The Grapes by dandanhuanghuang


									1.1 Cable Street

Cable Street started as a straight path along which hemp ropes were twisted into ships cables (ie ropes). These supplied the many
ships that would anchor in the nearby Pool of London, between London Bridge and Wapping & Rotherhithe. The length of rope
needed for the sails on the ships was a mile in length and this is why Cable Street is exactly one mile long.

Until Victorian times, the current Cable Street had different names for each of its sections. From west to east these ran: "Cable
Street", "Knock Fergus", "New Road", "Back Lane", "Blue Gate Fields", "Sun Tavern Fields", "Brook Street".
The whole of the central area of the current street was named after St George in the East church and its parish.
From Victorian times through to the 1950s, Cable Street had a reputation for cheap lodgings, brothels, drinking inns and opium

The last occasion in England when a stake was hammered through a sinner’s heart at an official burial, took place at the junction
of Cable Street and Cannon Street Road. John Williams was found hanged in his cell, after being arrested as a suspect in the
Ratcliff Highway murders. Local people went along with the claim that he had committed suicide, from guilt of the crimes. At
the time, 1812, suicide was considered to be sinful, and justified him being buried upside down with a stake through his heart.
His skull was found when new gas mains were being laid in the 1960s, and was on display for many years in The Crown and
Dolphin pub opposite.

In 1936, a violent confrontation between the police and local communities, was later named the Battle of Cable Street.
Communist, Anarchist, Labour and Jewish groups joined with locals to resist a planned march through the East End by the
British Union of Fascists. A large mural on St George's Town Hall next to Library Place, depicts scenes from the day. A red
plaque in Dock Street commemorates the incident.

The Battle of Cable Street took place on Sunday 4 October 1936 in Cable Street in the East End of London. It was a clash
between the Metropolitan Police Service, overseeing a legal march by the British Union of Fascists, led by Oswald Mosley, and
anti-fascists, including local Jewish, socialist, anarchist, Irish and communist groups. The majority of both marchers and counter-
protesters travelled into the area for this purpose. Mosley planned to send thousands of marchers dressed in uniforms styled on
those of Blackshirts through the East End of London, which had a large Jewish population.

The Board of Deputies of British Jews denounced the march as anti-semitic baiting and urged Jewish people to stay well away.
The Communist Party of Great Britain also tried to stop its members from taking part. Forbidden from confronting the
blackshirts, party members had to operate under the cover of the ex-Serviceman's Association. On the day, the Communist Party
produced a leaflet for an anti-fascist demonstration in Trafalgar Square, to draw people away from the East End. Stepney
communist Joe Jacobs, who played a leading role, was expelled for 'street fighting'.
Despite the strong likelihood of violence, the government refused to ban the march and a large escort of police was provided in
an attempt to prevent anti-fascist protestors disrupting the march.

The anti-fascist groups erected roadblocks in an attempt to prevent the march from taking place. The barricades were erected
near the junction with Christian Street, towards the west end of this long street. An estimated 300,000 anti-fascist demonstrators
turned out.
Over 10,000 police, including 4,000 on horseback, attempted to clear the road to permit the march to proceed. The demonstrators
fought back with sticks, rocks, chair legs and other improvised weapons. Rubbish, rotten vegetables and the contents of chamber
pots were thrown at the police by women in houses along the street. After a series of running battles, Mosley agreed to abandon
the march to prevent bloodshed. The BUF marchers were dispersed towards Hyde Park instead while the Anti-fascists rioted with
Police. 150 demonstrators were arrested, although some escaped with the help of other demonstrators. Several members of the
police were kidnapped by demonstrators. Around 100 people were injured including police, women and children.

1.2 St George in the East

Architect Nicholas Hawksmoor

St George in the East is an Anglican Church and one of six Hawksmoor churches in London, England, built from 1714 to 1729,
with funding from the 1711 Act of Parliament. The name of the church was also the parish for the surrounding area, until
subsumed into Metropolitan Borough of Stepney.
It is located on Cannon Street Road, between The Highway and Cable Street, in the East End of London.
Behind the church lies St George's Gardens, the original cemetery, which was passed to Stepney Council to maintain as a public
park in mid-Victorian times.
In 1836, the parish of St George in the East was constituted as a Poor Law parish under the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834.
It appeared in the 1980 film The Long Good Friday starring Bob Hoskins.

1.3 The Highway

The Highway, formerly known as the Ratcliffe Highway, is a mile-long road in the East End of London, with several historic
landmarks nearby. The route dates back to Roman times. In the 19th century it had a very notorious reputation for vice and crime
and was the site of the infamous Ratcliff Highway murders. The name 'Ratcliffe' literally means 'Red Cliff', referring to the red
sandstone cliffs which descended from the plateau on which the road was situated down to the Wapping Marshes to the south.

The Ratcliff Highway murders were two vicious attacks that resulted in multiple fatalities, and occurred over twelve days in the
year 1811, in homes half a mile apart near Wapping in London.

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The first attack took place on 7 December 1811, at 29 Ratcliffe Highway, in the home behind a linen draper's shop, on the south
side of the street, between Cannon Street Road and Artichoke Hill. Ratcliffe Highway is the old name for the road now called
The Highway, in the East End of London. The victims of the first murders were Timothy Marr, a 24 year old linen draper and
hosier, who had served the East India Company on the Dover Castle from 1808 to 1811, his wife Celia and their 3 month old son,
Timothy (who had been born on 29 August 1811); and James Gowan, their shop boy. Margaret Jewell, a servant of the Marrs,
had been sent to purchase oysters, and escaped. This murder caused the government to offer a reward of 500 guineas for the
apprehension of the perpetrator.
Twelve days later, the second incident, on 19 December, was at The Kings Arms in New Gravel Lane (now Garnet street). The
victims of the second murders were John Williamson, a publican, 56 years old, who had been at the Kings Arms for 15 years,
Elizabeth, his wife, aged 60 and Bridget Anna Harrington in her late 50's, a servant. Williamson's 14-year-old granddaughter,
Catherine (Kitty) Stillwell, slept through the incident and was thus not discovered. John Turner, a lodger and journeyman,
discovered the murders and escaped out of an upper window, using a knotted sheet to climb down to the street below.
The victims' bodies were buried in the cemetery of the local parish church, St George in the East.

