Next Generation Air Transportation System

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					                Next Generation Air Transportation System

Undertaking that requires new integrated systems, procedures, aircraft performance
   capabilities, and supporting infrastructure to create an air transportation system that
   uses satellite-based surveillance and navigation and network-centric operations

NextGen is intended to improve the efficiency and capacity of the air transportation
   system so that it can accommodate anticipated future growth

By 2025, air traffic is projected to increase up to three times the current level

Today’s U.S. air transportation system will not be able to meet these air traffic demands
                  Commodity Futures Trading Commission

Congress created the Commodity Futures Trading Commission in 1974 as an
   independent agency with the mandate to regulate commodity futures and option
   markets in the United States

In 1974 the majority of futures trading took place in the agricultural sector

The futures industry has become increasingly varied over time and today encompasses
   a vast array of highly complex financial futures contracts

Future contracts one type of hedge against the risks involved in producing or
   consuming a product or service

Media Derivatives Inc.
                      Environmental Policy (Wikipedia)

Air Quality
Water Quality
Wildlife – ecosystem, biodiversity, endangered species

Recently, environmental policy has also attended to the communication of
   environmental issues

Government instruments
• financial incentives to private sector participants–
    • carrots (tax exemptions, tradable permits)
    • big sticks (taxes, fees, prohibitions & penalties)
    • infrastructure (sewers, roads, airports, …..
• public entities
Voluntary measures between private sector and government,
• bilateral agreements
• commitments made by firms independent of government pressure
• greener purchasing programs
             Environmental Law (Legal Information Institute)

The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) (Pub. L. 91–190, § 2, Jan. 1, 1970, 83
   Stat. 852) along with the Environmental Quality Improvement Act (Pub. L. 91–224,
   title II, § 202, Apr. 3, 1970, 84 Stat. 114.) the National Environmental Education Act
   ((Pub. L. 101–619, § 2, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3325)
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

The main objective of these federal statutes was to assure that the environment be
   protected against both public and private actions that failed to take account of costs
   or harms inflicted on the eco-system
7 U.S.C., Chapter 6 - Insecticides and Environmental Pesticide Control

16 U.S.C. -Conservation

Foreign Relations and Intercourse
22 U.S.C. § 274a - International Biological Program for the Earth's Ecology
22 U.S.C. § 2151p - International Environmental and Natural Resources
22 U.S.C. § 2151p-1 - Tropical Forests
22 U.S.C. § 2151q - Endangered Species
26 U.S.C., Chapter 38 - Environmental Taxes

Navigation and Navigable Waters
33 U.S.C., Chapter 9 - Protection of Navigable Waters
33 U.S.C., Chapter 26 - Clean Water Act
33 U.S.C., Chapter 27 - Ocean Dumping
33 U.S.C., Chapter 33 - Prevention from Pollution from Ships
33 U.S.C., Chapter 40 - Oil Pollution
The Public Health and Welfare
42 U.S.C. § 300g-1 - National Drinking Water Regulations
42 U.S.C., Chapter 23 - Atomic Energy
42 U.S.C., Chapter 55 - National Environmental Policy
42 U.S.C., Chapter 65 - Noise Pollution
42 U.S.C., Chapter 73 - Development of Energy Sources
42 U.S.C., Chapter 82 - Solid Waste Disposal
42 U.S.C., Chapter 85 - Clean Air Actl
42 U.S.C., Chapter 103 - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation
   and Liability Act (CERCLA)

43 U.S.C. Public Lands
40 C.F.R. - Protection of Environment

U.S. Supreme Court: Recent Environmental Law Decisions
U.S. Circuit Courts of Appeals: Recent Environmental Law Decisions
U.S. Supreme Court: Recent Natural Resource Decisions
U.S. Circuit Courts of Appeals: Recent Natural Resource Decisions

Congressional Research Service Reports
                        Environmental Nonprofits

Natural Resources Defense Council
Resources for the Future
Environmental Defense Fund
Worldwatch Institute
American Farmland Trust
National Wildlife Federation
Izaak Walton League
Sierra Club
The Wilderness Society
Union of Concerned Scientists
                       Access to Specific Legislation

