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					Lean manufacturing
  and the Toyota
Production System

    HEC Montréal
53-551-07 (P7) – Summer
         12011
             @Tyagi
@Tyagi
2
Understand the TPS House Diagram
Review of the different elements :
1. The roof of the Toyota House and the long
   term philosophy.
2. Stable and Standardized Processes
3. Levelled production (Heijunka)
4. Visual Control
5. 5S (team work and rigor)
6. Continuous improvement circle (PDCA)
7. Eliminating waste
8. Employees and team work / Leadership within the Toyota
   organisation
9. Just in time
     Standardized work
     Cell operations
     Change-overs (SMED)
     Kanban and pull system
                                 3
Understand the TPS House Diagram
Review of the different elements :
11. Problem solving activities (the power of the 1 page summary (A3))
12. Jidoka : “built in quality”
        Autonomation
        The zero defect philosophy
        Andon
        Pokayoke
        Maintenance system




                                  4
1. The roof of the Toyota House and the
long term philosophy
   Best   Quality
   Lowest   Cost
   Shortest   Lead Time
   Best   Safety
   High   Morale


                      @Tyagi
                      5
1. The roof of the Toyota House and
the long term philosophy

             1st principal:

« Base your management decisions on a
   long term Philosophy, even at the
 expense of short-term financial goals »




                     @Tyagi
                     6
2. Stable and Standardized Processes
      Corporate              *              $
                                                               Clients
     shareholders
                                                              (Q, C, D)
    * ( $, rules…)           $             Products
                                           Services
                             Organisation
                             (management cycle )

   Mission, vision, values                       Objectives by :
   Business Plan :                                    - Organisation
    - Sales Budget                                    - Units
    - Operations Budget                               - Departments
    - Capital Budget                                  - Teams

         Each manager manages his unit with his
             team to achieve his objectives.
                                  @Tyagi
                                  7
2. Stable and Standardized Processes
                       Organisation

    Production            Operations        Administration


 Transform financial objectives into operational objectives

                      Indicators
                      P : Productivity      Objectives
 Procedures           Q : Quality
 Processes            C : Costs             Action plan
                      D : Delivery
                      S : SST/Env.          Follow-up
                      M : Morale
                      T : Technology

                                @Tyagi
                                8
2. Stable and Standardized Processes
     Management
     •   President / CEO                      Each manager
     •   Vice-presidents                 manages his unit with his
     •   Directors                       team to achieve his goals.
     •   Supervisors
                             My goal :
                                         Procedure / Process
    High performance team
                                         Reliable and efficient


               Definition of our standards / our ideal

                      Final objective :
             Have a high performance team
             using a solid and efficient process
                             9  @Tyagi
3. Levelled Production (Heijunka)
  « Heijunka is the overall levelling in the
    production schedule of the variety and
    volume of items produced in given time
    periods »

  - First thing you have to do…
  - The 3 M’s
    - Muda - Non value added
   - Muri - Overburdening people and equipement
   - Mura – Unevenness
  - Examples

                        10
4. Visual Control
 “ This refers to means by which managers and
 supervisors can tell at a glance if production activities
 are proceeding normally or not.

       Indicators
       Kanban
       Andon
       5S
       Min /Max
       Color codes…

                               11
Visual Control

              Examples of color codes

    Color                Specification
     Black                Domestic trash
      Red          Out of spec or defective parts
     Yellow             Ailes, safety items
     Green          Space for work in process
     Blue             Space for raw material
    Orange               Retention zones


                            12
5S : Team work and rigor



   Make it easier to operate and maintain machinery,
    and reduce time losses

   Find out rapidly everything that is needed

   A specific place for each component and each
    component at their specific place:
                     Tools
                     Materials
                     Operation instruction
                     Inspection instruction



