# BASIC SURVEYING sylabus

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```					3821                   BASIC SURVEYING                            T    P         C
2    6         4

AIMS
To provide the student with the opportunity to acquire knowledge and skill to:
 work with chain, plane table and theodolite.
 record surveyed data and plotting map.
 locate unknown points.
 enlarge the map
 calculate the area using instruments

SHORT DESCRIPTION
Introduction to surveying; Chain surveying; Plane table surveying, compass surveying.
Primary concept of GPS.

DETAIL DESCRIPTION

Theory:

INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING
1    Understand the aspects of surveying.
1.1   Explain the meaning of surveying.
1.2   Mention the principle of surveying.
1.3   State the purpose of surveying.
1.4   Mention field work & office work.
1.5   Mention the uses of survey instruments.
1.6   Mention the care & adjustment required in surveying.
1.7   Mention the classification of surveying based on shape of earth, nature of
field, object of surveying and instruments employed.
1.8   Differentiate plane survey and geodetic survey.
1.9   Differentiate between plantable survey and compass survey
CHAIN SURVEYING
2    Understand the basic principle of chain surveying.
2.1   Define the purpose of chain surveying.
2.2   Mention the scope of chain surveying.
2.3   Describe the principle of chain surveying.
2.4   Define the terms chain line, base line, tie line, check line and station
points.
2.5   Explain ill-conditioned and well-conditioned triangle.

3      Understand the features of main instrument used in chain surveying.
3.1   Mention the equipment and accessories used in chain surveying.
3.2   Identify Gaunter’s chain, Engineer’s chain, meter chain, ranging rod,
cross-staff, offset rod, plumb bob, arrows, tapes optical squre, acor-comb
and whites.
3.3   State the uses of linen, metallic, steel and invar tape.
3.4   Write down the uses of arrows, ranging rod, offset rod, cross-staff, prism
square, box sextant and clinometers.

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4      Understand the main feasure of chain survey.
4.1   Mention the process of angle measurement by chain.
4.2   Determine the position of base line.
4.3   State the process of base line measurement.
4.4   Mention the carefulness work during base line measurement.
4.5   Mention the care and precaution of base line measurement.
5      Understand the features of optical square.
5.1   Describe the working principle of optical square.
5.2   Explain the construction of optical square.
5.3   Mention the uses of optical square.
5.4   Mention the procedure of checking and adjustment of optical square.
6      Understand the concept of meridian.
6.1   Define meridian, true meridian and magnetic meridian.
6.2   Determine the direction of meridian by Sun’s shadow.
6.3   State the method to determine the direction of magnetic meridian by
compass needle.

7      Understand the aspects of conducting chain surveying.
7.1   Explain the term reconnaissance surveying.
7.2   State the procedure of conducting chain surveying.
7.3   Mention the procedure of selecting station points.
7.4   Explain the ranging of a survey line.
7.5   Distinguish between direct and indirect ranging.
7.6   Mention the procedure of measuring liner distances with the help of chain
and tape.

8.     Understand the concept of offset.
8.1   State the meaning of the terms offsets, rectangular offset and oblique
offset.
8.2   State the methods of measuring offset by offset rod and tape and optical
square.
8.3   State the method of measuring offset by optical square and tape.
8.4   Mention the different methods of locating unknown points with reference
to two known points.

9.     Understand the booking procedure in field book.
9.1   Define the term field book.
9.2   Distinguish between single line and double line field book.
9.3   Explain the procedure of booking data in a single line field book.
9.4   Explain the procedure of booking data in a double line field book.

10.    Understand the aspects of chaining across obstacles.
10.1 Explain the procedure of setting out perpendicular by chain and tape
when the point is inaccessible.
10.2 Explain the procedure of chaining across obstacles when the chaining is
free and vision obstructed.
10.3 Explain the procedure of chaining across obstacles when both chaining
and vision are obstructed.

