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Posterior Mediastinum (PowerPoint)

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					Posterior Mediastinum

   Dr. Miral Nagy Fahmy
   Lecturer Of Anatomy
Thoracic Duct
It ‘s 45 cm channel.
Arises from cisterna chyli(
lymph sac in front of L1.
It enters the thorax through the
aortic opening at T12.
It lies between aorta on the left
and azygos vein on the right
(ATA).
At the level of T5, it crosses
behind the esophagus to be to
the left of it.
At the root of the neck ( C7), it
arches laterally to open at the
junction of left internal jugular
and left subclavian veins
It drains lymph from below the
diaphragm through cisterna
chyli.
It drains the lymph from the
left ½ of the body above the
diaphragm through left
jugular lymph duct ( lt. ½ of
head& neck) , left subclavian
lymph duct ( lt. upper limb)
and left broncho-mediastinal
lymph duct (lt. ½ of the thorax
The Esophagus
It’s a muscular tube , 25 cm long.
It begins at the lower border of cricoid cartilage
(C6).
It passes through its opening in the diaphragm at
(T10) , to end one inch from the midline to the left
 in the stomach at (T11).
Esophagus has 3 parts, cervical ,
thoracic and abdominal.
It has 4 constrictions.
At it beginning (6 inches from the
incisors).
Where crossed by aortic arch (9
inches).
Where crossed by left bronchus (11
inches).
Where traverses the diaphragm (16
inches).
Relations In The Superior
      Mediastinum
Anteriorly: the trachea
Posteriorly: the vertebral column.
On the Rt. Side: arch of azygos ,
lung and pleura
On the Lt. side: arch of aorta ,
lung , pleura , thoracic duct and
left recurrent laryngeal nerve.
Relations In The Posterior
       Mediastinum
      Anteriorly:
      tracheal bifurcation ,
      left bronchus,
      oblique sinus and
      diaphragm.




T8




T10
Posteriorly :
Vertebral column ,
Thoracic duct at T5,
Descending thoracic
aorta at T8 – 10 and
Azygos vein
On the left side:
Descending aorta at T5 – 7.
Left lung and pleura
On the right side:
Upper part of azygos
vein ,
Right lung and pleura
On the right side :


Thoracic duct at T 12,
Descending Thoracic Aorta
It’s the continuation of the
arch at the lower border of
T4.
It ends at the lower border of
T12 ,where it traverses its
diaphragmatic opening with
the thoracic duct and azygos
vein (ATA)
      Anteriorly:
      Hilum of the left lung ,
      Esophagus T8 - 10 and
      diaphragm.


      Posteriorly :
      Vertebral column


      On the left side :
T8
      Left lung and pleura



T10
On the right side:
Its lower part related to thoracic
duct and azygos vein.
Its upper part related to the
esophagus T5 – 7.
Visceral branches :
Coronary arteries,
Bronchial arteries,
Mediastinal arteries,
Esophageal arteries,
Pericardial arteries and
superior pherinc arteries.
The Azygos Vein
It’s formed either from the back of I.V.C at L2
(lumbar azygos vein) or by union of right
ascending lumbar vein and subcostal vein at
T12.
Its tributaries :
Right ascending lumbar vein and subcostal vein
at T12.
Right superior intercostal (2,3).
Right posterior intercostals (4 -11).
Upper & lower hemiazygos.
Mediastinal , pericardial and esophageal veins.

				
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posted:1/14/2012
language:English
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