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					  Developmental Psychology




 A branch of psychology that studies
physical, cognitive and social changes
       throughout the lifespan.
• What are the stages of prenatal development
  including the zygote, embryo, and fetus?
• What are the maturation stages (of baby)?
• What are Piaget’s stages of cognitive
  development?
• What are Ainsworth’s attachment styles?
• What are Diane Baumrind’s parenting styles?
• What are Erikson’s stages of psychosocial
  development?
• What are Kolberg’s stages of moral
  development?
          Prenatal Development
• Conception begins
  with the drop of an
  egg and the release
  of about 200 million
  sperm.
• The sperm seeks
  out the egg and
  attempts to
  penetrate the eggs
  surface.
   Once the sperm penetrates the
    egg- we have a fertilized egg
    called……..

         The Zygote
The first stage of prenatal development.
Lasts about two weeks and consists of
            rapid cell division.
After two weeks, the zygote
       develops into a




          Embryo
By nine weeks we have something
that looks unmistakably human…




             A Fetus
              Teratogens
harmful agents to the prenatal environment
       Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
• Physical and
  cognitive
  abnormalities in
  children caused by a
  pregnant women’s
  heavy drinking.
• Severe cases
  symptoms include
  facial disproportions.
 So what will a healthy newborn do?
Reflexes
• Rooting Reflex- a babies tendency, when
  touched on the cheek to open mouth
• Sucking - requires sequence of tonguing,
  swallowing breathing
Gaze longer at human face like images.

Turn towards human voices.
   The Competent Newborn

• Habituation
• Novelty-preference
  procedure
• Sensation and
  perception
 The _____ is the structure that allows
 nutrients to pass from the mom to the
                 fetus.
A. zygote                    25%        25%          25%            25%
B. amnion
C. uterus
D. placenta




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                                                          D.
The embryonic stage of prenatal
   development refers to the
A. formation of a zygote                         25% 25% 25% 25%
B. implantation of the
  fertilized egg on the
  uterine wall
C. the 2nd through 8th
  weeks of prenatal
  development
D. the last 7 months of

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Maria is concerned about taking OTC allergy
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                                         25% 25% 25% 25%

A. placental stage
B. germinal stage
C. fetal stage
D. embryonic stage




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The 3rd stage of prenatal development
 lasts from 2 months until the end is
                 called
                                       25% 25% 25% 25%
A. postgerminal stage
B. embryonic stage
C. fetal stage
D. postnatal stage




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Infancy and Childhood
   Social Development
     Physical Development
       Brain Development
• Brain development
• Pruning process
• Maturation
     Physical Development
       Motor Development
• Motor development
 –Learning to walk
     Physical Development
  Maturation and Infant Memory
• Infantile amnesia
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive
       Development
      Piaget’s Theory of
    Cognitive Development

• Mind develops through a
  series of stages in an
  upward movement from
  newborn to adult
     Learning
• Schemas - mental constructs -
  Organized units of knowledge
  about objects, events, and actions
• Cognitive adaptation involves two
  processes
        – Assimilation is the
          interpretation of new
          experiences in terms of
          present schemes
        – Accommodation is the
          modification of present
          schemes to fit with new
          experiences
          Schemas
• For example, a child may call all four-
  legged creatures ―doggie‖
  – The child learns he needs to accommodate
    (i.e., change) his schemes, as only one
    type of four-legged creature is ―dog‖
  – It is through accommodation that the
    number and complexity of a child’s
    schemes increase and learning
    occurs
       Piaget’s Stages of
     Cognitive Development

Sensorimotor          Birth - age 2

Preoperational        2 - 6 years

Concrete Operational 6 - 12 years

Formal Operational    12+ years
           Sensorimotor Stage 0-2
• Infant learns about the world through their
   sensory and motor interactions (including
   reflexes)
1. Lack object permanence - knowledge that an
   object exists even if it can’t be seen or 1111111
   heard until about 8 months.
 2. Symbolic representation - using a
  symbol to represent an object
  –   First one-word stage then, telegraphic speech   tttttttttttttttttt
      develops in the latter part of this stage
8
         Stranger Anxiety

3. Stranger Anxiety - a form of distress that
children experience when exposed to people
unfamiliar to them. ...
         Stranger Anxiety




