Chapter 16 by dfhdhdhdhjr

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									      Chapter 16

   Historical Archaeology:
Insights on American History
                Outline
• Historical Archaeology: Just a
  “Handmaiden to History”?
• Hidden History: The Archaeology of
  African-Americans
• Correcting Inaccuracies
• Re-Examining America’s History
• Conclusion: Historical Archaeology’s
  Future
    Historical Archaeology
• Looks at material remains from past
  societies that also left behind written
  documentation about themselves.
• The first historical archaeology in
  America took place about 150 years ago.
• James Hall, a civil engineer, and direct
  descendant of Miles Standish, located the
  foundations of the Standish homestead in
  Duxbury, Massachusetts and, in 1853, he
  conducted detailed excavations there.
    Historical Archaeology
• During the first half of the 20th century,
  historical archaeologists labored mostly
  to supplement historical records.
• This perspective is evident in public
  interpretive projects, such as Plymouth
  Plantation, Colonial Williamsburg, and the
  Little Bighorn battlefield.
• Such projects concentrated on a very few
  selected sites, particularly houses of the
  rich and famous, forts, and military sites.
    Historical Archaeology
        Comes of Age
• Mainstream historical archaeology began
  to look at the larger social context, rather
  than at historical significance.
• In the 1960s, historical archaeology
  began to focus on historically
  disenfranchised groups, seeking to
  uncover the history of African-
  Americans, Asian-Americans, Native
  Americans during the historic period, and
  Hispanic-Americans.
Characteristics of Historical
       Archaeology
• Modern historical archaeology often
  has a strongly postprocessual flavor.
• Deal with time periods that are
  considerably shorter than those of
  prehistoric archaeology.
• Historical archaeology is often very
  close to us—temporally and
  emotionally.
      Themes in Historical
         Archaeology
• The study of historically disenfranchised
  groups.
• Questions about the recent past that
  history books answer unsatisfactorily.
• The nature of European colonialism (the
  developing capitalism of that time) and
  its effects on indigenous peoples.
Map of Monticello
        New York City’s
      African Burial Ground
• In 1991, the bones of 427 enslaved
  Africans, interred by their community and
  forgotten for centuries, were discovered
  beneath a parking lot in downtown New
  York City.
• In 1626, the Dutch West India Company
  unloaded its first shipment of enslaved
  Africans in New Amsterdam (today’s New
  York City): 11 young men.
        New York City’s
      African Burial Ground
• The Dutch were experiencing a labor
  shortage in their colonies, and found
  slave labor to be the answer to building
  and maintaining the colony.
• 18th century New York law prohibited the
  burial of Africans in Manhattan’s
  churchyards.
• New York’s African population
  established a cemetery outside of the city
  and from 1712 to 1790, the community
  buried between 10,000 and 20,000
  people.
         New York City’s
       African Burial Ground
• Dr. Michael L. Blakey’s analysis of some
  400 individuals from the burial ground
  found that half the population died before
  age 12.
• Some were clearly worked to death:
   – Enlarged muscle attachments
     demonstrated continual demands on
     their physical labor.
   – Bones showed cranial and spinal
     fractures from excessive loads on the
     head and shoulders.
   Fort Mose: Colonial America’s
    Black Fortress of Freedom
• Fort Mose, 50 miles south of the
  Georgia-Florida border was the first
  legally sanctioned, free African-American
  community in the country.
• Beginning with the founding of Charles
  Towne by the British in 1670, Spain
  employed free Africans to further its
  colonial objectives by having them
  populate and hold territories vulnerable to
  foreign encroachment.
   Fort Mose: Colonial America’s
    Black Fortress of Freedom
• Both free and slave Africans were used in
  military operations, a black militia having
  been established in St. Augustine.
• By 1673, the Spanish crown declared that
  all escaped fugitives from British
  plantations were to be granted sanctuary
  and, eventually, freedom in Spanish
  Florida “so that by their example and by
  my liberality, others will do the same.”
      Medieval Mind-set
• The culture of the early (pre-AD
  1660) British colonies that
  emphasized the group rather than
  the individual and in which the line
  between culture and nature was
  blurred; people were seen as
  conforming to nature.
          Georgian Order
• A worldview (ca. 1660/1680–1820) arising
  in the European Age of Reason and
  implying that the world has a single, basic
  immutable order.
• Using the powers of reason, people can
  discover what that order is and control
  the environment as they wish.
• The Georgian order is informed by the
  rise of scientific thought and by the order
  in Renaissance architecture and art.
       Future of Historical
          Archaeology
• Historical archaeology is today one of the
  most rapidly expanding and exciting
  directions in Americanist archaeology.
• Challenges to existing histories and the
  recovery of the history of disenfranchised
  groups—will generate debates and dialog
  for years.
Quick Quiz
1. _____ _____ looks at material remains
 from past societies that also left behind
 written documentation about themselves.
           Answer:
    historical archaeology
• Historical archaeology looks at
 material remains from past societies that
 also left behind written documentation
 about themselves.
2. In the 1960s, historical archaeology
    began to focus on:
   A. Elite colonial settlements.
   B. Diary entries of colonial women.
   C. Historically disenfranchised
      groups.
   D. All of the above.
             Answer: C
•   In the 1960s, historical
    archaeology began to focus on
    historically disenfranchised groups.
3. Fort Mose is important because it is
   considered:
   A. The first legally sanctioned, free
      African-American community in the
      country.
   B. The burial site of hundreds of former
      slaves.
   C. The only former fort that preserved
      historic documents such as diaries
      and civil records.
   D. All of the above.
             Answer: A

• Fort Mose is important because it is
  considered the first legally
  sanctioned, free African-American
  community in the country.

								
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