                                  13
5S : STEPS TO FOLLOW


     Seiri            Neatness

     Seiton           Orderliness

     Seiso            A clean workplace / environment

     Seiketsu         Maintain these 3 principles

     Shitsuke         Self discipline and respect for all



                          14
5S : STEPS TO FOLLOW



    Seiri                  Sort

    Seiton                 Set in order

    Seiso                  Shine

    Seiketsu               Standardize

    Shitsuke               Sustain


                       15
5S : STEPS TO FOLLOW



    Seiri :      Sort

    Seiton :     Set in order   Activities

    Seiso :      Shine

    Seiketsu :   Standardize

    Shitsuke :   Sustain
                                 Follow up


                            16
4th S : STANDARDIZE

                                                                                             MAINTIEN DU 5S
Secteur:                           CAGE
                              s
             Liste des activitŽ                    qu.
                                                 FrŽ                     02 -j anv                   09 -j anv                   16 -j anv                   23 -j anv                   30 -j anv
                                                                 L   M      M        J   V   L   M      M        J   V   L   M      M        J   V   L   M      M        J   V   L   M      M        J   V

 lectionner
SŽ

     ƒliminer ce qui est inutile                Se ma in e
     Vider la bo”te d'accumulation               Moi s

Situer                                                               rifier l'identification et la localisation des items.
               Un place pour chaque chose, chaque chose ˆ sa place. VŽ

     Chariots de la maintenance                 Se ma in e
     Chariot pour le filler                     Se ma in e
     Produits dans l'armoire                    Se ma in e
     Items sur les tablettes                    Se ma in e
     Engrenage sur le chariot                   Se ma in e
     Crochets des courroies                     Se ma in e
     Equipements pour le Party Pack             Se ma in e
     Grids et rack des grids                    Se ma in e
     Coff res ˆ outils                          Se ma in e

Scintiller     Te nir propre

     Ramasser les papiers                          Jo ur

     Balayer le plancher                        Se ma in e
     Laver le plancher                           Moi s
                              tagŽ
     Laver les tablettes des Ž res               Moi s
     Laver les tablettes des moteurs             Moi s
                         rieur & ext.)
     Laver l'armoire (intŽ                       Moi s

     Nettoyer les grids                        Uti li sa ti on
     Chariot pour le filler                    Uti li sa ti on

     Nettoyer les grids                            Moi s
     Nettoyer le rack des grids                    Moi s
     Chariot pour le filler                        Moi s

Soutenir       Maintenir

                                                 e.           s                                 tre
                                                                                                     17                  e             e     rŽ                me
     Inscrire vos initiales dans la case appropriŽ Les activitŽ ˆ la semaine ou au mois peuvent Ž f aites une autre journŽ que la journŽ suggŽe, mais dans la mŽ semaine
5th S : SUSTAIN

                                                 AUDIT          DU      SYSTÈME              5S
Secteur:                     CAGE                                                                                                               2007

             Liste des activités                  1         2       3        4       5        6       7       8       9       10       11        12

Sélectionner                                     1         1            -        -       -        -       -       -       -        -        -         -

    Éliminer ce qui est inutile             Oui           Oui
    Vider la boîte d'accumulation (au mois) Non           Non

Situer                                           6         8            -        -       -        -       -       -       -        -        -         -
             Un place pour chaque chose, chaque chose à sa place. Vérifier l'identification et la localisation des items.
    Chariots de la maintenance                 Oui        Oui
    Chariot pour le filler                     Oui        Oui
    Produits dans l'armoire                    Non        Non
    Items sur les tablettes                    Non        Oui
    Engrenage sur le chariot                   Oui        Oui
    Crochets des courroies                     Oui        Oui
    Equipements pour le Party Pack             Oui        Oui
    Grids et rack des grids                    Non        Oui
    Coffres à outils                           Oui        Oui

Scintiller   Tenir propre                       11        13            -        -       -        -       -       -       -        -        -         -

    Plancher                                   Oui        Oui
    Chariots de la maintenance                 Non        Oui
    Chariot pour le filler                     Oui        Oui
    Armoire de produits de maintenance         Non        Oui
    Étagères                                   Oui        Oui
    Étagère d'items à réparer                  Oui        Oui
    Étagère pour les coffres à outils          Oui        Oui
    Étagère pour les moteurs                   Oui        Oui
    Chariot d'engrenages                       Oui        Oui
    Crochets des courroies                     Oui        Oui
    Equipements pour le Party Pack             Oui        Oui
    Grids et rack des grids                    Oui        Oui
    Coffres à outils                           Oui        Oui

Standardiser                                     1         3            -        -       -        -       -       -       -        -        -         -

    Identification du secteur                  Oui        Oui
    Respect du code de couleur                            Oui
    Photos avant et après                      Non        Oui

Soutenir     Maintenir

    Feuille de maintient rempli au complet
            Nbre de semaines conformes                0         3
            Nbre de semaines dans le mois             2         4

