2020_Skills_Statement_PART_A

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					REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT


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                                                                                                                                    1
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OVERVIEW


Our region also faces significant challenges created from significant opportunity and growth, and we need the support of
Government to ensure our region continues to be an economic powerhouse for Regional Australia.


    The Mackay-Whitsunday-Isaac region encompasses the
    three local government areas of Mackay, Whitsunday and
    Isaac. The Mackay-Whitsunday-Isaac region has experienced
    record growth in recent years due to the increased activity in
    resource mining and the resulting gains in support industries.

    Growth in Gross Regional Product (GRP) and population have
    constantly exceeded State averages and are predicted to
    continue. Growth in GRP over the past 5 years has consistently
    exceeded the State average, we have also seen 30% growth
    in agriculture, and 20% growth in construction in the past 12
    months, indicating a further diversity in our economic base.

    The region’s GRP was calculated at $17.2 Billion in 2008-09.
    This impressive economy is underpinned by a population of
    $167,666 which represents 3.9% of Queensland’s population.
    The strength of our economic base also meant that our
    region was one that was least affected by the Global
    Financial Crisis, and actually grew by 23% in the 2009 year.

    The region is rich in natural assets that underpin its industries,
    including extensive coal resources, cattle grazing and
    broadacre grain production in the hinterland areas, with
    sugar, horticulture, aquaculture, fishing and is home to one
    of the world’s top tourism destinations - the Whitsundays.

    The M-W-I region faces significant challenges created from
    significant opportunity and growth. Perhaps the greatest
    challenge facing the region is a shortage of skilled labour,
    with all industries finding it difficult to attract and retain
    skilled workers.

    With growth forecasted to continue and a significant
    number of developments being planned, innovative and
    practical solutions for the attraction and retention of staff
    are required to help local industries compete in the talent
    war and maintain our region’s reputation as the economic
    powerhouse for Regional Australia.

    This briefing paper outlines the anticipated labour
    requirements until 2020 and will address issues such as the
    likely locations in which employees and their families will
    reside and the capacity of these communities to accommodate
    the additional population.


2     2010 • WWW.MWREDC.ORG.AU
CONTENTS


           1    Economic Baseline Audit                 4-6


           2    Future Demand for Coal                  7


           3    Mining Projects                        8-18


           4    Mineral Processing Projects             19


           5    Ports & Rail Project                   20-27


           6    Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) Projects   28-29


           7    Health & Medical Projects              30-31


           8    Retail Projects                        32-35


           9    Housing                                 36


           10   Attracting Skilled Workers             37-39




                                                               3
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        ECONOMIC BASELINE AUDIT
    In 2007, REDC commissioned AEC Group to undertake an               The 2007 review of infrastructure in the region highlighted
    economic baseline audit of the region in order to allow the        a number of weaknesses which have the potential to hinder
    region to measure change.                                          further economic growth.

    Key findings from the report in 2007 included:

    •    The region has grown approximately three times faster             UTILITIES
         than the Queensland economy.
    •    The growth has been predominantly driven by significant
         expansion in the mining sector.                               Lack of baseload power stations north of Rockhampton
    •    This growth has contributed to increased demand for           continues to have a cost implication for North Queensland and
         labour, pressures on housing and the overall cost of living   has the potential to provide a disincentive for high industrial
         throughout the region.                                        sector investment.
    •    The high demand for labour and associated change in
         income distribution throughout the region has resulted        Reliance on a single transmission line for the majority of
         in housing displacement in some areas.                        transmission of energy in and out of the region (AC).
    •    Unemployment in the region is down to “transitional”
         levels and has the potential to impact the development        Future capacity constraints to waste water through increased
         of small business and industry within the region.             demand from population and industry growth.
    •    The recent growth in mining is considered unsustainable
         over the long term, and is expected to ease over the next     Insufficient water supply has the potential to restrict mining,
         two to five years.                                            agriculture and population growth.
    •    Tourism remains an important aspect of the regional
         economy particularly for the Whitsunday region.               Opportunities & Implications