A principal suspect in the murders, John Williams (also known as Murphy), was a lodger at the nearby Pear Tree public house in
Old Wapping. He was a 27 year old, Scottish or Irish seaman. He had nursed a grievance against Marr from when they were
shipmates, but the subsequent murders at the Kings Arms remain unexplained.

Williams was arrested, but committed suicide by hanging himself, in Coldbath Fields Prison. His corpse was dragged through the
streets, in a cart, that paused by the scene of the murders. His body was pitched into a hole and was buried, with a stake through
its heart, at the junction of Commercial Road and Cannon Street Road. In August 1886, the skeleton of John Williams (with a
stake driven through it) was discovered during the excavation of a trench by a gas company. It was six feet below the surface of
the road where Cannon Street and Cable Street cross at St George in the East. The landlord of the Crown and Dolphin public
house, at the corner of Cannon Street Road, retained the skull as a souvenir.

Londoners were familiar with violent attacks in the street at night, and Ratcliff Highway had a particularly bad reputation for
robbery. Yet, these murders shocked London and much of England, because they took place inside people's homes.
The saying "An Englishman's home is his castle" indicates how safe people felt inside their homes, once their door was locked
and the window shuttered. The first murders took place after the premises had been locked up, according to witnesses
interviewed afterward, so the murderer(s) must have already been hiding inside.

The thriving cheap newspapers spread the news round the country, as the gruesome details of the violence leaked out over the
days after the two incidents. This became one of the first national shock stories to circulate in Britain. Speculation on who killed
the innocent families, and why, kept the story alive right through to the burial of the eventually accused man.
Recent reviews of the evidence suggest he was not the murderer.

In 1811, two of the world's first police forces were in London. One was the City-based Bow Street Runners, whose remit was
confined to the West End. The other was the Marine Police Force, founded in 1798 to tackle theft and looting from ships
anchored in the Pool of London and the lower reaches of the river. Its base was (and remains) in Wapping High Street, it is now
known as the Marine Support Unit. This police station is only a few minutes walk from the crime scenes, and a detective, based
there, helped to investigate the events.
Before modern approaches to crime detection had been developed, finding a culprit to account for a crime depended mostly on
character testimonies. Hence much factual information that could have excluded several suspects was ignored by the
inexperienced decision-makers.

1.4 Prospect of Whitby

The Prospect of Whitby is a historic public house on the banks of the Thames at Wapping in the London Borough of Tower
Hamlets. It lays claim to being the site of the oldest riverside tavern, dating from around 1520. It was formerly known as the
Devil’s Tavern, on account of its dubious reputation. Before that it was officially called "The Pelican". All that remains from the
building’s earliest period is the 400 year old stone floor. In former times it was a meeting place for sailors, smugglers, cut-throats
and footpads. Sir Hugh Willoughby sailed from here in 1533 in a disastrous attempt to discover the North-East Passage to China.
In the 17th century, it became the hostelry of choice of "Hanging" Judge Jeffreys, scourge of the Monmouth Rebellion. He lived
nearby and a noose hangs by a window, commemorating his custom. He was chased by anti-Royalists into the nearby Town of
Ramsgate, captured and taken to the Tower for his own safety. According to legend, criminals would be tied up to the posts at
low tide and left there to drown when the tide came in. Execution Dock was actually by Wapping Old Stairs and generally used
for pirates.
Views from the pub were sketched by both Turner and Whistler. Writers Charles Dickens and Samuel Pepys are known to have
paused to sup here.
Following a fire in the early 19th century, the tavern was rebuilt and renamed The Prospect of Whitby, after a Tyne collier that
used to berth next to the pub.

The public house features briefly in an episode of Only Fools And Horses. When Uncle Albert goes missing in one episode, Del
Boy travels around London looking for him. David Jason is shown in one scene walking out of the pub.

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2.1 King Edward VII Memorial Park

King Edward VII Memorial Park was created in 1910 after the Government decided that it was more fitting that King Edward
VII's life was honoured with local commemorations than grand countrywide gestures. It was thought that London was the best
place in which to create a memorial to the former King.
Thus, the then Lord Mayor chose a numerous board of important figures from all walks of life to debate the issue. Funds were
raised and donations received from a wide range of people from all kinds of backgrounds and social standing. The board felt that
the ideal form for the memorial to take would be a park. The now finished memorial park is located near Glamis Street.
Note the ventilation shaft for the Rotherhithe tunnel which runs below. Until the second world war this had a staircase allowing
pedestrians to access the tunnel.

2.2 The Grapes

The fact this long, narrow little pub has managed to survive the frenzy of Docklands redevelopment shows what a special place it
is. Now a listed building, it stands at the end of a row of similar dwellings, some of whose residents are knights and lords.

Built in 1720, on the site of a previous pub, the Grapes was a working class tavern, serving the workers of the Limehouse Basin.
There are unsavoury stories of watermen taking drunks from the pub, drowning them in the river, then selling their corpses for
medical dissection.