Wouldn’t you be afraid if you saw this man?
        Sensorimotor Stage
4. Circular reaction –
   tendency to repeat novel
   experiences ; repetition
   of an action over and
   over again
Ex. – kicking a mobile with
   feet
5. Self awareness
Preoperational Stage
       • Age 2-7
       1. Symbolic thinking – give labels
          to things they see; develop
          schemas
       2. Egocentrism - Can’t view a
          situation from any other way but
          their own.
       3. Creative play - pretend play &
          imagination
       4. Role-playing – mommy & daddy,
          doctor
        Preoperational Stage
• Illogical Thinking
  – Lack of Conservation – ―the awareness that a
    quantity remains the same despite a change in its
    appearance‖
  – Centration - tendency to
    focus on only one aspect of a
    problem at a time
  – Irreversiblity - inability to realize
    that certain process can be
    undone or reversed
Tests of Conservation
             Theory of Mind
1.Ability to know other people
have a mind of their own
2.Can empathize, tease,
persuade
3.Others can hold false
beliefs
4.Begins to develop in latter
part of preoperational stage,
fully in concrete operational
                    Autism
Autism Spectrum Disorder – disorder characterized
by communication deficiencies and repetitive
behaviors
   •Impaired Theory of Mind
   •Less mirror neuron activity
Aspergers – variation of autism (high functioning)
   •Normal intelligence, exceptional skill in one area
   but deficient social and communication skills
•Gender – male dominated 1:4
   •Males better systemizers – understand things
   according to rules or laws
   •Men over 40 have higher risk of fathering autistic
   child - higher frequency of random genetic
   mutations
Concrete Operational Stage
           • Ages 7-12
           1. Logical Thinking about
              concrete events
           2. Bi-dimensional thinking –
              understand dual meaning
              of words
           3. Divergent thinking –
              ability to see multiple
              solutions
           4. Multiple classification -
              understanding that
              objects can fit into
              multiple categories
    Concrete Operational Stage
5. Conservation
6. Arithmetic operations
7. Reversibility - understanding
   that numbers and objects
   can change and then return
   to their original state
8. Difficulty understanding
   abstract or hypothetical
   events
9. Trial and error problem
   solving
    Formal Operational Stage
• 12-adult
1.ability to think about abstract
  concepts
2. Skills such as logical thought,
  deductive reasoning, and
  systematic planning
3.Potential for mature moral
  reasoning
4.Inferential Reasoning
    Formal Operational Stage
5. Hypothetical Reasoning - Imaginary
  situation based on certain proven or
  assumed facts
 Ex. You discover that your wonderful one-year-
 old child is, because of a mix-up at the hospital,
 not yours. What would you do?
6. Algorithms to solve problems
      Formal Operational Stage
• In one scientific thinking task, the child is shown several
  flasks of what appear to be the same clear liquid and is
  told one combination of two of these liquids would
  produce a clear liquid
                       – The task is to determine which
                         combination would produce the blue
                         liquid
                       – The concrete operational child
                         would….
                       – The formal operational child
                         would…
Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory
        • Influential Research
        • Underestimated Cognitive
          Abilities of Infants
          – Research that involved tracking infants’
            eye movements has found that infants
            as young as 3 months continue to stare
            at the place where the object
            disappeared from sight, indicating
            some degree of object permanence
        • Overestimated Egocentrism
          – Theory of mind
Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory
 • Underestimated the continuity of cognitive
   development - does not always progress
   in a smooth manner
 • More support for sequence of changes
   than for timing of changes
 • Not all people reach formal operational
    thought
 • The theory may be biased in favor of
    Western culture
 • There is no real theory of what occurs
    after the onset of adolescence
A baby looks under the sofa for a ball that has
 just rolled underneath it. According to Jean
Piaget, the baby’s action shows development
                      of
1. conservation of
   mass
2. reversibility
3. logical thinking
4. object
   permanence
Conservation of matter is mastered in which
    of the following Piagetian stages

1. sensorimotor
2. preoperational
3. concrete
   operational
4. postoperational
5. formal operational
  The first time that 4-year old Sara saw her older brother
  play a flute, she thought it was a large whistle. Sarah’s
initial understanding of the flute best illustrates the process
                               of
1.   Assimilation
2.   Egocentrism
3.   Conservation
4.   Accomodation
5.   Maturation
According to Piaget, a child can represent things
with words and images but can’t reason with logic
           during the ________stage.
1.   Concrete operational
2.   Sensorimotor
3.   Formal operational
4.   Preoperational
5.   Postconventional
The ability of preschool children to empathize with
 classmates who are feeling sad illustrates that
     preoperational children have developed
1. A sense of
   integrity
2. Conventional
   morality
3. A theory of mind
4. A concept of
   conservation
5. postconventional
                           Vygotsky
• Social learning Theory
   – Child’s mind grows through social
     interaction
   – Zone of proximal development –
     zone between what a child can
     learn with and without support
   – Scaffolding – helpful interactions
     between adult and child that
     enable the child to do something
     beyond his or her independent
     efforts
      • Words are important part of scaffolding
         Social Development
• Attachment - An emotional tie
 with another person; shown in
 young children by their seeking
 closeness to the caregiver and
 showing distress in separation.
• Stranger Anxiety – fear of
 strangers; begins about 8 months
  – Schemas are a cause
Stranger Anxiety
Need I say more?
  Factors of Attachment
1. Body Contact
  • Harry Harlow’s
    studies
2. Familiarity
  • Critical period
  • Imprinting
  • Sensitive period
3. Responsive Parenting
     Body Contact

