Church History

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					Church History



             ACTS 1 to this Kinship
           2000 years in 40 minutes.

           Compiled by John Ensworth,
             West Springfield Kinship
Why Study Church History?
   Learn the Mistakes of History → Avoid
    them?
    Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to
    repeat it.

   Discover our own roots
    (Restoration Movement, Vineyard)

   Avoid swinging the pendulum
    Grace ↔ Legalism
    Doctrine ↔ Zeal, Emotion, Heart
    Asceticism ↔ Freedom
The beginning
   Acts 1 +
   Reading from “Introduction to Church History”
       Persecution & Growth
   The Temple priests went after them in Acts 4
   First a warning, then a beating, then murder.
   Stephen – the first martyr – Acts 7:54-60

   Scattered the church and spread the word
    world wide.
Paul’s Conversion
   Saul of Tarsus, a devote Pharisee (present at
    the stoning of Stephen)
   Was heading to stamp out believers in
    Damascus - Acts 9
   Met Christ along the way
   Annanias was sent by God to help Paul
   Was baptized and received the Holy Spirit in
    Damascus –then went to Arabia for 3 years
         Gal 1:17-19
   16 to reveal his Son in me so that I might preach
    him among the Gentiles, I did not consult any man,
    17 nor did I go up to Jerusalem to see those who
    were apostles before I was, but I went immediately
    into Arabia and later returned to Damascus.
   18 Then after three years, I went up to Jerusalem to
    get acquainted with Peter and stayed with him
    fifteen days. 19I saw none of the other apostles—
    only James, the Lord's brother.
Paul planted, taught and
wrote
   Worked and spent time with some of the
    disciples ((Barnabas), Peter, James)
   Church in Antioch
   Cyprus and Asia Minor (Turkey)
   Macedonia
   Greece – Philippi, Thessalonica, Berea,
    Corinth
   Ephesus – then imprisoned in Rome 2 years
   Crete
Other early church planters
   Bartholomew – Armenia
   Andrew – Southern Russia and Ukraine
   Thomas – Persia and India
   Matthew – Ethiopia
   James (younger) – Egypt
   Jude – Assyria and Persia
   Mark (not the apostle) – Alexandria
   Peter- Babylonia (? – or name for Rome)
          After the apostles and friends
          passed away…
   The Apostolic Fathers:
       Apostolic or Post-Apostolic Fathers (c. 95-105 AD)
   The Apologists (c. 140-200)
   The Polemicists (c. 180-225)
   The Scientific Theologians (c. 225-460)

   (Arbitrary periods and designations, but
    useful)
     The Apostolic Fathers
   Purpose: To exhort and edify the church
   Writers/Writings:
       Clement      Shepherd of Hermas
       Papias       Barnabas
       Ignatius     Didache
       Polycarp

   (c. 95-105 AD)
The Apologists
   Purpose: To defend the Faith

   Leaders:
    Justin Martyr, Tatian, Tertulllian


   (c. 140-200 AD)
      Early Schisms and Heresies
   Judaizers      legalism


   Gnostics     humanity of Jesus, deep knowledge, we are divine
                 souls trapped in material world by imperfect God/spirit,
                 matter = evil, our spirit = good


   Marcionites       Jehovah an evil god- Hebrew bible rejected


   Montanists       charismatic, newer prophecies supersede apostles,
                     were ‘possessed by God’ when they spoke
       Early Schisms and Heresies
   Novatianists          purity of the church, back sliders (those who
                          renounced Christ under persecution) not
                          readmitted to the church
   Arians       deity of Jesus and different relationship between the
                 Father and Jesus – nontrinitarian
   Ebionism       opposed Paul, discounted his writings and teachings


   Monarchianism         rule of one- bothered by the trinity – power of
    God sank into Jesus over time


   Manicheism         Gnosticism with strong Oriental religious elements –
    mix of light and dark (good and evil). Christ came to help the light side.
The Polemicists
   Purpose:To attack error.

