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					      SYMBOLISM IN J.M BARRIE’S
     THE ADVENTURES OF PETER PAN




                    Research Paper
       Submitted as a Partial of the Requirements
             for Getting Bachelor Degree in
                  English Department




                    Written by:
                Amalia Intan Puspa
                   A.320.010.138




SCHOOL OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF SURAKARTA
                           2006
           SYMBOLISM IN J.M BARRIE’S
         THE ADVENTURES OF PETER PAN




                       Arranged by :
                   AMALIA INTAN PUSPA
                       A.320.010.138




             Approved to be examined by :


        Consultant I                         Consultant II




Drs. Abdillah Nugroho, M.Hum           Mauly Halwat Hikmat, S.Pd.




                               ii
                          ACCEPTANCE



                   Acceptance by the board of Examines
                School of Teacher Training and Education
                Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta




                            November 7, 2006




The Examiners
1. Drs. Abdillah Nugroho, M.Hum.
  (Chair person)
2. Mauly Halwat Hikmat, S.Pd.
  (Member I)
3. Drs. M. Thoyibi, MS.
  (Member II)




                                  Dean,




                          Drs. Sofyan Arif, M.Si.
                                 NIP. 547




                                       iii
                 UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH SURAKARTA
                 FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN
                 Jl. A. Yani Tromol Pos I Pabelan Kartasura Telp. (0271) 717417 Surakarta - 57102




                    PERNYATAAN KEASLIAN SKRIPSI

Saya yang bertanda tangan dibawah ini :


       Nama                 : AMALIA INTAN PUSPA
       NIM                  : A320010138
       Jurusan              : BAHASA INGGRIS
       Judul Skripsi        : SYMBOLISM IN J.M. BARRIE’S “THE ADVENTURES

                             OF PETER PAN ”


Menyatakan bahwa dengan sebenarnya bahwa skripsi ini saya buat dan serahkan ini
merupakan hasil karya saya sendiri, kecuali kutipan-kutipan dan ringkasan –
ringkasan yang semuanya telah saya jelaskan sumbernya. Apabila dikemudian hari
terbukti dan atau dapat dibuktikan bahwa skripsi hasil jiplakan, maka saya bersedia
menerima sanksi apapun dari Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan dan atau gelar
ijazah yang diberikan oleh Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta batal saya terima.




                                                     Surakarta, 9 Nopember 2006
                                                      Yang membuat pernyataan,




                                                         (Amalia Intan Puspa)



                                               iv
                              MOTTO




By the token of time, verily man is in loss, except such have faith and

   do righteous deeds and (join together) in the mutual teaching

                 of truth and patience and constancy.

                              (103: 1-3)



                          No guts, no glory.

                               (Writer)

     Life is like a barren place, reaching out for human’s faith.

         It is like a journey that I just don’t have a map for.

                               (Writer)

Never feel sorry for whatever you’ve choose and done. If everything

   is not like what you predicted, just remember, that everything’s

   happened for a reason. And that you can always learn from it.

                               (Writer)




                                   v
    DEDICATION




From her deepest heart the writer dedicates this

research paper to :

       Allah SWT, for His blessing

       Her beloved Parents, Mom and Dad who

       pushing her and guiding her always, to

       succeed

       Her soul mate, for his love, support, and

       prayer

       Herself




           vi
                             ACKNOWLEDGEMENT



                             Bismillahirrohmanirrohiim

Assalamu ‘alaikum Wr. Wb

        Glory to the Lord Allah, for his blessing and guidance so the arrangement of

this work can be finished as partial fulfillment of requirements for getting Bachelor

Degree. The Writer realizes that the research paper may not be finished without the

help of others. Therefore, by saying Alhamdulillahirobbil’alamiin and by giving

high appreciation, in this occasion, she would like to express her great gratitude to

the following persons:

   1. Drs. Abdillah Nugroho, M.Hum., as her first consultant who has patiently

        guided and helped her in finishing this work. She is so grateful to his

        criticism and suggestion to her paper.

   2. Mauly Halwat Hikmat, S.Pd., as the second consultant who also gives her

        gudance and suggestion to make this paper better.

   3.   Drs. Agus Budi Wahyudi, M.Hum., as the Dean of School of Teacher

        Training and Education of Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta.

   4. Koesoemo Ratih, S.Pd.M.Hum., as the head of English Department.

   5. The Academic advisor of class C/2001, H. Maryadi, M.A.

   6. All of the lecturers in Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta for their

        teaching during her study.




                                          vii
7. Her beloved Mom and Dad, thanks for the great love, support, and prayer.

8. Her beloved brothers, Eren and Bian, thanks for wonderful day, support, and

   prayers.

9. Her soul mate, Era Bagus Pambudi, for his love, patience, support, and also

   wonderful life. (When it comes to love: nothing is impossible!)

10. Her big family, in Surabaya, Jakarta, and Padang. Especially Budhe Is, thank

   you for the support and advice.

11. Her lovely friend Chiko, who patiently praying, helping, and supporting her

   during the process of this work.

12. Her good friend Sho- Ganx. For lending her his computer.

13. Her beloved and unforgettable friend in SOPHOMORE band (Mbak Dhanie

   and Yoshi ) for the great days and the SOPHOMORE moments.

14. All her friends in Sub- Unit Music, Mbak Titut, Mas Itok, Gepenx, Mas

   Ande’, Mas Dodo, and Ammien for supporting her and making her mature.

15. Last but not least, to the “old master” orange Astra 90z (G 3876 BD), for

   accompanying her, whether it is day or night, sunny or rainy, and taking her

   wherever she wants to go without complaining.

Wassalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb


                                                        Surakarta, May 26, 2006



                                                                     Amel



                                      viii
                                            TABLE OF CONTENTS



TITLE ........................................................................................................................      i

APPROVAL...............................................................................................................            ii

ACCEPTANCE .........................................................................................................              iii

MOTTO .....................................................................................................................       iv

DEDICATION ...........................................................................................................             v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .........................................................................................                         vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS...........................................................................................                     viii

SUMMARY ...............................................................................................................           xi

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

     A. Background of The Study ..............................................................................                     1

     B. Literary Reviews ............................................................................................              4

     C. Problem Statement .........................................................................................                5

     D. Problem Limitation ........................................................................................                5

     E. Objective of The Study ..................................................................................                  5

     F. Benefit of The Study ......................................................................................                5

     G. Research Method............................................................................................                6

     H. Paper Organization.........................................................................................                7




                                                               ix
CHAPTER II UNDERLYING THEORY

  A. Notion of Symbol...........................................................................................              8

  B. Symbol in Literature ......................................................................................              8

  C. The Basic Principle of Symbolism.................................................................                        9

  D. Theoretical Application..................................................................................               11

CHAPTER III STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

  A. Structural Elements ........................................................................................            12

       1. Character and Characterization ................................................................                    12

       2. Setting ......................................................................................................     21

            a. Setting of Place ..................................................................................           21

            b. Setting of Time...................................................................................            22

       3. Plot ...........................................................................................................   23

            a. Exposition ..........................................................................................         23

            b. Complication ......................................................................................           23

            c. Climax ................................................................................................       25

            d. Resolution ..........................................................................................         25

            e. Causality.............................................................................................        26

            f. Plausibility .........................................................................................        27

       4. Point of view ............................................................................................         27

       5. Style .........................................................................................................    28

            a. Diction ...............................................................................................       29




                                                            x
             b. Gramatikal Structure ..........................................................................          30

             c. Sentence Construction........................................................................            31

             d. Figurative Language...........................................................................           32

       6. Theme.......................................................................................................   33

  B. Discussion ......................................................................................................   34

CHAPTER IV SYMBOLISM

  A. Symbolism Analysis ......................................................................................           37

       1. Character Symbolism ...............................................................................            37

       2. Setting Symbolism ...................................................................................          39

       3. Plot Symbolism ........................................................................................        41

       4. Style Symbolism ......................................................................................         43

       5. Natural Object Symbolism.......................................................................                43

  B. Discussion ......................................................................................................   44

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

  A. Conclusion .....................................................................................................    46

  B. Suggestion......................................................................................................    47

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX




                                                          xi
                                     SUMMARY



AMALIA INTAN PUSPA A.320.010.138. SYMBOLISM IN J.M BARRIE’S
THE ADVENTURES OF PETER PAN. MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY
OF SURAKARTA. RESEARCH PAPER. 2006

        This study is about how the symbolism is reflected in J.M Barrie’s the
adventures of Peter Pan. The aim of this study is to analyze the novel in terms of its
structural elements, and analyze the novel based on Symbolism Perspective.
        This study belongs to qualitative study. In this study, the writer uses two data
sources: they are primary and secondary data sources. The primary data source is the
novel itself “The Adventures of Peter Pan”. Meanwhile the secondary data source is
any books of literature and symbolism related to this study. The writer collects the
data from both primary and secondary data sources by using library research. The
collected data are analyzed by means of descriptive technique.
        Based on the analysis, the writer draws some conclusion as follows : First,
J.M Barrie, seems to give description that human life will always be encountered
with the problem that must be faced and must be overcome. Second, in J.M Barrie’s
“The Adventures of Peter Pan” , the symbolism is not only appears on the main
character but also from other structural elements, such as the minor character, the
plot, the setting, the style, and the natural objects.




