient correlation

   indicates the relationship between the two halves of the valid items.

   According to Arikunto (2002:157) the Formula of Product Moment

   Correlation Technique is as follows:

                              N ∑ xy − (∑ x )(∑ y )
           rxy =
                     {N ∑ x   2
                                                }{
                                  − (∑ x ) N ∑ y 2 − (∑ y )
                                            2                2
                                                                 }
                                                                                 35




            rxy             = the efficient correlation between x and y

            N               = the number of the subjects

            ∑x              = sum of the scores of odd numbers

            ∑y              = sum of the scores of even number


F. Technique for Analyzing Data

                  After collecting the data, the next step is analyzing them. As the

      purpose of the study is to know the result of pre-test and post-test, the

      researcher uses the most appropriate formula to analysze it. According to

      Arikunto (1998:300) the formula is as follows:

                                X1 − X 2
                    t   =
                                 1   1
                            S      +
                                 n1 n 2


      where:
      S           = standard deviation
       X1         = the rate of the result of pre-test

       X2         = the rate of the result of post-test
      n1          = the amount of the students who join the pre-test
      n2          = the amount of the students who join the pre-test
        CHAPTER IV

DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION




             36
                                                                                    37



A. Data Presentation

   1. The Validity and Reliability of the Test

               Before getting the students’ achievement test, the researcher uses

      the try out test to get the validity and reliability test items. In try out test,

      the researcher uses 50 test items, she takes 40 students as sample. The

      researcher uses the formula of Corelation Product Moment Pearson to

      know the result of try out test, as follows Suharsimi Arikunto (2003:225):

                      ( N.∑ XY - (∑ X).(∑ Y))
      rxy =
                (N.∑ X 2 - (∑ X) 2 ) (N ∑ Y 2 - (∑ Y) 2 )

      Where:

      rxy = The coefisien corelation

      X    = The total score item

      X2 = The quadrat total score item

      Y    = The number of total score

      Y2 = The quadrat number of total score

      N    = The number of students

           And the calculation below is the example in order to get the validity of

   item number 1.


                                     Table IV.1
                                    Validity Test
     No.         X            Y              X2              Y2          XY
      1          1            33              1             1089               33
      2          1            35              1             1225               35
      3          1            35              1             1225               35
      4          1            43              1             1849               43
      5          1            35              1             1225               35
      6          1            46              1             2116               46
      7          0            33              0             1089                0
                                                                           38



   8             1          19           1           361               19
   9             1          43           1          1849               43
  10             0          26           0           676                0
  11             0          25           0           625                0
  12             1          44           1          1936               44
  13             1          42           1          1764               42
  14             0          40           0          1600                0
  15             0          28           0           784                0
  16             1          45           1          2025               45
  17             1          28           1           784               28
  18             0          27           0           729                0
  19             1          42           1          1764               42
  20             0          28           0           784                0
  21             1          44           1          1936               44
  22             1          26           1           676               26
  23             0          43           0          1849                0
  24             0          21           0           441                0
  25             1          38           1          1444               38
  26             0          38           0          1444                0
  27             1          32           1          1024               32
  28             1          19           1           361               19
  29             0          22           0           484                0
  30             0          21           0           441                0
  31             0          22           0           484                0
  32             0          19           0           361                0
  33             1          38           1          1444               38
  34             1          19           1           361               19
  35             1          34           1          1156               34
  36             1          37           1          1369               37
  37             1          34           1          1156               34
  38             0          23           0           529                0
  39             1          14           1           196               14
  40             0          18           0           324                0
  ΣX            24         1259         24          42979             825
          Furthermore, based on table IV.1, the data is entered in the product

moment guideline.

                        ( N.∑ XY - (∑ X).(∑ Y))
    rxy       =
                  (N.∑ X 2 - (∑ X) 2 ) (N ∑ Y 2 - (∑ Y) 2 )

                         (40.825 - (24)(1259)
              =
                  (40.24 - (24) 2 )(40.42979 - (1259) 2
                                                                                39



                   2784
             =
                 7175,398

             = 0,388

       Based on the result of item calculation by using the formula above, so

that the r item 0,388 is bigger than r table N = 40 with signification of 5% =

0,312. So r of data > r table (0,388 > 0,312) and the item number are called

valid. For the other items, they are used by the same way (see appendix 2).

       After getting validity of each item. The researcher, then, chooses the

valid items and deleted the invalid items. There are 3 items are not valid.

Thus, the researcher takes 47 items to achievement test.

          Further, the researcher presents the data are valid and invalid, as

follows:

Valid items = 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,10,11,12,13,14,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,

                  26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,36,37,38,39,40,41,43,44,45,

                  46,47,48,49,50.

Invalid items = 9,15,42. (see appendix 2)

       For the next, in order to get the reliability of the test item, than, the

researcher calculates the reliability test by using “two halves method”.


                                 Table IV.2
                               Reliability Test
               The Odd   The Even
                                             x2            y2              xy
     No       Number (x) Number (y)
     1           18         15              324          225           270
     2           18         17              324          289           306
     3           19         16              361          256           304
     4           23         20              529          400           460
                                                                            40



     5          19            16           361          256          304
     6          21            25           441          625          525
     7          13            20           169          400          260
     8          10             9           100           81           90
     9          22            21           484          441          462
    10          13            13           169          169          169
    11          13            12           169          144          156
    12          22            22           484          484          484
    13          23            19           529          361          437
    14          19            21           361          441          399
    15          12            16           144          256          192
    16          22            23           484          529          506
    17          14            14           196          196          196
    18          11            16           121          256          176
    19          19            23           361          529          437
    20          12            16           144          256          192
    21          22            22           484          484          484
    22          13            13           169          169          169
    23          21            22           441          484          462
    24          10            11           100          121          110
    25          16            22           256          484          352
    26          20            18           400          324          360
    27          16            16           256          256          256
    28          10             9           100           81           90
    29          11            11           121          121          121
    30          10            11           100          121          110
    31          12            10           144          100          120
    32          11             8           121           64           88
    33          19            19           361          361          361
    34          10             9           100           81           90
    35          20            14           400          196          280
    36          21            16           441          256          336
    37          19            15           361          225          285
    38          11            12           121          144          132
    39           6             8            36           64           48
    40          10             8           100           64           80
    ΣX         631            628         10867        10794        10659
       The calculation result on the table above, and then entered into product

moment correlation by using the rough numbers.