Charles Dickens knew this pub well. As a child, he was made to stand on a table and sing to the customers. As an adult, he
immortalised it as the Six Jolly Fellowship Porters pub in Our Mutual Friend .

The front bar has dark stained timber clad walls; an assortment of odd wooden chairs and tables and bare floorboards. The back
bar has an open fire and steps leading to a deck over the Thames.

3.1 The Greenwich Foot Tunnel

The Greenwich foot tunnel is a pedestrian tunnel crossing beneath the River Thames in East London, linking Greenwich (London
Borough of Greenwich) in the south with the Isle of Dogs (London Borough of Tower Hamlets) to the north. The tunnel is
currently undergoing refurbishment and the works should be complete by March 2011.

The tunnel was designed by civil engineer Sir Alexander Binnie for London County Council, and was constructed by contractor
John Cochrane & Co; the project started in June 1899 and the tunnel was opened on 4 August 1902. The tunnel replaced an
expensive and sometimes unreliable ferry service, and was intended to allow workers living on the south side of the Thames to
reach their workplaces in the London docks and shipyards then situated in or near the Isle of Dogs. Its creation owed much to the
efforts of working-class politician Will Crooks who had worked in the docks and, after chairing the LCC's Bridges Committee
responsible for the tunnel, would later serve as Labour MP for nearby Woolwich.

The entrance shafts at both ends lie beneath glazed domes, with lifts (installed in 1904, upgraded in 1992) and spiral staircases
allowing pedestrians to reach the sloping, tile-lined tunnel at the bottom. The cast-iron tunnel itself is 370.2 m (1,217 ft) long and
15.2 m (50 ft) deep and has an internal diameter of about 9 feet (2.7 m). Its cast-iron rings are lined with concrete which has been
surfaced with some 200,000 white glazed tiles. The northern end was damaged by bombs during World War II and the repairs
included a thick steel and concrete inner lining that reduces the diameter substantially for a short distance.

The tunnel is a convenient link between Greenwich town centre on the southern side — the entrance is close to the remains of the
previously preserved tea clipper Cutty Sark — and parts of Docklands including Canary Wharf. The northern entrance to the
tunnel is at Island Gardens, a park on the southern tip of the Isle of Dogs, with excellent views across the river to the former
Greenwich Hospital, the Queen's House and the Royal Greenwich Observatory. Because of its depth and location, the tunnel
remains cool even on hot days.

The tunnel is classed as a public highway and therefore by law is kept open 24 hours a day. However, the attendant-operated lift
service is only open from 7am to 7pm on weekdays and Saturdays, 10am-5.30pm on Sundays, with no service on Christmas Day
or Boxing Day; staff shortages and other problems mean that even during these times the lifts are often unavailable. If the lift is
not functioning and a person feels unable to use the stairs, they may take the Docklands Light Railway from nearby Island
Gardens DLR station to Cutty Sark DLR station, close to the southern end of the foot tunnel. However non-folding bicycles are
not permitted on the Docklands Light Railway system.
The tunnel is also part of the UK's National Cycle Route 1 linking Inverness and Dover, although cyclists are required to
dismount and push their bikes through the tunnel itself.

3.2 Trinity College of Music

Trinity College of Music is one of the London music conservatories, based in Greenwich. The conservatoire is housed in the
elegant riverside buildings of the former Greenwich Hospital and Royal Naval College, designed in part by Sir Christopher
The buildings were originally constructed to serve as the Greenwich Hospital, designed by Christopher Wren, and built between
1696 and 1712. The hospital closed in 1869. Between 1873 and 1998 it was the Royal Naval College, Greenwich.

3.3 The Trafalgar

In Victorian London there was one pub that represented the best of Britain’s naval might and cultural standing. A place where
William Gladstone and Charles Dickens could be seen dining side-by-side. An oasis away from the industrial sprawl, but yet at

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the centre of an Empire. Exactly 170 years later the Trafalgar Tavern still stands in the Greenwich Maritime World Heritage Site,
and it remains one of London’s most essential public houses.

Built on the site of the Old George Inn in the year of Victoria’s ascension, 1837, this stunning late Regency building boasts
splendid bay windows with elegant balconies and columns. Stepping inside you step back in time, such is the attention to detail
shown in the building’s restoration. Downstairs, the Collingwood Restaurant and Duncan Bar are open to all, in the most
democratic style, for drinks, lunches and dinners. While upstairs, the Nelson Banqueting Rooms provide a fitting home for The
Saints and Sinners, an archetypal gentlemen’s dining club who meet each autumn for a sumptuous meal.

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4.1 Deptford

Deptford is an area on the south bank of the River Thames in south-east London. It is named after a ford of the River
Ravensbourne, and from the mid 16th century to the late 19th was home to Deptford Dockyard, the first of the Royal Dockyards.
This was a major shipbuilding dock and attracted Peter the Great to come and study shipbuilding. Deptford and the docks are
associated with the knighting of Sir Francis Drake by Queen Elizabeth I aboard the Golden Hind, the legend of Sir Walter
Raleigh laying down his cape for Elizabeth, Captain James Cook's third voyage aboard Resolution, and the mysterious murder of
Christopher Marlowe in a house along Deptford Strand.
Though Deptford began as two small communities, one at the ford, and the other a fishing village on The Thames, Deptford's
history and population has been mainly associated with the docks established by Henry VIII. The two communities grew together
and flourished while the docks were the main administrative centre of the British Navy, and a few grand houses like Sayes Court,
home to diarist John Evelyn, and Stone House on Lewisham Way were erected. The area declined as first the Royal Navy moved
out, and then the commercial docks themselves declined until the last dock, Convoys Wharf, closed in 2000.