                                          xii
                                       SYNOPSIS




        In London, Wendy Darling and her two brothers love playing make-believe

adventures of pirates. But Wendy's parents tells her that she must learn to grow up

and be a lady.

        But then Wendy's room is invaded by a flying boy Peter Pan, come in search

of his recalcitrant shadow. Wendy helps him sew his shadow back on and, enchanted

by him, she and her brothers accept his offer to fly away with him to Never Never

Land.

        There they join the Lost Boys, all children who left their parents before they

grew up, but must also battle Peter's sworn enemy, the black-hearted Captain Hook,

who is determined to kill Peter for feeding him to the crocodile and making him lose

his hand. When Hook learns that Peter cares for Wendy, he determines to seduce her

away from him.




                                         xiii
                                    CHAPTER I

                                 INTRODUCTION



A. Background of the Study



       Childhood is the best gift ever given. Before being an adult, human must get

through one phase; which is a child. In a childhood, humans may be innocent. They

are honest, sincere, positive thinking, and have nothing in their mind but playing

around. A child believes in imagination. They believe in fairy tales, also magic. They

build their own world. In a child’s world, nothing is impossible, such as flying,

racing, bungee-jumping, being a superhero, being a superstar, being anything. Adults

find that living in childhood is fun, does not have many problems like being adults.

That’s why many adults are missing their childhood. Most of them would do

anything just to turn back the time. That’s what J.M Barrie tries to share within his

famous novel “The Adventures of Peter Pan“.

        “The Adventures of Peter Pan“is the story of a boy who refuses to grow up

and creates his own world of Indians, pirates, and fairies. Peter Pan was produced

for the stage in 1904 but appeared as a narrative story only in 1911. It was adapted as

a play with music (1950), and as a musical comedy (1954, revived in 1979) that was

also performed on television. Peter Pan was also made into a silent film (1924) and

a feature-length animated cartoon (1952).         J.M Barrie can make the readers

alternated between play-acting Wendy, flying through the stars at Peter's side, and

play-acting the role of Peter himself, attacking pirates on the Jolly Roger, also


                                              1
                                                                                    2



dreamed of flight, fairy dust, Indian drums sounding in the woods, and insisted on

leaving the bedroom window cracked in case Peter would appeared. But then when

the readers all grew up, of course, as every child (but one) must do. Peter Pan

became just a childhood game. Yet people say first love is powerful. Peter's influence

may be stronger than all of the people knew.

       Readers have loved Peter, even, unwisely, emulated him. J.M Barrie’s

formidable talent as a writer allowed him to limit his melancholy and remake his

most famous character in a gentler mode; sweeter, more palatable. The trend has

continued, until now 'Peter Pan' is a term for men who attempt, despite all evidence

to the contrary, to remain youthful and uncommitted ; a synonym for mummified

irresponsibility. James. M. Barrie (1860-1937) was a Scottish playwright and

novelist best remembered today for his fantasy work Peter Pan. He was born on May

9, 1860, in Kirriemuir, Scotland. He was the ninth child and third son of David and

Margaret (Ogilvy) Barrie. His father was a weaver and his mother the daughter of a

stonemason. Barrie attended Glasgow Academy and Dumfries Academy. In 1878 he

enrolled in Edinburgh University, where he graduated in four years with a master's

degree. Barrie gained his first literary success with Auld Licht Idylls, sketches of

Scottish life, published in 1888. His melodramatic novel The Little Minister (1891)

was also a great success. J.M. Barrie was already a well-known novelist and

playwright when he sat down to write his first and only play for children, which he

completed and offered to the theater producer Charles Frohman in the spring of

1904. Although a favorite book or character may not last the test of time ; But one

hundred years later, Peter is just as popular as ever, and there are few children who
                                                                                     3



do not know his story ; can find it through picture books, through the Disney

animation, and through the recent live-action film, if not directly from Barrie's play

or the pages of Peter and Wendy. Peter's story has inspired several other works of

fiction for both children and adults, and Barrie's life has inspired two dramatic

productions: the excellent BBC television series The Lost Boys, and the new film

Finding Neverland. Sir James Matthew Barrie was a favorite writer in his day, and

arguably England's favorite playwright at that time. Though it had roots in the British

pantomime tradition, Peter Pan was a wholly original concoction blending pirate

stories, desert island stories, Indian adventures and fairy tales, all wrapped around a

satire of family life in Edwardia London. The opening of the play in December 1904

is now reckoned as the date of Peter's birth, for it marks the emergence of Peter as

we know him, sword in hand and Tinker Bell at his side. Yet he really first appeared

two   years    earlier   in   Barrie's   adult   novel;   The   Little   White   Bird.

       In The Little White Bird, Peter Pan is a baby who once heard his mother talk

about the life he'd lead when he was grown, prompting him to fly to Kensington

Gardens in order to avoid this fate. In the Gardens, he's neither bird nor baby but a

creature who is "betwixt and between,” glorying in his independence, determined to

never grow up. Eventually, however, he tries to go back home, only to find that he's

left it much too late. His mother has another baby now, and the nursery windows are

firmly locked. Barrie's Peter Pan is human-born, not a fairy, but he's lived in Never

Land so long that he's as much a fairy as he is a boy: magical, capricious, and

amoral, like the fairies of the old Scots tradition. ”The Adventures of Peter Pan” is

calling the readers’ imagination out of the readers’ soul. Unfortunately, most of
                                                                                      4



person lost their imagination. For a good author is a person who can awake the

imagination up from the readers’ mind, also can bring the readers to his own world.

To represent his idea an author may used symbols. Symbols appear if the reader pay

attention to the words. Each story of a novel symbolizes the author’s life or

experience. In his Introduction to Literature, Barnett states that : “a symbol is an

image so loaded with significance that is not simply literal ,and it does not simply

stand for something else ; it is both itself something and something else that is richly

suggests a kind of manifestation of something too complex or too elusive to be

otherwise revealed” (Barnett, 1993 : 469). There are no components of experience

which are only symbols or only meanings. In such an instance, the written word is a

symbol and its meaning is the spoken word, and the spoken word is a symbol and its

meaning is the dictionary meaning of the word, spoken or written. But often the

written word effects its purpose without the intervention of the spoken word.

Accordingly, then, the written word directly symbolizes the dictionary meaning.

       Based on the facts above, the researcher decides to analyze the novel from

J.M Barrie : “The Adventures of Peter Pan” using symbolism approach proposed by

Perrine.



B. Literature Review

       As long as the researcher knows, there is no other researcher analyzing this

novel. So in this opportunity, the researcher uses symbolism approach to analyze the

symbolism in J.M Barrie’s “The Adventures of Peter Pan”.
                                                                                     5



C. Problem Statement

       The major problem of this study is how the symbolism is reflected in J.M

Barrie’s “The Adventures of Peter Pan”.



D. Limitation of the Study

       In this study, the writer needs to limit the study. The writer is going to

analyze the novel using symbolism approach and the structural elements of J.M

Barrie’s “The Adventures of Peter Pan” such as theme , character , plot , setting , and

point of view.



E. Objective of the Study

       The objectives of the study are :

1. To analyze the novel based on its structural element.

2. To analyze the novel based on the symbolism perspective.



F. Benefit of the Study

  1. Theoretical Benefit.

     To give contribution to the body of knowledge in literary study

     particularly on one of J.M Barrie’s works “The Adventures of Peter Pan”.

  2. Practical Benefit.

     To give additional contribution to get more understanding in J.M Barrie’s “The

     Adventures of Peter Pan “based on symbolism perspective.
                                                                                 6



G. Research Method

          To analyze the data found in this novel, the writer uses qualitative

   method.

   1. Object of the Study

     The object of the study is J.M Barrie’s “The Adventures of Peter Pan”

   2. Type of the Study

     The research belongs to qualitative research.

   3. Type of the Data and the Data Source

             In this chance, the author uses two sources of data namely primary and

     secondary data source these are :

      a. Primary data source

          The primary data source of this paper is the novel itself, J.M Barrie’s

          “The Adventures of Peter Pan”.

      b. Secondary data source

          The secondary data sources are taken from others which are related to

          primary data, such as the biography of the author in The Adventures of

          Peter Pan, website of J.M Barrie’s “The Adventures of Peter Pan”, and

          the other resources that support the analysis of the novel.

   4. Technique of the Data Collection

             The method that is used in the research paper is taken from both

     primary and secondary sources that are collected and recorded in sort

     document as evidence.
                                                                                      7



    5. Technique of the Data Analysis

                This research attempts to explore the theory relationed to the problem

      in the story, called as the symbolism theory. This study is aimed to find the

      basic meaning of this novel



H. Paper Organization

       This study is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is Introduction,

covering the Background of the Study, Literature review, Problem Statement,

Objective of the Study, Research Method, and Paper Organization. The second

chapter deals with theoretical approach used in analyzing the novel of J.M Barrie

“The Adventures of Peter Pan”. It describes the theory of symbolism by Perrine and

some proponents of the theory. The third chapter deals with the structural analysis of

the literary work, which includes the character and the characterization, setting, plot,

and other elements, which construct the literary work. The fourth chapter analyzes

the novel dealing with the problem of the major character by using symbolism

perspective. And the last chapter is conclusion and suggestion.
                                                                                     8



                                   CHAPTER II
                             UNDERLYING THEORY



       This research attempts to explore the theory having relation to the problem in

the story, namely the symbolism theory. This research uses Perrine’s theory of

symbolism to analyze. In order to get better understanding for the theory, this chapter

will explain the notion of symbol, the symbol in literature, and theoretical

application.