•Harry Harlow and his
•Raised monkeys with
two artificial mothers
•Monkeys preferred the
contact comfort of a cloth
mother, over the
nourishment of a
hard/wirily mother.
               Familiarity
• Critical Period – period
  after birth when organisms
  experiences produce
  proper development
  – Examples: ?
• Imprinting
  – Lorenz
  – Certain animals form an
    attachment during a critical
    period
Child Attachment Styles
based on Ainsworth’s (1971) ―The
   Strange Situation‖ studies
 Ainsworth’s attachment styles
• Secure attachment (66%) – use mother as
  base to explore; distressed when mother
  leaves;
• happy when she returns
• Most common
Ainsworth’s attachment styles
Insecure attachment
1. Insecure-avoidant (20%) –
•   Pays little attention to mother when she is
    present and shows little distress when she
    leaves.
2. Insecure- resistant (12%) –
•   Clings to mother
•   Avoids venturing into unfamiliar situations
•   Becomes very upset when mother leaves
•   Fails to be completely comforted when she
    returns
•   Shows some ambivalence towards mother.
  Attachment and Temperament
• Temperament – person’s characteristic
  emotional reactivity and intensity
  – New York Longitudinal Study – 3 basic types
    • Easy = cheerful, relaxed, predictable
    • Difficult = intense fidgety, irritable, unpredictable
    • Slow to warm-up = resist, withdrawn, fretful
  Heredity influences temperament
  Easy, difficult & slow to warm up babies
• Erikson’s
  Basic Trust
      Deprivation of Attachment
• Babies reared in institutions without stimulation -
  withdrawn frightened and speechless
• Monkeys reared in isolation:
   – either cowered in fear or lashed out in aggression,
     incapable of mating
   – Impregnated females were neglectful, abusive,
     murderous
• Serotonin Changes - slow response in calming
  aggressive impulses
• Detachment – children become upset, withdrawn
  despairing
              Daycare

                              Who is this
                              creature?



• High Quality daycare has shown no
  detrimental effects on children over
  the age of two.
•The studies go both ways for children
under the age of two- no clear answer
yet.
    General Parenting Styles
• Based on Diana Baumrind’s studies
  –Permissive
  –Authoritarian
  –Authoritative
     Permissive Parents
• Parents submit to
  their children’s
  desires, make
  few demands and
  use little
  punishment.
     Authoritarian Parents
• Impose rules and
  expect obedience.

 •“Why, because I
 said so!!!!”
      Authoritative Parents
• Parents are both
  demanding and
  responsive.
• Exert control by
  setting rules, but
  explain reasoning
  behind the rules.
• Encourage open
  discussion.
       Social Development
     Culture and Child-Rearing
• Differences in child-rearing from
  culture to culture
     Gender Development

• Gender
 –Influences on social development
     Gender Development
Gender Similarities and Differences
• Gender and aggression
 –Aggression
   • Physical versus relational aggression
• Gender and social power
• Gender and social connectedness
     Gender Development
      The Nature of Gender
• Sex chromosomes
 –X chromosome
 –Y chromosome
• Sex hormones
 –Testosterone
      Gender Development
      The Nurture of Gender
• Gender Role
  –Role
• Gender and child
  -rearing
  –Gender identity
  –Gender typing
• Social learning theory
Gender Development
The Nurture of Gender
 Parents and Early Experiences
• Experience and brain development
 Parents and Early Experiences
• How much credit (or blame) do
  parents
  deserve?
 Adolescence




The transition period
 from childhood to
     adulthood.
Is adolescence getting
  longer or shorter?
  Physical Development
   • It all begins with
     puberty
Puberty: the period of sexual
maturation, during which a
person becomes capable of
reproducing.
 Primary and Secondary Sexual
        Characteristics
• Primary =
  reproductive sex      Deepening of
  characteristics       male voice
• Seconday = non
  Nonreproductive sex
                        Body hair
  characteristics

 JLo’s Hips
               Puberty
        Sequence is way more
      predictable than the timing.

How might timing differences effect an
adolescent socially?
  Cognitive Development
• Have the ability to reason but…….

