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					Globalization

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               Globalization
• The collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of
  the Cold War abruptly opened up possibilities for
  trans-global connections that had previously
  been limited
• Globalization is the increasing
  interconnectedness of all parts of the world in all
  areas, most notably communication, commerce,
  culture, and politics
• It is welcomed by some and vilified by others
 Globalization: The Pro Argument
• The global economy delivers markets that
  operate with maximum efficiency
• Globalization is the only way to bring
  prosperity to the developing world
• Globalization is inevitable and should be
  embraced
 Globalization: The Con Argument
• The global economy is an untamed juggernaut
  that rewards the few and impoverishes the many
• Globalization is neither inevitable or desirable
• It diminishes the sovereignty of local and
  national governments and transfers the power to
  shape economic and political destinies to
  transnational corporations and global institutions
• It is responsible for the destruction of the
  environment, the widening gap between rich and
  poor societies, and the worldwide
  homogenization of local, diverse, and
  indigenous cultures
               Technology
• “… Advances in technology just increase
  our ability to do things, which may be
  either for the better or for the worse. All of
  our current problems are unintended
  negative consequences of our existing
  technology.”
  – Jared Diamond, Collapse, 505
                   Conflict
• “The great divisions among humankind
  and the dominating source of conflict will
  be cultural…. The fault lines between
  civilizations will be the battle lines of the
  future.”
  – Samuel Huntington, Clash, 1
           West vs the Rest
• “The central axis of world politics is likely
  to be… the conflict between „the West and
  the Rest‟ and the responses of non-
  Western civilizations to Western power
  and values.”
  – Samuel Huntington, Clash, 11
           Anti-Americanism
• “Throwing sand into the gears of
  globalization is seen as a way to spit on
  America‟s hegemony, if not to limit the
  exercise of it in the political, cultural, and
  economic domains.”
  – Jagdish Bagwati, Defense, 27
        Western Dominance
• “…. The West has driven the globalization
  agenda, ensuring that it garners a
  disproportionate share of the benefits, at
  the expense of the developing world.”
  – Joseph Stiglitz, Discontents, 7
           Yali‟s Question
• “”Why is it that you white people
  developed so much cargo and brought it to
  New Guinea, but we black people had little
  cargo of our own?”
  – Jared Diamond, Guns, 14
The Environmental Explanation
• “History followed different courses for
  different peoples because of differences
  among people‟s environments, not
  because of biological differences among
  peoples themselves.”
  – Jared Diamond, Guns, 25
        Eurocentric Explanation
• “In a world of relativistic values and moral equality, the
  very idea of a West-centered (Eurocentric) global history
  is denounced as arrogant and oppressive. It is intended,
  we are told, „to justify Western dominance over the East
  by pointing out European superiority.‟ What we should
  have instead is a multicultural, globalist, egalitarian
  history that tells something (preferably something good)
  about everybody. The European contribution– no more
  or less the invention of and definition of modernity–
  should be seen as accidental or to use the modish word,
  contingent.”
   – David Landes, Wealth, 513-514
          McDonaldization
• “…. America‟s enormous cultural vitality
  and technological creativity, combined with
  hegemonic status in world politics, make
  her a net exporter of culture, giving her
  therefore no sense of threat from that
  direction either: it is her culture that
  spreads. But this spread of American
  culture threatens others to whom it goes.”
  – Jagdish Bagwati, Defense, 120
                   Greed
• “Globalization has little to do with people
  or progress and everything to do with
  money.”
  – Ignacio Ramonet, Debate, 118
       Haves and Have-nots
• “A growing divide between the haves and
  the have-nots has left increasing numbers
  in the Third World in dire poverty, living on
  less than a dollar a day.”
  – Joseph Stiglitz, Discontents, 5
          Different Realities
• “People in the West may regard low-
  paying jobs at Nike as exploitation, but for
  many people in the developing world,
  working in a factory is a far better option
  than staying down on the farm and
  growing rice.”
  – Joseph Stiglitz, Discontents, 4
          Global Institutions
• “…. The current system run by the IMF
  [International Monetary Fund] is one of
  taxation without representation.”
  – Joseph Stiglitz, Discontents, 20
               Perspective
• “…. From one‟s luxury hotel, one can
  callously impose policies about which one
  would think twice if one knew the people
  whose lives one was destroying.”
  – Joseph Stiglitz, Discontents, 24
                 Failed States
• “Lack of state capacity in poor countries has
  come to haunt the developed world much more
  directly….. Suddenly the ability to shore up or to
  create from whole cloth missing state
  capabilities and institutions has risen to the top
  of the global agenda and seems likely to be a
  major condition for security in important parts of
  the world. Thus state weakness is both a
  national and an international issue of the first
  order.”
   – Francis Fukuyama, State-Building, x-xi
          The World is Flat
• “The world is flat… the global competitive
  playing field was being leveled. The world
  was being flattened.”
  – Thomas Friedman, Flat, 7-8
             Opportunity
• “Globalization has reduced the sense of
  isolation felt in much of the developing
  world and has given many people in the
  developing countries access to knowledge
  well beyond the reach of even the
  wealthiest in any country a century ago.”
      Joseph Stigltiz, Discontents, 4
                 Next
• European Explorations

				
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