   Leaders:
    Irenaeus, Hippolytus, Tertullian, Cyprian

   (c. 180-225 AD)
    The Apostolic Church Drifts…

   Leadership/Church Organization
   Doctrine of Baptism
   Asceticism, Monasticism etc.
   Creeds, Liturgy, Church Calendar,
    Sacramentalism
   Sacerdotalism/Priesthood The Lord’s Supper
    becomes a sacrifice/supernatural
   Hermeneutics –        system of studying something and
    arriving at truth
The Scientific Theologians
   Purpose: To develop scientific methods of
    biblical interpretation

   Theologians:
    Alexandrian – Pantaenus, Clement, Origen,
    Athanasius, Cyril

    Western- Jerome, Ambrose,Augustine

    Eastern – Theodore, John Chrysostome

   (c. 225-460 AD)
More Persecution -Rome
   Earliest official persecution – 64-100 AD
       blame for fire of Rome July 19, 64 AD
       95AD originally directed at Jews who didn’t
        pay taxes
   Imperial Policy – 111-161 AD
       response to many leaving paganism
       mobs called for Christian blood and this
        was discouraged by Rome at first
More Persecution -Rome
   Marcus Aurelius – 161-180 AD
       Sent spies out to find Christians
        (didn’t wait for mobs or reports)
       Riots and mobs not checked
       1000’s thrown to lions and beheaded
        including Justin Martyr
       Still not considered an all out war on
        Christianity empire wide
        More Persecution -Rome
   Persecution across the empire 249-305 AD
       1000th year anniversary of Rome celebrated
       Looked back on earlier glory and wondered what
        messed it up…Christianity?
       Decius 249-251 AD – state religion needed
       Valerian 253-260 AD – was favorable towards Christians
        at first – many Christian leaders killed later on
       260-303 AD – quiet period
       303-305 AD – Diocletian(east) /Maximian (west) -
        Destruction of Christian places of worship and holy
        books decreed.
       More Persecution -Rome
   Toleration under Constantine from 313 AD+

   Holy Roman Church becomes legal 313 AD

   Fall of Roman Empire –September 4, 476 AD
       The Canon
   First (messed up Gnostic) cannon –
    Marcion 140 AD
   Destruction of scared writings by the Romans
    in 303 AD showed need to know what is
    worth dying for.
What is Canon?
   Writings inspired by God.
    (Which ones?)
   Apostle writings.
   Those close to the apostles.
   Moral and doctorial elements match
    apostle writings?
   Satisfied Hebrew Bible prophecy.
   The four gospels and Acts.
      Canon and Paul
   Paul's letters were circulated with the first
    NT canon
   250 AD – Had the four gospels, 13 epistles
    of Paul + 4 books not in the NT today.
   Hebrews was disputed – author unknown
   Given to Constantine in 330 AD
Councils of Carthate
   393 AD (St. Augustine was bishop)
    apparently set the current NT canon

   397 AD – no additions or subtractions
    will be made.
Approaching the Middle Ages
   325-681 AD
   Theological controversy and the Fall of
    Rome
   The Roman Catholic Church forms –
    reference to it in 107 AD
   Catholic = “the one church formed by
    Jesus and the apostles”
   Legalized under Constantine 313 AD
Pope Gregory the Great
   540-604 A.D.
   Transformed the bishopric of Rome into a
    papal system
   Introduced major changes in the liturgy and
    standardized it (though didn’t actually create
    Gregorian chants)
   Helped bring together the branches of Roman
    Catholic theology that were developing
   Penned famous commentary on Job which
    defined how commentaries were to be done.
Clarified ideas:
   Original Sin
   Forgiveness through baptism
   Purgatory
   Converted the Eucharist from a
    sacrament into a sacrifice for
    redemption
Islam Created
   Islam came into existence 622 AD
   Mohammad traveled to the Christian world to
    find a religion to unite the Arab world
   Was rejected
   Took elements from Judaism, Christianity and
    Arabian heathenism
   Preached 13 years in Mecca against
    polytheism, then flight to Medina in 622AD.
Islam Created
   Conquered Mecca in 629 AD
   Died 632 AD ruler of the Arabian peninsula
   Qur’an formed about 650 AD
   Major schism : Sunni (largest ~90%) and
    Shi’ite (7 to 15% of Muslims) late 600’s

