Advertising by zhouwenjuan

VIEWS: 14 PAGES: 114

									Advertising
Advertising is the nonpersonal
communication of information
usually paid for and usually
persuasive in nature about
products, services or ideas by
identified sponsors through the
various media.
                  Bovee/Arens, 1992
Advertising is the nonpersonal
communication of information
  usually paid for and usually
   persuasive in nature about
 products, services or ideas by
  identified sponsors through
       the various media.
              Two kinds of selling
   Personal                     Expensive in both
       Plenty of time to         time and money
        deliver the message
                                   Labor-intensive
     Done    face to face
                                   Time   consuming
     Message can be
      adjusted to fit how
      it’s getting across
     Easy to find
      customers
                  Non-Personal
   Limited in time and/or      Message doesn’t have to
    space                        be created on the spot
   Don’t know who the          Extensive research
    customer is                 Far cheaper than
   Don’t know how the           personal selling
    customer is reacting
   Can’t change the
    message in mid-stream
Advertising is the nonpersonal
communication of information
  usually paid for and usually
   persuasive in nature about
 products, services or ideas by
  identified sponsors through
       the various media.
          The Senses
 Smell

 Touch

 Taste

 Sound

 Sight
Advertising is the nonpersonal
communication of information
  usually paid for and usually
   persuasive in nature about
 products, services or ideas by
  identified sponsors through
       the various media.
           Affirmative disclosure
   "Sometimes the consumer is provided not with
    information he wants but only with the
    information the seller wants him to have. Sellers,
    for instance, are not inclined to advertise
    negative aspects of their products even though
    those aspects may be of primary concern to the
    consumer, particularly if they involve
    considerations of health or safety . . . "
                    Lewis A. Engman, FTC Chair
               Puffery
 Thelegitimate exaggeration of
 advertising claims to overcome natural
 consumer skepticism
Advertising is the nonpersonal
communication of information
  usually paid for and usually
   persuasive in nature about
 products, services or ideas by
  identified sponsors through
       the various media.
Advertising is the nonpersonal
communication of information
  usually paid for and usually
   persuasive in nature about
 products, services or ideas by
  identified sponsors through
       the various media.
Advertising is the nonpersonal
communication of information
  usually paid for and usually
   persuasive in nature about
 products, services or ideas by
  identified sponsors through
       the various media.
       The bundle of values
 Functional  value
 Social value

 Psychological value

 Economic value

 Whatever else the consumer thinks is
  important
Three ways to differentiate products
   Perceptible
     Actual differences
     Easily seen

   Imperceptible
     Actual differences
     Can’t be seen

   Induced
     No actual differences
     Parity products
Advertising is the nonpersonal
communication of information
  usually paid for and usually
   persuasive in nature about
 products, services or ideas by
  identified sponsors through
       the various media.
 Advertising is the nonpersonal
communication of information,
  usually paid for and usually
  persuasive in nature about
 products, services or ideas by
identified sponsors through the
        various media
   Has been around for a
    long time
   We still don’t know what
    the Lascoux paintings
    were for
For the first few thousand
     years advertising
  promoted locations,
services and “want ads”.
     Ad written on a Roman tomb
   Weather permitting, 30 pairs of gladiators,
    furnished by A. Clodius Flaccus, together with
    substitutes in case any get killed too quickly, will
    fight May 1st, 2nd, and 3rd at the Circus Maximus.
    The fights will be followed by a big wild beast
    hunt. The famous gladiator Paris will fight.
    Hurrah for Paris! Hurrah for the generous
    Flaccus, who is running for Duumvirate.
Under the ad was written:
Marcus wrote this sign by the light of the moon.
 If you hire Marcus, he’ll work day and night to
 do a good job.

                      Daniel Mannix, Those About to Die
Location
Handbills and fliers to promote
  events or to recruit for the
           military
Handbill recruiting
 sailors for
USS Constitution
 1798
Ad about runaway slave - 1770
 Since most products such as
shoes and clothing were one-of
  and made to order you only
 needed to advertise where to
             order
Service
           Industrial Revolution
   Early 19th Century
   Mass production of products
   Led to three stages of marketing:
            Production-oriented
   Demand far outstripped supply
   Could just advertise the existence of the product
    and where to get it
   Whatever was made was sold
   Example: People wanted cars, so car companies
    made whatever they wanted and the cars were
    sold before they were built
                 Sales-oriented
   Supply exceeded demand
   Companies tried to convince consumers to buy
    their products rather than their competitors’
   Companies still made whatever they wanted,
    counting on their ability to peddle their products
   Example: supply of cars went up, so the
    companies made whatever they wanted and
    convinced people they wanted that
            Marketing-oriented
   Supply of products far exceeded demand
     More choices than any promotion could overcome
     Resistance to “hard-sell”

