AN INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY by Ahmedrashed123

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									AN INTRODUCTION
   TO HUMAN
   ANATOMY
   Khaled Naim
  knhprof@hotmail.com
 INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY
Contents :
. Anatomical position
. Anatomical terms .
. Anatomical planes .
. Movements .
. Body cavities .
. Body systems .
. Abdominal regions .
.Patient positions .
. Joints .
               Anatomy
Anatomy is derived from Greek roots that means to
cut up or dissect .
Anatomical Position :
The subject is standing erect .
 All joints are extended.
The face is looking forwards.
The forearm is supinated .
 The palm of the hand is facing anterior
Anatomical position
         .All joints are extended.

         . The eyes are opened

         . The palm is facing anterior.

         .The forearm is supinated .

         .The face is forwards
Anterior   Posterior
          Anatomical Planes
.Median plane = Sagittal plane
                  is a vertical plane passing
                  through the center of the body .
. Coronal plane :
             is vertical to the median plane ;
             divides the body into anterior & posterior
.Transverse plane : divides the body into upper &
                     lower parts .It is at right angle to
                     sagittal & coronal planes .
Anatomical Planes ( Sections )
           Anatomical Planes
• parallel to the long axis :
• midsagittal : separates into equal right and left portions, it
•                 is the mid-line of the body
• Parasigittal : separates into unequal right and left portions

• frontal (coronal) : parallel to the axis and separates the body into
                      anterior and posterior portions

• perpendicular to the long axis :

• transverse : separates the body into superior and inferior portions
• diagonal to the long axis :

• oblique : any which intersects the axis at other than a right angle,
           separating the body on a diagonal
Anatomical planes
Anatomical Terms
Anatomical Terms
        Anatomical Terms
• anterior (ventral)=front
  posterior (dorsal)=back
  superior (cranial)=upper
  inferior (caudal)=lower
  median = in the midline
• Medial = near the midline
  lateral=away from the midline
• intermediate=between medial and lateral
  proximal= point of origin
  distal= away from origin
  superficial= external/surface
  deep= internal /surface
  parietal= associated with body wall
• visceral= associated with organ
         Patient Positions
.Supine position : the body is lying on the back
. Prone position : the body is lying flat with the
                     face downwards .
. Sims s position : postoperative
.Fowler s position : semi sitting
.Lithotomy position : gynecological position
.Lateral position : on one side of the body
. Erect position : standing
Patient Positions
Movements
      Movement                 Definition

Flexion          Decrease the angle of that joint ,
                 is a bending movement
Extension        Straightening movement that
                 increase the angle of a joint
Adduction        Movement near the body

Abduction        Movement away from the body

                 Medial Rotation : rotation medially
Rotation         Lateral Rotation : rotation laterally

                 Summation of flexion ,adduction
Circumduction    ,extension ,abduction

Supination       The ulna & radius are parallel
                 The radius crosses over the ulna
Pronation
            Movements
Fetal position : all joints are flexed
Body Cavities & Serous Sacs
                 The Serous sacs
.The serous sac is a closed sac ; made up of simple
  squamous epithelium ( flat cells ) .
..The outer layer is known as the parietal layer & is
   sensitive (is related to covering bones + muscles )
…The inner layer blends with the viscera & is called
the visceral layer.
 The visceral layer is not sensitive , is supplied by the
Autonomic Nervous System .
A thin layer of fluid is present between the parietal &
visceral layers to prevent friction .
Serous sacs are 3 Ps ( Pericardium ,Pleura , Peritoneum )
Body Systems
 Organ system          Components                    Functions


. Integumentary        Skin , hairs ,nails           Protection



      .Skeletal             Bones                   Protection &
                                                       Support

                  Brain, spinal cord , nerves    Receive / Transmit
  Nervous
  .                             ,                    impulses
                          Sex organs
                           Muscles                  Movements
 .Muscular
                     Pituitary , Thyroid ,            Hormonal
 .Endocrine        Parathyroid , Adrenal,       secretion(metabolism/
                   Pancreas, ovary , testis         Homeostasis)
Organ System           Components                       Function

Cardiovascular   Heart , blood vessels , blood          Transport
    ( CVS )
                 Lymph vessels , lymph nodes      Transport , filtration
 Lymphatic       Tonsils , spleen


                 Nose, larynx ,trachea ,lungs         Gas exchange
Respiratory

                 Mouth ,Esophagus ,Stomach        Breakdown & absorption
 Digestive       ,Intestine , Salivary glands,          of foods
                 Pancreas ,Liver & gall bladder
                 Kidneys , Ureters , Bladder &    Filtration of blood &
  Urinary        Urethra
                                                  Elimination of wastes
                 Gonads                               Propagation
Reproduction
Abdominal Regions
            The Body Regions
Right Hypochondrium :        Epigastric area :      Left Hypochondrium :

( Liver & Gallbladder )       stomach & Pancreas   ( Spleen ,…..   )



                             Umbilical area        Left Lumbar                  :
Right Lumbar          :
                             : Small Intestine
( Kidney & Adrenal gland )
                                                   ( Kidney & Adrenal gland )




Right Iliac fossa : Hypogastric area : Left Iliac fossa :
                             ( Urinary   bladder   ( Pelvic Colon ,
Appendix, Cecum
                             ,…………..        )      ……… )
Joints
              The Joints
The joint is the meeting of two or more bones .

According to the type & mode of connection      3
types of joints are known :
                        . Fibrous joint

                        . Cartilaginous joint

                        . Synovial joint
Fibrous Joints
                Fibrous Joints
The fibrous tissues separate the articulating
bones become more harder by time ; may be
ossified .
e.g.
   - Sutures of the skull

   - Teeth ( gomphosis)

   - Inferior tibio-fibular )syndesmosis )
         joint
 The Cartilaginous joints
According to the type of cartilage connecting the
bones ; 2 types are known :
 a. Primary cartilaginous joint :
the cartilage is hyaline ; e.g. epiphyseal plate of
                                cartilage .
 b. Secondary cartilaginous joint :
the cartilage is white fibro-cartilage e.g.
intervertebral disc, sternal angle , symphysis
                                        pubis.
The secondary Cartilaginous joints




                    The I.V.D. is formed of nucleus pulposis
                            And annuleus fibrosis .
The secondary Cartilaginous joints
               The sternal angle is the white
               fibro-cartilage between the
               Manubrium & the body of the
               sternum.
               This cartilage may be ossified
               after the age of 40 years .
               The sternal angle is at the level
               of the 2nd rib .
               The sternal angle is an important
               landmark .
Synovial joint
     In the synovial joint, the articular
     bones are covered by hyaline
     cartilage . The articular bones
     are connected by a fibrous
     capsule . The capsule is lined
     by a synovial membrane which
     secrets synovial fluid .This
     synovial fluid acts as lubricant
     & nutritive to the cartilage .
     The outer surface of capsule is
     surrounded by ligaments .
     The capsule has rich blood &
     sensory supply .
Synovial joint
           Types of Synovial joint
According to the range of movements :
A. Plane synovial joint :
                         limited movements ( gliding )
B. Uniaxial joint :
                   -Hinge allows flexion & extension
                   -Pivot allows rotation
C. Biaxial joint : allows 2 movements ( Condylar ,
                     Ellipsoid )
D. Polyaxial joint : allows free movements
                      ( ball & socket )

								
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