                     ( N.∑ xy - (∑ x).(∑ y))
  rxy      =
               (N.∑ x 2 - (∑ x) 2 ) (N∑ y 2 - (∑ y) 2 )

                      (40.10659 - (631)(628)
           =
               (40.10867 - (631) 2 )(40.10794 - (628) 2
                                                                           41



                     51410
             =
                   58607,422

             = 0,877

           And then it is entered into the formula of    Spearman Brown as

follows:

                           2 x rxy
             r11       =
                           1 + rxy

                           2 x 0,877
                      =
                           1 + 0,877

                           1,754
                      =
                           1,877

                      = 0,935

           Based on the calculation above, it is gotten the reliability number

  0,935 then it is related to the r table of product moment with N = 40. The

  value r (5%) is 0,312. So it can be compared that r is bigger than r table

  (0,935 > 0,312) and it’s mean that the instrument of measurement, which the

  writer used is reliable.
42
43
44
                                                                                45




3.   Result of Test

            After knowing the characteristics of a good test, the researcher then

     gives the test to the samples (40 students). It is done twice. Those test are

     done before the experimental treatment that is called as pre-test and post-

     test after the experimental treatment. Then the researcher corrects and

     scores the test papers to get the score of the students’ answer. The list of

     score is presented in the form of table, it will be easy for the researcher to

     know and distinguish which are the students who get the lowest and highest

     scores. The list of the students’ scores can be read in this table.

                                      Table IV.3
                           The Students Score of the Test Items

      No. Resp                  Pre-test                          Post-test
          1                       5,3                               7,2
          2                       5,3                               7,4
          3                       6,4                               7,2
          4                       5,7                               7,4
          5                       5,7                               8,3
          6                       4,9                               8,7
          7                       5,3                               5,5
          8                       7,0                               7,7
          9                       8,1                               7,7
         10                       8,1                               5,7
         11                       6,0                               5,5
         12                       5,3                               6,6
         13                       5,3                               6,6
         14                       5,3                               7,7
                                                                             46



    15                      6,4                              7,9
    16                      6,0                              6,8
    17                      6,4                              7,9
    18                      5,3                              6,8
    19                      7,0                              7,7
    20                      6,0                              8,1
    21                      5,5                              7,2
    22                      5,5                              6,8
    23                      4,9                              7,2
    24                      5,7                              8,1
    25                      6,4                              6,8
    26                      4,9                              6,8
    27                      4,0                              7,4
    28                      6,0                              7,7
    29                      6,4                              7,4
    30                      4,9                              7,9
    31                      3,8                              6,0
    32                      7,7                              7,4
    33                      6,4                              6,0
    34                      4,9                              6,8
    35                      5,7                              6,8
    36                      6,6                              7,0
    37                      6,6                              7,4
    38                      5,7                              7,7
    39                      5,7                              6,8
    42                      4,9                              7,2
   Sum                    233,191                          287,021
   Mean                    5,830                            7,176

       From the table IV.5 above the researcher knows that the highest

result of post-test is (7,176), while the highest result of pre-test is (5,830).

From these two results the researcher concludes that the students more

understand the material related to relative pronoun after getting the

treatment from the researcher since the result of the post-test is higher than

the result of pre-test (see appendix 6).
                                                                                          47



B. Data Analysis

           The hypothesis test is done to prove the difference of students’

   competense in using relative pronoun between pre-test and post-test. Test

   hypothesis test is executed by t-test. The procedure of hypothesis test is as

   follows:

   1. Measuring Mean Score

                                         ΣX 1                287,021
      Mean post-test (X1)            =                   =             = 7,176
                                          N                    40

                                    ΣX 2            233,191
      Mean pre-test (X2) =                      =                = 5,830
                                     N                40

   2. Finding     ∑ (X    i   - X i ) 2 (see appendix 7)

      Group X1 = 20,823

      Group X2 = 33,934

   3. Finding Variance

               Σ( X 1 - X 1 ) 2   20,823
      S1 2 =                    =        = 0,534
                   n1 -1            39

               Σ( X 2 - X 2 ) 2   33,934
      S2 2 =                    =        = 0,870
                   n 2 -1           39

   4. Finding Sum of Variance

        (n − 1)S1 + (n 2 − 1)S 2                    (39 x 0,534) + (39 x 0,870)
                          2                2
      S= 1                                      =                               = 0,702
              n1 + n 2 - 2                                      78

   5. Measuring ttest

               X1 − X 2
      t=
                1   1
           S      +
                n1 n 2
                                                                                 48



             7,176 − 5,830
        =
                    1   1
            0,702     +
                    40 40

        = 8,573

   6. Measuring ttable

      t-table with db (α;n1+n2-k) or (5%;78) = 2,000

   7. Criteria

      Accept Ho if ttest < ttable

      Accept Ha if ttest > ttable

   8. Conclusion

      Cause ttest > ttable (8,573 > 2,000) for level significance 0,05, so H0 is not

      accepted. Its means there are difference of students’ competense in using

      relative pronoun that can be seen in result between pre-test and post-

      test. (see appendix 7). If there are different scores between the result of

      pre-test and post-test, it means that the experimental treatment using

      inductive method is apropriate for teaching relative pronoun.



C. Discussion of the Result

            From the result of the t-test, the researcher summarizes the result

   of research that there are differences of the students’ competense in using

   relative pronoun that can be seen in result of pre-test and post-test. The

   highest result of post-test (7,176) it is owned by the student who has the

   highest competence of using relative pronoun, while the highest score in the
                                                                              49



pre-test (5,830). It means that teaching-learning process using inductive

method can guide the students in mastering English grammar especially in

mastering relative pronoun.