A. Notion of Symbol

       According to its roles, symbols are spawned so many definitions. There have

been so many definitions discussed by some theorists of symbol. In studying “The

Adventures of Peter Pan” , this research employs Perrine’s theory of symbolism. In

his book, Story and Structure, Perrine states that “a literary symbol is something,

which means more than it is. It is an object a person, a situation, an action, or some

other items that, which has a literal meaning in the story but suggest or represent

other meaning as well” (Perrine, 1978 : 220 ). Perrine’s theory of symbolism

considered that there were many kinds of symbolism needed to be interpreted in a

particular literary work.



B. Symbol in Literature

      Some literary writers use symbolism to represent the significant meaning of

their stories. To understand the significant meanings, the readers should well

interpret the symbols, which the writer uses in his masterpiece.

                                           8
                                                                                    9



C. Basic Principle of Symbolism

      Following are basic principles of symbolism (Perrine, 1978 : 223)

1. The story itself must furnish a clue that a detail is to be taken symbolically. The

   symbolical identification is established by association and by frequent repletion

   of link words. Symbol is nearly always signals their existence by emphasis,

   repetition, or position. In the absence of such signals, we should be reluctant to

   identify such item as symbolical.

2. The meaning literary symbols must be established and supported by the entire

   context of the story, not outside of it.

3. To be called a symbol, an item must suggest a meaning different in kind from its

   literary meaning ; a symbol is something more than the representative class /

   type.

4. A symbol may have more than one meaning. It may suggest a cluster of meaning.

   As its more effective, a symbol is like a man faceted jewel : it flashes different

   colors when turn in the light. This is not to say that it can mean anything we want

   it to the area of possible meaning is always controlled by the context.

   Nevertheless, this possibility of complex meaning, plus concreteness, and

   emotional power, give the symbol it’s peculiar value.

     In analyzing the symbolism in The Adventures of Peter Pan, this research

limits the study on the characters, setting, plot, and natural objects symbolism, and

uses Perrine’s theory of symbolism.
                                                                                       10



        This study is aimed to find the basic meaning of this novel. In his theory,

Perrine (1978 : 228) states that symbol can be a person, object, situation, or some

other items. Based on this theory, this research tries to analyze the symbol employed

through the characters, setting, plot, style, and natural objects. There are still so many

theories that this research uses to support Perrine’s theory of symbolism, especially

on the side of characters, setting, plot, style, and natural objects. In a story, however,

“The story setting is more important, give us the feeling of the people who move

through it” ( Barnett, 1993 : 469 ). The second theory which supports the symbolic

setting, is Burroway who states that “ The symbolic setting reflects the theme. In this

kind of setting, the author uses the context of history, time, and place to give his

stories a sense of reaching out towards the universe” (in Koesnosoebroto, 1988 : 79).

        Plot consists of actions, in analyzing the symbols in plot, this research uses

actions, which are employed in the story. There is supporting theory, which is used in

this research .The theory is from Knibocker who states : “........... In fiction and

drama, symbolic truth can be emerged from the setting, exposition, characters,

action, and poetry, if any, but essential symbolic usually comes from the character in

action, and because such action expresses more than its literal meaning, it has been

called symbolic action “ ( In Koesnosoebroto, 1988 : 8 ).

        Barnett (1993 : 470) also states that “...some symbols are natural symbol,

recognize as standing for something in particular, even by people from different

culture ...”
                                                                                    11



          However those theories above are used in this research for supporting the

main theory, which is called symbolism in J.M Barrie’s “The Adventures of Peter

Pan “ .

D. Theoretical Application

          This research focuses on analyzing symbols, which are employed in

characters, style, plot, setting, and natural objects. This research considers that the

symbols used on those matters, are used by J.M Barrie on “The Adventures of Peter

Pan “to express his attention on adulthood; while being a mature person is

everyone’s own choice.

          The characters, which are considered to be symbols, are Peter Pan, Wendy,

Captain James Hook, Tinker Bell, Mary Darling, and Tiger Lily. The symbolisms in

setting are the Neverland, the Mermaid Lagoon, and the Little House. The symbols

in plot are analyzed through some words that are often used by J.M Barrie on his

novel. While the natural object symbolism that will be analyzed are the sky and the

gigantic crocodile.
                                                                                  12



                                   CHAPTER III

                           STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS



       This chapter will discuss the structural elements and its discussion. The

structural elements include character and characterization, setting, plot, point of

view, style, and theme. Those elements are closely related to each other and arranged

in such way, building wholeness. And the discussion will bring the components back

together in a synthetic manner.



A. Structural Elements

   1. Characters and Characterization.

             In a story, a character has a very important role. Each character is

     created by the writer, has each characterization which will develop the story

     into a good one. Kennedy (in Koesnosoebroto, 1988 : 65) defines character as

     “an imagined person who inhabits a story” and divides it into two subs namely

     the major character and the minor character.

     a. Major Character

             The major character is the main subject of the character. It has an

         important role in influencing and building up the development of the story.

         There are 3 major characters in this story.

         1) Peter Pan

                   Peter Pan , the center character of this story, is a boy who would

            not grow up.


                                         12
                                                                        13



          All children, except one, grow up (Barrie,1911: 1).

          "Oh no, he isn't grown up," Wendy assured her confidently,
          "and he is just my size." She meant that he was her size in both
          mind and body; she didn't know how she knew, she just knew
          it (Barrie,1911: 4).


       He is the leader of the lost boys ; Tootles , Nibs, Slightly, Curly,

and the Twins who live in Neverland.


          "But where do you live mostly now?"

          "With the lost boys."

          "Who are they?"

          "They are the children who fall out of their perambulators
          when the nurse is looking the other way. If they are not
          claimed in seven days they are sent far away to the Neverland
          to defray expenses. I'm captain" (Barrie,1911: 19).


       He is the biggest enemy of Captain James Hook, the leader of the

pirates, who also lives in Neverland.


          "There is one thing," Peter continued, "that every boy who
          serves under me has to promise, and so must you." John paled.
          "It is this, if we meet Hook in open fight, you must leave him
          to me" (Barrie,1911: 31).

          "I want no such compliments," Hook barked petulantly. "I
          want Peter Pan, who first gave the brute its taste for me."
          (Barrie,1911: 39).



       He does not have any mother. And he does not have the slightest

desire to have one. He thinks them very over-rated persons.
                                                                       14



          "Don't have a mother," he said. Not only had he no mother, but
          he had not the slightest desire to have one. He thought them
          very over-rated persons. Wendy, however, felt at once that she
          was in the presence of a tragedy (Barrie,1911: 16).


        He is cocky ( proud) boy. There never was the cockier ( prouder)

boy.


          "Yes, he is rather cocky," Wendy admitted with regret
          (Barrie,1911: 4).

          It is humiliating to have to confess that this conceit of Peter
          was one of his most fascinating qualities. To put it with brutal
          frankness, there never was a cockier boy (Barrie,1911: 16).



        Peter has a tiny fairy called Tinker Bell to accompany him.


          Really, he thought they had now talked enough about fairies,
          and it struck him that Tinker Bell was keeping very quiet. "I
          can't think where she has gone to," he said, rising, and he
          called Tink by name. Wendy's heart went flutter with a sudden
          thrill (Barrie,1911: 18).


        Peter can fly wherever he wants to go with the help of Tinker

Bell’s fairy dust.


          Of course Peter had been trifling with them, for no one can fly
          unless the fairy dust has been blown on him. Fortunately, as
          we have mentioned, one of his hands was messy with it, and
          he blew some on each of them, with the most superb results.
          (Barrie,1911: 24).
                                                                                 15



2) Wendy

              Wendy is a little girl who happened to be the daughter of the Darling

    Family.


    For a week or two after Wendy came it was doubtful whether they would be
    able to keep her, as she was another mouth to feed. Mr. Darling was
    frightfully proud of her, but he was very honourable, and he sat on the edge
    of Mrs. Darling's bed, holding her hand and calculating expenses, while she
    looked at him imploringly. She wanted to risk it, come what might, but that
    was not his way; his way was with a pencil and a piece of paper, and if she
    confused him with suggestions he had to begin at the beginning again
    (Barrie,1911: 1).

              She is a tidy person. She does not want anything goes improperly. She

    is the kind of person who likes to follow the rules. And she is also a polite

    person.


    "It is so naughty of him not to wipe his feet," Wendy said, sighing. She was a
    tidy child (Barrie,1911: 5).

    "I mean," Wendy said nicely, remembering that she was hostess, "is that what
    they put on the letters?" (Barrie,1911: 15).

    Wendy considers herself as a lady; she has dignity and a pride.