The Elizabethan playwright Christopher Marlowe was killed during an alleged drunken brawl in Eleanor Bull's house in
Deptford Strand in May of 1593. Various versions of Marlowe's death were current at the time. Francis Meres says Marlowe was
"stabbed to death by a bawdy serving-man, a rival of his in his lewd love" as punishment for his "epicurism and atheism". In
1917, in the Dictionary of National Biography, Sir Sidney Lee wrote that Marlowe was killed in a drunken fight. Modern theories
are that he was assassinated. It is commonly assumed that the fight took place in a Deptford tavern.
The scholar Leslie Hotson discovered in 1925 the coroner's report on Marlowe's death in the Public Record Office which gave
fuller details. Marlowe had spent all day in a house rather than a tavern, owned by the widow Eleanor Bull, along with three men,
Ingram Frizer, Nicholas Skeres and Robert Poley. Witnesses testified that Frizer and Marlowe had earlier argued over the bill,
exchanging "divers malicious words." Later, while Frizer was sitting at a table between the other two and Marlowe was lying
behind him on a couch, Marlowe snatched Frizer's dagger and began attacking him. In the ensuing struggle, according to the
coroner's report, Marlowe was accidentally stabbed above the right eye, killing him instantly. The jury concluded that Frizer
acted in self-defence, and within a month he was pardoned. Marlowe was buried in an unmarked grave in the churchyard of St
Nicholas, Deptford, on 1 June 1593.

4.2 The Dog and Bell

The pub is run by Charlie and Eileen Gallagher.

The Dog and Bell public house was built in 1849.

This is a traditional local pub, no Sky television, no juke box, no one armed bandits, no pool table but we do have a lovely eighty
year old bar billiard table, a beer garden and convivial conversation.

The pub's forerunner was, William Boyes. William ran a victualling business on the short length of Dock Street in 1749 which
was also then known then as Dog Street. Situated on the other side of the street from Deptford Dockyard, he supplied ships
biscuits (which were made in Deptford) and other victuals, plus small beer which presumably was for shipwrights etc who
worked on site. In fact the dockyard's vicualling yard wall, though built later, is still partly in place and dominates the view from
the front of the pub today. Back then in the 1700s though Deptford Dockyard had the highest output of navy ships in the country
-which was no mean achievement. However by 1823 things had changed, and the vicualling premises was replaced by an
alehouse named the Dog and Bell which sold beer to workers from the dockyard and round about. The Dog and Bell's publican at
this time was David Archer, unfortunately he soon fell foul of the law, being reported in 1825 to a Justice of the Peace by a
constable for "being kept open at twelve at night and at that hour liquor had been served to riotous parties who inhabited a
disorderly house nearby".

At least three publicans later, the 1860's saw the building of a Royal Marine barracks on the massive dockyard site which
signalled a move-up for the alehouse to become a tavern which allowed the sale of beers and wines, plus there was a name
change and it became The Royal Marine. One can guess who its intended clientele were. But by 1872 the dockyard and its
military presence were at an end, and rather ignobly the launching slips were converted to sheep and cattle pens for much of the
yard became the "Foreign Cattle Market", which also had a huge on site slaughter house. In the late 1800s this area of Deptford
and its inhabitants were being criticised by both the temperance movement and other moral reformers, however the pub remained
open. In 1913 the never very financially successful cattle market closed. The dockyard was changed again during the subsequent
world wars to wharfage and was renamed convoy's wharf. Today the wharf is euphemistically described as - a riverside
regeneration opportunity, but the pub just keeps on going.

The Dog and Bell's present licensees and owners, Charlie and Eileen Gallagher haven't been there that long compared to this
history, since 1988 in fact. Before them the pub was part of the Truman's chain but was still called the Royal Marine, but they
turned it into what it is today, an award winning real ale freehouse. In 1994 the Dog and Bell won its first CAMRA pub of the
year award, and has since received numerous and diverse awards and commendations. Part of its secret would seem to be its
consistent, modest and uncomplicated approach, with an emphasis on great ales and unpretention. The Dog and Bell truly is a
special example of Deptford's unique character, which has emerged from a complex mixture of new elements with survivals from
the past.

Also, it is on the Thames Path, the national trail that goes from the source to the Thames Barrier at Woolwich via Reading, and I
have walked al 288 km of it!

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5.1 Mayflower

From a Rotherhithe quayside, near a pub called the Shippe, the Mayflower set sail for America. It was the spring of 1620, on
board were a group of Protestants fleeing religious persecution. Captain Christopher Jones couldn't have known that his
passengers were to become the most famous Americans ever, the Pilgrim Fathers.

The Mayflower and its crew returned to Rotherhithe in 1621. Jones died a year later and was buried at St. Mary's Churchyard, a
stones throw from the pub. His grave is now unmarked but a plaque records his fateful journey.

A century later the Shippe was rebuilt and renamed the Spread Eagle and Crown. In 1957 the pub was restored. In recognition of
its historic connection with America, it was renamed the Mayflower. It is licensed to sell both US and British postage stamps,
having been a post office for the river.

Sitting right on the river, the pub even has its own jetty, where drinkers can sit in on warmer days. Inside this is an exceptionally
cosy and attractive pub, its black wood panelling, large oak beams, brick fireplace and display of nautical items, all add to the
atmosphere. Built-in settles form 'U' shaped snugs. Each has pearls of wisdom painted on it in gold, such as "A warm hearth and
fine wine, soothes the soul and passes the time".