          Based on the average, the researcher present the category of students’

competence in using relative pronoun as follow:

-    Low level       = score ≤ averages

-    High level      = score > averages

                                    Table IV.7
                            Category The Result of Test

    No.           Pre-tes           Category         Post-test     Category
     1             5,3                Low              7,2          High
     2             5,3                Low              7,4          High
     3             6,4               High              7,2          High
     4             5,7                Low              7,4          High
     5             5,7                Low              8,3          High
     6             4,9                Low              8,7          High
     7             5,3                Low              5,5           Low
     8             7,0               High              7,7          High
     9             8,1               High              7,7          High
    10             8,1               High              5,7           Low
    11             6,0               High              5,5           Low
    12             5,3                Low              6,6           Low
    13             5,3                Low              6,6           Low
    14             5,3                Low              7,7          High
    15             6,4               High              7,9          High
    16             6,0               High              6,8           Low
    17             6,4               High              7,9          High
    18             5,3                Low              6,8           Low
    19             7,0               High              7,7          High
    20             6,0               High              8,1          High
    21             5,5                Low              7,2          High
    22             5,5                Low              6,8           Low
    23             4,9                Low              7,2          High
    24             5,7                Low              8,1          High
    25             6,4               High              6,8           Low
    26             4,9                Low              6,8           Low
    27             4,0                Low              7,4          High
    28             6,0               High              7,7          High
    29             6,4               High              7,4          High
    30             4,9                Low              7,9          High
                                                                                50



    31                 3,8                 Low         6,0              Low
    32                 7,7                 High        7,4              High
    33                 6,4                 High        6,0              Low
    34                 4,9                 Low         6,8              Low
    35                 5,7                 Low         6,8              Low
    36                 6,6                 High        7,0              Low
    37                 6,6                 High        7,4              High
    38                 5,7                 Low         7,7              High
    39                 5,7                 Low         6,8              Low
    40                 4,9                 Low         7,2              High
   Sum                233,2                           287,0
   Mean               5,830                           7,176
Sum of High             17             42,5%            24             60,0%
Sum of Low              23             57,5%            16             40,0%


          Before the treatment experimental (pre-test) there are 23 subjects

  (57,5%) who have low competence and 17 subjects (42,5%) who have high

  competence in using relative pronouns. After the experimental treatment

  (post-test) there are 16 subjects (40%) who have low competence and 24

  subjects (60%) who have high competence in using relative pronouns. It

  means, teaching experimental with teaching-learning proses can make the

  students more competence in using relative pronoun directly they can achieve

  the higher score.

          By using appropiate method in the teaching-learning process, the

  teacher can make the students understand well the rule of grammar. Then, the

  teacher will be easy to explain the lesson of grammar. So the result of post-test

  is better than the result of pre-test.
                                            51



                       CHAPTER V

                CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION



A. Conclusion




                           51
52
                         BIBLIOGRAPHY



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Allsop, Jake. 1990. Cassell’s Students English Grammar. Jakarta: Binarupa
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Arikunto. 1989. Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. Jakarta:
       Bima Aksara.

Brumfit,C.J. and K. Johnson, 1979. The Communicative Approach to
       Language Teaching. Oxford: University Press.

Edge, Julian. 1998. Essential of English Language Teaching. New York:
       Longman.

Fauziati, Endang.1998. Teaching of English as a Foreign Language (TEFL).
        Surakarta: Muhammadiyah University Press.

Frank, Marcella.1972. Modern English. London: Prentice Hall Time,
       Englewood Cliffs

Hadi, Sutrisno. 1979. Bimbingan Menulis Skripsi-Thesis 2. Yogyakarta: Yay.
       BPFP-UGM.

Harmer, Jeremy. 1997. How to Teach Grammar. UK: Bluestone Press.

Harmer, Jeremy.1999. Teaching and Learning Grammar. London: Longman.

Hurford, JR. 1994. Grammar Students’ Guide. Cambridge: University Press.

http/www.Google.com.

Kuntjoro, S. 1996. Accurate, Brief and Clear English Grammar. Surabaya:
       Penerbit Indah Surabaya.

Lado. 1992. Fundamental of English Grammar for Intermidiate Students.
       Jakarta: Arikha Media Cipta.

Mas’ud, Fuad. 1992. English Grammar: a Practical Guide. Yogyakarta:
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                                  xv
Riverst, Wilga M. 1994. Teaching Foreign Language Skills. Chicago and
        London: The Un iversity of Chicago Press.

Syakur, 1996. Language Testing and Evaluation. Surakarta: Sebelas Maret
       University.

.Thompson, A.V. Martinet. 1985. A Practical English Grammar. Oxford:
      University Press.