    "A little!" she replied with hauteur ; "if I am no use I can at least withdraw,"
    and she sprang in the most dignified way into bed and covered her face with
    the blankets (Barrie,1911: 17).

 3) Captain James Hook


    He is a captain from the pirates who lives in Neverland.

    In the midst of them, the blackest and largest in that dark setting, reclined
    James Hook, or as he wrote himself, Jas. Hook, of whom it is said he was the
    only man that the Sea-Cook feared. He lay at his ease in a rough chariot
    drawn and propelled by his men, and instead of a right hand he had the iron
    hook with which ever and anon he encouraged them to increase their pace. As
                                                                                16



dogs this terrible man treated and addressed them, and as dogs they obeyed
him (Barrie,1911: 36).

       Captain Hook loses his right arm because it was cut by his worst

enemy, Peter Pan. Than after cutting his hand, Peter throws his right hand to

a gigantic crocodile who happened to be liking the taste of it and searching

Captain James Hook to eat him.


"Most of all," Hook was saying passionately, "I want their captain, Peter Pan.
'Twas he cut off my arm." He brandished the hook threateningly. "I've waited
long to shake his hand with this. Oh, I'll tear him!"

"And yet," said Smee, "I have often heard you say that hook was worth a
score of hands, for combing the hair and other homely uses."

"Ay," the captain answered. "if I was a mother I would pray to have my
children born with this instead of that," and he cast a look of pride upon his
iron hand and one of scorn upon the other. Then again he frowned.

"Peter flung my arm," he said, wincing, "to a crocodile that happened to be
passing by."

"I have often," said Smee, "noticed your strange dread of crocodiles."

"Not of crocodiles," Hook corrected him, "but of that one crocodile." He
lowered his voice. "It liked my arm so much, Smee, that it has followed me
ever since, from sea to sea and from land to land, licking its lips for the rest of
me" (Barrie,1911: 39).

       Captain Hook is a dead looking, and dark faced man. He had a bad

reputation. His face can not be forgotten by anyone who ever seen him. But,

although he is supposed to be the evil cast, he has such a manner and he’s

more polite than the other pirates who are under his control.


In person he was cadaverous and blackavized, and his hair was dressed in
long curls, which at a little distance looked like black candles, and gave a
singularly threatening expression to his handsome countenance. His eyes
were of the blue of the forget-me-not, and of a profound melancholy, save
                                                                               17



   when he was plunging his hook into you, at which time two red spots
   appeared in them and lit them up horribly. In manner, something of the grand
   seigneur still clung to him, so that he even ripped you up with an air, and I
   have been told that he was a RACONTEUR of repute. He was never more
   sinister than when he was most polite, which is probably the truest test of
   breeding; and the elegance of his diction, even when he was swearing, no less
   than the distinction of his demeanour, showed him one of a different cast
   from his crew (Barrie,1911: 36).


a. Minor Character

      1) Tinker Bell

              Tinker Bell is a fairy who watches over Peter. She has a light

          shining from her body same as the fireflies, and she can not put it out

          unless she is sleeping.


          "Then tell her," Wendy begged, "to put out her light."

          "She can't put it out. That is about the only thing fairies can't do. It
           just goes out of itself when she falls asleep, same as the stars"
           (Barrie,1911: 32).

              She does not want to be the second. She always wants to be the

          one and only. She does not like Wendy, and even surprisingly get

          jealous of her.


          "Peter," she cried, clutching him, "you don't mean to tell me that there
           is a fairy in this room!"

          "She was here just now," he said a little impatiently. "You don't hear
           her, do you?" and they both listened.

          "The only sound I hear," said Wendy, "is like a tinkle of bells."

          "Well, that's Tink, that's the fairy language. I think I hear her too"
           (Barrie,1911: 18).
                                                                        18



"Tink," said Peter amiably, "this lady says she wishes you were her
fairy."

Tinker Bell answered insolently.

"What does she say, Peter?"

He had to translate. "She is not very polite. She says you are a great ugly
girl, and that she is my fairy.

He tried to argue with Tink. "You know you can't be my fairy, Tink,
because I am an gentleman and you are a lady."

To this Tink replied in these words, "You silly ass," and disappeared into
the bathroom" (Barrie,1911: 19).

Peter thimbled her, and almost immediately she screeched. "What is it,
Wendy?"

"It was exactly as if someone were pulling my hair."

"That must have been Tink. I never knew her so naughty before."

And indeed Tink was darting about again, using offensive language.

"She says she will do that to you, Wendy, every time I give you a
thimble" (Barrie,1911: 20).


Because of her blind jealousy she orders the lost boys to shoot Wendy

and that tell them that Wendy is a bird, by her disguise.


Wendy was now almost overhead, and they could hear her plaintive cry.
But more distinct came the shrill voice of Tinker Bell. The jealous fairy
had now cast off all disguise of friendship, and was darting at her victim
from every direction, pinching savagely each time she touched.

"Hullo, Tink," cried the wondering boys.

Tink's reply rang out: "Peter wants you to shoot the Wendy" (Barrie,
1911: 41).
                                                                         19



2) Mrs. Darling

       Mrs. Darling is a beautiful woman, who has a romantic mind, and

 she is a dream couple for every boy in her neighborhood.


  She was a lovely lady, with a romantic mind and such a sweet mocking
  mouth. Her romantic mind was like the tiny boxes, one within the other,
  that come from the puzzling East, however many you discover there is
  always one more; and her sweet mocking mouth had one kiss on it that
  Wendy could never get, though there is was, perfectly conspicuous in
  the right-hand corner (Barrie,1911: 1).

  The way Mr. Darling won her was this: the many gentlemen who had
  been boys when she was a girl discovered simultaneously that they
  loved her, and they all ran to her house to propose to her except Mr.
  Darling, who took a cab and nipped in first, and so he got her
  (Barrie,1911: 1).

  She is a good and responsible mother. She loves her chidren very much

  and just like her daughter Wendy, she is a tidy person.


  Mrs. Darling first heard of Peter when she was tidying up her children's
  minds. It is the nightly custom of every good mother after her children
  are asleep to rummage in their minds and put things straight for next
  morning, repacking into their proper places the many articles that have
  wandered during the day. If you could keep awake (but of course you
  can't) you would see your own mother doing this, and you would find it
  very interesting to watch her. It is quite like tidying up drawers. You
  would see her on her knees, I expect, lingering humorously over some
  of your contents, wondering where on earth you had picked this thing
  up, making discoveries sweet and not so sweet, pressing this to her
  cheek as if it were as nice as a kitten, and hurriedly stowing that out of
  sight. When you wake in the morning, the naughtiness and evil passions
  with which you went to bed have been folded up small and placed at the
  bottom of your mind and on the top, beautifully aired, are spread out
  your prettier thoughts, ready for you to put on (Barrie,1911: 3).

  3. The Lost Boys

  The Lost Boys are the boys who are taken from their baby chariot while

  they were a baby, and sent away to Neverland.
                                                                       20



"They are the children who fall out of their perambulators when the
nurse is looking the other way. If they are not claimed in seven days
they are sent far away to the Neverland to defray expenses. I'm captain."
( Barrie, 1911: 15)

There are six Lost Boys in this novel


1. Tootles


He has the fewer adventure than the other Lost Boys


The first to pass is Tootles, not the least brave but the most unfortunate
of all that gallant band. He had been in fewer adventures than any of
them, because the big things constantly happened just when he had
stepped round the corner; all would be quiet, he would take the
opportunity of going off to gather a few sticks for firewood, and then
when he returned the others would be sweeping up the blood.

( Barrie, 1911: 26)

He also the humblest of all the Lost Boys

This ill-luck had given a gentle melancholy to his countenance, but
instead of souring his nature had sweetened it, so that he was quite the
humblest of the boys. ( Barrie, 1911: 26)

2. Nibs

He is the gay and debonair.

Next comes Nibs, the gay and debonair, followed by Slightly. ( Barrie,
1911: 26)

3. Slightly

 Slightly is the most conceited of the boys. He thinks he remembers the
days before he was lost, with their manners and customs, and this has
given his nose an offensive tilt. . ( Barrie, 1911: 26)

4. Curly

Curly is a boy who gets in pickles predicaments.
                                                                                 21



         Curly is fourth; he is a pickle, [a person who gets in pickles-
         predicaments] and so often has he had to deliver up his person when
         Peter said sternly, "Stand forth the one who did this thing," that now at
         the command he stands forth automatically whether he has done it or
         not. ( Barrie, 1911: 26)

             5 and 6. The Twins

             The Twins have no name. They cannot be differentiated.

         Last come the Twins, who cannot be described because we should be
         sure to be describing the wrong one. Peter never quite knew what twins
         were, and his band were not allowed to know anything he did not know,
         so these two were always vague about themselves, and did their best to
         give satisfaction by keeping close together in an apologetic sort of way.
         ( Barrie, 1911: 26)

2. Setting

              Abrams ( in Koesnosoebroto, 1988: 29) describes setting as “the

  general location and the historical time in which the actins occurs in narrative

  or dramatic work, while the setting of an episode or scene within a work is

  particular physical location in which it take place.”

  a. Setting of Place

      1. It begins at the Darling’s House, at number 14. At the opening of the

             story, the Darling family lives in their house at number 14 as a very

             happy family.