5.2 Mayflower

In July 1620 the Mayflower sailed from Rotherhithe for Southampton on the south coast of England, to begin loading food and
supplies for the voyage to New England. At this time the English Separatists, who later became known as the "Pilgrim Fathers"
were mostly still living in the city of Leiden, in the Netherlands. Here they hired a ship called the Speedwell to take them from
Delfthaven in the Netherlands to Southampton to meet up with the Mayflower.
The ship's captain, Christopher Jones, died shortly after his return in 1621 and he is buried in an unmarked grave at St Mary's
Church. The Mayflower sailed from near a public house called the Shippe in Rotherhithe Street, which was substantially rebuilt
in the 18th century and is now named the Mayflower.

The Mayflower was the ship that transported the English Separatists, better known as the Pilgrims, from Plymouth, England, to
Plymouth, Massachusetts, United States (which would become the capital of Plymouth Colony), in 1620. There were 102
passengers and a crew of 25–30.

Initially, the plan was for the voyage to be made in two vessels, the other being the smaller Speedwell, which had transported
some of the Pilgrims embarking on the voyage from Delfshaven in the Netherlands to Southampton, England.
The first voyage of the ships departed Southampton, on August 5/15, 1620, but the Speedwell developed a leak, and had to be
refitted at Dartmouth on August 17/27.
On the second attempt, the ships reached the Atlantic Ocean but again were forced to return to Plymouth because of the
Speedwell's leak. It would later be revealed that there was in fact nothing wrong with the Speedwell. The Pilgrims believed that
the crew had, through aspects of refitting the ship, and their behaviour in operating it, sabotaged the voyage in order to escape the
year-long commitment of their contract.1]
After reorganization, the final sixty-six day voyage was made by the Mayflower alone, leaving from a site near to the Mayflower
Steps in Plymouth, England on September 6/16. With 102 passengers plus crew, each family was allotted a very confined amount
of space for personal belongings. The Mayflower stopped off at Newlyn in Cornwall to take on water.

The vessel left England on September 6 (from Plymouth), 1620 (Old Style)/September 16 (New Style), and after a grueling 66-
day journey marked by disease, which claimed two lives, the ship dropped anchor inside the hook tip of Cape Cod (Provincetown
Harbour) on November 11/November 21. The Mayflower was originally destined for the mouth of the Hudson River, near
present-day New York City, at the northern edge of England's Virginia colony, which itself was established with the 1607
Jamestown Settlement. However, the Mayflower went off course as the winter approached, and remained in Cape Cod Bay. On
March 21/31, 1621, all surviving passengers, who had inhabited the ship during the winter, moved ashore at Plymouth, and on
April 5/15, the Mayflower, a privately commissioned vessel, returned to England. In 1623, a year after the death of captain
Christopher Jones, the Mayflower was most likely dismantled for scrap lumber in Rotherhithe, London.
The Mayflower has a famous place in American history as a symbol of early European colonization of the future US. With their
religion oppressed by the English Church and government, the small party of religious Puritan separatists who comprised about
half of the passengers on the ship desired a life where they could practice their religion freely. This symbol of religious freedom
resonates in US society and the story of the Mayflower is a staple of any American history textbook. Americans whose roots are
traceable back to New England often believe themselves to be descended from Mayflower passengers.

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6.1 Borough Market

The wholesale market operates on all weekday mornings from 2 a.m. to 8 a.m., but the retail market operates only on Thursdays
from 11 a.m. to 5 p.m., Fridays from 12 p.m. to 6 p.m., and Saturdays from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. The market, which has focused
historically on fruits and vegetables, has, in recent years, added stalls dealing with the fine food retail market.
The present market, located on Southwark Street and Borough High Street just south of Southwark Cathedral on the southern end
of London Bridge, is a successor to one that originally adjoined the end of London Bridge (and made a considerable nuisance of
itself in the process). It was first mentioned in 1276, although the market itself claims to have existed since Roman times and was
subsequently moved south of St Margaret's church on the High Street. The City of London received a royal charter from Edward
VI in 1550 to control all markets in Southwark, which was confirmed by Charles II in 1671. However, the market caused such
traffic congestion that in 1754 it was abolished by an Act of Parliament.

The Act allowed for the local parishioners to set up another market on a new site, and in 1756 it began again on a 4.5 acre
(18,000 m²) site in Rochester Yard. During the 19th century it became one of London's most important food markets due to its
strategic position near the riverside wharves of the Pool of London.
The present buildings were designed in 1851, with additions in the 1860s and an entrance designed in the Art Deco style added
on Southwark Street in 1932. A refurbishment began in 2001. Work to date includes the re-erection in 2004 of the South Portico
from the Floral Hall, previously at Covent Garden which was dismantled when the Royal Opera House was reconstructed in the

Stallholders come to trade at the market from different parts of the UK and traditional European products are also shipped over
and sold. Amongst the produce on sale are fresh fruit and vegetables, cheese, meat, game and freshly-baked bread and pastries.
There is also a wide variety of cooked and snack food on sale for the many tourists who flock to the market.
The market is administered by 16 trustees, who have to live in the area.
Borough Market has become a fashionable place to buy food. It has been promoted by British television chefs and has been used
as a film set. Notable films with scenes filmed in the streets around the market include: Bridget Jones's Diary (2001), Lock, Stock
and Two Smoking Barrels (1998) and Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (2004).

As part of the Thameslink Programme project (formerly known as Thameslink 2000), a large number of listed buildings in the
Borough Market area are to be demolished potentially destroying the historic fabric of the area. This includes parts of the market
itself, and much of the area appearing in the aforementioned films. This is immensely unpopular locally and has prompted a
public inquiry, delaying the project. However, it is intended to remove one of the worst bottlenecks in the British rail network
and improve transport options considerably over a large portion of London.