                                xvi
Appendix 2
Validity and Reliability Items Try Out Test

Student                            Item Number
Number      1     2     3     4       5    6     7     8     9     10    11    12    13    14    15
  18        1     1     0     1       1    0     0     1     1     0     1     0     1     0     1
  19        1     0     1     1      0    1      1     1     1     0     1      1    1     0     1
  20        1     1     1     1      1    1      0     1     1     0     1      0    1     0     1
   6        1     1     1     1      1    0      0     0     1     0     1      1    1     1     1
  21        1     1     1     1      1    0      0     1     1     0     1      0    1     0     0
   1        1     1     1     1      1    1      1     1     1     1     1      1    1     1     1
  22        0     0     1     1      0    1      0     1     1     1     0      1    1     0     0
  38        1     1     1     0      0    0      1     1     1     0     0      1    0     0     1
   7        1     1     1     0      1    1      1     0     1     1     0      1    1     0     1
  23        0     1     1     1      1    0      1     1     1     0     0      1    0     0     0
  24        0     1     1     1      1    0      1     0     1     0     0      1    0     0     1
   2        1     0     1     1      0    1      1     1     1     1     1      1    1     1     1
   8        1     1     1     1      1    1      0     1     1     0     0      1    1     1     1
   9        0     1     0     1      1    1      0     1     1     1     0      1    1     0     1
  25        0     1     0     0      0    0      1     0     1     1     0      1    0     0     1
   3        1     0     1     1      0    1      1     1     1     1     1      1    1     1     0
  26        1     0     1     1      1    0      1     1     1     0     0      0    0     0     0
  27        0     1     1     0      0    0      0     0     0     1     0      1    1     0     1
  10        1     1     1     1      1    1      1     1     0     1     1      1    1     1     0
  28        0     0     0     1      0    1      0     0     0     0     0      1    0     0     0
   4        1     1     1     1      1    1      1     0     1     0     1      1    1     1     1
  29        1     0     0     0      0    0      0     0     0     0     1      1    1     0     0
   5        0     0     1     1      1    1      1     1     1     1     1      1    1     1     1
  30        0     0     0     0      0    0      0     0     0     0     0      0    1     1     1
  11        1     1     0     1      1    1      0     1     0     1     1      1    1     1     1
  12        0     0     1     1      1    0      1     1     0     0     1      1    1     1     1
  13        1     1     0     0      1    1      0     1     0     0     1      0    1     1     1
  31        1     0     0     0      0    0      0     0     0     1     1      1    1     1     0
  32        0     0     0     1      1    0      0     1     0     0     1      1    1     0     0
  33        0     0     1     0      1    0      1     0     0     0     0      1    1     0     1
  34        0     0     0     1      0    0      0     0     1     0     0      1    1     0     0
  35        0     0     0     1      0    1      0     0     0     0     0      1    1     0     1
  14        1     1     1     0      1    1      1     1     1     1     1      1    1     0     1
  36        1     0     1     0      1    0      0     1     1     0     1      0    0     0     1
  15        1     0     1     0      1    0      1     1     1     0     1      1    1     0     1
  16        1     1     1     0      1    1      1     1     1     0     1      1    1     0     1
  17        1     1     1     0      1    0      0     1     1     0     1      1    1     0     1
  37        0     0     0     0      1    1      0     1     1     0     1      0    1     1     0
  39        1     0     0     1      0    0      0     0     1     0     1      0    0     0     0
  40        0     1     0     0      0    0      0     0     1     0     0      0    0     0     1
  ΣX        24    21    25    24    25    19     18    25    28    13    24    30    31    14    27
 Σ XY      825   725   876   820    861   707    636   861   926   486   819   1001 1054   520   896
  ΣX   2
            24    21    25    24    25    19     18    25    28    13    24    30    31    14    27
Val (rxy) 0.388 0.350 0.503 0.360 0.418 0.596 0.381 0.418 0.266 0.448 0.355 0.358 0.512 0.454 0.269
 Adverb    Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Invld Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Invld
Continuation Appendix Validity and Reliability


                      No. Item
 16    17    18    19     20     21    22    23    24    25    26    27    28    29    30    31    32
 1     1     1     1       0     0     0     1     1     1     1     0     0     1     0     0     1
 0     0     0     0      1      1     0     1     0     0     1     1     1     1     1     0     1
 0     0     0     0      1      1     0     1     0     1     0     0     1     0     1     1     1
 1     1     1     1      1      1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1
 0     0     1     1      0      0     0     0     1     0     0     1     1     1     1     1     1
 1     0     1     1      1      1     1     1     1     0     1     1     1     0     1     1     1
 0     0     1     1      0      1     1     1     0     0     1     0     1     0     1     1     1
 1     0     0     0      0      1     0     0     0     0     0     0     0     0     0     0     0
 1     0     1     1      1      1     1     0     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1
 0     0     1     1      1      1     1     1     0     1     0     0     1     0     1     1     0
 1     0     0     0      0      0     0     0     0     0     1     1     1     1     1     1     1
 1     1     1     1      1      1     0     0     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1
 0     1     0     1      1      1     1     1     1     1     1     1     0     1     1     1     1
 1     1     1     1      1      1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     0     1     1
 1     0     0     1      0      0     1     1     1     0     1     1     1     1     1     1     0
 1     1     1     1      1      1     1     0     1     1     1     1     0     1     1     1     1
 0     0     1     1      1      1     0     1     1     1     1     0     0     0     0     0     1
 1     0     1     0      0      1     1     0     1     1     1     1     1     1     0     0     1
 1     0     0     1      1      1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     0     0     1     1
 1     0     0     0      1      1     1     1     0     0     0     0     1     1     1     1     1
 1     0     1     1      1      1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     0     1
 1     0     0     0      0      1     0     0     0     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     0
 1     1     1     1      1      1     1     0     1     1     1     1     1     1     0     1     1
 0     0     1     1      1      1     1     0     0     1     1     1     0     1     1     0     0
 1     1     1     1      1      1     1     1     1     1     1     0     1     0     1     1     1
 1     1     1     1      1      1     1     0     1     0     1     1     1     1     1     0     1
 1     1     1     1      1      1     1     1     1     1     0     1     1     1     1     1     0
 0     1     0     1      0      0     0     0     1     0     0     1     1     1     0     0     0
 1     0     0     1      1      0     0     0     0     1     0     0     0     0     0     0     1
 0     0     0     0      1      1     1     0     1     0     1     0     0     0     0     0     1
 0     0     0     1      1      0     0     0     1     1     0     1     1     0     0     0     1
 0     0     0     0      0      1     0     0     1     1     0     1     0     0     0     1     0
 1     1     1     0      1      1     1     1     0     0     0     0     0     1     1     0     1
 1     0     1     0      1      0     0     0     0     0     1     0     0     0     1     0     0
 1     1     1     1      1      0     1     0     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     1     0
 0     1     1     0      0      0     1     0     0     1     1     1     1     0     1     1     0
 1     1     0     0      0      0     0     0     1     1     1     0     1     1     1     1     0
 0     0     0     0      1      0     1     0     1     0     1     0     0     0     0     1     1
 1     1     1     0      1      0     1     0     0     0     0     0     0     0     0     0     0
 0     0     0     0      0      1     0     1     1     0     0     0     0     0     1     1     0
 25    16    23    24    27      27    24    18    26    24    27    24    26    23    26    25    26
845   574   801   841    906     914   826   629   881   820   932   830   897   797   887   859   913
 25    16    23    24    27      27    24    18    26    24    27    24    26    23    26    25    26
0.328 0.392 0.426 0.477 0.328 0.374 0.394 0.343 0.359 0.360 0.479 0.416 0.450 0.404 0.393 0.407 0.542
Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid
Continuation Appendix Validity and Reliability