      2. The setting changed for a while to their neighbor’s house at number 27.

             It is when the Darling’s couple has a dinner there. And also when Nana,

             the Darling’s nurse picked up the Darling’s couple to remind them that

             there was something wrong in their house.


        No. 27 was only a few yards distant, but there had been a slight fall of
        snow, and Father and Mother Darling picked their way over it deftly not
                                                                         22



 to soil their shoes. They were already the only persons in the street, and
 all the stars were watching them.

 So as soon as the door of 27 closed on Mr. and Mrs. Darling there was a
 commotion in the firmament, and the smallest of all the stars in the Milky
 Way screamed out:

 "Now, Peter!" (Barrie,1911: 13).

3. Chapter four up to fifteen takes place in Neverland. But in Neverland

   itself, there are a lot of places which become the setting of place; they

   are the home under the ground, the little house, the Mermaid Lagoon,

   the Redskin’s camp, and also the Jolly Roger.


 I will tell you where they are. With the exception of Nibs, who has darted
 away to reconnoitre, they are already in their home under the ground, a
 very delightful residence of which we shall see a good deal presently
 (Barrie,1911: 38).

 "Yes, there is," cried Peter. "Let us build a little house round her"
 (Barrie,1911: 45).

 I have tossed, and the lagoon has won. This almost makes one wish that
 the gulch or the cake or Tink's leaf had won. Of course I could do it
 again, and make it best out of three; however, perhaps fairest to stick to
 the lagoon (Barrie,1911: 54).

 One important result of the brush on the lagoon was that it made the
 redskins their friends. Peter had saved Tiger Lily from a dreadful fate,
 and now there was nothing she and her braves would not do for him. All
 night they sat above, keeping watch over the home under the ground and
 awaiting the big attack by the pirates which obviously could not be much
 longer delayed. Even by day they hung about, smoking the pipe of peace,
 and looking almost as if they wanted tit-bits to eat (Barrie, 1911: 67).

 One green light squinting over Kidd's Creek, which is near the mouth of
 the pirate river, marked where the brig, the JOLLY ROGER, lay, low in
 the water; a rakish-looking craft foul to the hull, every beam in her
 detestable, like ground strewn with mangled feathers. She was the
 cannibal of the seas, and scarce needed that watchful eye, for she floated
 immune in the horror of her name (Barrie, 1911: 89).
                                                                                  23



          4. And at the last two chapters, chapter 16 to 17, the setting gets back

             again to the first one, the Darling’s House.


b. Setting of Time



           1. In Winter

           In Neverland, winter comes when Peter is not in Neverland. The weather
           will be truly cold, and snowy.



3. Plot

  a. Exposition

             The exposition of this novel begins in chapter one from page 1-16 . The

    very beginning of the story introduces the character of The Darling’s family,

    especially the major character, Wendy Moira Darling.

             The Darling family is a simple happy family with three children to take

    care of, and there is no happy family like the Darling’s family. Mrs. Darling

    is a mother who is full of affection for her family, especially her children. But

    then she heard the name Peter Pan for the first time from her children’s

    mouth. They can exactly describe what Peter looks like, where he lives, and

    what Neverland is.


  b. Complication

             In this novel, there are two kinds of complication namely external and

    internal complication. The external complication is conflicts that happen

    between one character and other character.
                                                                               24



      The main external conflicts in The Adventures of Peter Pan is between

the captain of the Lost Boys; Peter Pan, and the captain of The pirates;

Captain James Hook. They belong to each other, unfortunately, not as a

friend, but as an enemy. The first conflict that involves those two nemesis

happens in Mermaid Lagoon. When captain Hook arrested Princess Tiger

Lily, and Peter was trying to save him, than Peter Pan wanted to fight fairly,

but Hook cheated on him.


    ” Quick as thought he snatched a knife from Hook's belt and was about to
    drive it home, when he saw that he was higher up the rock that his foe. It
    would not have been fighting fair. He gave the pirate a hand to help him
    up. It was then that Hook bit him. Not the pain of this but its unfairness
    was what dazed Peter. It made him quite helpless. He could only stare,
    horrified. Every child is affected thus the first time he is treated unfairly.
    All he thinks he has a right to when he comes to you to be yours is
    fairness. After you have been unfair to him he will love you again, but
    will never afterwards be quite the same boy. No one ever gets over the
    first unfairness; no one except Peter “ ( Berrie, 1911 : 62).

       The second conflict of Peter Pan and captain James Hook happens

when with his strategy which is against the law of Neverland, that it is always

the Redskins who attacks, Captain James Hook tries to take Wendy away to

be the Mother of the pirates.


    ” By all the unwritten laws of savage warfare it is always the redskin who
    attacks, and with the wiliness of his race he does it just before the dawn,
    at which time he knows the courage of the whites to be at its lowest ebb ”
    ( Barrie,1911: 80).

    It was Smee who tied her to the mast. "See here, honey," he whispered,
    "I'll save you if you promise to be my mother" (Barrie,1911: 94).

    Peter reached the shore without mishap, and went straight on, his legs
    encountering the water as if quite unaware that they had entered a new
    element. Thus many animals pass from land to water, but no other human
                                                                              25



     of whom I know. As he swam he had but one thought: "Hook or me this
     time" (Barrie,1911: 95).

         The internal conflict is the conflict between her or his self. In this

 novel, the internal conflict happens when Wendy wants to go back to her

 house and she wants to take the lost boys with them, also Peter Pan. At this

 point the internal conflict happens. Actually Peter still wishes Wendy to stay

 in Neverland and becomes a mother for him and the lost boys, and he also

 wants to plead her to stay, or at least says good bye, but he is just too proud

 to do it and that what brings him to do the things that contradictory to his

 mind.


c. Climax

            The climactic confrontation clearly represented in the battle between

  Peter Pan and his nemesis, Captain James Hook. When Wendy is kidnapped

  by the pirates, Peter forgets his proud and without any withdrawal he than

  tries to rescue Wendy.


     Peter's heart bobbed up and down as he listened. Wendy bound, and on
     the pirate ship; she who loved everything to be just so!

     "I'll rescue her!" he cried, leaping at his weapons. As he leapt he thought
     of something he could do to please her. He could take his medicine
     (Barrie,1911: 87).

            And as a result, it is Peter who after all wins the battle. With his

  expertise, Peter is ticking, the same as the sound that comes from the

  gigantic crocodile, than Peter unchained the Lost boys and Wendy. After

  that, he has to face Captain James Hook, who at last flung into the stomach
                                                                              26



  of the gigantic crocodile; the only living thing that Captain James Hook

  feared.

d. Resolution

            The resolution ensues almost at the end of the story. It occurs when

  Wendy decides that her place is at home, and brings all the boys back to

  London. Peter remains in the Neverland, and Wendy promises not to grow

  up, and go to Neverland every spring to do her spring cleaning time. But

  Peter seems to sometimes forget about their promise. And Wendy feels that

  it is too long to wait. So she grows up, becomes a married person , and has a

  daughter called Jane. When Peter wants to pick Wendy up to Neverland to

  do the spring cleaning time, Wendy told her that she already grows up. Peter

  cries for Wendy promised not to grows up. Than to hear Peter cries, Jane

  wakes up, and Peter meets his new friend to replace Wendy to do the spring

  cleaning time. Wendy currently becomes old, her hair becomes white, and

  her figure becomes little again, for all this happened long ago. As Jane

  grows up, she has a daughter called Margaret; and every spring cleaning

  time, except when he forgets, Peter comes for Margaret and takes her to the

  Neverland, where she tells him stories about himself, to which she listens

  eagerly. When Margaret grows up she will have a daughter, who is to be

  Peter's mother in turn; and thus it will go on, so long as children are gay and

  innocent and heartless.
                                                                                27



e. Causality

         Causality is considered as the interrelationship between one event and

 another that occur on the story. The appearing of one event may influence

 the other events of the story. However, those events have relationship in the

 form of cause and effect that build up the plot of the story. J.M Barrie uses

 the term “growing up” in order to make a causality. When Peter was still a

 baby, he heard his mother told him about his responsibility as a “grown up”.

 That’s why he flew away from his nursery, it is for the reason that he did not

 like the obligation he will hold when he is a “grown up”. Since he refuses to

 grow up, he is able to create his own world called Neverland. The land that is

 never there; for the grown up. As long as a person believes it is exist, than

 there is always a Neverland. In children’s dream, in children’s mind,

 Neverland can exist and connect them to Peter Pan.

f. Plausibility

        Plausibility is the way in which the writer makes his story seems to be

  real, right, and reasonable. By using a narrator, J.M Barrie tries to pledge the

  reader that the story did happen, real, and reasonable. By sequencing

  conflicts and events, J.M Barrie builds the plot to result in plausibility. There

  are changes in major character which is Peter Pan. One of them is when

  Wendy decides to go home to the Darling’s House, Peter also decides to do

  not pay attention anymore for what will happen to Wendy. But after hearing

  from Tinker Bell that Wendy kidnapped by Captain Hook, Peter help them

  straight away, forgetting his proudness.
                                                                                   28



       Oh, you could never guess!" she cried, and offered him three guesses. "Out
       with it!" he shouted, and in one ungrammatical sentence, as long as the
       ribbons that conjurers pull from their mouths, she told of the capture of
       Wendy and the boys.
       Peter's heart bobbed up and down as he listened. Wendy bound, and on the
       pirate ship; she who loved everything to be just so!
       "I'll rescue her!" he cried, leaping at his weapons. As he leapt he thought of
       something he could do to please her. He could take his medicine.
       ( Barrie,1911: 65 )


       The changes are plausible because inside the novel Peter Pan has been

       through a process that makes him close to Wendy. So, although he is angry

       and hate Wendy, he cannot let bad things happened to Wendy.