    Below is a current update on the key findings based on the         Development of additional power generation infrastructure
    new data for the region.                                           to meet future regional requirements as well as export of
                                                                       electricity to the rest of Queensland (above Gladstone) and
    •    In 2008/2009 the region reported an annual change in          potentially, with the development of additional infrastructure,
         GRP of 22.6%, with Queensland showing a 9.1% change.          electricity export to NSW.
         This growth rate was achieved during the Global Financial
         Crisis.                                                       Opportunities for development and expansion of industry
    •    Mining is 50.1% of the region’s economic base.                precincts co-located with electricity and steam generation
    •    Demand for labour, pressures on housing and overall cost      and gas supply with provision of reticulated gas (traditional or
         of living still remain major challenges in the region.        coal seam gas (CSG)) in the region.
    •    Unemployment in the region is now at 3.6% compared to         Requirement to plan for future increases in demand for utilities
         a Queensland unemployment rate of 4.8%.                       (particularly water and waste water) driven by population
    •    There has actually been an increase in mining activity and    growth through natural increase as well as expansion in
         demand for coal over the past three year, with growth         regional labour force through significant industry expansion.
         from China predicted to continue.




4       2010 • WWW.MWREDC.ORG.AU
     ECONOMIC BASELINE AUDIT

     TRANSPORT                                                         Increasing population pressures, and spiralling regional
                                                                       housing and accommodation prices indicates there is
                                                                       insufficient new housing to meet increases in demand.
1.   Future road capacity constraints (refer REDC’s Freight            Additional planning and development activities may be
     Transport Study)                                                  required to facilitate this and to meet potential future demand.
2.   Burden on road network from significant increase heavy
     industry (mining)                                                 Development of industrial land near port infrastructure needs
3.   Consistency and quality issues of road network.                   to be in line with strategic objectives to adequately cater for
4.   Reliance on the Bruce Highway / lack of alternative routes.       growth in the coal mining industry.
5.   Currently no container port in the region.
6.   Limited direct interstate and intrastate air access.
                                                                           TELECOMMUNICATIONS
Opportunities & Implications
                                                                       Capacity to meet the existing and future needs of business
Development of strategically located transport interchanges            and industry demand.
and industry precincts to facilitate commodity and tourist
movement between transport forms and fixed infrastructure.             Capacity of infrastructure and sufficient levels of ongoing
Potentially co-located with manufacturing clusters developed           investment to keep pace with technological advances.
in proximity of the gas pipeline through the region.                   Reliability and speed of internet.

Improved transport facilities (air, road, sea & port) facilities and   Future capacity issues with potential risk that investment in
linkages to facilitate the development and expansion of the            infrastructure will not match the rate of population/industry
tourism sector.                                                        growth.

                                                                       Opportunities & Implications

     AVAILABLE LAND
                                                                       Future proof the region with high speed internet connections
                                                                       and infrastructure. This has potential to attract business, but
Limited volume of appropriately zoned and available lots for           is more likely to be a defensive (keeping pace) infrastructure
retail and commercial development.                                     requirement.

Future constraints on appropriately zoned and available                Insufficient ICT infrastructure investment is likely to result in
industrial areas for development.                                      an under serviced regional community and business network.

Opportunities & Implications                                           Opportunities to minimise cost of infrastructure development
                                                                       by working with and leveraging industry facilitated
Continue to develop appropriate and available land in                  infrastructure developments.
conjunction with required industrial developments. Future
developments anticipated to be related to the mining,                  Opportunity to expand internet coverage by increasing the
agriculture, food processing and manufacturing (heavy &                number of new developments providing network coverage.
light) sectors.




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         ECONOMIC BASELINE AUDIT

    EDUCATION & RESEARCH


    1.    Future funding                                              Development and expansion of the aged care services sector
    2.    Loss of young adults to other regions with more expansive   across the whole continuum, however, care should be taken to
          course offerings.                                           ensure that development is not isolated to the higher yielding
    3.    Population growth and the ability to resource primary       low care end of the spectrum.
          and secondary schools.
    4.    Loss of localised research facilities.                      The threat of losses in specialist care in regional centres is a
                                                                      trend that would limit the capacity of the health and aged care
    Opportunities & Implications                                      sector to develop in the region.

    Development of specalised training and education services
    for key industry sectors and focus the region as a “centre
    of excellence” in training for those key sectors (mining,
    engineering services, marine services, hospitality, etc).

    Continued development and expansion of existing industry
    R&D facilities in the region (BSES & the Bowen Horticultural
    Research Station).

    Expansion of schools in response to population growth.


    HEALTH


    Capacity to service expanding regional population base.
    Future capacity issues associated with increased aging
    population.

    Adequate investment across the full aged care continuum.
    Child care provision isolated to the coastal areas of MWI have
    an older population on average than the rest of the region.
    Insufficient child care facilities across the region.