   Now 1/5th of the world (.9 to 1.4 billion)
   (Christianity 1.9 billion presently)
Present percentage of population that is Muslim by
country.
Present percentage of population that is Christian by
country.
Middle Ages and the Catholic
Church
   Charlemagne was crowned ‘emperor of
    the Romans’ by Pope Leo III 800 AD
   Took this to mean he was the leader of
    all Christendom as well
    The Holy Roman Empire 800 AD
   Was Christianity for almost 200 years.
   (Napoleon abolished the empire in
    1806  1000 years later!)
       Schism 1054 AD
   The 1st great rift.
   The western (Latin) branch
   The eastern (Greek) branch

   Today The worldwide Catholic Church is made up
    of 1 Western Latin and 22 Eastern Catholic
    autonomous particular churches, all of which look
    to the Bishop of Rome (the Pope), alone or along
    with the College of Bishops, as their highest
    authority on earth for matters of faith, morals and
    church governance.
          Crusades
   Crusades: 1095AD - to the Holy Land to
    contain/push back Islam – failed ultimately
   Inquisition: 1184 to 1230’s – sought to assure
    religious and doctrinal unity within Christianity
    through conversion, and sometimes
    prosecution, of alleged heretics.
       Spanish 1478-1834, Portuguese 1536-1560+
       Roman 1542-mid 1800’s
        (including Galileo Galilei 1633)
         Decline of the Medieval
         Church 1305-1517 AD
   Rise of nationalism
   Backlash against the Inquisition
   Reaction against money-raising efforts of the Church
    (indulgences, oppressive taxes)
   Moral Laxity (especially 1400’s)
   Secularization of the church (the Renaissance)
   The Crusades
   Babylonian Captivity of the papacy (the pope was a
    virtual prisoner of the king of France 1305-1377)
   Papal Schism – Incompetent Pope Urban VI (1378-
    1417)
The Protestant Reformation
   The 2nd great rift.
   Germany in 1517 with Martin Luther
   Concluded with the Peace of Westphalia in
    1648. (ended the 30 and 80 years war, France, Germany, Sweden, Dutch, and the
    Holy roman Empire – Christians could worship freely wherever they were).

   Martin Luther nailed his Ninety-Five Theses
    On the Power of Indulgences to the door of
    the Wittenberg Castle Church, which served
    as a pin board for university-related
    announcements. These were points for
    debate that criticized the Church and the
    Pope.
The Protestant branches…
   The most important Protestant groups to
    emerge directly from the reformation were
    the Lutherans, the
    Reformed/Calvinists/Presbyterians, the
    Anabaptists, and the Anglicans.

    Subsequent Protestant denominations
    generally trace their roots back to the initial
    Reformation traditions. It also accelerated the
    Catholic or Counter Reformation within the
    Roman Catholic Church.
Christian Branches
    The thread of True Christianity in
    the Middle Ages?

   Paulicians    650-900’s Asia Minor – Some Gnostic
    elements, but accepted the OT, Gospels, Paul’s letters –
    and condoned the prophetic and tongues


   Arnold of Brescia       1100 Italy – gave his
    possessions away, land to the government, opposed
    the pope – taught of the trinity (also Héloïse)
    The thread of Christianity in the
    Middle Ages?

   Peter of Bruys      1110 Northern Italy – taught in
    opposition to the Roman Catholic Church
        Taught children younger than the age of understanding cannot
         be saved by baptism, ornate churches do not make the Church,
         the cross should not be a Christian symbol, there is no
         transubstantiation, you can’t sacrifice and pray or give alms for
         the dead – good deeds cannot profit the dead.
   Waldensians            1175-1500’s Peter Waldo,
    Switzerland – taught the value of poverty, public preaching and
    the personal study of scriptures (Mennonites and Baptists trace
    their roots through the Waldensians)
        The Reformation

   John Wycliffe England, 1324-1384
   John Huss Bohemia, 1374-1415
   Martin Luther Germany, 1483-1546
   Ulrich Zwingli Switzerland, 1484-1531
   William Tyndale England, 1494-1536
   John Calvin France, 1509-1564
   John Knox Scotland, 1505-1572
John Wycliffe 1324-1384




       Translated Vulgate into English
       Opposed indulgences, idols, priesthood
       The Pope is the antichrist (later years)
       Followers known as Lollards

       Declared heretic 1401:
               The Anti-Wycliffite Statute
       John Huss 1374-1415 Bohemia