4. Point of View

             Point of view, essentially is the way the author tells the reader about

      his story by using a narrator. According to Kennedy, point of view is “the

      identification of the narrator of the story, describing any part he plays in the

      events and any limit placed upon his knowledge” (Kennedy, 1983: 18).

      Kennedy moreover present two kinds point of view:

      a. Narrator as a participant.

          It can be major or minor character of the story. He or she is a dramatized

          character who says “I”.

      b. Narrator as a non- participant

          It does not appear in the story as character. Viewing the characters,

          perhaps seeing into the mind of one or more of them, such a narrator

          refers to them as he, she, or they.
                                                                                    29



  And according to Perrine; there are four kinds of point of view:

  a. Omniscient Point of View

     The narrator is the author itself who is freely developing his or her idea into

     the characters, telling the thinking or feeling of the characters and giving

     his or her comment over the characters.

  b. Limited Omniscient Point of View

     As the omniscient point of view, in this kind point of view, the author tells

     the story using the third person. This third person is involved in the story or

     he or she is the one of the characters of the story.

  c. First Person Point of View

     The author serves as narrator by using the first person who is perhaps the

     major or the minor character.

  d. Objective Point of View

     The narrator does not enter the mind of the characters but only tells as

     readers see and hear.


           According to the explanation above it is clear that the point of view is

  narrator as a participant, and the first person, but as the minor character.

  because J.M Barrie constructs the narrator as a character who called himself

  as “I”, but telling a story about another character, not herself.

5. Style

           Style is the building of some words into sentences that will interest the

  readers to read the novel. There are many variety of style, which can make the

  writers have a particular characteristics of writing of an author which makes
                                                                                   30



  him different to other. However, according to Kennedy, there are many kinds

  of style. It includes the model of expression or the language that the writer

  uses length, complexity of sentence, and diction or the choice of words that are

  used in the story. There are still many other essentials of style such as

  imagery, pattern of sound, figures of speech, and so on.

   There are so many components of story that can be used as the basic subject

to analyze the style of the story. As Koesnosoebroto declares that “Style is most

significant aspect of fiction technique, although it is limited strictly to element of

the language, that is used by the author. There are many things involved, for

example, the use of words “ (Koesnosoebroto,1988: 124).

   Based on the definition above, this research will analyze style of The

Adventures of Peter Pan particularly on the diction, grammatical structure, and

sentence construction.

a. Diction

          Diction is some selecting words that are used by the author through the

   narrator to express what he feels and something that he wants to explain.

          Diction can also be considered as the style manner of speaking. It refers

   to author’s choices of words. J.M Barrie’s The Adventures of Peter Pan is

   effective and simple to be understood. In this novel, J.M Barrie uses the

   diction to express the experiences, idea, and thought. It can be in the form of

   using high-ceilinged words to support his story- telling.The author used the

   word “bo’sun “ instead of “sailor”; cadaverous rather than “dead looking”,or
                                                                               31



   reconnoitre instead of   “look around”.J.M Barrie writes the story in the

   1911’s period.



b. Grammatical structure

          Grammatical structure on The Adventures of Peter Pan that will be

   analyzed is the use of the standard and non- standard language in this novel.

   J.M Barrie, on this novel, uses both the non- standard language and the

   standard language equally.

   1) Standard Language

      The narrator words are mostly uses the standard language.

       The way Mr. Darling won her was this: the many gentlemen who had
       been boys when she was a girl discovered simultaneously that they loved
       her, and they all ran to her house to propose to her except Mr. Darling,
       who took a cab and nipped in first, and so he got her. He got all of her,
       except the innermost box and the kiss. He never knew about the box, and
       in time he gave up trying for the kiss. Wendy thought Napoleon could
       have got it, but I can picture him trying, and then going off in a passion,
       slamming the door (Barrie,1911: 1).

   2) Non- Standard Language

     The dialogue of the characters who lives in Neverland mostly uses the
     non- standard language. Like the way Captain James Hook talk to the
     pirates, and the way Tiger Lily and her companion talk to the Lost boys,
     Peter, and Wendy.

       "Luff, you lubber," cried an Irish voice that was Smee's; "here's the rock.
       Now, then, what we have to do is to hoist the redskin on to it and leave
       her here to drown."

       “Ahoy there, you lubbers!" he called. It was a marvellous imitation
        (Barrie,1911: 56).

       "At once, d'ye hear," cried Peter, "or I'll plunge my hook in you"
       (Barrie,1911: 57).
                                                                                32



       "Me Tiger Lily," that lovely creature would reply. "Peter Pan save me,
       me his velly nice friend. Me no let pirates hurt him" (Barrie,1911: 67).

       They said "How-do?" to them, and things like that; and what annoyed the
       boys was that Peter seemed to think this all right (Barrie,1911: 67).

e. Sentence Construction

           In this novel, through the sentence construction, J.M Barrie wants to

   show his great talent in literary works that exposes itself on elaborating the

   description of people, places, and events. The sentence construction on this

   novel that will be analyzed is the use of both long and short sentences.

      1. Short Sentences

           He is simple and direct in his short sentences.


   Wendy came first, then John, then Michael (Barrie, 1911: 1).

        2. Long Sentences

        But on the other hand, he very well describes something in the long

   sentences.

       On this evening the chief forces of the island were disposed as follows.
       The lost boys were out looking for Peter, the pirates were out looking for
       the lost boys, the redskins were out looking for the pirates, and the beasts
       were out looking for the redskins. They were going round and round the
       island, but they did not meet because all were going at the same rate
       (Barrie,1911: 34).

f. Figurative Language

          Essentially, figurative language is the kind of speech or model to

   express people ideas, emotion, feeling, and thought. On story and Structure,

   Perrine illustrates figurative language as “the language that uses figure of

   speech, a way of saying one thing and meaning another cannot be taken
                                                                                  33



   literally” (Perrine, 1966 : 61). On analyzing the figurative language on J.M

   Barrie’s The Adventures of Peter Pan, this research will discuss the figurative

   language on metaphor, hyperbole, and personification which are used in this

   novel.

1) Simile

       It is one of the figurative language that is used to describe something from

   two different classes but still having the similarities. Simile usually signed by

   the words like as, so, appear, seem, more than.

       The rock was slippery as a ball, and they had to crawl rather than climb.
       (Barrie,1911: 46).


2) Hyperbole

       It is one of figurative language which is used by representing an event or

   condition to make it powerful.


       "It was then that I rushed in like a tornado, wasn't it?" Mr. Darling would

       say, scorning himself; and indeed he had been like a tornado (Barrie,

       1911 : 9).


3) Personification

            It is one of the figurative language which is used by representing

   human characteristics to attribute the animal meaning or representing human

   form.

   They were already the only persons in the street, and all the stars were
   watching them (Barrie, 1911 : 13).
                                                                                     34




   g. Imagery

           The use of words and sentence expresses by the author which is able to

       elevate the common sense reaction of the readers is called imagery. It leads

       the readers to imagine, feel, and actualize a condition in the story that

       sometimes is intangible. On his novel, J.M Barrie uses imagery to give the

       details , which support the variances.


       "I have seen a wonderfuller thing," he cried, as they gathered round him
       eagerly. "A great white bird. It is flying this way." ( Barrie, 1911 :31 )


   6. Theme

              The significance of the story can be defined by the theme of the story.

      Theme is the subject of converse that guides the readers to the basic meaning

      of the story. “The battle between good and evil” is one of it, which is showing

      that no matter what, the kindness will always win against the evil. Another

      theme is that “Maturity is not identic with the age “. That every person gains

      their age but to be a mature person is their own choice.



B. Discussion


       For the further analysis, this research will discuss the structural elements in a

unity. This means that each structural elements such as character, plot, setting, point

of view, and theme, will be discussed based on its relation and sequence in building

up the story and making the story more living and real.
                                                                                       35



Through The Adventures of Peter Pan, J.M Barrie tries to express his idea about

growing up (or not), with the character of Peter wanting to remain a child forever in

order to avoid the responsibilities of adulthood. Peter has one emotion only:

gladness. At the beginning of the story, Wendy Darling and her two brothers love

playing make-believe adventures of pirates. But Wendy's parents tell her that she

must learn to grow up and be a lady and that her father must become a man of proper

station. But then Wendy's room is invaded by a flying boy Peter Pan, who comes in

search of his recalcitrant shadow. Wendy helps him sew his shadow back on and,

enchanted by him, she and her brothers accept his offer to fly away with him to

Never Land. Peter led Wendy and her brothers to Neverland by flying "second to the

right, and straight on 'till morning" .There they join the Lost Boys, all children who

left their parents before they grew up, but must also battle Peter's sworn enemy, the

black-hearted Captain Hook, who is obsessed to kill Peter for feeding him to the

crocodile and making him lose his hand. When Hook learns that Peter wants Wendy

to be the mother of him and the Lost Boys, he then kidnapps Wendy and tries to

make an offer to seduce her away from Peter. The story ends when Peter remains as

a child, while Wendy Darling grows up.Barrie created the characters such asPeter

Pan, Captain Jas Hook, and Wendy, also from the minor character such as Mrs.