TOTAL
   Possibilité
                                                19
                                                28
                                                          28
                                                          31            18
                                                                        -
                                                                        -
                                                                                 -
                                                                                 -
                                                                                         -
                                                                                         -
                                                                                                  -
                                                                                                  -
                                                                                                          -
                                                                                                          -
                                                                                                                  -
                                                                                                                  -
                                                                                                                          -
                                                                                                                          -
                                                                                                                                   -
                                                                                                                                   -
                                                                                                                                            -
                                                                                                                                            -
                                                                                                                                                      -
                                                                                                                                                      -
   Pourcentage                                   68%       90%
6. continuous improvement circle (PDCA)
A- The stages of the improvement cycle




                    19
7. Eliminating waste- Elimination of
unnecessary element (Muda)

    Over-production
    Waiting time
    Conveyance
    Unneeded Inventory
    Processing
    Unnecessary motion
    Correction / scrap
                          20
8. Employees and team work
   We want that each person be involved in his work
    environment.
        Values :
             Respect
             Communication
             Team work
             Honesty

 Establishing standards facilitates the definition of
  roles and responsibilities.
 People are involved at all levels in continuous
  improvement.


                              21
Employees and team work

                Information           Tools




                  Training            Tools


 Individual
   Team       Participation in        Tools
                continuous
               improvement

              Evaluation of my        Tools
               performances



                                 22
Employees and team work
                    Available tools :

Information
•   Group meeting
•   Individual meeting
•   Customer relations
•   Memos flash             Training
                            •   Training program
                            •   Instruction sheets
                            •   Development of expertise
                            •   Trouble-shooting sheets
                                 23
Employees and team work
             Available tools :
 Continuous improvement
 •   Daily performance meeting
 •   Performance indicators
 •   Improvement lists
 •   Procedure review
                              Performance improvement
 •   Project team
                              •   Support and discipline
 •   Kaizen team
                              •   Positioning grid
 •   Steering committee
                              •   Follow-up
 •   Tool deployment
                              •   Solving problems
                              •   Performance appraisal
                                  24
Employees and team work

      Continuous              “Breakthrough”
                               management
  improvement cycle...      Important objective
                                  for the
                               organisation
                                                  From the top
                                  Daily           to the bottom
                             management
                            Solving problems
                                  on a
                               daily basis

Implemented at all levels
                                 Ideas            From the bottom
         of the               management             to the top
     organisation !!!

                             25
Employees and team work




Yearly

         Monthly

                   Weekly

                            Daily

                                    On the Job…
                            26
9. Just in time :
• Just   in time
  •   Standardized work
      • Work   sequence
      • In process stock
         (min/max)
  •   One piece flow
  •   Pull system
      • Kanban
             27
Standardized work
  Des documents standard :




                         28
SMED
    Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) is one of
     the many lean production methods for reducing
     waste in a manufacturing process. It provides a rapid
     and efficient way of converting a manufacturing
     process from running the current product to running
     the next product. This rapid changeover is key to
     reducing production lot sizes and thereby improving
     flow. The phrase "single minute" does not mean that
     all changeovers and startups should take only one
     minute, but that they should take less than 10
     minutes (in other words, "single digit minute").


                           29
Pull system




              30
Kanban




         31
10. Problem solving (the power of the 1 page summary




                          32
Title/continuous improvement project

Actual situation                       Causes              Solutions




Mandate                                                    Action plan



Data




                                                           Follow-up




                                                 33
                                                May 2009
1 page summary3


 Data collection
 •   Process mapping
 •   Capability analysis
 •   Overall equipment effectiveness




                              34
VSM Value stream mapping




                  35
1 page summary
  2) Cross-functional flow mapping
 1
     Unit A                                       2

     Unit B

     Unit C
                       3
     Unit D

     Unit E

              2 days   4 days   3 days   3 days       2 days

                            Duration of cycle 4



                           36
1 page summary A3




                    37
1 page summary A3


 Data analysis
 •   Check sheet
 •   Control chart
 •   Histogram
 •   Pareto
 •   Graphs




                     38
1 page summary A3
                        Histogram
   An histogram summarize data
    from a process that has been
    collected over a period of time,
    and graphically present its
    frequency distribution in a bar
    chart.
   Display large amount of data
   Illustrates quickly the underlying
    distribution of the data




                                     39
1 page summary A3
                       Pareto
   A Pareto chart is used to
    graphically summarize and
    display the relative importance
    of the differences between
    groups of data
   Group values in categories.
   Right scale - values
   Left scale - percentage
   Place categories ranked by
    importance.