6.2 The Market Porter

The Market Porter is most definitely a real ale pub, with beers changing up to nine times a day. The Market Porter enjoys an
attractive setting in a historic district of London – the Borough Market, so much so that the pub was transformed into the 'Third
Hand Book Emporium' in the film 'Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban', and was situated next to 'The Leaky Cauldron'!

7.1 The George

The George is London's only surviving galleried coaching inn. It stands on the south side of the River Thames near London
Bridge, for centuries this was the only bridge across the river.

The George was rebuilt in 1676, after a devastating fire swept Southwark. It was one of many such inns in the area, perhaps the
most famous being the Tabard, where Chaucer began his 'Canterbury Tales' in 1388. The Tabard too was rebuilt after the fire, but
was demolished in the late 19th century, despite a public outcry.

The George also narrowly avoided total destruction. Coaching inns declined as the railways advanced. The Great Northern
Railway used the George as a depot and pulled down two of its fronts to build warehousing, leaving just the south face. It is now
in the safe hands of the National Trust.

The George is tucked away in a cobbled courtyard just off Borough High Street. The ground floor is divided into several
connecting bars. There's a wealth of pretty lattice windows and oak beams. The Old Bar was the waiting room, for coachmen and
passengers. The Middle Bar was the Coffee Room, a haunt of Charles Dickens.

The bedchambers (now the restaurant) were in the galleried part. The gallery design provides both access and light, as the back
walls would have been crammed against other buildings. The George Inn is one of London's greatest treasures, how wonderful it
would have been if it had survived intact.

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8.1 Marshallsea Prison

The Marshalsea was a prison on the south bank of the River Thames in Southwark, now part of London. From at least 1329 until
it closed in 1842, it housed men under court martial for crimes at sea, including those who had committed "unnatural crimes";
political figures and intellectuals accused of sedition or other inappropriate behaviour; and—most famously—London's debtors,
the length of their stay determined largely by the whim of their creditors.
Run privately for profit, as were all prisons in England until the 19th century, the Marshalsea looked like an Oxbridge college
and functioned largely as an extortion racket. For prisoners who could afford the fees, it came with access to a bar, shop, and
restaurant, and the crucial privilege of being allowed to leave the prison during the day, which meant debtors could earn money
to pay off their creditors. Everyone else was crammed into one of nine small rooms with dozens of others, possibly for decades
for the most modest of debts, which increased as unpaid prison fees accumulated.A parliamentary committee reported in 1729
that 300 inmates had starved to death within a three-month period, and that eight to ten prisoners were dying every 24 hours in
the warmer weather.
The prison became known around the world during the 19th century through the writings of the English novelist Charles
Dickens, whose father was sent there in 1824 for a debt of £40 and 10 shillings. Forced to leave school at the age of 12 for a job
in a factory, Dickens based several of his fictional characters on this experience, most notably Amy Dorrit, whose father, like his
own, was a Marshalsea debtor.
Much of the prison was demolished in the 1870s, though some of its buildings were used into the 20th century, housing an
ironmonger's, a butter shop, and later a printing house for the Marshalsea Press. All that is left of it now is a long brick wall
separating a spartan public garden from a local history library, the existence of what Dickens called "the crowding ghosts of
many miserable years" marked only by a plaque from the local council. "It is gone now," he wrote, "and the world is none the
worse without it."

Notable prisoners

Ben Jonson was sent to the Marshalsea in 1597 for The Isle of Dogs, regarded as seditious.
Though most of the prisoners in the Marshalsea were debtors, the prison was regarded as second in importance only to the Tower
of London, and several political figures were held there, mostly for sedition and other kinds of inappropriate behaviour. William
Hepworth Dixon wrote in 1885 that it was full of poets, pirates, parsons, plotters, coiners, libellers, defaulters, Jesuits, and
vagabonds of every class.[59]
It became the main holding prison for Roman Catholics suspected of sedition during the Elizabethan era. Bishop Bonner, the last
Roman Catholic Bishop of London, was imprisoned there in 1559, supposedly for his own safety, until his death 10 years later.
William Herle, a spy for Lord Burghley, Elizabeth I's chief adviser, was held there in 1570 and 1571. In correspondence with the
Queen's advisers regarding Marshalsea prisoners he suspected of involvement in a plot to kill her—the so-called Ridolfi plot—
Herle reveals an efficient network within the prison for smuggling information out of it, which included hiding letters in holes in
the crumbling brickwork for others to pick up. Robyn Adams writes that the prison leaked both physically and metaphorically.
Intellectuals also regularly found themselves in the Marshalsea. Ben Jonson, the playwright, a friend of Shakespeare, was jailed
in 1597 for The Isle of Dogs, regarded as so inappropriate that it was immediately suppressed, with no known extant copies; on
July 28, the Privy Council was told it was a "lewd plaie that was plaied in one of the plaie houses on the Bancke Side,
contaynynge very seditious and sclandrous matter". The poet Christopher Brooke was jailed in 1601 for helping the 17-year-old
Ann More marry John Donne without her father's consent. George Wither, the political satirist, wrote his poem "The Shepherd's
Hunting" in the Marshalsea in 1614 while being held for four months for libel, based on his Abuses Stript and Whipt, 20 satires
criticizing revenge, ambition, and lust, one of them directed at the Lord Chancellor.
Nicholas Udall, vicar of Braintree and headmaster of Eton College, was sent there in 1541 for buggery and suspected theft,
though his appointment in 1555 as headmaster of Westminster School suggests the episode did his name no lasting harm. In 1632
Sir John Eliot, the Vice-Admiral of Devon, after being sent to the Marshalsea from the Tower of London for questioning the right
of the King to tax imports and exports, described the move as leaving his palace in London for his country house in Southwark.
John Selden, the jurist, was jailed there in 1629 for his involvement in drafting the Petition of Right, a document limiting the
actions of the King, regarded as seditious even though it had been passed by Parliament, and Colonel Culpeper in 1685 or 1687
for striking the Duke of Devonshire on the ear.