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11.  Understand the errors in chaining.
11.1 State the errors in chaining.
11.2 Mention the causes for which a chain may be too long or too short.
11.3 Calculate the correct distance and correct area from measured distance
and measured area when the changing was too-long or too-short.
11.4 Explain the cumulative and compensating errors in chaining.
11.5 List the different types of mistakes.
11.6 List the name of necessary correction to be applied to the measured
length of a line in order to obtain its true length in chaining.
11.7 Explain the formulae for correction of tapes for absolute length, variation
of temperature, variations of pull, sag and slope.
11.8 Compute correct length of a line after necessary correction due to
variation of temperature, variation of pull, sag and slope.
11.9 Explain the normal tension.
12.  Understand the preparation of map in chain survey.
12.1 List the instruments and materials required for plotting a survey map.
12.2 Select suitable scale for plotting map.
12.3 Describe the procedure of plotting survey conventional symbols used in
plotting maps.
12.4 Draw conventional symbols used in plotting map.
13.  Understand the different methods of computing areas.
13.1 Describe different methods of computing areas within regular and
irregular perimeters.
13.2 Calculate areas within regular and irregular perimeters.
13.3 Compute the area along boundary by mid-ordinate rule, average
ordinates rule, Trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s rule.
14.  Understand the methods of calculation of area from a given map.
14.1 Describe the procedure of computation of area from a map with the help
of plan meter.
14.2 Calculate an area on map with the help of plane meter & acor-comb.
14.3 Describe the procedure of computations of area from a map by dividing
the map into triangles, squares, trapezoids (parallel lines)
14.5 Calculate an area from a map analytically.
14.6 Mention the procedure of computation of area from a given map with the
help of map measurer.
14.7 Calculate an area from a map with the help of map measurer.
PLANE TABLE SURVEYING
15.  Understand basic concept of plane table surveying.
15.1 State the purpose of plane table surveying.
15.2 State the scope of plane table surveying.
15.3 Identify the instruments and accessories used for plane table surveying.
15.4 Explain the functions of different instruments and accessories used in
plane table survey.
15.5 Describe the procedure of setting up plane table.
15.6 Explain orientation by magnetic needle and back sighting.
15.7 Describe the methods of plane table survey.
15.8 Explain the radiation, intersection, traversing and resection methods.
16.  Understand the method of locating instrument station on the plan by
means of two points problem.
16.1 Define two points problem.

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16.2    Mention the procedure of locating instrument station on the plan by
solving two points problem.

17. Understand the method of locating instrument station on the plan by
means of three point problem.
17.1 Define three points problem.
17.2 Describe the procedure of locating instrument station by solving three-
point problem.
18. Understand the errors and precaution to be taken in plane table survey.
18.2 List the errors in plane table survey.
18.3 State the precautions to be taken in plane table survey.
COMPASS TRAVERSING
19. Understand the features of Compass.
19.1 Define Compass.
19.2 Distinguish a transit, non-transit and digital Compass.
19.3 Label the components of a transit Compass.
19.4 Mention the functions of the components of a transit Compass.
19.5 Explain the terms: Prism magnetic needles, Pivot, jewels, lever,
20. Understand the temporary adjustment of the Compass.
20.1 State the necessity for the adjustment of Compass.
20.2 Mention the different types of adjustment.
20.3 Mention the different steps of temporary adjustment of Compass.
21. Understand the permanent adjustment of Surveyor Compass.
21.3 Adjustment of sensitivity of the needle.
22. Understand the magnetic declination and local attraction.
22.1 Explain secular Variation.
22.2 Explain annual variation.
22.3 Explain diurnal variation.
22.4 Explain irregular variation.
22.5 Correction for local attrition.
23. Understand the principles of bearing.
23.1 Mention the procedure of measuring magnetic bearing of a line.
23.2 Mention the procedure determining true bearing of line by observing pole
star.
24. Understand the principles of compass traverse.
24.1 Explain the term compass traverse.
24.2 State the field work in compass traversing.
24.3 Describe traversing by included angles.
24.4 Explain the adjustment of bearing.
25. Apply the concept of plotting compass traverse including computation of
area
25.1 Mention the procedure plotting a compass traverse.
25.2 Explain parallel meridian method.
25.3 Explain included angle method.
25.4 Method of tangents.
25.6 Method of chords.

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25.7    Paper protector method.
25.8    Rectangular co-ordinate method.
25.9    Explain the Bow Dutch’s rules for adjustment of a close traverse.

26.    Understand the error un compass traversing.
26.1 Explain instrumental error.
26.2 Manipulation and sighting errors.
26.3 Limit of accuracy of errors.

27.    Understand the feasure of G.P.S.
27.1 Define G.P.S
27.2 State the necessity of G.P.S in surveying.
27.3 Mention the scope of using G.P.S in surveying.

Practical:
1      Identify the different instruments and accessories used in chain survey.
3      Measuring length of line by chain and tape.
4      Set perpendiculars with the help of chain and tape.
5      Set parallel lines with chain and tape.
6      Test and adjust optical square.
7      Set perpendiculars with the help optical square.
8      Measure distances across obstacles.
9      Conduct chain survey in a particular area.
10     Prepare a chain survey map.
11     Identify the different instruments and accessories used in plane table survey.
12     Conduct plane table survey in a area.
13.    Prepare a plane table survey map with proper accuracy.

REFERENCE BOOKS

1      Surveying and Leveling
          T. P. Kanatker
2      Surveying
          Dr. B. C. Punmia.
3      Surveying
          Norman Thomas
4      Surveying
          Aziz & Shahjahan

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