                                      40
Graphs




         41
1 page summary A3


 Root cause analysis
 •   Fault tree analysis
 •   Ishikawa- Fishbone
 •   5 Why’s
 •   FMEA
 •   Brainstorming




                           42
      Ishikawa - Fishbone
   Also known as an Ishikawa
    diagram or fishbones
   First Step: We identify the
    potential causes for a
    specific effects. We regroup
    them according to themes.
    This helps us orient our
    research.                           6M: Manpower, Material, Machine,
   Second Step : We make                   Methods, Measurement &
                                            Environment (Mother Nature)
    sure we have identified all
    the causes.                         8P: Price, Promotion, People,
                                            Processes, Place / Plant,
   Third Step: Generally, we               Policies, Procedures & Product
    select the most important
                                        4S: Surroundings, Suppliers,
    causes to take action.                  Systems, Skills
                                   43
Five Whys
   The Five Whys is a question asking method
    used to explore the cause/effect relationships     5 Why’s

    underlying a particular problem. Ultimately,            Why?


    the goal of applying the 5 Whys method is to                   More Data?


                                                            Why?
    determine a root cause of a defect or problem
                                                                   More Data?

   This technique explores deeper and deeper               Why?

    levels until one gets to a level where proactive               More Data?


    counter-measures can be applied.                        Why?


   It does not necessarily equate to 5 levels. It                 More Data?


                                                            Why?
    may be more or less depending on the case.




                                   44
Five Why's example
The car does not start
     Why? - The battery is dead
     Why? - The alternator is not functioning
     Why? - The alternator belt has broken
     Why? - The alternator belt was well beyond its useful service
      life and has never been replaced
     Why? - I have not been maintaining my car according to the
      recommended service schedule




                                  45
1 page summary A3


 Data collection
 •   Process mapping
 •   Capability analysis
 •   Overall equipment effectiveness




                              46
11. Jidoka : “built in quality”
          The zero defect philosophy
          Automation
          Andon
          Poka-yoke
          Maintenance system




                   47
The zero defect philosophy :

    - Stopping the process to built in quality
    - Pokayoke, Andon, Problem solving...
    - “Keep it simple...”
    - Procedure and standards built for
      operation...




                     48
Visual control example
                 Andon




                   49
Poka-yoke
      Examples of poka-yoke in consumer products include:
    Automatic transmissions: the inability to remove a car key from the ignition switch of
     an automobile if the automatic transmission is not first put in the "Park" position, so
     that the driver cannot leave the car in an unsafe parking condition where the wheels
     are not locked against movement. (This is an example of ).
    3.5" floppy disks: the top-right corner is shaped in a certain way so that the disk
     cannot be inserted upside-down.
    High-security padlocks: it is impossible to remove the key from some high-security
     padlocks unless the shackle on the padlock is closed. Only by locking the padlock can
     the key be removed. Security mistakes/accidents are therefore much less likely to
     occur, particularly where the padlock key is kept on a chain attached to someone's
     belt. This is because the design ensures that a key cannot easily be left in an
     unlocked padlock, or a padlock left unlocked after opening it, or not fully closing the
     shackle of a padlock. Each of these three scenarios would be dangerous in high-
     security scenarios such as military installations, armories, prisons or bonded
     warehouses. In contrast, most standard-security padlocks do allow a key to be
     removed from a padlock, regardless of whether the shackle is closed or not.


                                          50
Pokayoke
      Examples of poka-yoke in consumer products include:

    UK 13 amp electric plugs: it is impossible to wrongly insert the plug into the
     socket, due to its arrangement of three rectangular pins.
    Microwave ovens: a door switch automatically disconnects the activation
     button when the door of the oven is opened. As a result, it is impossible to
     cook anything in a microwave oven unless the door (which contains a
     Faraday cage to block microwaves) is fully closed. If it were possible to
     activate an oven with the door open, this would allow dangerous leakage of
     high intensity microwave radiation, which would be very harmful to any living
     creatures in the immediate area.
    SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) cards: The SIM card used in cellular
     phones has its upper left corner trimmed diagonally to guide the card
     correctly into position.



                                      51
Pokayoke




           52

				
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