•The reasoning is self-focused.
Assume that their experiences are
unique.
•Experience formal operational
thought
Lawrence Kohlberg and his
   stages of Morality

• Preconventional Morality
• Conventional Morality
• Postconventional Morality
  Preconventional Morality

• Morality of self-
  interest
• Actions are either
  to avoid punishment
  or to gain rewards.
      Conventional Morality

Morality is based on
  caring for others,
  and upholding laws
  and social rules
1. Maintain social order
2. To gain social approval
                    I won’t speed down Hampton because
                     my friends and family will look down on
                     me. Besides, the world would be chaotic
                     if everyone did it.
 Postconventional Morality

• Morality based
  on universal
  ethical
  principles.
                     Kohlberg
                            • Weakness
• Strengths                   – Bias toward Western
  – Longitudinal Study          Cultures
    • 72 men followed         – Biased toward boys/men
      their progress             • Gilligan – women focus on
      beginning at age 3-          human relationships/care
      36                           based morals, men focus
                                   on justice based morals
                              – Haidt’s Social Intuitist
                                Theory
                                 • Moral judgment is made through
                                   intuition first, conscious thought
                                   comes after
   Social
Development



Erik Erikson’s 8 stages of
psychosocial development
                     Identity
• Identity - One’s
  sense of self.
  – adolescent’s job is to find
    oneself by testing various
    roles.

• Social identity –
  the distinctiveness
  that comes from
  group membership
               Identity
• Some teenagers take their identity
  early by sharing their parents’ values
  and expectations.
• Some teenagers will adopt a negative
  identity - opposition to parents, but
  conform to a peer group – jocks,
  dorkestra, show choir
              Intimacy
• Primary goal at end of
  adolescence/early adulthood
• Intimacy - ability to form close,
  loving relations
             Trust vs. Mistrust
   Age       Importa Description           Hazard
               nt
              Event
Birth - 18   Feeding Infants form a     Lasting
months               loving, trusting   sense of
                     relationship       mistrust,
                     with parents;      insecurity &
                     they also learn    anxiety
                     to mistrust
                     others.
     Autonomy vs. Shame and
             Doubt
   Age       Important      Description           Hazard
               Event

18 months - Toilet       Child's energies     May discourage
3 Years     Training     are directed         child from trying
                         toward physical      new things
                         skills: walking,
                         grasping, and
                         toilet training. The
                         child learns
                         control along with
                         a healthy dose of
                         shame and doubt.
         Initiative vs. Guilt
  Age     Important   Description      Hazard
            Event
3-6     Independence Child          Feelings of
Years                becomes        inadequacy
                     more           and guilt
                     assertive,
                     takes more
                     initiative,
                     becomes
                     more forceful.
    Competence vs. Inferiority
  Age    Important Description      Hazard
           Event
6 - 12   School    The child   Experiencing
Years              must deal   failure leaves
                   with        child with
                   demands to sense of
                   learn new   inferiority
                   skills and
                   gain
                   confidence
    Identity vs. Role Confusion
    Age     Important Description       Hazard
              Event
Adolescence Peers     Teens must Role
                      achieve self- confusion;
                      identity       unstable
                      while          sense of self
                      deciphering
                      their roles in
                      occupation,
                      politics, and
                      religion.
        Intimacy vs. Isolation
 Age      Important     Description        Hazard
            Event
Young   Relationships   The young       Isolation &
Adult                   adult must      inability to
                        develop         connect to
                        marriage-       other in
                        seeking         meaningful
                        relationships   ways
                        while
                        combating
                        feelings of
                        isolation.
  Generativity vs. Stagnation
  Age    Important Description             Hazard
           Event
Middle   Parenting Assuming the          If haven’t
                   role of parents       resolved
Adult              signifies the         identity—may
                   need to               have mid-life
                   continue the          crisis
                   generations
                   while avoiding
                   the inevitable
                   feeling of failure.
       Erikson’s Psychosocial
        Development Theory

Strengths              Weaknesses
1.Widely Accepted      1.Lacks scientific
2.Encouraged           basis
  people to look       2.Biased towards
  at the entire life   boys
  span                    • Lacks conflicts
                            faced by girls
Adulthood
        Physical Development

• Physical changes in middle adulthood
  –Menopause
• Physical changes in later life
  –Life expectancy
  –Sensory abilities
  –Health
  –Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease
     Cognitive Development
        Aging and Memory
• Recall versus recognition
• Prospective memory
      Cognitive Development
       Aging and Intelligence
• Cross-Sectional Evidence
  –Cross-sectional study
• Longitudinal Evidence
  –Longitudinal study
• It all depends
  –Crystallized intelligence
  –Fluid intelligence
       Social Development
   Adulthood’s Ages and Stages
• Midlife transition
• Social clock
         Social Development
    Adulthood Commitments
• Love
• Work
      Social Development
 Well-Being Across the Life Span
• Well-being across the life span
• Death and
  dying
Biopsychosocial Influences on
      Successful Aging
Reflections on Two Major
 Developmental Issues
Three Major Developmental Issues

 • Nature versus nurture
 • Continuity and stages
 • Stability and
   change

				
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