Influenced by Wycliffe
Bible the only authority
Only God can forgive sin
Burned at the stake
Hussites virtually wiped out by the Inquisition
Brethren and Moravian Churches
(Anabaptist and/or Pietist movements)
John Huss Burned at the stake, 1415
        A quick Review
   God and His Spirit started the Church – Acts 1
   Jewish then Roman persecution spread it
   The Holy Roman Church traces it’s roots to the
    apostles and was ‘the main show in town’ until
    the reformation from 1517 to 1648.
      Martin Luther 1483-1546

Augustinian Monk
95 Theses in Wittenburg
Studied Romans
Salvation by Faith Only
Scripture Only to know about God
Predestination – believed in, but
shouldn’t be discussed
Book of James a “book of straw.”
(will ‘burn up’ and not remain
canon over time)
Kept much of Catholic worship
practices
   Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)



Swiss Reformer
More radical than Luther
Rejected almost all Catholic forms of
worship.
Differed on the Lord’s Supper – set a
table down the isle and men and
women sat – bread and wine served
on boards and wooden cups
His influence led to the Anabaptists
Principle influence on John Calvin
   William Tyndale 1494-1536

Protestant reformer
Translated the Bible into Early Modern
English
First to use the new medium of print
Arrested and jailed in 1535 in the
castle of Vilvoorde outside of
Brussels, Belgium
Was tried for heresy and treason, was
strangled and burnt at the stake in the
castle courtyard.
Much of his translation made it into
the King James Version in 1611
The Anabaptist Movement (1530’s and later)
                The Radical Reformation


Menno Simmons 1496-1561




                             Martyrdom of Anabaptists
        The Anabaptist Movement
   Baptism by immersion of adults after
    confession of faith for salvation.
   Bible the only authority.
   Separation of church and state.
   Emphasized both life and doctrine
   Pacifists (usually)
   Many became martyrs
   Began evangelistic, but became exclusive and
    withdrawn. (Mennonites, Amish, Hutterites)
   Tended to be very schismatic
               John Calvin 1509-1564
   Influenced most strongly by Zwingli
   Strongly influenced by theology of Augustine
   Most influential theologian of the Reformation
   Emphasized Historical/Covenantal Theology
   Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
   Established an autocratic theocracy in Geneva
   Best known for his strong emphasis on
    Predestination
   TULIP
                                       TULIP
   Total depravity of mankind
    every person is this by default

   Unconditional election
    God decides who will be saved ultimately

   Limited atonement
    The atonement of Christ applies only to those saved

   Irresistible grace
    The Holy Spirit CAN overcome all resistance and save

   final Preservation of the saints
    If you are saved, you are saved. If you return to
    willful sinning/evil etc. you never were saved or you
    will return to Him before the end.
          The Church of England
   Traces it’s roots to 597 AD
   Is the officially established Christian church in England, and
    acts as the "mother" and senior branch of the worldwide
    Anglican Communion
   Reformed insofar as many of the principles of the early
    Protestants as well as the subsequent Protestant Reformation
    have influenced it, and does not accept Papal authority.
   Catholic in that it views itself as the unbroken continuation
    of the early apostolic and later medieval universal church,
    rather than as a new formation. In its customs and liturgy it
    has retained more of that tradition than most other reformed
    churches.
         Other Important Figures in the
                 Reformation

   John Knox 1505-1572. Brought Calvinism to
    Scotland. Became the Presbyterian Church

   Puritans. 1559+ England. Congregational
    autonomy. Became the Congregational
    Church
          Other Important Figures in the
                  Reformation

   Baptists. 1612 (Anabaptist origins)
    Added believer’s baptism to Calvinism.

   Quakers. 1648 Literally quaked.
    A charismatic, emotional movement.
             Other Important Figures in the
                     Reformation

   Anglicans 1560’s – The Church of England – a
    doctrinal system of worshipping God falling
    somewhere between Roman Catholicism and
    Protestantism – adopt the Apostles Creed and
    Nicene Creed for example. King James Bible.
    Book of Common Prayers.