   Companies tried to discover what products
    consumers wanted before making them, then
    advertise they had it
   Non-American companies (e.g., VW) found out
    what people wanted, then built cars that had it
    (e.g., a gas gauge)
Let’s take a example

  The American auto
       industry
Production-oriented
Sales-oriented
Marketing-oriented
   Early sales-oriented ads were basically “caveat
    emptor” (let the buyer beware)
     Producers said whatever they wanted and thought
      they could get away with
     For example, the “Health Jolting Chair”
   Led to consumer and competitor anger
   1938 – Federal Trade Commission given power
    to regulate deceptive and unfair advertising
   Advertising could no longer lie, so new
    approaches were tried
                   40s and 50s
   Era of the hard-sell
   Rosser Reeves “irritation school of advertising”
     Relied on brain-numbing repetition and treating the
      consumer as an idiot
     The USP – Unique Selling Proposition

     It was jack-hammered into consumers’ skulls
A Reeves ad
                             60s
   The positioning era
   Shift to the soft-sell
      Compare your
       product to your
       competitors’
      Treat consumers as
       intelligent
   Appeal to emotion
    more than intellect
         General comments on ads
   Advertising is limited in time and/or space
       Breaks the rules of grammar and syntax
   Ads contain two elements
     Copy
     illustrations
    Two basic ways of presenting a
           sales message

   Intellectually
     Usually about the product’s function
     Usually copy heavy and line drawings

   Emotionally
     Usually not about the product’s function
     Usually copy is light with high connotative content

     Uses photographs or video
 Advertising aims at consumers’
  subconscious minds much more than
  their conscious minds
 It’s all about getting the consumer to
  react on a basic, instinctive level, and
  not think at all
 It’s about “act now” on your basic
  desires – think only of yourself
 It’s usually selfish and anti-social
       Psychological Appeals
 Self-preservation    Constructiveness
 Sex                  Destructiveness

 Greed                Curiosity

 Self-esteem          Imitation

 Personal             Altruism
  enjoyment
             Self-preservation
   “Listen to me, I’ll
    keep you alive”
   Because humans
    are so social, we
    extend the appeal to
    others, like family,
    friends, and social
    group
                         Sex Appeal
   “Listen to me, I’ll get you laid”
   Gender linked because of different goals:
       For men it’s sex with ease and no complications
            In other words, attract more women that want to
             have sex with you
       For women it’s attract more men from which to
        choose
            Select the best among the possible choices, and the
             greater the selection, the better the choice
                       Sex Appeal
   Male and female animals have different sexual
    strategies based on the cost of sex
       Males are promiscuous because the cost is very
        low
          A little time, a little energy, then move on
          Criteria are simple – she has to be there, breathing,
           and impregnable
       Females are picky because the cost is so high
          Lots of time, lots of energy
          Must select the best possible male, not the nearest

          Criteria can be complex
   Non-humans are concerned with genetics
     Males want, on an instinctive level, to have as
      many offspring as possible to ensure genetic
      success
     Females, because of the cost of reproduction, on
      an instinctive level want the best genes in their
      male
   Males compete with other males, usually
    physically, to demonstrate they’re the best
    choice
   Females select the winner because he’s shown
    he’s better than the other males
   For most animals, it is the female that deals with
    raising offspring (a major part of the cost of sex)
   The male has no place in rearing offspring (she’ll
    even drive him away)
   The major exception is birds
       Even there, the female will often select one male
        as the father, and another male to help her raise
        the chicks
             Sex appeal in humans
   Humans have the most complex social life on
    Earth
   Instinctive criteria for men are the same as for
    any other male animal – she’s there
   Criteria for women is far more complex:
       Not just genetically, but socially:
          Be a good father – help with raising children
          be a good provider – have money, social connections,
           etc.
             Sex appeal for men
   Buy the product, get
    the woman
   Think of all those Axe
    commercials
           Sex appeal for women
For most female animals,
  genetic quality is the
  most important
 For women, it’s a good
  provider
     The ad shows he has
      money, cares about her
      as an individual, and
      will stick around
     It’s called “romance”
The use of sex appeal in
advertising may appear sexist.
That’s because it is – on a social
level. But sex in advertising aims
at instinct, and society is
conscious, not subconscious.
Advertising often appeals to one
gender at the social expense of
           the other.
                        Greed
   “Listen to me, I’ll
    make you rich”
   Human social life
    requires having
    resources, usually
    represented by money
   Instinctively, “greed is
    good”
                   Self-esteem
   Requires a social group
   Requires the individual to be able to make a
    comparison with other individuals in the group
   Thus, requires a sense of self as a separate entity
    from others
                      Self-esteem
   Again, there’s an instinctive gender link
       For men, it’s competitive
          Demonstrate he’s the best male around
          Self-esteem comes from a sense of superiority