                                                                            No. Item
 33      34      35      36      37      38      39      40      41      42        43    44      45      46
  0       1       1       1       1       1       1       1       1       1         1     1       0       1
 0       0       0       1       1       1       1       1       1       1        1      1       1       1
 1       0       0       1       1       1       1       1       1       1        1      1       1       1
 0       0       1       1       1       1       1       1       1       1        1      1       1       0
 1       1       1       0       1       1       1       1       1       1        1      1       1       1
 1       1       1       1       1       1       0       1       1       1        1      1       1       1
 0       1       1       1       1       1       1       1       1       1        1      1       0       1
 0       1       0       1       0       0       1       0       1       1        1      1       1       1
 1       1       1       1       1       1       1       1       1       0        1      1       1       1
 0       1       1       1       1       0       1       0       0       1        0      0       0       0
 1       0       1       1       1       0       0       0       1       1        1      1       0       1
 1       1       1       1       1       1       1       0       1       1        1      1       0       1
 1       1       1       1       1       1       1       1       1       0        1      1       1       0
 0       1       1       1       1       1       1       1       1       0        1      0       0       1
 0       0       0       1       1       1       0       0       1       1        1      1       0       1
 1       1       1       1       1       1       1       1       1       1        1      1       1       1
 0       1       1       1       0       1       0       0       1       1        1      1       0       1
 0       1       0       0       1       0       0       0       1       1        1      1       0       1
 1       1       1       1       0       1       1       1       1       1        1      1       0       1
 1       1       1       0       1       1       1       0       1       1        1      1       0       1
 1       1       1       1       1       1       1       1       1       1        1      1       1       1
 1       1       0       1       1       1       0       0       0       1        1      1       0       1
 0       1       1       1       1       1       1       1       1       1        1      0       0       1
 0       1       0       0       0       1       1       1       1       1        1      1       0       0
 0       1       0       1       1       0       1       0       1       1        0      1       1       1
 1       0       1       1       1       0       1       0       1       0        1      1       1       1
 0       1       0       1       0       0       1       1       1       0        0      0       1       1
 0       1       1       1       1       0       0       0       0       0        0      0       0       1
 0       0       0       1       1       1       1       1       1       1        1      1       1       0
 0       0       0       0       1       1       0       1       1       1        1      1       0       1
 0       1       1       1       0       0       1       0       1       0        1      1       1       0
 0       0       1       1       0       0       1       1       0       0        0      0       1       0
 1       1       0       1       1       0       0       1       1       1        1      1       1       1
 0       0       0       0       1       0       1       0       0       1        0      0       0       0
 0       0       1       1       1       0       0       0       1       0        1      1       1       1
 1       1       1       1       1       0       1       1       1       1        1      1       1       0
 1       1       1       1       1       1       1       1       0       0        1      1       1       1
 0       0       1       0       1       0       0       0       0       1        1      1       1       0
 0       0       1       1       0       0       0       1       1       0        0      0       0       0
 0       0       0       1       1       0       0       1       1       1        1      0       0       1
 16      26      26      33      32      23      27      24      33      29       33     31      21      29
 602    885     880     1085    1062    811     912     815     1093    922     1092    1029    724     971
 16      26      26      33      32      23      27      24      33      29       33     31      21      29
0.549   0.382   0.353   0.333   0.374   0.481   0.363   0.332   0.390   0.056   0.383   0.348   0.345   0.356
Valid   Valid   Valid   Valid   Valid   Valid   Valid   Valid   Valid   Invld   Valid   Valid   Valid   Valid
Continuation Appendix Validity and Reliability


                                  Tot.               Score No.Score No.     Quadrat   Quadrat
                                                  2
 47      48      49      50     Score (Y)        Y    Odd (x) Even (y)       Odd       Even      xy
  1       0       1       0        33           1089    18       15          324       225      270
 1       1       1       1          35          1225     18        17         324      289      306
 1       1       1       1          35          1225     19        16         361      256      304
 1       1       1       1          43          1849     23        20         529      400      460
 1       1       1       1          35          1225     19        16         361      256      304
 1       1       1       1          46          2116     21        25         441      625      525
 0       1       1       1          33          1089     13        20         169      400      260
 0       0       0       0          19          361      10        9          100       81       90
 1       1       1       1          43          1849     22        21         484      441      462
 1       0       0       1          26          676      13        13         169      169      169
 0       0       0       0          25          625      13        12         169      144      156
 1       1       1       1          44          1936     22        22         484      484      484
 1       1       1       1          42          1764     23        19         529      361      437
 1       1       1       1          40          1600     19        21         361      441      399
 0       1       1       1          28          784      12        16         144      256      192
 1       1       1       1          45          2025     22        23         484      529      506
 1       0       1       1          28          784      14        14         196      196      196
 0       1       1       1          27          729      11        16         121      256      176
 1       1       1       1          42          1764     19        23         361      529      437
 1       1       1       1          28          784      12        16         144      256      192
 0       0       1       1          44          1936     22        22         484      484      484
 1       1       1       1          26          676      13        13         169      169      169
 1       1       1       1          43          1849     21        22         441      484      462
 0       0       0       0          21          441      10        11         100      121      110
 1       1       0       0          38          1444     16        22         256      484      352
 1       1       1       1          38          1444     20        18         400      324      360
 0       1       0       0          32          1024     16        16         256      256      256
 0       1       1       0          19          361      10        9          100       81       90
 0       0       1       0          22          484      11        11         121      121      121
 1       0       0       0          21          441      10        11         100      121      110
 1       1       1       0          22          484      12        10         144      100      120
 1       1       1       1          19          361      11        8          121       64       88
 1       1       1       1          38          1444     19        19         361      361      361
 1       1       1       1          19          361      10        9          100       81       90
 1       1       0       0          34          1156     20        14         400      196      280
 1       1       1       1          37          1369     21        16         441      256      336
 1       1       1       0          34          1156     19        15         361      225      285
 1       1       1       1          23          529      11        12         121      144      132
 0       0       0       1          14          196      6         8           36       64       48
 1       1       1       0          18          324      10        8          100       64       80
 29      30      31      27       1259          42979   631       628        10867    10794     10659
 975    1006    1029    921     Reliability :
 29      30      31      27                 rxy =       0.877
0.381   0.389   0.348   0.415               r11 =       0.935   Reliability Test
Valid   Valid   Valid   Valid
Appendix 3
Table of Student's Name