Environmental Protection Agency Laws and Regulations
Facts about Federal Wildlife Laws (Fish and Wildlife Service)
Digest of Federal Laws (Fish and Wildlife Service)
Environmental Legislation (Congressional Research Service blogs)

Natural Resources Defense Council Legislative Watch
Major Federal Environmental Laws (Acts) (Purdue University)
Fish, Game & Wildlife Law (

Office of Air and Radiation

The Clean Air Act gives EPA the authority to establish policy and promulgate regulations to protect air

Air Toxics Rules and Implementation
Clean Air Act
Clean Air Interstate Rule
Clean Air Mercury Rule
Dry Cleaning Rule
Fuel Economy Calculations
New Source Review Permits
Nonroad Diesel Tier 4
Operating Permits Program
Ozone Depletion Regulations
Phaseout of Ozone-Depleting Substances
                         Climate Change

                                 Massachusetts V EPA 549 U.S. 497 (Cornell
                                 Supreme Court sends carbon regulation back to
                                 the EPA (ARS Technica)
                                 •In the majority view, the "EPA’s steadfast refusal
                                 to regulate greenhouse gas emissions presents
                                 a risk of harm to Massachusetts that is both
Regulatory Initiatives           'actual' and 'imminent.'"
                                 Crazy on Carbon Dioxide (National Review)

                                 The EPA's Prudent Response to Massachusetts
                                 v. EPA (Heritage Foundation)

                                 Massachusetts v. EPA, Ignored: One Year Later,
                                 Back to Court We Go (Warming Law blog)
                      Other Atmospheric Concerns

Acid Rain
Indoor Air Quality
• Carbon Monoxide
• Radon
• Volatile Organic Compounds
• Second-hand Smoke
• Asbestos
• Mold
Lead in Paint, Dust, and Soil
Clean Air Markets

Non-Hazardous Waste – Municipal Solid Waste
• Laws and regulations

Hazardous Wastes - Superfund

Program established to address abandoned hazardous waste sites. It is also the name
   of the fund established by the Comprehensive Environmental Response,
   Compensation and Liability Act of 1980, as amended (CERCLA statute, CERCLA

Enacted in the wake of the discovery of toxic waste dumps such as Love Canal and
   Times Beach in the 1970s the legislation allows EPA to clean up such sites and to
   compel responsible parties to perform cleanups or reimburse the government for
   EPA-lead cleanups
The cleanup process involves several steps
• to assess sites
• to place them on the National Priorities List
• to establish and implement appropriate cleanup plans.

EPA also has the authority
• to conduct removal actions where immediate action needs to be taken
• to enforce against potentially responsible parties
• to ensure community involvement
• involve states
• and ensure long-term protectiveness

The blueprint for these activities is the National Oil and Hazardous Substances
   Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), a regulation applicable to all federal agencies
   involved in responding to hazardous substance releases

                               Toxic Substances

Summary of Toxic Substances Control Act provides EPA with authority to require
   companies produce and/or use chemicals in safe manner by testing the chemicals,
   keeping records, and reporting, and to place restrictions on the manufacture and
   use of some.
Certain substances are generally excluded from TSCA, including, among others, food,
   drugs, cosmetics and pesticides.

                                 Water and E.P.A.

The Clean Water Act (CWA) provided EPA and the States with a variety of programs
   and tools to regulate discharges of pollutants into the waters of the United States
   and to restore those waters that have been impaired by such actions.
These programs and tools rely either on water quality-based controls, such as water
   quality standards, or technology-based controls such as effluent guidelines

National Pollution Discharge Elimination System
• Industrial Wastewater – effluent limitation guidelines
• Municipal wastewater
• Stormwater
                    Ground Water and Drinking Water

Safe Drinking Water Act
Drinking Water Standards
Regulations & Guidance
List of Contaminants

Public Drinking Water Systems
Water Security

Source Water Protection


Wetland Authority

Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v Army Corps of Engineers 531 U.S. 159
Rapanos v United States 547 U. S. 715 (2006)
U.S. Army Corps and EPA Propose New Regulations for Wetland Mitigation (The
    Impact Report, 2006)

Rulings Restrict Clean Water Act, Foiling E.P.A (The New York Times March 1, 2010)