   Methodists: John Wesley started it near 1730
    reacting to apathy in the Church of England.
       Formed in Oxford, England
       Anglican Church roots
Christian Branches
      God’s Big Corrections
   A number of revivals has reoriented the
    Church to God and his plan –
    this might be a good topic for a future
    kinship…


   Fast Forward to the late 1800’s in the
    western U.S.
    International Church of the
    Foursquare Gospel
 An evangelical Pentecostal denomination
(evangelical = personal conversion and
  authority of the Bible + preaching and
  proselytizing)
(Pentecostal = direct personal experience of
  God through the baptism of the Holy Spirit –
  similar but different from the Charismatic
  movement.)
(denomination = a religious group sharing a
  common name, tradition, identity, doctrine,
  theology, philosophy, religious pluralism or
  even ethics)
     International Church of the
     Foursquare Gospel
   Foursquare Gospel from revival in Oakland Co.
    1922
   Aimee Semple McPherson (1890-1944) was a
    controversial female evangelist founded
    Foursquare church in 1927 in LA.
   Parents were Methodist, but she was an atheist
    when young
   L.I.F.E. Bible College
   Has grown to 1,844 churches in the US
   More than 30,000 churches worldwide
      International Church of the
      Foursquare Gospel values
   The Bible as the inspired word of God
   The Trinity
   The atoning death of Christ for sinners
   Salvation through the grace of God by Faith Alone
    in the Lord Jesus Christ
   The necessity of sincere repentance and
    acceptance of Christ
   The new birth (Sanctification)
   The daily growth through power, prayer, love and
    service
    International Church of the
    Foursquare Gospel values
   Baptism by immersion
   The memorial of The Lord's Supper as church
    ordinances
   The baptism of the Holy Spirit with evidence of
    Speaking In Tongues
   The Gifts and Fruits of the Spirit
   Divine healing
   The imminent return of Jesus Christ
   Final judgment
   Evangelism
   Tithing and Offerings
        Foursquare and other
        denominations
   Foursquare Church formed the "Pentecostal
    Fellowship of North America" in 1948 in
    Des Moines, Iowa together with the Assemblies of
    God, the Church of God, the Open Bible Standard
    Churches, the Pentecostal Holiness Church, and
    others.

   In 1994, the Fellowship reorganized as the
    Pentecostal/Charismatic Churches of North America
    after reconciliation with African Americans,
    particularly the constituency of the
    Church of God in Christ.
          Calvary Chapel –
          nondenominational churches
   Started in 1965 in Southern California
       Calvary Chapel Costa Mesa
   Broke away from the Foursquare Gospel
    denomination, Santa Anna California over
    “Does the Holy Spirit speak through prophecy today?”.
   Became associated with the Jesus Movement
    (Christian element of the hippie element late 1960’s
    and early 1970’s – west coast U.S. then worldwide
    until it faded out in the early 1980’s)
   1000+ churches worldwide
Calvary Churches
   Nondenominational / Protestant
   A mostly Episcopal church governance
    (tracing roots to Anglicanism)
   Tongues and prophecy not normal part of
    Sunday service – but are doctrinally valid
   Often teach Genesis to Revelation – verse by
    verse, chapter by chapter, book by book.
   Topical studies may be misleading.
      The Vineyard
   Considered an Evangelical church
    ‘in-between’ Charismatic and Pentecostal
    denominations.

   In 1974 a fellowship began in
    West Los Angeles with Kenn and Joannie
    Gulliksen, which was led to take the name of the
    "Vineyard" (Isaiah 27:2-3; John 15:5.)
John Wimber
   When John was conscripted by God he was,
    in the words of Christianity Today, a "beer-
    guzzling, drug-abusing pop musician, who
    was converted at the age of 29 while chain-
    smoking his way through a Quaker-led Bible
    study" (Christianity Today, editorial, Feb. 9 1998).
   He began church planting and became the
    pastor at Calvary Chapel church –
    Yorba Linda, California in 1997.
        Influences on John Wimber
   “George Eldon Ladd’s
    (1911-1982 Baptist minister and Fuller
    Theological Seminar professor)
    theological writings on the kingdom of God
    convinced John intellectually that the all the
    biblical gifts of the Holy Spirit should be active
    in the church.”
        Influences on John Wimber
   “Encounters with Fuller missiologists Donald
    McGavaran and C. Peter Wagner (Global
    Harvest Ministries, co-founder of the World
    Prayer Center – former New Life Church
    member Colorado Springs) and seasoned
    missionaries and international students gave
    him credible evidence for combining
    evangelism with healing and prophecy.”
Vineyard Roots
   In 1982 John Wimber’s church became a
    Vineyard and other pastors and leaders from
    the handful of Vineyard churches began
    looking to John for direction.