  No                  Name    Class
  1    Andriani Diyah A.W     II M1
  2    Agus Suryamin          II M1
  3    Ahmad Tri Risanto      II M1
  4    Akbar Al Masjid        II M1
  5    Ambar Susanto          II M1
  6    Aris Budianto          II M1
  7    Chandra Sulistyo D.    II M1
  8    Danang Tri Wahyono     II M1
  9    Dedy Setyawan          II M1
  10   Dewi Andang Prastika   II M1
  11   Dyah Sapartiningsih    II M1
  12   Eric Novembrianto S.   II M1
  13   Erlita Chandra M.      II M1
  14   Ferra Indrastuti       II M1
  15   Firgiawan Listanto     II M1
  16   Firman Al Hidayah      II M1
  17   Fransiska Tomi S.      II M1
  18   Hendi Setiawan         II M1
  19   Ifa Sumanto            II M1
  20   Ika Fahmawati          II M1
  21   Imam Arifin            II M1
  22   Joko Wahyono           II M1
  23   Kajack Saptakusuma     II M1
  24   Lina Andriyati         II M1
  25   Luky Junanto           II M1
  26   Ma'ruf Rifa'I          II M1
  27   Muhammad Azhar B.      II M1
  28   Nopi Sulistyowati      II M1
  29   Ngua Angriawan         II M1
  30   Poni Daryanti          II M1
  31   Rahmad Nur Mahmudi     II M1
  32   Rahmi Pudiyastuti      II M1
  33   Roofinur Yuli Astuti   II M1
  34   Sirep Prehatin         II M1
  35   Sri Hariani            II M1
  36   Sri Wuryaningsih       II M1
  37   Vivi Mega R.           II M1
  38   Tri Wijayaningsih      II M1
  39   Wiji Lestari           II M1
  40   Yeni Susilowati        II M1
Appendix 4
Result of Pre-Test
  No                                                    Nomor Item Soal
 Resp.   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
   1     0   0   1   0   0   1   1   0   0   1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1
   2     1   0   0   1   0   0   1   0   0   0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1
   3     1   1   1   1   1   1   1   0   0   1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1
   4     1   1   1   1   0   1   1   1   1   1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
   5     1   1   1   0   1   1   1   1   1   1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
   6     0   1   0   1   0   0   1   0   0   1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
   7     0   0   0   0   1   0   1   0   1   0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1
   8     1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1   1   1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1
   9     0   1   1   1   1   1   0   1   1   1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1
  10     1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1
  11     1   0   1   0   1   1   0   1   1   1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1
  12     1   1   1   1   1   1   1   0   0   1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
  13     1   1   1   1   0   1   0   0   1   0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
  14     0   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1
  15     1   1   1   1   0   0   1   0   0   1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1
  16     0   0   0   1   0   0   1   1   1   0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0
  17     1   1   1   0   1   1   0   1   1   0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1
  18     1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
  19     1   1   1   1   1   0   0   0   1   0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  20     0   0   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
  21     0   1   1   1   0   0   1   0   0   0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1
  22     1   1   0   0   1   0   1   1   0   0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0
  23     1   0   1   1   0   1   0   1   0   1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0
  24     0   0   0   0   1   0   1   1   0   1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  25     0   1   0   1   1   0   1   1   1   1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0
  26     0   1   1   1   1   1   1   0   1   1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
  27     1   0   1   0   0   1   0   1   1   0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1
  28     1   1   0   1   1   0   0   0   0   1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0
  29     0   1   1   1   0   1   1   1   1   1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0
  30     1   1   1   1   1   1   1   0   1   1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
  31     1   1   0   1   1   0   0   1   0   1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
  32     1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   0   1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1
  33     1   1   1   0   1   0   0   1   1   1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1
  34     1   1   1   1   1   1   0   1   1   1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
  35     1   0   1   1   0   0   1   0   1   1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1
  36     1   0   0   0   1   1   1   1   1   1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1
  37     1   1   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1
  38     0   1   1   1   1   1   0   1   1   1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0
  39     0   1   1   1   0   0   1   1   1   1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1
  40     1   1   1   1   0   1   0   1   1   1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0
                                                                     Total
26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47    Score    Influence
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1                           25          5.3
1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0                           25          5.3
1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0                           30          6.4
0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0                           27          5.7
1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1                           27          5.7
1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0                           23          4.9
1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1                           25          5.3
1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1                           33          7.0
1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1                           38          8.1
1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1                           38          8.1
1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0                           28          6.0
1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1                           25          5.3
1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0                           25          5.3
1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0                           25          5.3
1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0                           30          6.4
0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1                           28          6.0
1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1                           30          6.4
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1                           25          5.3
1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1                           33          7.0
0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1                           28          6.0
0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1                           26          5.5
0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1                           26          5.5
1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0                           23          4.9
1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0                           27          5.7
1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1                           30          6.4
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1                           23          4.9
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0                           19          4.0
1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1                           28          6.0
1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0                           30          6.4
0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1                           23          4.9
1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0                           18          3.8
0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1                           36          7.7
1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1                           30          6.4
1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0                           23          4.9
0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0                           27          5.7
1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1                           31          6.6
1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1                           31          6.6
0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0                           27          5.7
0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1                           27          5.7
0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1                           23          4.9
                                                                     Sum        233.2
                                                                    Average       5.8
Appendix 5
Result of Post-Test
 No                                                    Nomor Item Soal
Resp.   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
  1     1   1   1   1   0   0   1   0   0    1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1                1
  2     0   0   0   0   1   0   1   0   1    0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1                1
  3     1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1    1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1                1
  4     0   0   0   1   1   1   1   1   1    1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0                1
  5     0   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0                1
  6     1   1   1   0   1   1   1   0   1    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1                1
  7     0   1   0   1   0   0   0   0   1    1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0                0
  8     0   1   0   1   1   1   0   1   0    1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1                1
  9     1   1   1   1   0   1   0   0   0    1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1                1
 10     1   0   0   0   1   1   1   0   1    0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1                0
 11     1   1   0   1   0   0   0   0   1    0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1                0
 12     1   0   1   0   0   1   0   1   0    1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0                1
 13     0   0   1   0   1   0   1   1   1    0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1                0
 14     1   1   1   0   1   0   0   1   1    0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1                0
 15     1   1   1   0   1   1   0   1   1    1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1                1
 16     1   1   0   1   1   1   1   0   1    0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1                1
 17     1   1   1   0   1   0   1   1   1    1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1                1
 18     1   1   1   0   0   0   1   0   1    1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0                0
 19     1   1   1   1   1   0   1   1   0    0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1                1
 20     1   1   1   1   1   0   1   1   0    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1                1
 21     0   1   0   1   1   1   1   1   1    1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0                1
 22     0   1   0   1   1   0   1   1   0    0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1                1
 23     1   1   0   1   1   0   1   1   1    1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1                1
 24     0   0   1   1   0   1   0   0   1    1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1                1
 25     1   1   1   0   1   0   1   0   1    1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0                0
 26     0   0   1   1   1   1   1   1   1    1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0                1
 27     0   1   0   1   1   1   1   1   0    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0                1
 28     0   0   0   1   1   1   1   1   1    0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1                1
 29     1   1   0   1   1   1   0   1   1    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1                1
 30     1   1   1   1   1   1   0   1   1    1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1                0
 31     1   0   1   0   1   1   0   0   1    0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0                1
 32     1   1   0   1   0   1   0   1   0    1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1                1
 33     0   0   1   0   0   1   0   1   0    0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1                1
 34     1   0   1   0   0   1   0   0   0    0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1                1
 35     0   1   0   0   1   0   0   0   1    0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0                1
 36     1   0   1   0   1   1   0   1   0    1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1                1
 37     1   1   1   0   1   1   0   1   1    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1                1
 38     1   1   1   1   1   1   1   0   0    1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1                1
 39     1   1   1   1   0   1   1   1   1    1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1                1
 40     1   1   1   0   1   1   1   1   1    1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0                0
                                                                  Total
27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47    Score    Influence
 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0                         34          7.2
 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1                         35          7.4
 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0                         34          7.2
 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1                         35          7.4
 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1                         39          8.3
 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0                         41          8.7
 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1                         26          5.5
 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0                         36          7.7
 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1                         36          7.7
 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0                         27          5.7
 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1                         26          5.5
 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1                         31          6.6
 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1                         31          6.6
 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1                         36          7.7
 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1                         37          7.9
 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1                         32          6.8
 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1                         37          7.9
 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1                         32          6.8
 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0                         36          7.7
 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0                         38          8.1
 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0                         34          7.2
 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1                         32          6.8
 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1                         34          7.2
 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1                         38          8.1
 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1                         32          6.8
 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0                         32          6.8
 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1                         35          7.4
 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1                         36          7.7
 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1                         35          7.4
 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1                         37          7.9
 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1                         28          6.0
 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0                         35          7.4
 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1                         28          6.0
 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1                         32          6.8
 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1                         32          6.8
 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0                         33          7.0
 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1                         35          7.4
 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0                         36          7.7
 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0                         32          6.8
 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1                         34          7.2
                                                                  Sum        287.0
                                                                 Average       7.2
Appendix 6
                                    DATA