       For women, it’s cooperative
          Make and maintain as many connections as possible
          Self-esteem comes from a sense of connection
            Self-esteem for men
   Demonstration of
    superiority
   Buy the product, be
    the superior man
   Often shows a “loser”
    beating a “winner”
    because the loser buys
    the product
          Self-esteem for women
   The product increases
    the number and
    quality of connections
    with others
            Personal Enjoyment
   “Listen to me, you’ll
    have more fun”
   Humans, because of
    their intelligence, are
    often easily bored by
    routine
   The ad promotes getting
    out of the routine
   In other words, have fun
                Constructiveness
   “Listen to me, I’ll help
    you improve things”
   A desire to build and
    improve on whatever
    you have
                    Destructiveness
   “Listen to me, I’ll tell you
    how to destroy things”
   We all have a desire to
    occasionally blow things
    up
       Just watch “The
        Mythbusters”
   There does seem to be a
    gender link – men seem to
    like it more than women
                       Curiosity
   “Listen to me, I’ll answer
    your questions”
   We all want answers to
    things – it’s a survival
    characteristic
   The problem is raising
    that curiosity – if the
    person doesn’t care
    about the answer, it’s a
    useless appeal
                      Imitation
   “Listen to me, I’ll make
    you just like someone
    else”
   Requires the person to
    want to be like the
    model
   Almost always linked to
    one or the top five
    appeals
                          Altruism
   “Listen to me, you’ll give
    of yourself with no hope
    or expectation of return”
   Doesn’t exist as an ideal
   Reciprocal altruism does
    exist
       I’ll do for you now, you
        do for me later
   Linked to top five
            Tricks of the Trade
   Advertising often uses logical fallacies rather
    than giving logical reasons to buy the product
    advertised.
   You think the ad is saying one thing when it fact
    it’s saying something else, or saying nothing at
    all
                    Black/White
   “You want it [whatever it
    is], you can only get it
    from us.”
   It leaves out any other
    options, e.g., “love it or
    leave it.”
Buzz Words
        Words that seem to say
         something, but what?
            “Crisp”
            “Natural”
            “Organic”
                Weasel Words
   Words tossed into a sentence that changes the
    meaning while leaving an impression that’s
    different
   Examples:
“Our [canned] corn is as good as
fresh cooked corn.”
                                      Libby’s Vegetables


   Note it doesn’t say it’s as good as fresh corn, but
    as good as fresh cooked corn.
   Cooked corn has had vitamins and minerals
    boiled out in the cooking process.
   And now you have to heat the corn again, which
    takes out even more nutrients.
   The weasel is “cooked”
“Our dog food contains as much
meat protein as 10 pounds of sirloin
steak.
                                           Alpo dog food

   Targets people who love their dogs
   Doesn’t contain sirloin steak, only as much meat
    protein as sirloin steak
       That could be any kind of meat – it’s sure not sirloin,
        and may not even come from a cow
    Three out of four doctors
recommend the major ingredient
          in Excedrin.
 “Some  studies seem to suggest that
 eating the major ingredient in our
 cereal may have an effect on certain
 kinds of cancer.”
“If . . .”
The ultimate weasel word
          Begging the Question
   The question contains a statement that has not
    been and is never proven, basically saying that
    something is simply because it is.
   Example:
     “Henry Miller’s filthy books should be banned.”
     Contains the unsupported premise that the books
      are filthy.
           Dangling Comparative
   There appears to be a
    comparison, but
    compared to what?
   It relies on the consumer
    filling in the blank
     Complaints about advertising
   It perpetuates stereotypes
     Absolutely true
     It has to

   Makes people buy things they don’t need
     Not true
     Advertising can’t make anybody do anything

								
To top