Docstoc

Adjective Clause-2

Document Sample
Adjective Clause-2 Powered By Docstoc
					               INTRODUCTION OF AN ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

       An adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun. It is
possible to combine the following two sentences to form one sentence containing
an adjective clause.

For example:
     The children are going to visit the museum. They are on the bus.
     The children who are on the bus are going to visit the museum.
                    | adjective clause |
Explanation: In the sentence above, there are two other ways to write the
               sentence correctly using the second sentence as the adjective
               clause.

  The children that are on the bus are going to visit the museum.
     The children        on the bus    are going to visit the museum.
Explanation: Some other sentences can be combined into a sentence using
               adjective clauses in a variety of ways, and they are all correct. Not
               the variety of ways in which the following two sentences can be
               combined.

  The church is old.
      My grandparents were married there.
       The church where my grandparents were married is old.
       The church in which my grandparents were married is old.
       The church which my grandparents were married in is old.
       The church that my grandparents were married in is old.
       The church my grandparents were married in is old.
Explanation: In the sentences above, the adjective clauses are underlined. All
               answers are correct. Note the use of the word ―in‖ and how and
               where it is used.




                                           1
        AN ADJECTIVE CLAUSE IS USED TO DESCRIBE A NOUN


The car, which was red, belonged to Young-Hee.
A relative pronoun is usually used to introduce an adjective clause:
Young-Hee, who is a Korean student, lives in Victoria.

  The main relative pronouns are:
Pronoun Use                                         Example
Who        used for humans in subject position      Hans, who is an architect,
                                                    lives in Berlin.
Whom       used for humans in object position       Marike, whom Hans knows
                                                    well, is an interior decorator.
Which      used for things and animals in Marike has a dog which
           subject or object position               follows her everywhere.
That       used    for   humans,     animals   and Marike is decorating a house
           things, in subject or object position that Hans designed.
           (but see below)




        THERE ARE TWO MAIN KINDS OF ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

1) Non-defining clauses
           Non-defining clauses give extra information about the noun, but they
   are not essential:
For example: The desk in the corner, which is covered in books, is mine.
Explanation: We don't need this information in order to understand the sentence.
             ―The desk in the corner is mine‖ is a good sentence on its own — we
             still know which desk is referred to. Note that non-defining clauses
             are usually separated by commas, and ―that‖ is not usually used in
             this kind of context.




                                         2
2) Defining clauses
         Defining clauses give essential information about the noun:
For example: The package that arrived this morning is on the desk.
Explanation: We need this information in order to understand the sentence.
               Without the relative clause, we don't know which package is being
               referred to. Note that ―that‖ is often used in defining relative clauses,
               and they are not separated by commas.




       THERE ARE TWO BASIC TYPES OF ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

         The first type is the nonrestrictive or nonessential adjective clause. This
clause simply gives extra information about the noun. In the sentence, 'My older
brother's car, which he bought two years ago, has already needed many repairs,'
the adjective clause, 'which he bought two years ago,' is nonrestrictive or
nonessential. It provides extra information.
         The second type is the restrictive or essential adjective clause. It offers
essential [information] and is needed to complete the sentence's thought. In the
sentence, 'The room that you reserved for the meeting is not ready,' the adjective
clause, 'that you reserved for the meeting,' is essential because it restricts which
room."


       RECOGNIZE AN ADJECTIVE CLAUSE WHEN YOU SEE ONE

         An adjective clause—also called an adjectival or relative clause—will
meet three requirements:
        First, it will contain a subject and verb.
        Next, it will begin with a relative pronoun [who, whom, whose, that, or
         which] or a relative adverb [when, where, or why].
        Finally, it will function as an adjective, answering the questions What
         kind? How many? or Which one?
         The adjective clause will follow one of these two patterns:
    relative pronoun or adverb + subject + verb



                                            3
    relative pronoun as subject + verb
        Here are some examples:
       Whose big, brown eyes pleaded for another cookie
        Whose = relative pronoun; eyes = subject; pleaded = verb.
       Why Fred cannot stand sitting across from his sister Melanie
        Why = relative adverb; Fred = subject; can stand = verb [not, an adverb, is
        not officially part of the verb].
       That bounced across the kitchen floor
        That = relative pronoun functioning as subject; bounced = verb.
       Who hiccupped for seven hours afterward
        Who = relative pronoun functioning as subject; hiccupped = verb.


Note:
  Avoid writing a sentence fragment.
        An adjective clause does not express a complete thought, so it cannot
stand alone as a sentence. To avoid writing a fragment, you must connect each
adjective clause to a main clause. Read the examples below. Notice that the
adjective clause follows the word that it describes.