    Opportunities & Implications

    Investment in health services infrastructure and attraction of
    experienced/ skilled staff to service the expanding population
    base.




6        2010 • WWW.MWREDC.ORG.AU
  FUTURE DEMAND FOR COAL

The rising demand for coal has been driven by China, and there is often questions about how long this demand will last. The
following two graphs produced by the Qld Resource Council depicts the underpinning assumptions about coal demand into
the future.


    COKING COAL

                                                                             The demand curve for coking coal shows that
                                                                             until GDP per capita reaches approximately
                                                                             30,000, then the demand for coking coal
                                                                             continues to increase. Coking coal is the coal
                                                                             used to make steel and Australia has the best
                                                                             quality coking coal in the world.

                                                                             The graph clearly shows that economies such
                                                                             as India and China currently have GDP per
                                                                             capita of between 4,000 and 7,500, which
                                                                             means that these developing economies have
                                                                             a long way to go before the demand for coking
                                                                             coal starts to plateau.

                                                                             As third world nations strive towards first world
                                                                             status, steel inputs become more important.




    THERMAL COAL


                                                                           The demand for thermal coal present a linear
                                                                           equation in terms of GDP per capita, with demand
                                                                           continuing to rise as GDP rises.        Advanced
                                                                           economies such as USA and Australia sit at the
                                                                           top end of the equation with less developed
                                                                           countries showing a large differential in terms of
                                                                           GDP per capita to these economies.

                                                                           With 2.5 billion people in China currently without
                                                                           electricity




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        ANTICIPATED EMPLOYMENT TO 2020 - MINING
        & MINERAL PROCESSING

    Bowen Basin                                                        Anticipated employment outcomes
    The Bowen Basin is an area of coal reserves and mining related     Data on construction and operational employment was
    communities that extends over approximately 60,000 square          difficult to source as not all proponents who have major
    kilometres of Central Queensland from the town of Collinsville     projects listed in this report have formulated their workforce
    in the north to Theodore in the south.                             requirements.

    The Bowen Basin is located west of Mackay and is the largest       Many of the proponents of the larger projects do not directly
    coal reserve in Australia. The 34 operational coal mines extract   employ workers during the construction phase and rely on
    over 100 million tonnes annually. This represents some 83 per      contractors to provide the labour and skills require.
    cent of the State of Queensland’s coal production - its most
    important export commodity.                                        Some projects listed are relatively newly announced and
                                                                       unable to provide data on the construction and operational
    The Bowen Basin has experienced a significant boom as              skilled workforce required. Most projects don’t have an official
    a result of rapid expansion of the resources industry. The         list or workforce plan which outlines the kind of skills required
    Basin contains substantial coal deposits and mining activity       to complete the construction and/or operate the proposed
    continues to increase, with numerous new mines and                 project, and in some instances Project Managers gave less
    expansions either planned or already under construction.           than exhaustive details on the skill required.

    Proposed mining projects                                           According to the data that was able to be collected, the
    This report focuses on 11 proposed mining projects - both new      following numbers of skilled workers will be requied to staff
    mines and expansions of existing mines that are identified to      the 11 planned mining projects:
    require significant numbers of skilled workers.
                                                                       Anticipated workforce for construction phase: 1,766
    The identified mining projects are:                                Anticipated operational (ongoing) workforce: 3,080

    •    Millenium Open-cut Mine Expansion                             Skills required
    •    Ellensfield Underground Coal Project
    •    Moranbah South Underground Project                             •   Administration            •   Mechanics
    •    Clermont Open Cut Mining                                       •   Artisans                  •   Miners
    •    Eaglefield Open-Cut mine expansion
                                                                        •   Boilermakers              •   Senior management
    •    Grosvenor Underground Coal project
                                                                        •   Manager - Facilities      •   Service staff
    •    BMA Bowen Basin Coal Growth Project
                                                                        •   Dozer drivers             •   Storepersons
              Daunia Open-Cut Mine
              Caval Ridge Open-Cut Mine                                 •   Electricians              •   Supervisors
              Goonyella Riverside Mine Expansion                        •   Engineers                 •   Truck drivers
              New Moranbah Airport                                      •   Excavator Operators       •   Underground mechanics
    •    Eagle Downs Underground                                        •   Fabricators               •   Underground miners
    •    Saraji Underground Mine                                        •   Grader drivers            •   Water staff




8       2010 • WWW.MWREDC.ORG.AU
This report focuses on 11 proposed mining projects. The location of these new mines and mining expansions is depicted on
the map below.