Darling, Tiger Lily and Tinker Bell in order to symbolized what happened in the real

life. Each character connected to each other, and established based to and related on

the theme. The setting is mostly in the Neverland. While the setting of time is the

winter, and the summer. Those settings are build in order to make the story more

attractive. Each plots also reflected the real situation of life. And related to the theme
                                                                                    36



too. J.M Barrie also chooses the precise kind of Point of View to tell the story, to

give a hidden clue about who the narrator really is. All of the structural elements

above are built by the attracting theme of growing up. Along with the theme of

"growing up", is the theme of death and innocence. Barry's tale is indirectly tied to

the real boys and the deaths of both mother and father. Peter Pan remains a child in

mind because he cannot feel pain because of death affecting him or those around

him. This is happened to J.M Barrie in the real life. As a child, he was abandoned by

his mother and having an illness called Psychogenic Dwarfism ( Psychogenic

dwarfism, Psychosocial dwarfism or Stress dwarfism is a growth disorder that is

observed between the ages of 2 and 15, caused by extreme emotional deprivation or

stress. The symptoms include decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion, very short

stature, weight that is inappropriate for the height, and immature skeletal age. This

disease is a progressive one, and as long as the child is left in the stressing

environment, his or her cognitive and linear abilities continue to degenerate. It is

often seen in feral children and in children kept in abusive, confined conditions for

extended lengths of time. It can cause the body to completely stop growing but is

generally considered to be temporary; regular growth will resume when the source of

stress is removed. J.M. Barrie, author of the children's classic Peter Pan, is probably

the most famous case of psychogenic dwarfism.) (http://www.wikipedia.com).


J.M Barrie also close to The Llewelyn-Davies family, Barrie became acquainted with

the family in 1897 or 1898 after meeting George and Jack with their nurse Mary

Hodgson in London's Kensington Gardens where he often came while walking his

dog Porthos, and lived nearby. He did not meet Sylvia until later at a chance
                                                                                 37



encounter at a dinner party. He became a surrogate father to the boys, and when they

were orphaned, he became their guardian. Barrie suffered bereavements with the

boys, losing the two to whom he was closest. George was killed in action (1915) in

World War I.. And Michael, with whom Barrie corresponded daily, drowned (1921)

in a possible suicide pact one month short of his 21st birthday,


        The structural elements above which build into one remarkable unity have

become the one that made the story ‘The Adventures of Peter Pan” is worth to be

read.
                                                                                   38



                                    CHAPTER IV

     SYMBOLISM ANALYSIS OF THE ADVENTURES OF PETER PAN



       The works of literature actually have symbolic meaning. It does not contain

its expression which can be seen on its surface only, but also contains the deeper

meaning which is the meaning and value of what the writer intends to express. The

symbols that are used in the works are the objects that have to be analyzed by the

reader to get the basic meaning of that work. Therefore, in the discussion below, this

research analyzes the interrelationship between the novel The Adventures of Peter

Pan, its structural elements, and the symbolism theory. The interpretation of the

symbols that are used in this story is one of many ways to analyze the deeper

meaning of this novel. It can also be used as the way that can guide the readers to

have a deeper understanding of what J.M Barrie to express.

       As discussed in the previous chapter, this research analyzing symbolism and

some other theory of symbolism, which limits its theory based on the structural

elements such as characters, setting, plot, style, and natural object symbolism.

However, on the symbolism analysis below, this research is going to analyze the

symbols such as characters, setting, plot, style, and natural symbolism. However on

the symbolism analysis below, this research will analyze the symbols such as the

characters, which consists of the major and minor characters, the setting, which

consists of the Darling’s House, the Neverland, and the Jolly Roger. This research

also analyzes the plot based on the some events that build the story, and some natural

object symbolism such as the Marooner’s Rock, the Never Bird’s nest, and the

gigantic crocodile, that are used as the symbol on this story.

                                          38
                                                                                    39



A. Symbolism Analysis

  1. Character Symbolism

           On The Adventures of Peter Pan, J.M Barrie also uses the characters

     employed in the novel. From the major character, this research will analyze

     Peter Pan, Wendy Darling, and Captain Hook. The minor characters are Mrs.

     Darling, Tiger Lily, and Tinker Bell.

     a) Peter Pan

              Peter Pan is a boy who lives in Neverland. He is not an ordinary kind

        of boy. He would not grow up, he refuses to. He lives with The Lost Boys,

        and accompanied by the tiny fairy called Tinker Bell. He has a nemesis

        called Captain James Hook.

              In this story, Peter Pan symbolizes childhood. He is a form of

        innocence, heartless, and imagination. Peter Pan is the reflection of the

        adult who is afraid of commitment and or refuses to act his age. Peter Pan

        can also describe an innocent, childlike approach to life.

              Peter Pan also symbolizes immortality. There are things in this world

        that will gain its age, die, and be replaced. But there are things in this life

        remains the way they are.

              Peter Pan also symbolizes a disappointment refusal for motherhood.

        In this story, Peter says that his mother locked the nursery door for him. He

        no longer believes in mothers. But he also wants a mother for him and the

        lost boys. In this case, Barrie tries to share an argument that mother can not

        be replaced by anything.
                                                                              40



        Peter represents complex mixture of good and bad, both cruel and

   kind, thoughtless and generous, arrogant and tender-hearted, bloodthirsty

   and sentimental. A note from J.M Barrie tells that everything in this world

   has its own pair. The balance of them keeps this world goes round.

b) Wendy Darling

        Wendy Moira Darling, on the other hand, symbolizes the opposite

   thing from Peter. She is a symbol of maturity and neatness. She likes

   everything to be in the proper place. She is the symbol of those adults who

   are full of the sense of responsibility, and who are not afraid to grow up

   and having commitment. It reflects when she decides to go home to her

   house and grows up. Through Wendy, Barrie tries to share a message that

   to grow up and be mature is everyone’s own choice.

c) Captain James Hook

        Hook here represents evil. He is a villain. But, beside that he is also a

   mixture symbolism between brute and manners. He also symbolizes the

   bravery and dignity ; when Hook is bested and must choose between

   surrender and death, he commits suicide by throwing himself into the

   waiting jaws of the crocodile.

        By creating the character of Captain James Hook, J.M Barrie tries to

   share a message that when there is a battle between good and evil, no

   matter what, there will always be a way for the good side to win.
                                                                              41



 d) Mrs. Darling

           Mrs. Darling is a symbol of motherhood and unconditional love

     between a mother and her children. In this story, J.M Barrie describes her

     as the best mother. By creating this character, J.M Barrie wants to share an

     opinion that mother is the only one who will always be there by your side

     no matter what your mistake is. Weather you did good or bad, weather you

     grows up or not.

 e) Tinker Bell

           Tinker Bell represents imagination. What is there or there is not

     inside of a person’s mind. While a person’s growing up, imagination can be

     slowly missing from their mind. Imagination such as a fairy.

2. Setting Symbolism

         The most character of The Adventures of Peter Pan always goes to so

  many places. Therefore, there are so many places that are mentioned on this

  story. This makes the setting to be an important part of the story that will

  influence the development of the story. The setting which is mentioned in this

  novel, actually do not only have meaning of places where the events

  happened, but, in fact, the setting of this novel symbolizes something that can

  support the theme of this story.

         However, on analyzing the symbolic setting of this story, this research

  will use three significant setting, the Darling’s House, the Neverland, and the

  Jolly Roger.
                                                                              42



a) The Darling’s House

          The darling’s House is a house where The Darling family lives in.

   Inside it there are Mr. And Mrs. Darling, Wendy, John, Michael Darling,

   and also Nana, a dog, which happens to be their servant. The Darling’s

   House represents the warmness of a family. It symbolizes the dream house

   for everyone. Where       they can find a loving, cuddling, and a warm

   conversation, a clumsy father, a perfect mother, and three beloved

   children. Yet, it also represents the place where the middle class lives

   which builds the next setting, Neverland as the nostalgic response to the

   conditions of the middle class that Barrie established.

b) Neverland

          Neverland is the second setting from J.M Barrie’s story. Neverland

   is a place you can find when you are flying "second to the right, and

   straight on 'till morning”. It is a place where a child can find whatever he

   dreams inside of it., and no adults can enter. Neverland represents eternal

   childhood, immortality, and escapism (the will to escape from the adults’

   obligation). It is a place of play within a play. Never Land is a boy’s world.

          In Never Land, the culture of the public school is rehearsed in the

   separation of the boys from family and, particularly, the influence of

   mother.. This place represents the children’s imagination. About the

   mermaid, the Indians, the pirates, and the places which can only be

   reached by flying over with the fairy dust.
                                                                                 43



  c) Jolly Roger

                Jolly Roger is the place where the pirates live. It is almost at the

      end of the story where Peter Pan decides to help Wendy and the lost boys

      from the cruelty of Captain James Hook and his bo’sun. This place

      symbolizes the determination between the good and the bad.

