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Bureaucracy

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					Bureaucracy
Example

 “The Dog
  Rules”
              Congress
•  We bought a dog and Tiffany (Congress)
   makes some laws about care of the dog
1. Dog needs to be walked each day
2. Dog needs to be fed
3. Dog poop needs to be cleaned up
           President (Tom)
• Job is to make sure laws passed by
  congress (Tiffany) are carried out so he
  delegates authority.
Delegation of Authority to agencies
          (Bureaucracy)
• Quinn
  – Walk the dog
• Chase
  – Clean up the poop
• Reid
  – Feed the dog
               Questions?
• Quinn
  – How far do I have to walk the dog?
  – How often?
• Chase
  – Where do I put the poop?
  – How often do I have to clean up the poop?
• Reid
  – Where do I get the food?
  – Who pays for the food?
      Who puts constraints on the
            bureaucracy?
•   Tiffany Rules (Congress)
•   Tom’s Rules (Executive Orders)
•   Courts Rules (Supreme Court Rulings)
•   People (What the public demands)
                 Quinn
• Wants to hire someone to walk the dog
         Constraints on Quinn
• Must give everybody a chance to apply for the
  job (can’t just hire your friend) (People demand)
• Can only pay what Tiffany will allow
  (Appropriated funds)
• Must have a public meeting so everybody knows
  the hiring practices are fair (Courts rule)
• Can only hire people who are not prejudice
  toward cats (Tiff likes cats) (Congress)
• Must walk at least ½ mile but not more than ¾
  mile (Executive order)
• Must provide for feet when below zero
          Reid’s constraints
• He is allotted $50 per month for food
• He has to check all stores for the best buy
  before he can purchase any dog food.
• He must purchase dog food that meets a
  minimum standard of nutrition
         Chase’s Constraints
• Must bag all poop
• Can hire someone to clean up poop but same
  hiring practices are required.

• Must clean up poop left in the street if poop
  occurs on the walk. (Public demands)
• Must provide for dog to poop where it won’t
  harm the grass (Environmental impact)
• Can only pay $50 per month for poop removal
• Must clean up poop every Wednesday and
  Sunday
• Bureaucracy
  – A large, complex organization composed of
    appointed officials.
  – FBI, IRS, Department of Education , State
    Department, Department of Health and
    Human Services,
  – The list goes on, and on, and on, and on.
  – Federal agencies
• As new departments are created so are
  new bureaucracies.
  – After the Civil War the Pension Office was
    started. People needed to be hired.
  – Department of Agriculture was created in
    1862
• American Bureaucracy
  – Political authority over the Bureaucracy is
    shared among several institutions.
  – Both President and Congress has
    Constitutional powers over the Bureaucracy
  – Most federal agencies share functions with
    related agencies at the state and local level.
  – Today’s bureaucracy is largely the product of
    two events, the Great Depression (New Deal)
    and World War II
  – About 2 Million people
  – Another 13 million indirectly working (hired
    contractors, state agencies, etc.
          Power of Bureaucracy
• Discretionary Authority
  – The ability the choose courses of action and make
    policies that are not spelled out by law.
  – The more discretionary authority, the more powerful
    the bureaucracy.
• Congress has delegated authority to regulatory
  agencies in three areas.
  – Paying subsidies (farmers, veterans, etc)
  – Transferring Money from federal govt. to state govt.
    (Grant in aide program)
  – Devising and enforcing regulations (Safety features
    for cars (Highway Safety Admin.) drugs that will be
    allowed to be sold (Food and Drug Administration),
    etc.
               Constraints
• Can’t hire, fire, build or sell without going
  through procedures set down in law.
• How much money it pays its members is
  established by law, not the market.
• Administrative Procedure Act
  – Before adopting a new rule or policy, an
    agency must give notice, solicit comments
    and often times hold hearings.
• Freedom of Information Act
  – Citizens have the right to inspect all
    government records.
• National Environmental Policy Act
  – Before undertaking any major action affecting
    the environment the agency must issue an
    environmental impact statement
• Privacy Act
  – Government files about individuals, such as
    tax records, must be kept secret.
• Open Meeting Law
  – Every part of every agency meeting must be
    open to the public unless certain matters
    (military, trade secrets) are being discussed.
• Another constraint is that Congress often
  times gives the job to multiple agencies.
  – Stopping drugs trafficking is the task of the
    Custom’s service, the FBI, the Drug
    Enforcement Admin., the Boarder Patrol, and
    the Defense Department.
      Effect of these constraints
• Government acts slowly
• Sometimes the government acts
  inconsistently
• It is easier to block action that to take
  action
• Lower ranking employees will be reluctant
  to make decisions on their own.
• Citizens will complain of “red tape”
  – Bureaucratic delay or confusion
    Why so many constraints?
• Every bit of red tape is put in place by
  Congress, the White House, the courts, or
  the agency itself.
• Environmental groups want to protect the
  environment so laws are passed.
  – The agencies then must follow those laws
    (impact statement)
  – People want a “fair chance” to get a
    government contract so laws are passed that
    only allow contracts to be issued after
    procedures are followed.
             Iron Triangle
• Relationship between an agency,
  committee and an interest group
  – Example: Department of Agriculture works
    closely with farm organizations and
    Congressional agriculture committees
• Not as prominent as in the past.
     Congressional oversight
• No agency can exist without congressional
  approval.
• No money can be spent unless it has been
  authorized by congress.
• Even money that has been authorized
  must be appropriated (money set aside for
  a specific use)
• Billie working for National Parks Service
• Sometimes individual members of
  Congress may call an agency head on
  behalf of a constituent.
• Congressional Investigation
      Five major problems with a
            Bureaucracy
• Red Tape
   – Complex rules and procedures that must be followed
     in order to get something done.
• Conflict
   – Some agencies seem to be working at cross
     purposed with other agencies
• Duplication
   – Occurs when different federal agencies seem to be
     doing the same thing
   – Customs Services and Drug Enforcement
• Imperialism
  – The tendency of agencies to grow without
    regard to the benefits that their programs
    confer or costs that they entail
• Waste
  – Spending more than is necessary to buy
    some product or service.

				
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posted:1/12/2012
language:English
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