  Punctuate an adjective clause correctly.
        Punctuating adjective clauses can be tricky. For each sentence, you will
have to decide if the adjective clause is essential or nonessential and then use
commas accordingly.
        Essential clauses do not require commas. An adjective clause is essential
when you need the information it provides. Look at this example:
The vegetables that people leave uneaten are often the most nutritious.
       Vegetables are nonspecific. To know which ones we are talking about, we
        must have the information in the adjective clause. Thus, the adjective
        clause is essential and requires no commas.
        If, however, we eliminate vegetables and choose a more specific noun
instead, the adjective clause becomes nonessential and does require commas to
separate it from the rest of the sentence. Read this revision:
       Broccoli, which people often leave uneaten, is very nutritious.


                                            4
   USING “WHO”, “WHOM”, ”THAT”, “WHICH”, AND “WHOSE” IN
                            ADJECTIVE CLAUSES


1. Using Who And Whom In Adjective Clauses
a) The man is friendly. He lives next to me
b) The man who lives next to me is friendly
  In (a): He is a subject pronoun. He refers to “the man‖
     To make an adjective clause, we can change he to who. Who is a subject
     pronoun. Who refers to ―the man.‖
     In (b): an adjective clause immediately follows the noun it modifies.
c) The man was friendly. I met him
d) The man whom I met was friendly
  In (c): him is an object pronoun. Him refers to ―the man.”
     To make an adjective clause, we can change him to whom. Whom is an
     object pronoun. Whom refers to ―the man.‖
     Whom comes at the beginning of an adjective clause.
     In (d): an adjective clause immediately follows the noun it modifies.
*in informal English, who is an object pronoun instead of whom.

2. Using Who, Whom and That In Adjective Clauses
a) The man is friendly. He lives next to me
b) The man who lives next to me is friendly
c) The man that lives next to me is friendly
  In addition to who, we can use that as the subject of an adjective clause.
     (b) and (d) have the same meaning.
d) The man was friendly. I met him
e) The man b I met was friendly
f) The man that I met was friendly
g) The man 0 I met was friendly
  In addition to whom, we can use that as the subject of an adjective clause.
     (e) and (f) have the same meaning.
     An objective pronoun can be omitted from an adjective clause.




                                          5
3. Using Which and That in Adjective Clauses
a) The river is polluted. Flow through town.
b) The river which flows through town is polluted
c) The river that flows through town is polluted
  Who and whom refer to people. Which refer to thing. That can refer to
     either people or thing
     In (a): to make an adjective clause, we can change it to which or that. It,
     which, and that all refer to thing (the river).
     (b) and (c) have the same meaning.
     When which and that are used as the subject of an adjective clause, they
     cannot be omitted.
d) The books were expensive. I bought them
e) The books which I bought were expensive
f) The books that I bought were expensive
g) The books 0 I bought were expensive
  Which or that can be used as an object in an adjective clause, as in (e) and
     (f)
     An object pronoun can be omitted from an adjective clause, as in (d), (e), (f)
     and (g) have the same meaning.


4. Using Whose in Adjective Clause
a) The man called the police. His car was stolen.
b) The man whose car was stolen called the police.
  Whose shows possession.
     In (a): we can change his car to whose car to make an adjective clause
     In (b): whose car was stolen = an adjective clause.
c) I know a girl. Her brother is a movie star.
d) I know a girl whose brother is a movie star.
  In (c): we can change her brother to whose brother to make an adjective
     clause.
e) The people were friendly. We bought their house.
f) The people whose house we bought were friendly.



                                          6
  In (e): we can change their house to whose house to make an adjective
     clause.


     REDUCING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES TO ADJECTIVE PHRASES

          An adjective phrase is a reduction of an adjective clause. It modifies a
noun. It does not contain a subject and verb.
Example:         The girl is sitting next to me is Maria
                 The girl sitting next to me is Maria
          Only adjective clauses that have a subject pronoun - who, which, or that -
are reduced to modifying adjective phrase.
Example:         The boy who is playing the piano is Ben
                 The boy playing the piano is Ben


 CHANGING AN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES TO AN ADJECTIVE PHRASE

          There are two ways in which an adjective clause is changed to an adjective
phrase.

   1) If the adjective clause contains the be form of a verb, omit the pronoun and
          the be form.
          Exp:   The man who is talking to John is from Korea
                 The man talking to John is from Korea


   2) If there is no be form of a verb in the adjective clause, it is sometimes
          possible to omit the subject pronoun and change the verb to its –ing form.
          Exp:   English has an alphabet that consists of 26 letters.
                         English has an alphabet consisting of 26 letters.




                                            7
                                REFERENCES


Azhar, Betty Schrampfer. 1999. Understanding And Using English grammar.
      America: Longman

Azhar, Betty Schrampfer. 1992. Fundamentals of English Grammar. America:
      Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data.

Thomas. 2007. Analyzing English Grammar. New York: Pearson longman

http://validator.w3.org

http://www.about.com

http://www.chompchomp.com/terms/adjectiveclause.htm

http://www.eslbee.com/AdjClauses.htm




                                        8

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:31
posted:1/13/2012
language:English
pages:8