 No                 Name                   Pre-test        Post-tes
  1   Andriani Diyah A.W                     5.3             7.2
  2   Agus Suryamin                          5.3             7.4
  3   Ahmad Tri Risanto                      6.4             7.2
  4   Akbar Al Masjid                        5.7             7.4
  5   Ambar Susanto                          5.7             8.3
  6   Aris Budianto                          4.9             8.7
  7   Chandra Sulistyo D.                    5.3             5.5
  8   Danang Tri Wahyono                     7.0             7.7
  9   Dedy Setyawan                          8.1             7.7
 10   Dewi Andang Prastika                   8.1             5.7
 11   Dyah Sapartiningsih                    6.0             5.5
 12   Eric Novembrianto S.                   5.3             6.6
 13   Erlita Chandra M.                      5.3             6.6
 14   Ferra Indrastuti                       5.3             7.7
 15   Firgiawan Listanto                     6.4             7.9
 16   Firman Al Hidayah                      6.0             6.8
 17   Fransiska Tomi S.                      6.4             7.9
 18   Hendi Setiawan                         5.3             6.8
 19   Ifa Sumanto                            7.0             7.7
 20   Ika Fahmawati                          6.0             8.1
 21   Imam Arifin                            5.5             7.2
 22   Joko Wahyono                           5.5             6.8
 23   Kajack Saptakusuma                     4.9             7.2
 24   Lina Andriyati                         5.7             8.1
 25   Luky Junanto                           6.4             6.8
 26   Ma'ruf Rifa'I                          4.9             6.8
 27   Muhammad Azhar B.                      4.0             7.4
 28   Nopi Sulistyowati                      6.0             7.7
 29   Ngua Angriawan                         6.4             7.4
 30   Poni Daryanti                          4.9             7.9
 31   Rahmad Nur Mahmudi                     3.8             6.0
 32   Rahmi Pudiyastuti                      7.7             7.4
 33   Roofinur Yuli Astuti                   6.4             6.0
 34   Sirep Prehatin                         4.9             6.8
 35   Sri Hariani                            5.7             6.8
 36   Sri Wuryaningsih                       6.6             7.0
 37   Vivi Mega R.                           6.6             7.4
 38   Tri Wijayaningsih                      5.7             7.7
 39   Wiji Lestari                           5.7             6.8
 40   Yeni Susilowati                        4.9             7.2
                     Sum                        233.191        287.021
                     Max                           8.085          8.723
                      Min                          3.830          5.532
                     Mean                          5.830          7.176
            Standart Deviasi (SD)                  0.933          0.731
                    Varians                        0.870          0.534
Appendix 7
t test of Influence the Student Competence
of Using Relative Pronoun
                              Score of test                            Nilai (X - X)2
      No.              Post-tes          Pre-tes              No         Post-tes          Pre-tes
       1                 7.2                5.3                1           0.003            0.261
       2                 7.4                5.3                2           0.074            0.261
       3                 7.2                6.4                3           0.003            0.306
       4                 7.4                5.7                4           0.074            0.007
       5                 8.3                5.7                5           1.260            0.007
       6                 8.7                4.9                6           2.396            0.876
       7                 5.5                5.3                7           2.701            0.261
       8                 7.7                7.0                8           0.234            1.420
       9                 7.7                8.1                9           0.234            5.086
      10                 5.7                8.1               10           2.047            5.086
      11                 5.5                6.0               11           2.701            0.016
      12                 6.6                5.3               12           0.336            0.261
      13                 6.6                5.3               13           0.336            0.261
      14                 7.7                5.3               14           0.234            0.261
      15                 7.9                6.4               15           0.486            0.306
      16                 6.8                6.0               16           0.135            0.016
      17                 7.9                6.4               17           0.486            0.306
      18                 6.8                5.3               18           0.135            0.261
      19                 7.7                7.0               19           0.234            1.420
      20                 8.1                6.0               20           0.827            0.016
      21                 7.2                5.5               21           0.003            0.089
      22                 6.8                5.5               22           0.135            0.089
      23                 7.2                4.9               23           0.003            0.876
      24                 8.1                5.7               24           0.827            0.007
      25                 6.8                6.4               25           0.135            0.306
      26                 6.8                4.9               26           0.135            0.876
      27                 7.4                4.0               27           0.074            3.194
      28                 7.7                6.0               28           0.234            0.016
      29                 7.4                6.4               29           0.074            0.306
      30                 7.9                4.9               30           0.486            0.876
      31                 6.0                3.8               31           1.484            4.000
      32                 7.4                7.7               32           0.074            3.348
      33                 6.0                6.4               33           1.484            0.306
      34                 6.8                4.9               34           0.135            0.876
      35                 6.8                5.7               35           0.135            0.007
      36                 7.0                6.6               36           0.024            0.587
      37                 7.4                6.6               37           0.074            0.587
      38                 7.7                5.7               38           0.234            0.007
      39                 6.8                5.7               39           0.135            0.007
      40                 7.2                4.9               40           0.003            0.876
     Sum                287.0             233.2              Sum          20.823           33.934
     Mean               7.176             5.830                S2          0.534            0.870