The presence of wives, lovers, daughters, and prostitutes was taken for granted. Visitors, including women, could come and go
freely, and even live with the prisoners, without being asked who they were, so long as they behaved themselves. The female
prisoners living on the women's side of the barracks were also allowed to mix freely with the men.[90] The anonymous
eyewitness reports that some of the rooms were specifically let out to prostitutes.[84] The prison gates were closed from ten at
night until eight the next morning, with a bell warning visitors half an hour before closing time, and an officer walking around
the prison calling, "Strangers, women and children all out!"

The Marshalsea was closed by an Act of Parliament in 1842, and on November 19 that year, the inmates were relocated to the
hospital at Bethlem if they were mentally ill, or to the King's Bench Prison, at that point renamed the Queen's Prison. On
December 31, 1849, during the reign of Queen Victoria, the Court of the Marshalsea of the Household of the Kings of England
was abolished, and its power transferred to Her Majesty's Court of Common Pleas at Westminster.

8.2 The Tabard

The Tabard, an inn that stood on the east side of Borough High Street in Southwark, was established in 1307, when the abbot of
Hyde purchased the land to construct a hostel for himself and his brethren, when business took them to London, as well as an inn
to accommodate the numerous pilgrims headed on annual pilgrimage to the Shrine of Thomas Beckett in Canterbury Cathedral.
The Tabard is famous as the place owned by Harry Bailey, the host in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales.

The inn is described in the first few lines of Chaucer's work as the location where the pilgrims first meet on their journey to
Canterbury in the 1380s:

Bifel that in that season on a day,
In Southwerk at the Tabard as I lay

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Redy to wenden on my pilgrymage
To Caunterbury with ful devout corage,
At nyght was come into that hostelrye
Wel nyne and twenty in a compaignye
Of sondry folk, by aventure yfalle
In felaweshipe, and pilgrimes were they alle,
That toward Caunterbury wolden ryde;
The chambres and the stables weren wyde,
And well we weren esed atte beste;

By the time the antiquary John Stow wrote his Survey, the Tabard was one among a crowd of inns that lined the thoroughfare
that led south from London Bridge towards Canterbury and Dover, "many fair inns, for receipt of travellers, by these signs: the
Spurre, Christopher, Bull, Queen's Head, Tabard, George, Hart, King's Head" &c. At the Dissolution of the Monasteries "the
Tabard of the Monastery of Hyde, and the Abbot's Place, with the stable and gardens thereunto belonging" were sold to John and
Thomas Master.
The inn, entered through a gateway in the high street, and clustered around its yard, was destroyed by a major fire in Southwark
in 1669 but was immediately rebuilt and renamed The Talbot. It profited from the coaching trade and was renowned as a
coaching inn in the days of Charles Dickens. However, it fell into disuse with the arrival of the railways and was converted into
stores. It was demolished in 1873.
The site of the Tabard is next door to The George (itself one of London's oldest public houses) in Talbot Yard, to the east of
Borough High Street. On 23 November 2003, a blue plaque was installed on the wall of Copyprints Ltd, the oldest building in
Talbot Yard, describing the historical significance of the Tabard Inn and celebrating Southwark's cultural links with Geoffrey
Chaucer. It was unveiled by former Python and medieval enthusiast Terry Jones.

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9.1 Hoxton

Hoxton is an area in the London Borough of Hackney, immediately north of the financial district of the City of London. The area
of Hoxton is bordered by Regents Canal on the north side, Wharf Road and City Road on the west, Old Street on the south, and
Kingsland Road on the east.

Hogesdon' is first recorded in the Domesday Book, meaning an Anglo-Saxon farm (or fortified enclosure) belonging to Hoch, or
Hocq. Little is recorded of the origins of the settlement, though there was Roman activity around Ermine Street, which ran to the
east of the area from the 1st century. In medieval times, Hoxton formed a rural part of Shoreditch parish. It achieved independent
ecclesiastical status in 1826 with the founding of its own parish church dedicated to St John the Baptist, though civil jurisdiction
was still invested in the Shoreditch vestry.
In 1415, the Lord Mayor of London "caused the wall of the City to be broken towards Moorfields, and built the postern called
Moorgate, for the ease of the citizens to walk that way upon causeways towards Islington and Hoxton" - at that time, still marshy
areas. The residents responded by harassing walkers to protect their fields. A century later, the hedges and ditches were
destroyed, by order of the City, to enable City dwellers to take their leisure in Hoxton.

By the end of the 20th century, the southern half of Hoxton had become a vibrant arts and entertainment district boasting a large
number of bars, nightclubs, restaurants, and art galleries. In this period, the new Hoxton residents could be identified by their
obscurely fashionable (or "ironically" unfashionable) clothes and their hair (the so-called "Hoxton Fin", as exemplified by Fran
Healy of Travis).

9.2 Prince Arthur

The Prince Arthur is a small back street pub run by a former boxer. It appear to be stuck in a 1970s time warp. It’s a Shepherds
Neame pub with a good selection of ales (including my favourite Master Brew).