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     SUMMARY OF MINING PROJECTS

              Project Name:      Millenium Open-cut Mine expansion
              Summary:           The existing Millenium Coal mine is located approximiately 22 km east of Moranbah and 16
                                 km southwest of Coppabella in Central Queensalnd and is operated by Peabody. The project
                                 aims to increase production of PCI and coking coal from 1.5 million tonnes to 3 million for
                                 customers in Japan, Korea and India. The mine is located adjacent to BHP Mitsui Coal’s
                                 Poitrel project and through the Red Mountain Joint Venture, the two companies share coal
                                 infrastructure putting their joint capacity at 6 million tonnes. The expansion will be in two
                                 new lease areas. The EPA recently approved an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and
                                 the EIA process has commenced. The Mine currently employs 205 operational staff. Once
                                 the expansion is completed it will employ 400. Staff will be housed at Coppabella at the MAC
                                 Camp and some additional staff at Moranbah.

              Value:             not available as the project is an expansion of existing mine

              Anticipated
              workforce:         The workforce of the mine will increase from 200 to 400

              Lifespan:          15 years

              Skills required:   * Engineers               * Dozer drivers
                                 * Electrician             * Grader drivers
                                 * Mechanics               * Truck drivers
                                 * Boilers makers




10   2010 • WWW.MWREDC.ORG.AU
SUMMARY OF MINING PROJECTS

    Project Name:      Ellensfield Underground Coal Project
    Summary:           Ellensfield is owned by Vale Australia Pty Ltd. The project involves the development of a
                       Greenfield underground coal mine producing up to 5.5 million tonnes a year of coking coal
                       and thermal coal for export. The mine would use an initial box cut to provide the entrance
                       to an underground mine. Longwall methods would be used to extract the coal from the
                       Liechhardt Seam of the Rangal Coal measures. The estimated start date of the mines
                       operation is 2012.

    Value:             $640 Million

    Construction
    workforce:         300

    Operational
    workforce:         230

    Lifespan:          20 years

    Skills required:   * Engineers              * Dozer drivers
                       * Electricians           * Grader drivers
                       * Mechanics              * Truck drivers
                       * Boilers makers




                                                                                                                    11
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     SUMMARY OF MINING PROJECTS

              Project Name:     Moranbah South Underground Project
              Summary:          Moranbah south is an exploration project of hard coking coal resource on the adjacent
                                properties of Moranbah South and Grosvenor south, in joint venture with Anglo Coal
                                Australia and Exxaro. Exploration is focused on geological work to delineate long-wall
                                mining resources. It has great potential to produce large volumnes of premium-quality hard
                                coking coal.

              Value:            $500 Million

              Project status:   Pre-feasibility

              Operational
              workforce:        300

              Lifespan:         20 years




12   2010 • WWW.MWREDC.ORG.AU
SUMMARY OF MINING PROJECTS

    Project Name:      Clermont Open-Cut Mine
    Summary:           Rio Tinito Coal Australia is currently constructing the Clermont Project, in the Bowen Basin.
                       The thermal coal mine, which will replace the capacity of nearby Blair Athol mine, will ramp
                       up as Blair Athol Mine draws to a closure in 2012. Twelve million tonnes of thermal coal,
                       mainly for export markets will be produced each year using open cut truck/shovel operation.
                       A mine camp houses 510 workers as many workers will fly-in-fly out of the south east corner
                       and Mackay.

    Value:             $1.3 Billion

    Construction
    workforce:         306

    Operational
    workforce:         380

    Lifespan:          17 years

    Skills required:   * Engineers               * Excavator Drivers
                       * Grader drivers          * Dozer Drivers
                       * Mechanics               * Truck drivers




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     SUMMARY OF MINING PROJECTS

              Project Name:      Eaglefield Open-Cut Mine Expansion
              Summary:           Eaglefield is operated by Peabody and is a project aimed at increasing the existing run of
                                 mine extraction rate from 5 million tonnes per annum to 18. Mining will most probably
                                 be done using truck and shovel/dragline. A second wash plant will be constructed to cater
                                 for increase in production. New water storage and treatment dams may be required,
                                 additional powerlines/transmission lines will be constructed, a second loadout facility is also
                                 planned. It’s expected that the mine will be operational by 2012.