   The Vineyard movement was born and
    spread quickly around the world.
     Vineyard Core Principles
1. God the King and the Holy Trinity
2. God the King: The Creator and Ruler of All Things
3. Counterfeit Kingdom: Satan and Demonic Hosts
4. The Kingdom in the Creation of Man, the Fall and
   The Doctrine of Original Sin
5. God's Providence, Kingdom Law and Covenants
6. Christ the Mediator and Eternal King
   Vineyard Core Principles

7. The Ministry of the Holy Spirit
8. The Sufficiency of Scripture
9. The Power of the Gospel Over the Kingdom of
   Darkness
10. The Church: Instrument of the Kingdom
11. Baptism and the Lord's Supper
12. The Kingdom of God and the Final Judgment
Vineyard Today
   John Wimber passed away
    November 16, 1997.

   The Association of Vineyard churches
    include 1,500+ churches worldwide.
      The Woodbridge Vineyard
   The church’s founding pastor,
    Jim Robb, along with his wife
    Beverly, moved to the Northern Virginia
    area in the winter of 1987, following
    completion of his studies at Fuller
    Theological Seminary.
       Woodbridge Vineyard
   Jim and Beverly began the process of gathering
    people to form the core of a new Vineyard church
    plant.
   They met in homes until they had their first public
    meeting at Fred Lynn Middle School (next to our
    future church location).
   The church grew rapidly and was able to move
    into its current facility
    (at 13550 Jefferson Davis Highway)
    in May of 1990.
       Woodbridge Vineyard in
       Change
   March 2002, Jim Rob died of a heart attack in
    California (he was attending a distance learning
    class at the Jack Hayford School but he had to go
    to the actual school once a quarter for 1-2 weeks in
    California)

   After a search, Rick Frantz was called as the new
    senior pastor July 2002.
       Woodbridge Vineyard in
       Change
   May 2006, Rick Frantz resigned.
   Dan Davis (the associate pastor at the time)
    became the current pastor.
   The church is poised to move to it’s own
    facility sometime Fall 2007.
VCF Woodbridge Core Values
   Worship
   Word
   Prayer
   Fellowship
   Training
   Ministry
         W.A.L.K.
   We use the acronym “W.A.L.K.” as a framework
    for discipleship.

   W – Worship (Putting God first in all that we do and
    recognizing his sovereignty)
   A – Align (Making the necessary adjustments to line
    ourselves up with God’s will and to live as Jesus lived)
   L – Look & Listen (Looking to see where God is at
    work and listening to know how to respond)
   K – Kommit (Committing to step out in faith to
    respond as the Lord directs – taking risks to make a
    difference)
Our Kinship?
   Formed April 18th,2007 as a planned
    split of the Smith Kinship.

   It was created to serve a number of
    Vineyard families in Springfield, VA.

   Both kinships are getting large again.
        Putting it all together
   God and His Spirit started the Church – Acts 1
   Jewish then Roman persecution spread it
   The Holy Roman Church traces it’s roots to the
    apostles and was ‘the main show in town’ until
    the reformation from 1517 to 1648.
   Our church doctrine traces to the reformation,
    then Anglican, Methodist, Four Square
    Churches, Calvary Chapel, and John Wimber
    and the Vineyard Movement.
References
   Based on a presentation by John Oakes, PhD
    Apologetics Research Society Link
   Nelson’s Quick Reference:
    Introduction to Church History
   Wikipedia
   www.vcfwoodbridge.org
   www.vineyardusa.org
Additional Information

  didn’t have a place for this in this
               thread.
Lessons Learned From the Early
Church
    Avoid convenient but unscriptural
     organizational structure.
    Resist the trend toward ritualism in our
     worship.
    Do not overreact to false doctrines.
    Avoid relying on creeds to defend truth.
    Do not overemphasize the importance of
     physical sacrifice, prayer or any other good
     spiritual activity
    Stress good methods of Bible exegesis

				
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