t test calculation :
1. Sgab =               0.702
2. thit   =             1.346
                        0.702       (1/40+1/40)
          =             8.573
3. t tabel 0,05 (78)    = 1,67
   t hitung=        8.573       > t tabel = 1,67
4. Criteria:
           -
     H0 ditolak karena t hitung > t tabel
5. Conclusioni : there are diferent influence for the student competence of using Relative Pronoun
   at post-test and pre-tes
Appendix 8
Student Competence of Using
Relative Pronoun
                             Score of test
   No.        Pre-tes   Category        Post-test   Category
     1          5.3       Low              7.2       High
     2          5.3       Low              7.4       High
     3          6.4       High             7.2       High
     4          5.7       Low              7.4       High
     5          5.7       Low              8.3       High
     6          4.9       Low              8.7       High
     7          5.3       Low              5.5        Low
     8          7.0       High             7.7       High
     9          8.1       High             7.7       High
    10          8.1       High             5.7        Low
    11          6.0       High             5.5        Low
    12          5.3       Low              6.6        Low
    13          5.3       Low              6.6        Low
    14          5.3       Low              7.7       High
    15          6.4       High             7.9       High
    16          6.0       High             6.8        Low
    17          6.4       High             7.9       High
    18          5.3       Low              6.8        Low
    19          7.0       High             7.7       High
    20          6.0       High             8.1       High
    21          5.5       Low              7.2       High
    22          5.5       Low              6.8        Low
    23          4.9       Low              7.2       High
    24          5.7       Low              8.1       High
    25          6.4       High             6.8        Low
    26          4.9       Low              6.8        Low
    27          4.0       Low              7.4       High
    28          6.0       High             7.7       High
    29          6.4       High             7.4       High
    30          4.9       Low              7.9       High
    31          3.8       Low              6.0        Low
    32          7.7       High             7.4       High
    33          6.4       High             6.0        Low
    34          4.9       Low              6.8        Low
    35          5.7       Low              6.8        Low
    36          6.6       High             7.0        Low
    37          6.6       High             7.4       High
    38          5.7       Low              7.7       High
    39          5.7       Low              6.8        Low
    40          4.9       Low              7.2       High
   Sum         233.2                     287.0
  Mean         5.830                     7.176
Sum of High      17      42.5%             24        60.0%
Sum of Low       23      57.5%             16        40.0%

				
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Description: skripsi tentang language teaching relative pronoun