              Value:             Not available

              Operational
              workforce:         200-400

              Lifespan:          20 years

              Skills required:   * Engineers               * Excavator Drivers
                                 * Grader drivers          * Dozer Drivers
                                 * Mechanics               * Truck drivers
                                 * Water staff




14   2010 • WWW.MWREDC.ORG.AU
SUMMARY OF MINING PROJECTS

    Project Name:      Grosvenor Underground Coal Project
    Summary:           The Grosvenor Project is owned by Anglo Coal Australia. The project involves the
                       development of a new underground coal mine north of Moranbah in Central Queensland.
                       The proposed mine will produce up to 6 million tonnes per annum of coking coal for the
                       export market. The mine will utilize the longwall mining method and will utilize Moranbah
                       North Mine’s facilities for washing and loading coal.

    Value:             Not available

    Construction
    workforce:         400

    Operational
    workforce:         380

    Lifespan:          17 years

    Skills required:   * Service Staff           * Supervisors
                       * Miners                  * Senior management
                       * Mechanics               * Electricians
                       * Artisans                * Drivers
                       * Stores                  * Underground miners
                       * Fabricators             * Electricians
                       * Boiler makers           * Administration
                       * Manager Camp Facilities




                                                                                                                   15
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     SUMMARY OF MINING PROJECTS

          Project Name:   BMA Bowen Basin Coal Growth Project
          Summary:        BHP Billiton Mitsubishi Alliance Coal Operations Pty Ltd (BMA), the proponent, propose to develop
                          the Bowen Basin Coal Growth project (BBCGP). BBCGP involves the production of an additional 20
                          million tones per annum of coal products through the staged development of four principle
                          components:

                          * Daunia Mine – a new open cut coal mine and associated infrastructure to produce up to 4
                          million tonnes per annum of coking coal for the export market. Value: $600 million.

                          * Caval Ridge – a new open cut coal mine and associated infrastructure to produce up to 5.5
                          Mtpa of coking coal for the export market. Value: $4 billion

                          * Goonyella Riverside Mine – expansion of the existing open cut and underground coal
                          mining operation to produce up to 9.5 Mtpa of coking coal for the export market. Value: $1 billion

                          * New Airport – construction of a new airport replacing the existing Moranbah airport facility, to
                          accommodate increased travel to and from the area providing a wider range of transport options
                          for the larger workforce associated with BMA’s expanded operations. Value not available.

                          Construction                               Operational
                          workforce:       400                       workforce:        380

                          Lifespan:        30 years




16   2010 • WWW.MWREDC.ORG.AU
SUMMARY OF MINING PROJECTS

    Project Name:   Eagle Downs Underground
    Summary:        The proponent for the Eagle Downs Coal Mine Project is the Bowen Central Coal Joint
                    Venture Parties, consisting of Bowen Central Coal Pty Ltd and Acquila Coal Pty Ltd. The
                    project would involve the development of a Greenfield underground coal mine producing
                    up to seven million tonnes a year of coking coal and thermal coal for export. The proposed
                    Eagle Downs Mine will use the longwall method to mine the coal.

    Value:          $892 Million

    Construction
    workforce:      360

    Operational
    workforce:      410

    Lifespan:       50 years +




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     SUMMARY OF MINING PROJECTS

              Project Name:   New Saraji Underground Mine
              Summary:        This project was acquired by BMA from New Hope Coal in 2008. BMA will provide further
                              updates on any planned development of the project. Following completion of regulatory
                              approvals, BMA will embark on a two to three year exploration program to confirm the
                              estimated coal resources and support further studies to assess the development potential.

              Value:          $1 Billion

              Construction
              workforce:      Not available

              Operational
              workforce:      400

              Lifespan:       40 years




18   2010 • WWW.MWREDC.ORG.AU
SUMMARY OF MINERAL PROCESSING
PROJECTS
Project Name:      Chalco Alumina Refinery
Summary:           CHALCO Australia is a subsidiary of the Aluminium Corporation of China Limited (CHALCO). It is one of the
                   world’s largest producers of alumina and is China’s largest producer and supplier of alumina and aluminium.
                   CHALCO Australia has entered into a memorandum of understanding with the Queensland Government to
                   undertake an Environmental Impact Statement and feasibility study to construct and operate an alumina
                   refinery at Abbot Point because: it’s within the Queensland Government’s State Development Area; a
                   Greenfield site; located in close proximity to Abbot Point’s port; located 25 km north-west from the Bowen
                   community. The alumina refinery does not include a smelter, which is the third step to produce aluminium.