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10.1 The Eagle

Up and down the city road, in and out of the Eagle. That’s where the money goes, pop goes the weasel!”
How many other pubs have a famous nursery rhyme about them…….none, except the Eagle! The world famous Eagle pub is
one of London’s oldest and most famous taverns.
The place has changed a lot since the days where workers would ‘pop’ or leave their clothes in order to pay for their drinks but
much of the history and tradition still remains to this day.
Perhaps because of the obscure nature of the lyrics there have been many suggestions for their significance, particularly over the
meaning of the phrase 'Pop! goes the weasel', including: that it is a tailor's flat iron, a hatter's tool, a clock reel used for measuring
in spinning, a piece of silver plate, or that 'weasel and stoat' is Cockney rhyming slang for 'coat', which is 'popped or pawned' to
visit or after visiting the Eagle pub, that it is a mishearing of weevil or vaisselle, that it was a nickname of James I, and that 'rice'
and 'treacle' are slang terms for potassium nitrate and charcoal and that therefore the rhyme refers to the gunpowder plot. Other
than correspondences none of these theories has any additional evidence to support it, and some can be discounted because of the
known history of the song. Iona and Pete Opie observed that, even at the height of the dance craze in the 1850s no-one seemed to
know what the phrase meant.
It is probable that the "Eagle" mentioned in the song's third verse refers to The Eagle freehold pub at the corner of Shepherdess
Walk and City Road mentioned in the same verse which was established as a London music hall in 1825 and was rebuilt as a
public house in 1901. This public house bears a plaque with this interpretation of the nursery rhyme and the pub's history.
Music hall in London had its origins in entertainment provided in the new style saloon bars of public houses during the 1830s.
These venues replaced earlier semi-rural amusements provided by traditional fairs and suburban pleasure gardens such as
Vauxhall Gardens and the Cremorne Gardens. These latter became subject to urban development and became fewer and less
The saloon was a room where for an admission fee or a greater price at the bar, singing, dancing, drama or comedy was
performed. The most famous London saloon of the early days was the Grecian Saloon, established in 1825, at The Eagle (a
former tea-garden), 2 Shepherdess Walk, off the City Road in north London. According to John Hollingshead, proprietor of the
Gaiety Theatre, London (originally the Strand Music Hall), this establishment was "the father and mother, the dry and wet nurse
of the Music Hall". Later known as the Grecian Theatre, it was here that Marie Lloyd made her début at the age of 14 in 1884.
Matilda Alice Victoria Wood (12 February 1870 – 7 October 1922) was an English music hall singer, best known as Marie
Lloyd. Her ability to add lewdness to the most innocent of lyrics led to frequent clashes with the then guardians of morality. Her
performances articulated disappointments of life, especially for working-class women.
Lloyd's songs, although perfectly harmless by modern standards, began to gain a reputation for being "racy" and filled with
double entendre, ("She'd never had her ticket punched before" for example) largely thanks to the manner in which she sang them,
adding winks and gestures, and creating a conspiratorial relationship with her audience. She became the target of Vigilance or
"Watch" committees and others opposing music-hall licences. She liked to claim that any immorality was in the minds of the
complainants, and in front of these groups would sing her songs "straight" to show their supposed innocence. In one famous
incident, she was summoned before one of these committees and asked to sing her songs. She sang "Oh! Mr Porter"; and "A
Little of What you Fancy" in such a sweet innocent way that the committee had no reason to find anything amiss. She then
rendered the drawing-room ballad "Come into the Garden Maud" in such an obscene way that the committee was shocked into
silence. She did herself no favours.

The music hall as we know it developed from such establishments during the 1850s and were built in and on the grounds of
public houses. Such establishments were distinguished from theatres by the fact that in a music hall you would be seated at a
table in the auditorium and could drink alcohol and smoke tobacco whilst watching the show. In a theatre, by contrast, the
audience was seated in stalls and there was a separate bar-room.

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11.1 The Wenlock Arms

The Wenlock Arms is a public house in London which reopened on Friday 14 January 1994. The pub is located half way
between Old Street and Angel Islington just off the City Road and the City Road Basin and Wenlock Basin on the Regent's
Canal. The pub has won awards for the quality and range of its cask ales. The Wenlock Arms was built in 1835, and opened as a
pub in January 1836. It survived the wartime bombing of the district but still retains much of its original characteristics. Once
part of the Wenlock Brewery Co., which used to be situated in this road, the décor doesn't appear to have been updated since the
brewery was closed by Bass in 1962.

David Beckham used to join his late grandad for drinks at the Wenlock Arms - even after he became a superstar.

But not every one like the pub; here is a review from beerintheevening

My first time in this pub and also my last. My friend and I entered the pub and found two long-haired types standing in
front of the bar with pen and paper furiously scribbling the names of all the beers down. Seated at the right side of the
bar were several men whose vocabulary consisted mainly of saying 'f*ck'. In front of the bar were bearded types
drinking halves of ale. Standing at the corner of the bar near us was a sixty year old man in a tracksuit in an
advanced state of inebriation. He swayed back and forth and mouthed gibberish to anyone passing.
There were about eight pumps selling mainly obscure beers with the exception of Dark Star Hophead and Harveys
Best. My friend and I had a pint of the Hophead which was well kept.
We were served by a Waynetta Slob lookalike who found it am.using when the aforementioned sixtysomething said
'Goodbye Gentlemen' to us. Being a 'Gentleman' I refrained from telling this piece of garbage to 'F*** off'.
This pub is a strange mixture of beer fanatics and local pondlife, and it's reputation as a 'good pub' is simply not
justified. It's a shithole.
If you like nice pubs and don't want to look over your shoulder whilst drinking, stay away from this dump.
I'll give it a 3 for the beer.
Report this for removal
                                                                                        dennisleigh - 22 Dec 2009 23:57

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