3. Plot Symbolism

         The plot of the story is considered to be the sequence of some actions

  or events, which are related one to another to make the story up. The

  sequencing of those actions and events build the plot into the story so that it

  can be seen as real as possible. In order to make it easier, the analysis will be

  divided into four elements of plot; exposition, complication, climax, and

  resolution.

 a)   Exposition

           Exposition is the introduction of the story. It is where the story starts

      to develop. The beginning of “The Adventures of Peter Pan“ starts when

      the narrator introduces the Darling family that consists of Mr. Darling,

      Mrs. Darling, and their three children, Wendy, John and Michael, and

      when Mrs. Darling hear of Peter Pan for the first time. This plot

      symbolizes a glance of the middle class, particularly in terms of the

      negotiation of gender. John and Wendy’s rehearsal of their parents seems

      like a recurring part of the dynamic of the family, so that Mr. Darling’s

      entrance and his emotional demand that his wife fixes his tie can be read
                                                                             44



   like an extension of the role playing: as the children play their parents, so

   the father plays his child.

b) Complication

        Complication is where the conflicts starts to rise on the story. These

   new conflicts will lead the story into the climax of the story .The new

   conflicts of “The Adventures of Peter Pan “ is started by Captain James

   Hook when he first kidnapps Wendy and the Lost Boys in order to make

   Wendy his own mother. This plot symbolizes the opposition between the

   good and evil. Even the world grow older, the time keeps running, there

   will always two side : the good side, and evil side. To be a good man, or

   not, it depends on everyone’s own choices.

c) Resolution

        The resolution of the story seems to be happy ending. Wendy , her

   brothers, and The Lost Boys finally get back to home and continue their

   life, while Peter also continues his life in Neverland.

        The event symbolizes that in the life there must be continuity. You

   can run, but you can not hide from your destiny. To be mature is your

   choice. But to be an adult is your fate. You can not try to hide from it

   every time. There is a time to be a child, and there is also a time to be an

   adult who has obligation.
                                                                               45



4. Style Symbolism

            In his novel “The Adventures of Peter Pan”, J.M Barrie mostly uses

  the symbolic style of writing. He has a unique style using symbolism. As in

  this novel, J.M Barrie also uses symbolism in some words. The words that

  makes it easier to interpret the deeper meaning, but sometimes J.M Barrie

  uses his style of symbolism in a strange way so that it is difficult for the

  readers to pick up the meaning .

            However, this research uses some words that are considered to have

  symbolism on J.M Barrie’s “The Adventures of Peter Pan”. Those words are

  the shadow and the dark. Barrie often uses those words maybe to represent his

  life which is full of sadness. His brother is dead and he has a problem with his

  wife. Barrie tries to share that in this life there are good things that a human

  should embrace and gratitude by it, and there are bad times that a person

  should be tough and do not give up on struggle. The bad times in this life can

  be pictured as the dark or shadow which has the black color. And the black

  color always represents sadness and fear.

5. Natural Object Symbolism

            In his “The Adventures of Peter Pan”, J.M Barrie uses details on

  conducting the narration. Through the narrator, he tries to describe the

  situation of place and the sequence of actions on describing those matters, J.M

  Barrie often uses natural objects that the narrator sees or heard. Some of the

  natural objects used by J.M Barrie are the reflection of what he wants to

  deliver to the reader .This means that the natural objects have something
                                                                                       46



      ,which more than its literal meaning. For that reason, this research will

      analyze the symbolism which is employed in those natural objects. The

      natural objects that will be analyzed are the sky, and the gigantic crocodile.

     a) The sky

                In “The Adventures of Peter Pan”, J.M Barrie often substitutes “sky”

          as “heavens”. It symbolizes as an unlimited place and freedom. The sky is

          up above human’s reach. That the sky is a sacred place, where “God” lives

          in.

     b) Gigantic Crocodile

                Crocodile is the name of an animal. Gigantic is more than the biggest.

          So the literary meaning of Gigantic Crocodile is a very huge crocodile.

          But there is more than that literary meaning, according to J.M Barrie. The

          crocodile which swallowed a clock may represent time, which ultimately

          preys on young and old alike. That reminds us to think about the time we

          waste each day to fill it up with the useful thing instead of just wasting it,

          before we are running out of time.


B. Discussion


   In “The Adventures of Peter Pan”, the symbolism is clearly seen. In each

   structural element, the readers can find what they represent.

   From the major character, this research analyzes Peter Pan, that symbolizes

   childhood, immortality, and disappointment, Wendy Darling that symbolizes

   maturity and neatness, and Captain Hook who represents bad side, the bravery
                                                                              47



and dignity. The minor characters are Mrs. Darling who represents the love of

motherhood, Tiger Lily who represents beauty and leadership, and Tinker Bell

who represents imagination. While from the setting this research analyzes the

Darling’s House, the Neverland, and the Jolly Roger. From the plot, the analysis

will be divided into four elements of plot; exposition, complication, climax, and

resolution. From the style symbolism, this research analyzing the words, those

are the word “black” and “shadow” which represents sadness and fear. And from

the natural object symbolism,   this research analyzed the sky which represents

the place that can not be reached, and the gigantic crocodile which represents

time.

Based on the analysis above, the analysis of the structural elements symbolism

above indicates that each classification of them gives the important part in

building the whole story into a good one.
                                                                                  48



                                  CHAPTER V

                     CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION



A. Conclusion

          After analyzing J.M Barrie’s “The Adventures of Peter Pan” using

   symbolism approach by Perrine, this research comes to the conclusion :

   1. J.M Barrie, seems to give description that human life will always be

      encountered with the problem that must be faced and must be overcome.

   2. J. M barrie also wants to share the opinion that “ maturity is not identic to

      age”

   3. In J.M Barrie’s “The Adventures of Peter Pan” , the symbolism does not only

      appear on the main character but also from other structural elements, such as

      the minor character, the plot, the setting, the style, and the natural objects.

      For example, from Peter Pan Barrie represent the escapism of the adults life.

      Than from the minor character the example is Mrs. Darling which represents

      the sincere love from a mother. From the natural object there are the sky, and

      the gigantic crocodile. In “The Adventures of Peter Pan”, Barrie often

      substitutes “sky” as “heavens”. It symbolizes an unlimited place and freedom.

      The sky is up above human’s reach. That the sky is a sacred place, where

      “God” lives in. While from Gigantic Crocodile there is more than that literary

      meaning, according to J.M Barrie. The crocodile which swallowed a clock

      may represent time, which ultimately preys on young and old alike. That

      reminds us to think about the time we waste each day to fill it up with the



                                        48
                                                                                       49



      useful thing instead of just wasting it, before we are running out of time.

      From the style symbolism, there are two words that represent the symbolism

      those words are the shadow and the dark. Barrie often uses those words

      maybe to represent his life which is full of sadness



B. Suggestion


         There are some suggestion can be offered by the writer related to study on

   J.M Barrie “The Adventures of Peter Pan”. As long as the writer knows, there is

   no other researcher who analyzed the novel “The Adventures of Peter Pan”. So,

   the writer suggests other researcher to study this novel based on the Genetic

   Structuralism Approach, or an Individual Psychology Approach.             From the

   Genetic Approach, the novel has structural elements that can be analyzed. This

   Approach analyzes just the structural elements of J.M Barrie’s “The Adventures

   of Peter Pan”. While from the Psychoanalytic Approach, another researcher may

   analyze the main character Peter Pan through Freud’s theory. The writer hopes

   that this research can be used as the reference to study about novel the further.
                                                                               50



                                BIBLIOGRAPHY



Balakian, Anna.1967.The Symbolist Movement: a Critical Appraisal. Boston:
     Routledge and Keagon Paul Publisher.

Barnett, Sylvan.1993. an Introduction To Literature :Fiction ,Poetry, and Drama.
     Beston Canada: Little Brown & Co.V.

Barrie,J.M.1911.The Adventures of Peter Pan. Great Britain: Mackays of Catham
     plc, Chatham, Kent.

Jung,Carl.G.1985.Man and its Symbol. United States of America :The Dorsey Press

Kennedy,XJ.1983.Literature:an Introduction to Fiction, Poetry ,and Drama. Boston:
     Little Brown and Company

Koenosoebroto, Sumaryono Basuki.1988.The Anatomy of Prose and Fiction. Jakarta
     :Depdikbud

Nurgiyantoro,Burhan.1963.Teori Pengkajian Fiksi. Jakarta :Depdikbud

Perrine,Laurence.1978. .Story and Structure. New Jersey :Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Walcutt, Charles Child. American Literature Naturalism :A Divided Stream

Welleck, Rene and Warren,Austin.1956.Theory of Literature. New York: Harcourt.
     Javanovich Publisher



                            VIRTUAL REFFERENCES

http://www.gosh.org/about_us/peterpan/barrie.html

http://www.endicott-studio.com/rdrm/rrPeterPan5.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A741124

http://www.online-literature.com/barrie/

				
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