                   Refined alumina will be shipped from Abbot Point to a smelter. If it goes ahead, construction will commence
                   in early 2010 and operations in 2013.

Value:             $3 Billion
Construction
workforce:         2,000-3,000

Operational
workforce:         500




Project Name:      Moranbah Ammonium Nitrate
Summary:           The project involves the construction of a 330 000 tonnes-a-year fully integrated back-to-gas AN complex
                   comprising ammonia, nitric acide and ammonium nitrate plants as well as utilities, power generation and
                   other infrastructure to support the permanent workers. Workers will be absorbed into the Moranbah
                   community for accommodation purposes.

Value:             $935 Million



Skills required:   * 30-35 unskilled workers
                   * 15/16 qualified trade workers – mechanical and electrical
                   * DCS control and instrumentation staff
                   * 3 process or chemical engineers
                   * 3 electrical and instrumentation engineers
                   * Site management staff
                   * Plant management staff
                   * HR & Safety coordinators
                   * Accountant
                   * 2 x administration staff




                                                                                                                                 19
 REG IONAL
               IT
     SKILLS AUD


         ANTICIPATED EMPLOYMENT TO 2020 -
         PORTS & RAIL

     Coal Infrastructure                                                                                    Proposed port and rail projects
     According to the recent Freight Transport Study conducted by                                           This report focuses on 6 proposed coal infrastructure projects.
     REDC, it is predicted that Queensland coal exports will grow
     by approximately 42% by 2010 and by a further 40% by 2015.                                             These include:
     Current committed and planned developments will provide
     capacity to cater for 218 Mtpa of coal exports in 2009-2010.                                           •       Galilee Coal Rail Project
     This additional 65 Mtpa represents a 42% increase over 2006-                                           •       Dalrymple Bay Terminal Expansion and Initial Industry
     2007 exports. Current medium and longer-term planning                                                          Development
     aims to provide capacity to cater for up to 306Mtpa of coal                                            •       Abbot Point Coal Terminal Expansion
     exports by 2015 and 388Mtpa by 2020.                                                                   •       Goonyella to Abbot Point Rail (Northern Missing Link)
                                                                                                            •       Hancock Coal Rail Project
     Major investment initiatives in support of a growing coal export                                       •       Abbot Point State Development Area and Multi Cargo
     industry are involved in the rail and port transport chains.                                                   Facility
     However there are significant other supporting infrastructure
     needs that are also being addressed. To enhance the delivery                                           Anticipated employment outcomes
     of this supporting infrastructure the Queensland Government                                            According to the data collected, the following numbers of
     is developing a 20 year Coal Infrastructure Strategic Plan (CISP)                                      skilled workers will be required to staff the 6 planned coal
     which will address a broad range of issues including supply                                            infrastructure projects:
     and security of water, electricity distribution, regional road
     infrastructure, availability of housing and social infrastructure,                                     Anticipated workforce for construction phase: 11,000
     and human resources and skills availability..                                                          Anticipated operational (ongoing) workforce: 7,350

     Recent Industry forecasts for Queensland coal exports are:                                             Skills required
     Queensland coal export forecasts (millions of tonnes)
      Forecaster                             2008            2010          2020           2025                  •    Carpenters            •   Grader Operators
      ABARE                                                                                                     •    Concreters            •   Backhoe Operators
      Low (2.1% pa)                          149             155           191            212
                                                                                                                •    Boilermakers          •   Explosive Staff
      Ref (2.7% pa)                          151             159           208            237
                                                                                                                •    Civil Engineers       •   Drainage Staff
      High (3.2% pa)                         152             162           220            260
                                                                                                                •    Dozer Operators       •   Gravel Workers
      Independent Expert
      Ref 3 (4.7% pa)                        186             206           275            292
                                                                                                                •    Electricians          •   Rail Fitters
      High 3 (7.3% pa)                       186             212           336            367                   •    Plumbers
      Connell Hatch
      Low (5.6% pa)                          206             231           308            317
      High (7.5% pa)                         208             236           356            366
     1 The ABARE forecasts are sourced from its October 2006 report – Australian Coal Exports outlook to
     2025 and the Role of Infrastructure.
     2 The Independent Expert forecaster for the Department of Infrastructure and Planning in August 2007
     with forecasts for a Control Case and a High Growth Scenario.
     3 Connell Hatch based these figures around the above Independent Expert forecasts and survey
     information obtained from miners.




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